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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Review

plates: A review of recent literature with some numerical results

Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad a,⇑, Yuwaraj M. Ghugal b

a

Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon 423601, Maharashtra, India

b

Department of Applied Mechanics, Government College of Engineering, Karad 415124, Maharashtra, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present article reviews the recent research done on the free vibration analysis of multilayered lam-

Available online 15 April 2015 inated composite and sandwich plates using various methods available for the analysis of plates.

Displacement ﬁelds of various displacement based shear deformation theories have been presented

Keywords: and compared. Also, some numerical results related to fundamental ﬂexural mode frequencies of lami-

Shear deformation theory nated composite and sandwich plates are presented using a trigonometric shear and normal deformation

Normal strain/stress theory. The theory involves six unknown variables and does not require problem dependent shear correc-

Laminated composite

tion factor. Governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions of the theory are derived

Sandwich plate

Free vibration

by employing the dynamic version of the principle of virtual work. Navier-type closed-form solutions are

Natural frequency obtained for simply supported laminated composite and sandwich plates. The present results are com-

pared with exact elasticity solution and other higher order shear deformation theories wherever applica-

ble. This article cites 391 references.

Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

1.1. Navier’s method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

1.2. Levy’s method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

1.3. Finite element method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

1.4. Rayleigh–Ritz method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

1.5. State–space method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

1.6. Differential quadrature method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

1.7. Meshless method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

1.8. Radial basis functions (RBF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

1.9. Galerkin method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

1.10. Discrete singular convolution (DSC) method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

1.11. Extended Kantorovich method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

1.12. Analysis of plates based on mixed variational formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

1.13. Exact solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

1.14. The Displacement fields of several equivalent single layer plate theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

2. Mathematical formulation of trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

2.1. Assumptions made in mathematical formulation of proposed theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

2.2. The displacement field, strains, stresses and stress resultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

2.2.1. The displacement field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

2.2.2. Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

2.2.3. Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

2.2.4. Stress resultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

E-mail address: attu_sayyad@yahoo.co.in (A.S. Sayyad).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.04.007

0263-8223/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

178 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

3. Governing equations of equilibrium and boundary conditions for trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

4. Navier’s solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

5. Numerical examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

5.1. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported symmetric cross-ply laminated composite square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

5.2. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported antisymmetric cross-ply laminated composite square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

5.3. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported three layered (0°/core/0°) symmetric sandwich square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

5.4. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported five layered (0°/90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric sandwich square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

6. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

plates. The research reported from year 2000 to 2013 is reviewed

Structures composed of composite materials are among the with some classical references.

most important structures used in modern engineering and, espe-

cially, in the aerospace industry. Such lightweight structures are 1.1. Navier’s method

also being increasingly used in civil, mechanical and transportation

engineering applications. The rapid increase of the industrial use of Navier’s solution technique is used only for simply supported

these structures has necessitated the development of new analyt- boundary conditions. Many higher order shear deformation theo-

ical and numerical tools that suitable for the analysis and study ries have been reported in the literature for the free vibration anal-

of mechanical behavior of such structures. The behavior of struc- ysis of simply supported plates using Navier’s method. Theories of

tures composed of advanced composite materials is considerably Ambartsumian [60] Kruszewski [61], Panc [62] and Reissner [63]

more complicated than for isotropic ones. Review of various prop- are not accurate while predicting the vibration response of lami-

erties of composite material is presented by Hashin [1]. Recent nated and sandwich plates. Therefore, Reddy [64] has developed

applications of ﬁbre reinforced polymer composites to naval ships a well known third order shear deformation theory which is fur-

and submarines are reviewed by Mouritz et al. [2]. Review of poly- ther used by many researchers for their research. Recently,

mer composites also presented by Chamis [3]. Pendhari et al. [4] Aghababaei and Reddy [65] reformulated the third-order shear

reviewed the applications of polymer composites in civil engineer- deformation plate theory of Reddy [64] using the nonlocal linear

ing constructions, whereas a historical review of mechanics of elasticity theory and applied for the bending and vibration of

composites is presented by Herakovich [5]. plates. Ray [66] has developed Zeroth order shear deformation the-

The classical plate theory (CPT) [6] and ﬁrst order shear defor- ory and applied for the free vibration analysis of laminated com-

mation theory (FSDT) [7] are commonly used theory for the analy- posite plates. However, Kapuria and Dumir [67] showed that,

sis of laminated composite plates. However, CPT predicts good Zeroth order shear deformation theory developed by Ray [66] is

results for thin plates only, because, the transverse shear deforma- mathematically equivalent to Reddy’s third order shear deforma-

tion is omitted in CPT. FSDT does not satisfy shear stress free con- tion theory [64]. Matsunaga [68–72] studied vibration analysis of

ditions at top and bottom surfaces of plates. The shear correction laminated composite and sandwich plates using global higher-

factor is needed to appropriately take into account the strain order plate theory. Levy [73], Stein [74], Touratier [75], Shimpi

energy of shear deformation. Its value depends on the material et al. [76], Shimpi and Ainapure [77], Zenkour [78,79], Ghugal

coefﬁcients, geometry, stacking scheme, boundary conditions and and Sayyad [80–84], Neves et al. [85,86], Ferreira et al. [87], Thai

loading conditions, which cannot be easily determined for practical and Vo [88] and Mantari et al. [89–92] developed some trigono-

problems. Further, FSDT is not capable of properly constraining all metric shear deformation theories for the free vibration analysis

the displacements at the clamped supports of beams and plates. of isotropic, orthotropic, laminated composite, sandwich and func-

Higher order shear deformation theories are therefore developed tionally graded plates. Soldatos [93] has developed hyperbolic

to overcome these limitations of classical laminated plate theory shear deformation theory for the analysis of laminated composite

and ﬁrst order shear deformation theories for the better represen- and sandwich plates. Ghugal and Pawar [94] applied theory of

tation of the bending, buckling and vibration of the laminated com- Soldatos [93] for the free vibration analysis of orthotropic plates.

posite and sandwich plates. Recently, several new hyperbolic shear deformation theories are

Several review articles on laminated composite and sandwich developed by Akavci [95,96], Akavci and Tanrikulu [97], Meiche

plates have been reported in the literature by various researchers, et al. [98], Bessaim et al. [99], Daouadji et al. [100–102], Grover

such as Leissa [8], Reissner [9], Reddy [10,11], Kapania and Raciti et al. [103], Neves et al. [104] and Zenkour [105]. Karama et al.

[12], Noor and Burton [13], Noor et al. [14], Bert [15], Vasil’eV [106] have developed an exponential shear deformation theory

[16], Mallikarjuna and Kant [17], Reddy and Robbins [18], Liew for the free vibration analysis of laminated and composite plates

et al. [19,20], Liu and Li [21], Carvelli and Savoia [22], Altenbach which is further used by Sayyad and Ghugal [107]. Aydogdu

[23], Bose and Reddy [24,25], Carrera [26–29], Kant and [108] has carried out comparison of various shear deformation the-

Swaminathan [30], Chao and Chern [31], Ferreira and Fernandes ories for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates.

[32], Kulikov [33], Ambartsumian [34], Piskunov and Rasskazov Aydogdu [109] also developed a new shear deformation theory for

[35], Carrera and Demasi [36,37], Ghugal and Shimpi [38], the free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates. Shimpi

Alhazza and Alhazza [39], Reddy and Arciniega [40], Rohwer et al. [110] developed new ﬁrst order shear deformation theories

et al. [41], Wanji and Zhen [42], Demasi [43–48], Carrera and which are further discussed by Simmonds [111] and Shimpi et al.

Brischetto [49], Sharma and Mittal [50] and Kreja [51]. Several [112]. This theory is extended by Thai and Choi [113] for the free

books are also available on vibration of plates such as, Leissa vibration analysis of laminated composite plates. Shimpi and

[52], Reddy [53], Liew et al. [54], Qatu [55], Soedel [56], Szilard Patel [114] developed two variable plate theory for the free vibra-

[57], Yang [58] and Chakraverty [59]. tion analysis of isotropic and orthotropic plates, which is extended

Various methods for the analysis of plates are available in the for the laminated composite plates by Thai and Kim [115],

literature. This article reviews the application of these methods Alibakhshi [116], Thai and Choi [117] and Thai et al. [118]. Xiang

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 179

et al. [119] developed nth-order shear deformation theory for the sandwich laminates with in-plane partial edge load. Singha and

free vibration analysis of isotropic, laminated composite and sand- Ganapathi [155] presented the large amplitude free vibration anal-

wich plates. Free vibration analysis of short ﬁber reinforced lami- ysis of thin laminated composite skew plates using ﬁnite element

nated plates using the Navier type solution has been performed approach. Nayak et al. [156], Aagaah et al. [157] and Latheswary

by Eruslu and Aydogdu [120]. Liu and Zhao [121] applied some et al. [158] presented natural frequencies of laminated composite

low order and high order shear deformation theories for the ﬂexu- plates based on third order shear deformation theory using ﬁnite

ral vibration of thick rectangular sandwich panels. Forced vibration element method. Free vibrations of thick isotropic plates with

analysis of antisymmetric laminated rectangular plates with dis- higher order shear and normal deformable plate theories were car-

tributed patch mass using higher order shear deformation theory ried out by Batra and Aimmanee [159] using ﬁnite element

of Reddy has been carried out by Alibeigloo and Kari [122]. method. Batra et al. [160] also presented natural frequencies of

Messina and Soldatos [123] presented a general vibration model thick square plates made of different materials. A high precision

of angle-ply laminated plates that accounts for the continuity of triangular plate element has been developed by Shiau and Kuo

interlaminar stresses. Chen et al. [124] presented buckling and [161] for the free vibration analysis of thermally buckled compos-

vibration of initially stressed composite plates with temperature- ite sandwich plates. Free vibration analysis of laminated composite

dependent material properties in thermal environments. Thai and rectangular plate using ﬁnite element method was carried out by

Kim [125] also developed a simple four variable plate theory for Pandit et al. [162]. Givil et al. [163] studied high-order non-linear

free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates. contact effects in the dynamic behavior of delaminated sandwich

panel with a ﬂexible core. Topal and Uzman [164] carried out free

1.2. Levy’s method vibration analysis of laminated plates using ﬁnite element method

based on higher-order shear deformation theory. Cetkovic and

Xiang et al. [126], Xiang [127], Xiang and Wang [128], Xiang and Vuksanovic [165] used Reddy’s layerwise displacement model for

Wei [129,130] employed Levy’s solution technique for the free the bending, free vibrations and buckling of laminated composite

vibration analysis of multi-span rectangular plates whereas and sandwich plates. An efﬁcient higher-order theory and ﬁnite

Hashemi et al. [131] employed this solution technique to deter- element procedure for the free vibration analysis of laminated

mine exact solution for the free vibration analysis of plates. Thai composite and sandwich plates using global–local higher-order

and Kim [132] also employed Levy type solution technique for free theory was presented by Zhen and Wanji [166] and Zhen et al.

vibration analysis of orthotropic plates based on two variable plate [167,168]. Kulkarni and Kapuria [169], Pandit et al. [170–172],

theory [114]. The eigenfunction system of the Hamiltonian opera- Xiaohui and Wanji [173] and Khandelwal et al. [174] used zigzag

tor appearing in the free vibration of rectangular Kirchhoff plates theories for the vibration of laminated composite and sandwich

with two opposite edges simply supported is studied by Bai and plates based on ﬁnite element method. Park et al. [175] studied

Chen [133]. Aydogdu and Ece [134] presented the free vibration the effects of skew angle and layup sequence on the dynamic

analysis of rectangular isotropic plates with non-ideal boundary response of the laminated skew plates. Lal et al. [176] reported

conditions based on classical plate theory using Levy type solution. nonlinear free vibration of laminated composite plates on elastic

Hashemi et al. [135] also employed Levy type solution technique foundation with random system properties. Moleiro et al.

for the free vibration analysis of rectangular nano plates consider- [177,178] developed mixed least-squares ﬁnite element models

ing small scale effects. for free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates.

Nonlinear free vibration analysis of simply supported piezo-lami-

1.3. Finite element method nated plates has been carried out by Tanveer and Singh [179].

Vibration analysis of composite laminated plates with variable

Kant and Swaminathan [136,137], Swaminathan and Patil ﬁber spacing using ﬁnite element method was studied by Kuo

[138,139], Rao and Desai [140], Rao et al. [141] and Ganapathi and Shiau [180]. Brischetto and Carrera [181] used Carrera

and Makhecha [142] have carried out free vibration analysis of Uniﬁed Formulation to study free vibration response of simply-

laminated composite and sandwich plates based on higher order supported multilayered orthotropic composite plates. Shariyat

shear and normal deformation theory using ﬁnite element method. [182] has developed a generalized global–local high-order theory

Ganapathi et al. [143] developed a ﬁnite element model for the free for the vibration analyses of sandwich plates subjected to

vibration analysis of plates. Free vibration analysis of composite thermo-mechanical loads. Dehghan and Baradaran [183] carried

plates was carried out by Singh et al. [144] using higher order shear out buckling and free vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates

deformation theory with random material properties. Parhi et al. using mixed ﬁnite element method. Singh and Lal [184] studied

[145] carried out ﬁnite element dynamic analysis of laminated stochastic non-linear free vibration analysis of laminated compos-

composite plates with multiple delaminations. Rikards et al. ite plates on elastic plates. Lal and Singh [185] also studied the

[146] analyzed vibration of plates using triangular elements. stochastic free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates

Setoodeh and Karami [147] presented the free vibration analysis subjected to a thermal loading with general boundary conditions

of composite laminates with elastically restrained edges using using ﬁnite element method. Carrera et al. [186] presented reﬁned

ﬁnite element analysis. Hull and Buchanan [148] presented vibra- ﬁnite element model for the dynamic analysis of multilayered

tion analysis of square orthotropic stepped plates based on ﬁnite plates. Van et al. [187] presented vibration analysis of laminated

element method. Forced vibration analysis of rectangular plates composite plate/shell structures via a smoothed quadrilateral ﬂat

using ﬁnite element method has been carried out by Ahmadian shell element with in-plane rotations. Srinivasa et al. [188] pre-

and Zangeneh [149]. An accurate, three-dimensional, higher order, sented free ﬂexural vibration on laminated composite skew plates

mixed ﬁnite element modeling for the free vibration analysis of using ﬁnite element analysis whereas Manna [189] studied free

multi-layered laminated composite plates was presented by vibration of tapered isotropic rectangular plates. Grover et al.

Desai et al. [150]. A triangular element based on Reissner– [103] developed inverse hyperbolic shear deformation theory for

Mindlin plate theory is developed by Sheikh et al. [151] for the free the free vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich

vibration analysis of plates. A non-conforming C1 ﬁnite element tri- plates using ﬁnite element modelling. The free vibration behaviour

angular model was presented by Chakrabarti and Sheikh [152,153] of sandwich functionally graded plates is investigated using ﬁnite

for the free vibration analysis of laminated plates. Chakrabarti and element method by Natarajan and Manickam [190]. Eftekhari

Sheikh [154] also presented vibration of imperfect composite and and Jafari [191] used mixed ﬁnite element and differential

180 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

quadrature formulation for free vibration of rectangular and skew employed Ritz and Galerkin formulations for accurate vibration

Mindlin plates with general boundary conditions. Elmalich and analysis of anisotropic laminated composite plates. In-plane free

Rabinovitch [192] investigated the dynamic behavior of soft-core vibration analysis of single-layer and symmetrically laminated

sandwich plates using ﬁnite element method. A higher order dis- rectangular composite plates is presented by Dozio [224] using

placement based formulation to investigate the plane strain edge Ritz method. Kumar and Lal [225] and Lal and Kumar [226] used

vibrations or end modes in composite laminated sandwich plates Rayleigh–Ritz method for the free vibrations of nonhomogeneous

has been developed by Chitnis et al. [193]. Cetkovic and orthotropic rectangular plates with bilinear thickness via classical

Vuksanovic [194] studied vibrations of isotropic, orthotropic and plate theory. Eruslu and Aydogdu [120] performed free vibration

laminated composite plates with various boundary conditions analysis of short ﬁber reinforced laminated plates using the Ritz

using ﬁnite element method. Chalak et al. [195,196] presented method. Carrera et al. [227] presented free-vibration analysis of

ﬁnite element model for the free vibration analysis of laminated anisotropic simply supported plates using Rayleigh–Ritz Method

composite and sandwich plates. Singh and Chakrabarti [197] also based on layer-wise, equivalent single layer and zig-zag models.

studied static, vibration and buckling behavior of laminated com- The effect of non-homogeneity of the material of plate structures

posite and sandwich skew plates under thermo-mechanical load- on the vibration frequencies was presented by Chakraverty et al.

ing using ﬁnite element model based on reﬁned higher order [228] using Rayleigh Ritz method. Watkins and Barton [229] stud-

zigzag theory. Li et al. [198] carried out ﬁnite element analysis ied the free vibration analysis of laminated and sandwich plates on

for the free vibration of composite sandwich plates. Ribeiro [199] elastic foundation using Rayleigh–Ritz method. Natural frequen-

used a Hierarchical ﬁnite element for geometrically non-linear cies and vibration modes of laminated composite plates reinforced

vibration of thick plates. Kucukrendeci and Kucuk [200] applied with arbitrary curvilinear ﬁber shape paths are obtained by Honda

ﬁnite element method for the vibration analysis of laminated com- and Narita [230]. Iurlaro et al. [231] applied Rayleigh–Ritz

posite plates on elastic foundation. Thai et al. [201] presented a approach for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite

novel ﬁnite element formulation for static, free vibration and buck- and sandwich plates using reﬁned zigzag theory. Fazzolari and

ling analyses of laminated composite plates using a new higher Carrera [232–234] and Fiorenzo et al. [235] carried out free vibra-

order shear deformation theory. tion analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates using

the hierarchical trigonometric Ritz formulation.

1.4. Rayleigh–Ritz method

1.5. State–space method

Narita [202] has developed a modiﬁed Ritz method to calculate

natural frequencies of anisotropic rectangular plates with classical Makhecha et al. [236,237] and Ding et al. [238] have presented

boundary conditions. However, Bert [203] raised two constructive method of state–space for analyzing free vibration analysis of lam-

comments on this modiﬁed Ritz method which are explained by inated rectangular plates. Xiang [127] carried out vibration analy-

Narita [204]. Free vibration response of isotropic skew plates was sis of rectangular Mindlin plates resting on non-homogenous

studied by Analas and Goker [205] using conventional Rayleigh– elastic foundations using method of state–space. Xiang and Wang

Ritz method. Wang et al. [206] presented a free vibration analysis [128] determined exact buckling loads and vibration frequencies

of skew sandwich plates with laminated faces using p-Ritz method. of multi-stepped rectangular plates based on the classical thin

Adam [207] employed Rayleigh–Ritz method to carry out vibration plate theory using concept of state–space. Xiang and Wei

analysis of orthotropic plates. Zhou et al. [208,209] presented [129,130] presented the exact solution for the vibration analysis

three-dimensional vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates of multi-span rectangular Mindlin plates using the state–space

using Ritz method. The study on vibration analysis of cross-ply technique. Based on Reddy’s higher order shear deformable plate

laminated square plates subjected to different sets of boundary theory and method of state space, Shen et al. [239] studied the

conditions has been carried out by Aydogdu and Timarci [210] dynamic response of shear deformable laminated plates exposed

using Ritz Method. Hu et al. [211] carried out vibration of angle- to thermo-mechanical loading and resting on elastic foundation.

ply laminated plates with twist by Rayleigh–Ritz procedure using On the basis of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, a

Mindlin plate theory whereas Lee et al. [212] employed this proce- semi-analytical method, which combines the state space approach

dure for the free vibration of symmetrically laminated composite with the technique of differential quadrature, is developed for free

sandwich plates with elastic edge restraints. Gupta et al. [213] vibration of a cross-ply laminated composite rectangular plate by

studied vibration of polar orthotropic circular plate resting on Chen and Lue [240].

Winkler foundation using Ritz method. Nallim and Grossi [214]

employed Rayleigh–Ritz method for the vibration analysis of sym- 1.6. Differential quadrature method

metrically laminated elliptical and circular plates. Biancolini et al.

[215] obtained approximate solution of the frequencies of ortho- Shu [241] has presented detail information of differential

tropic plates using Rayleigh method. Zhou et al. [216] determine quadrature method with its engineering applications. Liew et al.

three-dimensional vibration solutions for rectangular plates with [242] developed an elastic bonding model based on three-dimen-

mixed boundary conditions, based on the small strain linear elas- sional theory of elasticity using the differential quadrature dis-

ticity theory and Ritz method. Zhou and Zheng [217] studied the cretization for the free vibration study of composite laminates.

vibration of skew plates by the moving least square Ritz method. Liew et al. [243] also studied vibration analysis of symmetrically

Gupta et al. [218] assessed the thermal effect on vibration of laminated plates based on FSDT using the moving least squares dif-

non-homogenous rectangular plate of linearly varying thickness ferential quadrature method. The interlaminar stresses and deﬂec-

using Rayleigh Ritz Method. Hashemi et al. [219] used the Ritz tions of a laminated rectangular plate under thermal vibration are

method for the vibration analysis of rectangular Mindlin plates. presented by Hong and Jane [244] by using the generalized differ-

Vibration analysis of rectangular and skew multilayered plates ential quadrature method. Free vibration of a cross-ply laminated

based on advanced variable-kinematic models using Ritz method composite rectangular plate using differential quadrature tech-

is carried out by Dozio and Carrera [220]. Hull and Buchanan nique is presented by Chen and Lue [240]. Malekzadeh et al.

[148], Eftekhari and Jafari [221] and Jafari and Eftekhari [222] are [245] also presented a semi-analytical differential quadrature ele-

carried out vibration analysis of plates based on Ritz and differen- ment method for free vibration analysis of thick plates with two

tial quadrature methods whereas Fazzolari and Carrera [223] opposite edges simply supported. Malekzadeh and Karami [246]

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 181

presented a differential quadrature solution for free vibration anal- method, Liew et al. [269] and Peng et al. [270] reported vibration

ysis of thick plates on elastic foundations. Zhang et al. [247] inves- analysis of corrugated plates. Peng et al. [271] also reported free

tigated the free vibration analysis of multilayered piezoelectric vibration analysis of folded plate by mesh-free method using ﬁrst

composite plates using differential quadrature method. order shear deformation theory. Liew et al. [272], Dai et al. [273]

Differential quadrature method was presented by Malekzadeh and Ferreira et al. [274,275] employed meshless method for the

[248] to study the free vibration analysis of laminated composite free vibration analyses of laminated composite plates using ﬁrst

skew thin plates. Hull and Buchanan [148] and Eftekhari and order shear deformation theory. Bui et al. [276] presented a

Jafari [221] have used combination of Ritz and differential quadra- detailed analysis of natural frequencies of laminated composite

ture method to vibration problem of rectangular plates. Yas and plates using the meshfree moving Kriging interpolation method

Aragh [249] carried out free vibration analysis of continuous grad- based on the classical plate theory. Wu and Chiu [277] used

ing ﬁber reinforced plates on elastic foundation using differential mesh-free Galerkin methods for the free vibration analysis of mul-

quadrature method whereas Hashemi et al. [250] used differential tilayered composite plates. Xiang et al. [278] implemented mesh-

transformation method to develop a semi-analytical solution for less global collocation method based on the thin plate spline

free vibration and modal stress analyses of circular plates resting radial basis function and nth-order shear deformation theory for

on two-parameter elastic foundations. Free vibration analysis of the free vibration of sandwich plate with functionally graded face

moderately thick antisymmetric cross-ply laminated rectangular and homogeneous core. Xiang et al. [279] used meshless radial

plates with elastic edge constraints using dimensional differential point collocation method for the free vibration analysis of isotropic

quadrature method studied by Sharma et al. [251]. A simple and plates.

efﬁcient mixed Ritz-differential quadrature method for free vibra-

tion analysis of orthotropic rectangular plates is presented by Jafari 1.8. Radial basis functions (RBF)

and Eftekhari [222]. Dehghan and Baradaran [183] carried out free

vibration analysis of thick plates using differential quadrature Roque et al. [263], Ferreira [280] and Ferreira et al. [281–286]

method. Lal and Rani [252] employed differential quadrature carried out the free vibration analysis of laminated composite

method to obtained mode shapes and frequencies of radially sym- and sandwich plates using radial basis functions. Xiang and Kang

metric vibrations of annular sandwich plates of variable thickness. [264] carried out free vibration analysis of laminated composite

Arikoglu and Ozkol [253] and Ferreira et al. [254] carried out vibra- plates based on thin plate spline radial basis function. Xiang

tion analysis of composite sandwich plates using generalized dif- et al. [287] implemented Gaussian radial basis function and ﬁrst-

ferential quadrature method. Free vibration analysis of order shear deformation theory to determine natural frequencies

moderately thick symmetrically laminated general trapezoidal of generally laminated composite plates. Rodrigues et al.

plates with various combinations of boundary conditions is inves- [288,289] extended Murakami’s zig-zag theory for the vibration

tigated by Zamani et al. [255] using generalized differential analysis of laminated plates using radial basis functions and ﬁnite

quadrature method. Sharma et al. [256] employed differential differences collocation. A new effective radial basis function collo-

quadrature method to analyse free vibration of non-homogeneous cation technique for the free vibration analysis of laminated com-

orthotropic rectangular plates with parabolically varying thickness posite plates using the ﬁrst order shear deformation theory is

resting on Winkler-type elastic foundation. Eftekhari and Jafari developed by Cong et al. [290,291]. Free vibration analysis of sym-

[191] used differential quadrature formulation for free vibration metric laminated composite plates by trigonometric shear defor-

of rectangular and skew plates. Mixed ﬁnite element and differen- mation theory and inverse multiquadric radial basis function was

tial quadrature method for free and forced vibration analysis of presented by Xiang and Wang [292]. Roque et al. [293] used com-

rectangular plates is employed by Eftekhari and Jafari [257]. bination of ﬁnite differences and radial basis functions for the free

Malekzadeh and Shojaee [258] extended two variable plate theory vibration analysis of plates. Ferreira and Fasshauer [294] computed

for the free vibration analysis of nanoplates using the differential natural frequencies of shear deformable beams and plates by a

quadrature method. Recently, Ferreira et al. [259] used Carrera RBF-pseudospectral method.

Uniﬁed Formulation and the generalized differential quadrature

technique for predicting the static deformations and the free vibra- 1.9. Galerkin method

tion behavior of thin and thick isotropic as well as cross-ply lami-

nated plates. Jahromi et al. [260] presented the generalized Zhang and Sainsbury [295] applied the Galerkin element

differential quadrature method for the free vibration of moderately method to the vibration of rectangular damped sandwich plates.

thick rectangular plate partially resting on Pasternak foundation. Gorman [296] reported free vibration analysis of completely free

Kamarian et al. [261] carried out free vibration analysis of func- rectangular plates by the superposition-Galerkin method. Chen

tionally graded sandwich plates resting on Pasternak foundations. et al. [297] studied free vibration analysis of thin plates of compli-

cated shapes using Galerkin’s method. Muthurajan et al. [298],

1.7. Meshless method Chien and Chen [299] and Chen et al. [300–302] employed

Galerkin’s method for the nonlinear vibration analysis of laminated

Ferreira et al. [262] and Roque et al. [263] used layerwise defor- composite rectangular plates. Givli et al. [303] presented free

mation theories for the free vibration analysis of symmetric com- vibrations analysis of delaminated sandwich panels using a modi-

posite and sandwich plates based on a meshless method. Xiang ﬁed Galerkin approach. Gupta and Kumar [304] studied the vibra-

and Kang [264] carried out free vibration analysis of laminated tion of non-homogenous rectangular plate of linearly varying

composite plates by a meshless local collocation method based thickness using Galerkin Method. Nonlinear free vibration analysis

on thin plate spline radial basis function. Neves et al. [265] used of simply supported piezo-laminated plates has been carried out

meshless technique and a quasi-3D higher-order shear deforma- by Jayakumar et al. [305] using Galerkin’s method. Shooshtari

tion theory for the free vibration analysis of isotropic and sandwich and Razavi [306] obtained a closed form solution for linear and

functionally graded plates. Xiang et al. [266] and Liu et al. [267] nonlinear free vibrations of composite and ﬁber metal laminated

carried out the free vibration analysis of laminated composite rectangular plates using the Galerkin method. The vibrations of

plates using meshless radial point collocation method. Liu and fully clamped sandwich plate using Galerkin method was analyzed

Chen [268] studied free vibration analysis of thin plates of compli- by Morozov and Lopatin [307]. Liu et al. [308] also employed

cated shapes using mesh free method. Using mesh-free Galerkin Galerkin method for the free vibration analyses of sandwich panels

182 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

with square-honeycomb cores. Ritz and Galerkin formulations for layer, however, transverse normal stress and strains were dis-

accurate vibration analysis of anisotropic laminated composite carded. The ideas of zig-zag function as a tool to provide zig-zag

plates have been presented by Fazzolari and Carrera [233]. Qian effects in equivalent single layer models (ESLM) was also intro-

et al. [309] studied free and forced vibration of thick rectangular duced in the same papers. Cylindrical bending analyses of symmet-

plates by using higher order shear and normal deformable theory ric three and ﬁve-layer cross-ply simply supported plates were

and meshless local Petroc–Galerkin method. conducted. The comparison of the in-plane response to the exact

solutions demonstrated that Murakami’s theory led to accurate

1.10. Discrete singular convolution (DSC) method results even for small span-to-depth ratios.

An extension to a higher order displacement ﬁeld was proposed

Wei et al. [310] studied vibration of plates by discrete singular by Toledano and Murakami [332]. Parabolic and cubic terms were

convolution method. Zhao et al. [311] examined discrete singular added to the Murakami’s displacement ﬁeld; while the transverse

convolution for the prediction of high frequency vibration of plates. stress ﬁeld became a fourth order one. Improvements were

Ng et al. [312] compared discrete singular convolution and gener- obtained compared to the Murakami’s [331] theory as far as asym-

alized differential quadrature method for the vibration analysis of metric cross-ply laminates were concerned. Interlaminar continu-

rectangular plates. Yunshan et al. [313] used DSC-Ritz method for ous transverse stresses, including transverse normal stress, were

the free vibration analysis of Mindlin plates. A three-dimensional considered. Both linear [331] and higher order models [332]

vibrational analysis of plates and shells based on discrete singular showed some limitations in the accurate descriptions of local

convolution method was studied by Civalek [314]. Civalek [315] stress for very thick plate cases. It became, in fact, clear to these

developed the discrete singular convolution method for vibration two scientists that to keep constant the zig-zag function in all lay-

analysis of moderately thick symmetrically laminated composite ers, consists of a non-physical constraint. The effective behaviour

plates based on the ﬁrst-order shear deformation theory. Civalek of laminated structures, as they appear from exact solutions, shows

and Gurses [316–318] studied several problems on vibration of that the slope of the displacement ﬁeld at layer interface is a layer

laminated composite plates using discrete singular convolution property. That is, a full Layer-Wise description is required to accu-

method. Gurses et al. [319] analyzed laminated skew plate based rately predict the behavior of a thick laminated plate.

on ﬁrst order shear deformation theory using discrete singular con- Toledano and Murakami in a subsequent paper [333] applied, in

volution technique. Wang and Xu [320] reported free vibration fact, RMVT in conjunction with a layer-wise description of both

analysis of plates with free edges by the discrete singular convolu- displacement and transverse stress ﬁelds. The displacement ﬁeld

tion method. Zhu and Wang [321] carried out free vibration anal- was considered linear in each layer for the in-plane components,

ysis of thin isotropic and anisotropic rectangular plates by the while the transverse displacement was kept constant for the whole

discrete singular convolution method. The discrete singular convo- plate as in classical thin-plate assumptions. Transverse normal

lution algorithm is used by Wang et al. [322] to analyze the deﬂec- stress was discarded and transverse shear stresses were assumed

tion and free vibration behavior of a simply supported anisotropic to be parabolic in each layer. The numerical analysis showed that

rectangular plate. the accuracy of the obtained results was independent of the lami-

nated conﬁgurations. Unfortunately, transverse normal stress and

1.11. Extended Kantorovich method transverse normal strain effects were discarded by Toledano and

Murakami [333]. Further discussions on RMVT were provided by

Shufrin and Eisenberger [323] presented the natural frequen- Soldatos [334]. The three papers by Murakami [331], and

cies for thick elastic rectangular plates for various combinations Toledano and Murakami [332,333], should be considered as the

of boundary conditions based on the Reissner–Mindlin ﬁrst order fundamental works in the applications of RMVT as a tool to model

shear deformation plate theory and the higher order shear defor- multilayered structures.

mation plate theory of Reddy using extended Kantorovich method. A systematic use of RMVT to furnish a class of two dimensional

Phongsrisuk et al. [324] presented free vibration analysis of sym- theories for multilayered plate analysis, was presented by Carrera

metrically laminated composite rectangular plates using extended [335]. The layer-wise displacement and stress ﬁelds were proposed

Kantorovich method. Rahbar and Rostami [325] obtained a semi- in [335]. A further discussion was presented in [336]. The order of

analytical solution for forced vibrations response of rectangular displacement ﬁelds in the layer was taken as a free parameter of

orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions using the theories. Applications of what is reported in [335,336] to derive

extended Kantorovich method. Fallah et al. [326] employed governing equations in strong forms have been given in several

extended Kantorovich method for the free vibration analysis of other papers [337–345]. Closed-form solutions were also given in

symmetrically laminated fully clamped skew plates. these papers and compared to exact solutions and to other avail-

able two-dimensional theories. Layer-wise mixed models were

1.12. Analysis of plates based on mixed variational formulations applied by Carrera [346] for the static bending and vibration anal-

ysis of a cross-ply plates. Local and global responses were dis-

Theories based on the Reissner’s Mixed Variational cussed and compared to three dimensional solutions and related

Theorem (RMVT) are called as mixed theories or mixed models classical analysis based on PVD. Linear and parabolic displacement

in which both displacement and stress variables are assumed. and transverse stress ﬁelds were considered. As a fundamental

Such theories are reviewed in this section. The mixed variational result, the numerical analysis demonstrated that RMVT furnishes

theorem was proposed by the late Professor Reissner in a few arti- a quasi three-dimensional a priori description of transverse stres-

cles that appeared in the middle 1980s [327–329]. The literature of ses, including transverse normal components. Sandwich plates

the last 30 years shows that Reissner’s Mixed Variational were also considered in [338]. Related numerical analysis con-

Theorem (RMVT) has played a signiﬁcant role toward a better ﬁrmed the suitability of RMVT to analyze static and dynamic

understanding of the structural behavior of multilayered responses of multilayered plates. Transverse normal stress effects

structures. in the static and dynamic case were discussed in [341,342].

The ﬁrst application of RMVT to modeling of laminated plates Higher order displacement and stress ﬁelds (linear, up to fourth

was performed by Murakami [330,331]. He introduced a ﬁrst order order) were considered in [341,342] and subsequent works.

ESL displacement ﬁeld in his papers; in conjunction with an inde- In [342], ESLM and LWM, based on RMVT, were compared. It

pendent parabolic transverse shear stress layer-wise ﬁeld in each was concluded that an LW description is required for very thick

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 183

plate analysis. In particular, ESLM formulation experienced difﬁ- et al. [357] have used RMVT together with ﬁnite element method

culties in describing transverse normal stresses and the related for the two dimensional modelling of multilayered plates. Frostig

effects. It was further concluded that ESLM implementations, and Thomsen [358–360], Frostig et al. [361] and Phan et al. [362]

based on RMVT, have at least the same accuracy as other reﬁned studied free vibration of sandwich panels using displacement

ESLM type theories based on different approaches. Different ways model and mixed model. Carrera in his series of articles [27,335–

of computing transverse stresses were compared in [344]. 346] presented the pioneering work on the analysis of multilay-

Stresses from an assumed model, a priori, were compared to those ered structures in last two decades which inspired many research-

calculated a posteriori, i.e, from Hooke’s law and by integration of ers to intensify further research work in composite structures.

three-dimensional indeﬁnite equilibrium equations. ESLM and Especially, his work on RMVT based reﬁned theories for multilay-

LWM were implemented in both RMVT and PVD cases. It was ered structures is highly thought provoking, innovative and

underlined that a priori transverse stresses can only be obtained fundamental.

by RMVT.

Recently, Messina [347] has compared RMVT results to PVD 1.13. Exact solutions

ones. Both cross-ply and angle-ply plates were analyzed.

Transverse normal stresses were, however, discarded in this work. Exact natural frequencies of thick multilayered laminated com-

RMVT has been also applied to trace the response of laminated posite plates were presented by Srinivas and Rao [363] and Noor

plates subjected to thermal loadings which vary in the thickness [364]. Batra and Aimmanee [365] pointed out and presented the

direction. The superiority of RMVT formulated theories, compared in-plane distortional modes of vibration missing from the solution

to classical ones, was conﬁrmed in [345]. The fundamental role of of Srinivas and Rao [363]. Leissa and Kang [366] and Kang and

transverse normal strains for thermal loadings which vary in the Shim [367] presented exact solutions for free vibration analysis

thickness plate directions was underlined. of rectangular plate subjected to linearly varying in-plane stresses.

Carrera [27] also presented the comparative study of static and Zhang et al. [368] have reported three-dimensional theory of elas-

dynamic analyses of cross-ply laminated plates using classical and ticity for free vibration analysis of composite laminates via layer-

mixed theories. For free vibration analysis of simply supported wise differential quadrature modelling. Vel and Batra [369]

cross-ply laminated plates; eight layer-wise mixed models (LM), presented three-dimensional exact solution for free and forced

eight equivalent single layer mixed models including zig-zag func- vibrations of simply supported functionally graded rectangular

tions and interlaminar continuity (EMZC) and four equivalent sin- plates. The ﬁrst-known exact solutions for vibration of stepped

gle layer mixed models with interlaminar continuity (EMC) were rectangular Mindlin plates with two opposite edges simply sup-

considered. It is shown that layer-wise mixed LM4 model always ported and the remaining two edges being either free, simply sup-

coincides with the elasticity solution. It is also reported that the ported or clamped was presented by Xiang and Wei [130]. Zhou

RMVT based theories are more accurate than the corresponding et al. [208,209] determined three-dimensional vibration solutions

PVD based theories for both the static and dynamic analysis of for rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions. Demasi

multilayered structures. In these works, RMVT showed that it is [370] presented three-dimensional closed-form solutions and

suitable to generate theories which can include or discard trans- exact thin plate theories for isotropic plates. Xu [371] presented

verse normal stresses. three-dimensional exact solutions for the free vibration of lami-

Zenkour and Youssif [348] presented generalized mixed varia- nated transversely isotropic circular, annular and sectorial plates

tional formulation for the vibration analysis of symmetric lami- with unusual boundary conditions using a new state space tech-

nated composite plates of various boundary conditions. The nique. Hashemi et al. [131] determined exact solution for the free

simple and mixed variational formulations to develop both the vibration analysis of plates based on third-order shear deformation

analytical and numerical solutions for anisotropic elastic plates plate. Wu et al. [372] proposed a novel Bessel function method to

based on Reissner–Mindlin’s thick plate theory has been presented obtain the exact solutions for the free vibration analysis of rectan-

by Zenkour and Sheikh [349]. Yu [350] constructed a Reissner– gular thin plates with different boundary conditions. Saeidifar and

Mindlin theory for composite laminates without invoking ad hoc Ohadi [373] developed exact solution for investigating vibration of

kinematic assumptions using the variational-asymptotic method. non-uniform plate with time-dependent boundary conditions.

Instead of assuming a priori the distribution of three-dimensional Xing and Liu [374], Liu and Xing [375,376] developed new exact

displacements in terms of two-dimensional plate displacements solutions for the free vibration analysis of isotropic and orthotropic

as what is usually done in typical plate theories. Recently Demasi plates. Kashtalyan and Menshykova [377] and Li et al. [378]

[44–48] has presented a series of ﬁve research articles on mix plate reported a three-dimensional elasticity solution for functionally

theories based on generalized uniﬁed formulation. Demasi graded sandwich panels. Lim et al. [379] developed symplectic

[351,352] also used ﬁnite element method for the two-dimen- elasticity approach for exact free vibration solutions of rectangular

sional analysis modelling of laminated plates based on RMVT. Kirchhoff plates. Messina [380] presented the inﬂuence of different

Kim [353] proposed two enhanced plate theories for free vibration sets of edge–boundary conditions on the dynamics of freely vibrat-

analysis of laminated and sandwich plates via the mixed varia- ing isotropic and cross-ply multilayer laminated rectangular plates

tional formulation. To discuss the thickness locking mechanism, using three-dimensional theory of elasticity.

Carrera and Brischetto [354] have analyzed bending and vibration

problems for isotropic, orthotropic and multilayered, composite 1.14. The Displacement ﬁelds of several equivalent single layer plate

plates using classical, reﬁned and mixed multilayered plate theo- theories

ries whereas Brischetto and Carrera [355] extended the uniﬁed for-

mulation and the Reissner’s Mixed Variational Theorem for Based on the literature reviewed in above section, the displace-

functionally graded plates. Ferreira et al. [286] have used the ment ﬁelds of several equivalent single layer plate theories avail-

RMVT together with the radial basis functions collocation for the able in the literature are compared in Table 1.

bending and free vibration analysis of laminated plates. Phoenix Carrera Uniﬁed Formulation (CUF) [27] is now well established

et al. [356] have used the RMVT for the thermal analysis of plates in the open literature for laminated composite beam, plates and

in which transverse stress assumptions are made in the framework shell analyses. Bending, buckling and vibration analyses can be

of RMVT and the resulting ﬁnite element describes a priori inter- performed within the framework of classical theories based on

laminar continuous transverse shear and normal stresses. Chinosi Principle of Virtual Displacement (PVD) or the mixed

184 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 1

Displacement ﬁelds of several equivalent single layer plate theories.

Kirchhoff [6] 1850 u ¼ u0 ðx; y; tÞ z @w

@x ; v ¼ v 0 ðx; y; tÞ z @w

@y ; w ¼ w0 03

Mindlin [7] 1951 u ¼ u0 z/; v ¼ v 0 zw; w ¼ w0 05

2

h i

2

Ambartsumian [60] 1958 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ 2z h4 z3 / 05

h 2 i

2

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ 2z h4 z3 w

w ¼ w0

h i

5 4z2

Kruszewski [61], Panc [62] Reissner [63] 1949, 1975, 1975 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ 4

z 1 3h 2 / 05

h i

4z2

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ 5

4

z 1 3h2

w

w ¼ w0

h 2 i

Reddy [64] 1984 u ¼ u0 þ z / 43 hz / þ @w @x

0

05

h i

v ¼ v 0 þ z w 43 hz 2 w þ @w@y0

w ¼ w0

v ¼ v 0 þ zhy þ z2 v 0 þ z3 hy

w ¼ w0 þ zhz þ z2 w0 þ z3 hz

v ¼ v 0 þ zhy þ z2 v 0 þ z3 hy

w ¼ w0

@x

þ ph sin phz / 05

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ ph sin phz w

w ¼ w0

Soldatos [93] 1992 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ z cosh 12 h sinh hz / 05

1

v ¼ v 0 z @y þ z cosh 2 h sinh hz w

@w

w ¼ w0

@x

þ sin phz / 06

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ sin phz w

w ¼ w0 þ cos pz n

h

h z 3 i

Ray [66] 2003 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ k1x 3 z

2 h

2 h

Qx 05

h z 3 i

v ¼ v0 z @w

@y

þ 1

ky

3 z

2 h

2 h Qy

w ¼ w0

@x

þ sin phz / 05

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ sin phz w

w ¼ w0

v ¼ v 0 z @w w ¼ wb þ ws

s 04

@x ; @y ;

Shimpi et al. [110] 2006 u ¼ u0 z @/ v h¼ v 0 z@/ w ¼ w0 04

@x ; ;

i

@y

2

Shimpi and Patel [114] 2006 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b

z 14 þ 53 hz @ws

@x 04

h i

5 z 2 @ws

v ¼ v 0 z @y z 4 þ 3 h

@ws 1

@y

w ¼ wb þ ws

Akavci [96] 2008 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ 32p h tanh hz z sec2 h 12 / 05

z

v ¼ v 0 z @y þ 2 h tanh h z sec h 12 w

@w 3p 2

w ¼ w0

h i

2

Akavci [96] 2008 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ zsech phz2 zsech p4 1 p2 tanh p4 / 05

h i

2

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ zsech phz2 zsech p4 1 p2 tanh p4 w

w ¼ w0

h i

2

Karama et al. [106] 2009 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ z exp 2 hz / 05

h i

2

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ z exp 2 hz w

w ¼ w0

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 185

Table 1 (continued)

2 ðz=hÞ2

Aydogdu [109] 2009 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ zm ln m / 05

2 ðz=hÞ2

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ zm ln m w

w ¼ w0

@x

þ ph sin phz / 06

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ ph sin phz w

w ¼ w0 þ ph cos phz n

2

Mantari et al. [91] 2011 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ zm2 ðz=hÞ / 05

2 ðz=hÞ2

v ¼ v0 z @w

@y

þ zm w

w ¼ w0

h i

ðh=pÞ sinhðpz=hÞz @ws

Meiche et al.[98] 2011 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b

coshðp=2Þ1 @x 04

h i

ðh=pÞ sinhðpz=hÞz @ws

v ¼ v 0 z @w@ys

coshðp=2Þ1 @y

w ¼ wb þ ws

2n1 n

Xiang et al. [119] 2011 u ¼ u0 þ z/x 1n h

z /x þ @w

@x 05

n1

v ¼ v 0 þ z/y 1n 2h zn /y þ @w

@y

w ¼ w0

Neves et al. [85] 2011 u ¼ u0 þ zu1 þ sin phz uz 09

v ¼ v 0 þ zv 1 þ sin phz v z

2

w ¼ w0 þ zw1 þ z w2

pz

Mantari et al. [89] 2012 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ sin phz em cosð h Þ þ mhpz / 05

p z

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ sin phz em cosð h Þ þ mhpz w

w ¼ w0

Mantari et al. [90] 2012 u ¼ u0 z @w þ tanðmzÞ mz sec2 mh / 05

@x

2

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ tanðmzÞ mz sec2 mh2

w

w ¼ w0

h i

2

Daouadji et al. [100] 2012 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b

z 1 þ 32p sech ð12Þ 32p h tanh hz @w @x

s

04

h z i @w

2 1

v ¼ v 0 z @y z 1 þ 2 sech 2 2 h tanh h @ys

@ws 3p 3p

w ¼ wb þ ws

Neves et al. [104] 2012 u ¼ u0 þ zu1 þ sinh phz uz 09

v ¼ v 0 þ zv 1 þ sinh phz v z

2

w ¼ w0 þ zw1 þ z w2

4z3 4z3

Thai et al. [201] 2012 u ¼ u0 z 3h 2 bx

3h2 x

/ 07

4z3 4z3

v ¼ v 0 z 3h2 by 3h2 /y

w ¼ w0

3

Zenkour [79] 2013 u ¼ u0 z @w þ h3 50b h

sin phz @/ 04

@x ð109 hbþ41Þ p @x

3

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ h3 50a35 aþ1 p

ð100 4Þ

h

sin phz @/

@y

h

w ¼ w0 þ cos phz /

Thai and Vo [88] 2013 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b

z ph sin phz @w s

04

@x

v ¼ v 0 z @w@ys z ph sin phz @w@ys

w ¼ wb þ ws

Bessaim et al. [99] 2013 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b

z h sinh hz þ z cosh 12 @w s

05

z @x

v ¼ v 0 z @y z h sinh h þ z cosh 12 @w@ys

@ws

w ¼ wb þ ws þ cosh hz cosh 12 /

186 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 1 (continued)

h i

2

Daouadji et al. [102] 2013 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b

z 1 sech phz2 þ zsech p4 1 p2 tanh p4 @w @x

s

04

h i

2

v ¼ v 0 z @w@ys z 1 sech phz2 þ zsech p4 1 p2 tanh p4 @w@ys

w ¼ wb þ ws

u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ sinh rzh z p2rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ /

h r 2 þ4

1

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ sinh rzh z p2rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 h

ﬃ w

r þ4

w ¼ w0

h i

3

Zenkour [105] 2013 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

þ h sinh hz 43 hz 2 cosh 12 @/ @x 04

h i

3

v ¼ v 0 z @w

@y

þ h sinh hz 43 hz 2 cosh 12 @/ @y

h 1i

1 2

w ¼ w0 þ 12 cosh hz 4z

h2

cosh 2

/

3

Thai and Kim [125] 2013 u ¼ u0 z @w

@x

b 4z

3h 2

@ws

@x 04

4z3

v ¼ v0 z @w

@y

s

3h2 @ws

@y

w ¼ wb þ ws

Theorem (RMVT). The two dimensional theories of layered struc-

tures are developed by making assumptions in the thickness direc-

tion z. Displacements uðux ; uy ; uz Þ and transverse stresses

rn ðsxz ; syz ; szz Þ are the variables expanded. Such expansions are

made according to the following formulas:

u ¼ F t ut þ F b ub þ F r ur ¼ F s us ; s ¼ t; b; r; r ¼ 2; . . . ; N

rn ¼ F t rnt þ F b rnb þ F r rnr ¼ F s rns ; s ¼ t; b; r; r ¼ 2; . . . ; N

where F t ; F b and F r are the base functions used for z expansion; the

ﬁrst two polynomials are related to the linear part of such expan-

sions, while F r introduces the N 1 higher order terms (power of

z and Legendre polynomials) i.e, F r ¼ zr . As discussed in [27], trans- Fig. 1. Plate geometry and coordinate system.

verse stresses demand a Legendre layer-wise expansion in thick-

ness coordinate, whereas both Taylor and Legendre expansions

could be used for the displacement unknowns.

The thickness assumptions made in above formulas permits one 2.1. Assumptions made in mathematical formulation of proposed

to develop a large variety of two-dimensional theories. Depending theory

on the variational statement used (PVD or RMVT), the description

of variables (equivalent single layer or layer-wise), the order of the Assumptions of the proposed trigonometric shear and normal

expansion of the plate thickness coordinate N, a number of two-di- deformation theory are as follows:

mensional theories can be constructed. These theories are able to

cover a large part of the known classical and reﬁned modelling of 1. The displacement components u and v are the displacements in

laminated plates. Thus the most of the reviewed theories as well x and y-directions and each consists of extension, bending and

as the displacement models quoted in the Table 1 can be viewed shear components

as particular cases of the Carrera Uniﬁed Formulation. The CUF u ¼ u0 þ ub þ us ; v ¼ v0 þ vb þ vs ð1Þ

method can be easily employed to obtain the governing equations

and the boundary conditions of the various theories reviewed

within the framework of PVD and/or RMVT. (a) u0 and v 0 are the extension components in the x and y-di-

rections respectively.

(b) The bending components ub and v b are assumed to be sim-

2. Mathematical formulation of trigonometric shear and ilar to the displacements given by the classical laminated

normal deformation theory plate theory.

@w @w

Consider a solid rectangular plate of the length ‘a’, width ‘b’, ub ¼ z ; v b ¼ z ð2Þ

@x @y

thickness ‘h’ and origin of coordinate system ‘o’ as shown in

Fig. 1. The plate is made up of orthotropic composite material. A (c) Shear components us and v s are assumed to be sinusoidal in

transverse load qðx; yÞ is applied on the upper surface of the plate nature with respect to thickness coordinate, such that the

ði:e: z ¼ h=2Þ. maximum shear stress occurs at neutral plane.

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 187

8 k 9 2 38 9

h pz h pz > rx > Q k11 Q k12 Q k13 0 0 0 k

> ex >

us ¼ sin /; vs ¼ sin w ð3Þ >

> >

> 6 7>> >

>

p h p h > k

>

> ry >

>

> 6 Qk Q k22 Q k23 7>> ek >>

>

> >

> 6 12 0 0 0 7>>

> y >

>

>

>

> >

> 6 k 7> >

2. The transverse displacement w in z direction is assumed to be a < rk = 6Q Q k23 Q k33 0 0 0

>

7 < ek >=

z 6 13 7 z

function of coordinates x; y and z coordinates. ¼ 6 7 ð9Þ

>

>

> s k

xy

>

>

>

6 0

6 0 0 Q k66 0 0 7>

7>

k >

> cxy >

>

>

> >

> 6 7>> k > >

>

> s k >> 6 7>> c >

>

h pz >

> yz >

> 4 0 0 0 0 Q k44 0 5>>

> yz >

>

w ¼ wðx; yÞ þ cos n ð4Þ >

: k > ; : k > ;

p h szx 0 0 0 0 0 Q k55 czx

h i

3. The plate is subjected to transverse load only. where frk g; fek g and Q kij are the stress vector, strain vector and

transformed rigidity matrix, respectively. The elements of trans-

2.2. The displacement ﬁeld, strains, stresses and stress resultants h i

formed rigidity matrix Q kij are taken from Reddy [53].

2.2.1. The displacement ﬁeld

Based upon the before mentioned assumptions, the displace- 2.2.4. Stress resultants

ment ﬁeld of the trigonometric shear and normal deformation the- The force and moment resultants acting on the cross-section of

ory takes the following form. the laminate are deﬁned as:

@w h pz N Z

X hkþ1 N Z

X hkþ1

uðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ u0 z þ sin /ðx; y; tÞ; Nx ¼ rkx dz; Ny ¼ rky dz;

@x p h hk hk

k¼1 k¼1

@w h pz N Z

v ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ v 0 z þ sin wðx; y; tÞ X hkþ1

@y p h Nxy ¼ skxy dz ð10Þ

h pz k¼1 hk

wðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ wðx; y; tÞ þ cos nðx; y; tÞ ð5Þ N Z N Z

p h X hkþ1 X hkþ1

Mcx ¼ rkx z dz; Mcy ¼ rky z dz;

k¼1 hk k¼1 hk

Here /; w and n represent rotations of the plate at neutral surface.

N Z

X hkþ1

Mcxy ¼ skxy z dz ð11Þ

2.2.2. Strains hk

k¼1

The normal and shear strains associated with the displacement N Z N Z

X hkþ1 X hkþ1

ﬁeld are obtained using following relations: Msx ¼ rkx f ðzÞ dz; Msy ¼ rky f ðzÞ dz;

k¼1 hk k¼1 hk

@u @v @w N Z

X hkþ1

ex ¼ ; ey ¼ ; ez ¼

Msxy ¼ skxy f ðzÞ dz ð12Þ

@x @y @z

hk

@u @ v @u @w @ v @w k¼1

cxy ¼ þ ; cxz ¼ þ ; cyz ¼ þ ð6Þ N Z

X hkþ1 N Z

X hkþ1

@y @x @z @x @z @y

V sxz ¼ skxz f 0 ðzÞ dz; V syz ¼ skyz f 0 ðzÞ dz;

k¼1 hk k¼1 hk

Using Eqs. (5) and (6) strains obtained are as follows: N Z

X hkþ1

< ex = < ex =

hk

> > > > < kx >

> < gx >

> k¼1

= =

ey ¼ e0y þ z ky þ f ðzÞ gy ; @M x @M xy @My @Mxy

> Vx ¼ þ2 ; Vy ¼ þ2 ð14Þ

:c > ; > : 0 > ; >

: >

; >

:g > ; @x @y @y @x

xy cxy kxy xy

( ) ( ) ( )

czx 0 c0zx bzx By substituting Eq. (9) into Eqs. (10)–(14) and integrating through

¼ f ðzÞ 0 þ gðzÞ ; and fez g ¼ g 0 ðzÞn ð7Þ

cyz cyz byz the thickness of the plate, the stress resultants are given as follows:

p

Nx ¼ A11 e0x þ B11 kx þ As11 gx þ A12 e0y þ B12 ky þ As12 gy As13 n

where h

p

Ny ¼ A12 e0x þ B12 kx þ As12 gx þ A22 e0y þ B22 ky þ As22 gy As23 n

@u0 @v 0 @u @v @2w h

e0

x ¼ ; e 0

y ¼ ; c ¼ 0þ 0;

0

xy kx ¼ 2 ; Nxy ¼ A66 c0xy þ B66 kxy þ As66 gxy

@x @y @y @x @x

2 2 ð15Þ

@ w @ w

ky ¼ ; kxy ¼ 2

@y2 @x@y

@/ @w @/ @w p

gx ¼ ; gy ¼ ; gxy ¼ þ c0zx ¼ /; c0yz ¼ w; M cx ¼ B11 e0x þ D11 kx þ Bs11 gx þ B12 e0y þ D12 ky þ Bs12 gy Bs13 n

@x @y @y @x h

p

@n @n M cy ¼ B12 e0x þ D12 kx þ Bs12 gx þ B22 e0y þ D22 ky þ Bs22 gy Bs23 n

bzx ¼ ; byz ¼ ; h

@x @y

M cxy ¼ B66 0xy

c þ D66 kxy þ Bs66 gxy

h pz h pz 0 pz

f ðzÞ ¼ sin ; gðzÞ ¼ cos ; f ðzÞ ¼ cos ; ð16Þ

p h p h h

0 pz

g ðzÞ ¼ sin ð8Þ p

h M sx ¼ As11 e0x þ Bs11 kx þ Ass11 gx þ As12 e0y þ Bs12 ky þ Ass12 gy Ass13 n

h

p

M sy ¼ As12 e0x þ Bs12 kx þ Ass12 gx þ As22 e0y þ Bs22 ky þ Ass22 gy Ass23 n

2.2.3. Stresses h

Since the laminate is made of several orthotropic layers, the M sxy ¼ As66 c0xy þ Bs66 kxy þ Ass66 gxy

th

stress–strain relations in the k layer are given as: ð17Þ

188 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

h h

V sxz ¼ Acc55 bzx þ c0zx ; V syz ¼ Acc44 byz þ c0yz at x ¼ 0 and x ¼ a at y ¼ 0 and y ¼ b

p p

p Either Nx ¼ 0 or u0 ¼ 0 Either N xy ¼ 0 or u0 ¼ 0

V szz ¼ As13 e0x þ Bs13 kx þ Ass13 gx þ As23 e0y þ Bs23 ky þ Ass23 gy Ass33 n

h Either N xy ¼ 0 or v 0 ¼ 0 Either Ny ¼ 0 or v 0 ¼ 0

ð18Þ Either Vx ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0 Either Vy ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0

where Aij ; Bij ; Dij ; Asij ; Bsij ; Assij ; Accij are the plate stiffnesses, deﬁned Either M cx ¼ 0 or @w=@x ¼ 0 Either M cy ¼ 0 or @w=@y ¼ 0

as follows: Either M sx ¼ 0 or / ¼ 0 Either M sxy ¼ 0 or / ¼ 0

N Z

Either M sxy ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0 Either M sy ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0

X hkþ1

f Aij Bij Dij g ¼ Q kij 1 z z2 dz; ði; j ¼ 1; 2; 3; 6Þ; Either V sxz ¼ 0 or n ¼ 0 Either V syz ¼ 0 or n ¼ 0

k¼1 hk

N Z

X hkþ1

h pz

f Asij Bsij g ¼ Q kij sin f 1 z gdz; ði; j ¼ 1; 2; 3; 6Þ;

k¼1 hk p h The governing equations in-terms of unknown variables are

N Z

X hkþ1 2 obtained as follows:

h 2 pz

fAssij g ¼ Q kij sin dz; ði; j ¼ 1; 2; 3; 6Þ; @ 2 u0 @ 2 u0 @2v 0 @3w

k¼1 hk p2 h du0 : A11 2

A66 2

ðA12 þ A66 Þ þ B11 3

@x @y @x@y @x

N Z

X hkþ1

pz @3w @2/ @2/

fAccij g ¼ Q kij cos2 dz; ði; j ¼ 4; 5Þ þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þ As11 2 As66 2

k¼1 hk h @x@y2 @x @y

ð19Þ @2w p @n @ 2 u0

ðAs12 þ As66 Þ þ As13 þ I1 2

@x@y h @x @t

3. Governing equations of equilibrium and boundary conditions @3w @2/

I2 2

þ I3 2 ¼ 0 ð22Þ

for trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory @x@t @t

@ 2 u0 @2v 0 @2v 0 @3w

The governing equations and boundary conditions of the pro- dv 0 : ðA12 þ A66 Þ A66 2

A22 2

þ B22 3

@x@y @x @y @y

posed theory are derived using dynamic version of principle of vir-

tual work. The principle of virtual work is applied in the following @3w @2/ @2w

þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þ 2

ðAs12 þ As66 Þ As66 2

analytical form: @x @y @x@y @x

N Z

X hkþ1 Z b Z a h @2w p @n @2v 0 @3w @2w

k k k k k

As22 þ As23 þ I1 2

I2 2

þ I3 2 ¼ 0

r e þr e þr e þs

xd x yd y zd z c þs

yz d yz c

xz d zx

@y 2 h @y @t @y@t @t

k¼1 hk 0 0

Z Z ð23Þ

i b a

þs k

c dx dy dz qðx; yÞ dw dx dy !

xy d xy

0 0 @ 3 u0 @ 3 u0 @3v 0 @3v 0

" # dw : B11 ðB þ 2B Þ þ B

N Z

X Z Z @x3

12 66

@x@y2 @x2 @y

22

@y3

hkþ1 b a

@2u @2v @2w

þ qðkÞ 2

du þ 2 dv þ 2 dw dx dy dz ¼ 0

k¼1 hk 0 0 @t @t @t @4w @4w @4w @3/

þ D11 4

þ D22 4 þ ð2D12 þ 4D66 Þ 2 2 Bs11 3

ð20Þ @x @y @x @y @x

!

3 3 3

Substituting expressions for stresses and virtual strains into the @ / @ w @ w p @2n

ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þ þ Bs22 3 þ Bs13 2

principle of virtual work and integrating Eq. (20) by parts and col- @x@y2 @x2 @y @y h @x

! !

lecting the coefﬁcients of du0 ; dv 0 ; dw; d/; dw and dn, the following

p @2n @ 3 u0 @3v 0 @4w @4w

governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained in- þ Bs23 2 þ I2 þ I 4 þ

h @y @x@t 2 @y@t 2 @x2 @t 2 @y2 @t 2

terms of stress resultants: !

@2w @3/ @3w

þ I1 2 þ I 5 þ ¼ qðx; yÞ ð24Þ

@Nx @Nxy @ 2 u0 @3w @2/ @t @x@t 2

@y@t 2

du0 : þ ¼ I1 2 I2 þ I 3

@x @y @t @x@t2 @t 2

@Nxy @Ny @2v 0 @3w @2w @ 2 u0 @ 2 u0 @2v 0 @3w

dv 0 : þ ¼ I1 I2 þ I3 2 d/ : As11 2

As66 2

ðAs12 þ As66 Þ þ Bs11 3

@x @y @t 2

@y@t 2

@t @x @y @x@y @x

@ 2 Mx @ 2 M xy @ 2 M y @3w @2/ @2/

dw : þ2 þ þ qðx; yÞ þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þ Ass11 Ass66

@x 2 @x@y @y2 @x@y2 @x2 @y2

! !

@ 3 u0 @3v 0 @4w @4w @2w p @n

¼ I2 þ I4 þ þ Acc55 / ðAss12 þ Ass66 Þ þ Ass13

@x@t 2 @y@t2 @x2 @t 2 @y2 @t 2 @x@y h @x

! ð21Þ h @n @ 2 u0 @3w @2/

@2w @3/ @3w þ Acc55 þ I3 I5 þ I7 2 ¼ 0 ð25Þ

þ I 1 2 þ I5 þ p @x @t 2

@x@t 2

@t

@t @x@t 2 @y@t2

s @ 2 u0 @2v 0 @2v 0 @3w

@Msx @M xy @ 2 u0 @3w @2/ dw : ðAs12 þ As66 Þ As66 As22 þ Bs22 3

d/ : þ V sxz ¼ I3 2 I5 2

þ I7 2 @x@y @x 2 @y 2 @y

@x @y @t @x@t @t

@3w @2/ @2w

@Msy @Msxy @ 2

v 0 @ 3

w @2w þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þ ðAss12 þ Ass66 Þ Ass66 2

dw : þ V syz ¼ I3 I 5 þ I 7

2

@x @y @x@y @x

@y @x @t 2 @y@t2 @t2

s @2w p @n h @n @2v 0

@V sxz @V yz p s @2w @2n Ass22 þ Acc44 w þ Ass23 þ Acc44 þ I3

dn : þ V zz ¼ I6 2 þ I8 2 @y2 h @y p @y @t 2

@x @y h @t @t

@3w @2w

I5 2

þ I7 2 ¼ 0 ð26Þ

The boundary conditions along the edges are of the following form: @y@t @t

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 189

p @u0 p @v 0 p @2w p @2w where [K], [M], fDg and x are stiffness matrix, mass matrix, ampli-

dn : As13 As23 þ Bs13 2 þ Bs23 2 tude vector and natural frequencies, respectively. The elements of

h @x h @y h @x h @y

stiffness matrix [K] are deﬁned as follows:

p @/ h @/ p @w h @w

Ass13 Acc55 Ass23 Acc44

h @x p @x h @y p @y

K 11 ¼ A11 a2 þ A66 b2 ; K 12 ¼ ðA12 þ A66 Þab;

2 2 2 2 2 2

h @ n h @ n p @ w 2

@ n K 13 ¼ B11 a3 þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þab2

Acc44 Acc55 2 þ 2 Ass33 n þ I6 2 þ I8 2 ¼ 0

p2 @y2 p2 @x h @t @t

ð27Þ

K 14 ¼ As11 a2 þ As66 b2 ; K 15 ¼ ðAs12 þ As66 Þab;

p

K 16 ¼ As13 a; K 21 ¼ K 12

4. Navier’s solution h

K 22 ¼ A66 a2 þ A22 b2 ; K 23 ¼ B22 b3 þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þa2 b ;

gular plate is developed satisfying the following boundary

K 24 ¼ ðAs12 þ As66 Þab

conditions.

p

at x ¼ 0 : Nx ¼ v 0 ¼ w ¼ w ¼ n ¼ Mcx ¼ M sx ¼ 0 K 25 ¼ As66 a2 þ As22 b2 ; K 26 ¼ As23 b; K 31 ¼ K 13 ; K 32 ¼ K 23

h

at x ¼ a : Nx ¼ v 0 ¼ w ¼ w ¼ n ¼ M cx ¼ Msx ¼0

K 33 ¼ D11 a4 þ 2ðD12 þ 2D66 Þa2 b2 þ D22 b4 ;

at y ¼ 0 : N y ¼ u0 ¼ w ¼ / ¼ n ¼ Mcy ¼ M sy ¼0

K 34 ¼ Bs11 a3 þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þab2

at y ¼ b : Ny ¼ u0 ¼ w ¼ / ¼ n ¼ M cy ¼ M sy ¼ 0 ð28Þ

Following the Navier solution procedure, the trigonometric forms of K 35 ¼ Bs22 b3 þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þa2 b ;

p p

u0 ðx; yÞ; v 0 ðx; yÞ; wðx; yÞ; /ðx; yÞ; wðx; yÞ and nðx; yÞ that satisﬁes the K 36 ¼ Bs13 a2 þ Bs23 b2 ; K 41 ¼ K 14

boundary conditions exactly are given by: h h

X

1 X

1 X

1 X

1

u0 ðx; yÞ ¼ umn cos ax sin by; v 0 ðx; yÞ ¼ v mn sin ax cos by K 42 ¼ K 24 ; K 43 ¼ K 34 ; K 44 ¼ ðAss11 a2 þ Ass66 b2 þ Acc55 Þ;

m¼1 n¼1 m¼1 n¼1 K 45 ¼ ðAss12 þ Ass66 Þab

X

1 X

1 X

1 X

1

wðx; yÞ ¼ wmn sin ax sin by; /ðx; yÞ ¼ /mn cos ax sin by

p h

m¼1 n¼1 m¼1 n¼1 K 46 ¼ Ass13 þ Acc55 a; K 51 ¼ K 15 ; K 52 ¼ K 25 ;

X

1 X 1 X

1 X 1 h p

wðx; yÞ ¼ wmn sin ax cos by; nðx; yÞ ¼ nmn sin ax sin by K 53 ¼ K 35 ; K 54 ¼ K 45

m¼1 n¼1 m¼1 n¼1

ð29Þ

K 55 ¼ ðAss66 a2 þ Ass11 b2 þ Acc44 Þ;

where a ¼ mp=a; b ¼ np=b and umn ; v mn ; wmn ; /mn ; wmn ; nmn are the p h

K 56 ¼ Ass23 þ Acc44 b; K 61 ¼ K 16 ; K 62 ¼ K 26

unknown coefﬁcients to be determined. Substituting this form of h p

solution and setting transverse load ðqÞ equal to zero into the gov-

erning Eqs. (22)–(27) yields a set of algebraic equations which can K 63 ¼ K 36 ; K 64 ¼ K 46 ; K 65 ¼ K 56 ;

!

be written in matrix form as follows: h

2

h

2

p2

2 2

K 66 ¼ Acc55 a þ Acc44 b þ Ass33 : ð32Þ

82 3 p2 p2 h

2

> K 11 K 12 K 13 K 14 K 15 K 16

>

>

>

>6 7 The elements of mass matrix [M] are given as follows:

>6 K 26 7

>6 K 21

>

>

K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 7

>

>6 7

<6 K 31 K 32 K 33 K 34 K 35 K 36 7 mp

6 7 M11 ¼ I1 ; M 12 ¼ 0; M13 ¼ I2 ; M 14 ¼ I3 ;

6 7 a

>

>6 K 41 K 42 K 43 K 44 K 45 K 46 7

>

>6 7

>

>6 7 M15 ¼ 0; M 16 ¼ 0; M 21 ¼ M 12

>

>6K K 52 K 53 K 54 K 55 K 56 7

>

>4 51 5

>

:

K 61 K 62 K 63 K 64 K 65 K 66

2 398 9 8 9 np

M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 15 M 16 >> umn > > 0 > M22 ¼ I1 ; M 23 ¼ I2 ; M24 ¼ 0; M 25 ¼ I3 ;

>> > > > b

6 7>

>

>

>

> > >

> > >

>

6 M 21 M 22 M 23 M 24 M 25 M 26 7>>

>> v mn >

> >

>

>

>

> 0>>

> M26 ¼ 0; M 31 ¼ M 13 ; M32 ¼ M23

6 7>

>>

> >

> >

> >

>

6 7>

>>

> >

> >

> >

>

6 M 31 M 32 M 33 M 34 M 35 7

M 36 7=< wmn = < 0=

26

x 6 7 ¼ 2 2

6 M 41 M 42 M 43 M 44 M 45 M 46 7>> > > >

6 7>

>>

> /mn >> >0>

> > m p n2 p2 mp

6 7>

>>

>>

> > >

>

> > >

> >

> M33 ¼ I4 þ 2

þ I1 ; M34 ¼ I5 ;

6M M 52 M 53 M 54 M 55 7>

>

M 56 5>>

> >

> >

> >

> a2 b a

4 51

>> wmn >

>>

> > >

> >0> > np

;: >

; : > ; M35 ¼ I5 ; M 36 ¼ I6 ; M41 ¼ M14

M 61 M 62 M 63 M 64 M 65 M 66 nmn 0 b

ð30Þ

M 42 ¼ M 24 ; M43 ¼ M34 ; M 44 ¼ I7 ; M 45 ¼ 0;

In a compact form, Eq. (30) can be written as follows: ð33Þ

M 46 ¼ 0; M 55 ¼ I7 ; M 56 ¼ 0; M 66 ¼ I8

ð½K x2 ½MÞfDg ¼ f0g ð31Þ where

190 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

X

N Z hkþ1 X

N Z hkþ1 shear and normal deformation theory in predicting the natural fre-

I1 ¼ qðkÞ dz; I2 ¼ qðkÞ zdz; quencies of simply supported laminated composite and sandwich

k¼1 hk k¼1 hk

X

N Z hkþ1 plates. The effects of aspect ratio ða=hÞ, modulus ratio ðE1 =E2 Þ and

ðkÞ h pz

I3 ¼ q sin dz number of layers ðNÞ on the natural frequencies are investigated.

k¼1 hk p h The natural frequencies obtained by using present theory are com-

XN Z hkþ1 X

N Z hkþ1

h pz pared with those existing in literature. The following material

I4 ¼ qðkÞ z2 dz; I5 ¼ qðkÞ z sin dz;

k¼1 hk k¼1 hk p h properties are used in the various illustrated examples.

X N Z hkþ1

h pz Material 1:

I6 ¼ qðkÞ cos dz

hk p h

k¼1

Z E1 E3 G12 G13 G23

X

N hkþ1 2

h pz ¼ open; ¼ 1; ¼ ¼ 0:6; ¼ 0:5;

I7 ¼ qðkÞ sin

2

dz; E2 E2 E2 E2 E2

k¼1 hk p2 h

l12 ¼ l13 ¼ l23 ¼ 0:25 and qðkÞ ¼ constant ð35Þ

X N Z hkþ1 2

ðkÞ h 2 pz

I8 ¼ q cos dz ð34Þ Material 2:

k¼1 hk p2 h

Q 22 Q 33 Q 12

The amplitude vector fDg is given by fDg ¼ fumn ; v mn ; wmn ; /mn ; ¼ 0:543103; ¼ 0:530172; ¼ 0:23319;

Q 11 Q 11 Q 11

wmn ; nmn gT .

Q 13 Q 23

¼ 0:010776; ¼ 0:098276;

5. Numerical examples

Q 11 Q 11

Q 44 Q 55 Q 66

In the preceding section, Navier solution procedure for the free

¼ 0:266810; ¼ 0:159914; ¼ 0:262931 and

Q 11 Q 11 Q 11

vibration analysis has been explained. In this section, various plate

problems are presented to prove the efﬁciency of the trigonometric qðkÞ ¼ constant ð36Þ

Table 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx

mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of symmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; a=h ¼ 5Þ.

layers

3 % Error 10 % Error 20 % Error 30 % Error 40 % Error

3 (0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6308 0.6270 3.2696 0.4415 3.7037 3.1484 3.9498 3.8720 4.1176 4.2552

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6286 0.7101 3.2679 0.4933 3.7011 3.2164 3.9456 3.9743 4.1150 4.3156

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6211 0.9934 3.2604 0.7216 3.6940 3.4021 3.9390 4.1349 4.1053 4.5412

Matsunaga [68] 2.6276 0.7479 3.2664 0.5389 3.6967 3.3315 3.9362 4.2030 4.0951 4.7784

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6285 0.7139 3.2678 0.4963 3.7005 3.2321 3.9438 4.0181 4.1074 4.4924

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6209 1.0009 3.2603 0.7247 3.6934 3.4178 3.9371 4.1811 4.1012 4.6365

Mindlin [7] 2.6258 0.8158 3.2793 0.1461 3.7110 2.9575 3.9541 3.7674 4.1158 4.2970

Kirchhoff [6] 2.9198 10.289 4.1264 25.647 5.4043 41.322 6.4336 56.577 7.3196 70.199

Noor [364] 2.6474 0.0000 3.2841 0.0000 3.8241 0.0000 4.1089 0.0000 4.3006 0.0000

4 (0°/90°/90°/0°) Present 2.6337 1.4555 3.3190 1.0627 3.8210 0.0811 4.1192 0.2531 4.3248 0.5580

Liew et al. [243] – – 3.3196 1.0810 3.8272 0.0811 4.1308 0.5354 4.342 0.9580

Xiang and Wang [292] – – 3.3684 2.5669 3.8684 1.1584 4.1664 1.4019 4.3752 1.7299

Xiang et al. [287] – – 3.3284 1.3489 3.8948 1.8488 4.2436 3.2808 4.4900 4.3992

Aydogdu [109] 2.6726 0.0000 3.2841 0.0000 3.8241 0.0000 4.1088 0.0000 4.3008 0.0000

Karama et al. [106] 2.6252 1.7736 3.3124 0.8617 3.8168 0.1909 4.1168 0.1947 4.3244 0.5487

Mantari et al. [91] 2.6260 1.7436 3.3144 0.9226 3.8208 0.0863 4.1220 0.3213 4.3304 0.6882

Phan and Reddy [385] 2.6238 1.8259 3.3087 0.7491 3.8105 0.3556 4.1088 0.0000 4.3148 0.3255

Noor [364] 2.6726 0.0000 3.2841 0.0000 3.8241 0.0000 4.1088 0.0000 4.3008 0.0000

5 (0°/90°/0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6445 0.5341 3.3846 0.7128 3.9500 0.7338 4.2879 0.6050 4.5181 0.4254

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6416 0.6432 3.3802 0.8419 3.9439 0.8871 4.2809 0.7673 4.5106 0.5906

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6340 0.9290 3.3723 1.0737 3.9365 1.0731 4.2743 0.9203 4.5047 0.7207

Matsunaga [68] 2.6384 0.7635 3.3621 1.3729 3.9012 1.9602 4.2156 2.2809 4.4257 2.4618

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6413 0.6545 3.3753 0.9857 3.9298 1.2415 4.2575 1.3097 4.4783 1.3025

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6337 0.9403 3.3674 1.2174 3.9225 1.4249 4.2508 1.4650 4.4722 1.4369

Zhen et al. (FEM) [168] 2.6308 1.0494 3.3540 1.6105 3.8932 2.1612 4.2081 2.4548 4.4187 2.6160

Mindlin [7] 2.6337 0.9403 3.3680 1.1998 3.9306 1.2214 4.2714 0.9875 4.5068 0.6744

Kirchhoff [6] 2.9198 9.8206 4.1264 21.047 5.4043 35.813 6.4336 49.133 7.3196 61.317

Noor [364] 2.6587 0.0000 3.4089 0.0000 3.9792 0.0000 4.3140 0.0000 4.5374 0.0000

7 (0°/90°/0°/90°/0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6669 0.1089 3.4498 0.1917 4.0928 0.9397 4.4117 0.2104 4.6581 0.2099

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6460 0.6757 3.4202 0.6680 4.0310 0.5845 4.4008 0.4569 4.6533 0.3128

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6384 0.9610 3.4125 0.8916 4.0240 0.7571 4.3947 0.5949 4.6480 0.4263

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6457 0.6869 3.4169 0.7638 4.0218 0.8114 4.3857 0.7985 4.6324 0.7605

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6381 0.9722 3.4091 0.9904 4.0147 0.9865 4.3795 0.9387 4.6270 0.8762

Mindlin [7] 2.6376 0.9910 3.4079 1.0252 4.0147 0.9865 4.3818 0.8867 4.6315 0.7798

Kirchhoff [6] 2.9198 9.6021 4.1264 19.842 5.4043 33.284 6.4336 45.523 7.3190 56.794

Noor [364] 2.6640 0.0000 3.4432 0.0000 4.0547 0.0000 4.4210 0.0000 4.6679 0.0000

9 (0°/90°/0°/90°/0°/90°/0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6501 0.5218 3.4269 0.4734 4.0423 0.3058 4.4173 0.0837 4.6751 0.1542

Khdeir and Librescu [387] 2.6375 0.9947 3.4079 1.0252 4.0138 1.0087 4.3788 0.9545 4.6260 0.8976

Franco et al. [388] 2.6466 0.6532 3.4253 0.5199 4.0398 0.3675 4.4097 0.2556 4.6601 0.1671

Matsunaga [68] 2.6452 0.7057 3.4143 0.8393 4.0157 0.9618 4.3762 1.0133 4.6198 1.0304

Zhen et al. (FEM) [168] 2.6361 1.0473 3.4029 1.1704 4.0020 1.2997 4.3628 1.3164 4.6063 1.3197

Noor [364] 2.6640 0.0000 3.4432 0.0000 4.0547 0.0000 4.4210 0.0000 4.6679 0.0000

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 191

Material 3: in table caption. The frequencies are obtained for the various mod-

6 6 ular ratios ðE1 =E2 Þ.

E1 ¼ 19 10 psi ð131 GPaÞ; E2 ¼ 1:5 10 psi ð10:34 GPaÞ; The comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies

E2 ¼ E3 obtained using present theory with other theories and ﬁnite ele-

G12 ¼ G23 ¼ 1 106 psi ð6:895 GPaÞ; ment formulation for various modular ratios is shown in Table 2.

The results are obtained for a=h ¼ 5. Results are presented for

G13 ¼ 0:9 106 psi ð6:205 GPaÞ;

the fundamental ﬂexural mode ðm ¼ n ¼ 1Þ. Examination of

l12 ¼ l13 ¼ 0:22; l23 ¼ 0:49 and Table 2 reveals that the present theory predicts most accurate

qf ¼ 0:057lb=in3 ð1627 kg=m3 Þ ð37Þ results for natural frequencies as compared to those presented by

other researchers when plate is symmetrically laminated. The per-

Material 4: centage errors predicted by present theory for three layered (0°/

E1 ¼ E2 ¼ E3 ¼ 2G ¼ 1000psi ð0:00689 GPaÞ; 90°/0°) laminated composite plate when E1 =E2 ¼ 3, 10, 20, 30, 40

are 0.6270, 0.4415, 3.1484, 3.8720, 4.2552 respectively,

G12 ¼ G13 ¼ G23 ¼ 500psi ð0:00345 GPaÞ;

whereas, model 2 of Kant and Swaminathan [136,137] gives the

l12 ¼ l13 ¼ l23 ¼ 0; and qc ¼ 0:03403lb=in3 ð97 kg=m3 Þ ð38Þ maximum percentage error for this lamination scheme. Similar

kind of trend is observed for other modular ratios and lamination

Various plate examples considered are as follows:

scheme. For four layered (0°/90°/90°/0°) plate Aydogdu [109] pre-

dicts exact values of natural frequencies for all E1 =E2 ratios. Fig. 2

1. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported symmetric cross-

shows that natural frequencies of symmetrically laminated com-

ply laminated composite square plates.

posite plate are increased with respect to increase in modular

2. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported antisymmetric

ratios and number of layers. Table 3 shows the comparison of nat-

cross-ply laminated composite square plates.

ural frequencies for E1 /E2 ¼ 40 and varying a=h ratio. Observation

3. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported three layered

of Table 3 reveals that the natural frequencies are decreased with

(0°/core/0°) symmetric sandwich square plates.

increase in a=h ratio i.e., when plate is thick; the values of frequen-

4. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported ﬁve layered (0°/

cies are higher and when plate is thin, those are lower. Fig. 3 shows

90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric sandwich square plates.

the variation of natural frequencies of three layered (0°/90°/0°) and

four layered (0°/90°/90°/0°) laminated composite plates for various

Numerical results of these problems are presented in Tables 2–8

a=h ratios from which it is observed that the natural frequencies

and graphically shown in Figs. 2–5 followed by subsequent

predicted by present theory and all other theories are almost same

discussions.

for a=h ¼ 100.

5.1. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported symmetric cross-ply

5.2. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported antisymmetric cross-

laminated composite square plates

ply laminated composite square plates

In this problem, the free vibration analysis of a simply sup-

In this problem, the anti-symmetrically cross-ply laminated

ported multilayered symmetric cross-ply laminated composite

composite square plate made up of Material 1 is considered.

square plate is presented. Number of layers is varied from 3 to 9.

Number of layers is varied from 2 to 10. All the layers have equal

All the individual layers have equal thickness. The thickness of

thickness. The non-dimensional form of frequencies is taken as

plate is measured from top to bottom. The plate is made up of pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Material 1. The non-dimensional form of frequencies is presented x

mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 and values are obtained for the various

Table 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx

mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of symmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; E1 =E2 ¼ 40Þ.

2 4 5 10 12.5 20 25 50 100

3 (0°/90°/0°) Present 13.5346 5.5541 4.1176 1.4720 1.0155 0.4380 0.2880 0.0748 0.0189

Reddy [64] 13.0125 – 4.1160 1.4766 – – – – –

Xiang et al. [287] 13.8325 – 4.2792 1.4753 – – – – –

Matsunaga [68] 13.9890 – 4.3660 1.5300 – – – – –

Liew et al. [243] 13.0125 – 4.1160 1.4767 – – – – 0.0188

Ferreira [280] 13.0275 – 4.1228 1.4804 – – – – 0.0184

4 (0°/90°/90°/0°) Present 13.8453 5.8423 4.3248 1.5130 1.0364 0.4422 0.2899 0.0749 0.0189

Xiang et al. [287] – 6.1337 – 1.5059 – 0.4225 – – –

Aydogdu [109] – – 4.2912 1.5062 – 0.4406 – 0.0746 0.0186

Zhen and Wanji [166] 13.5750 5.7754 4.2917 1.5166 – 0.4451 0.2918 0.0756 0.0192

Akhras and Li [386] – 5.8262 – 1.5103 – 0.4410 – – –

Ray [66] – 5.6038 – 1.5061 – 0.4410 – – 0.0188

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 13.5083 5.8044 – 1.5105 – 0.4412 – 0.0747 0.0188

Pandya and Kant [382] 13.4823 5.7944 – 1.5095 – 0.4411 – 0.0747 0.0188

Matsunaga [68] 13.3027 5.7492 4.2750 1.5072 1.0327 0.4409 0.2888 0.0746 0.0188

Wu et al. [389] 13.2925 5.7456 4.2728 1.5069 1.0325 0.4409 0.2888 0.0746 0.0188

Cho et al. [390] 14.8075 – 4.2692 1.5066 – 0.4383 0.2888 0.0746 0.0188

Senthilnathan et al. [383] 15.0043 6.3770 – 1.5941 – 0.4498 – 0.0750 0.0189

Phan and Reddy [385] 13.9400 5.9356 4.3956 1.5270 1.0416 0.4417 0.2888 0.0704 0.0187

Reddy [64] 13.7663 5.8272 – 1.5107 – 0.4411 – 0.0747 0.0188

Whitney and Pagano [384] 13.7495 5.8718 – 1.5143 – 0.4415 – 0.0747 0.0188

Mindlin [7] 13.7300 5.8556 4.3280 1.5083 1.0316 0.4395 0.2878 0.0743 0.0187

Kirchhoff [6] 39.5750 11.1918 7.2860 1.8652 1.1972 0.4691 0.3004 0.0752 0.0188

192 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 4 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx

mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of antisymmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; a=h ¼ 5Þ.

3 % Error 10 % Error 20 % Error 30 % Error 40 % Error

2 (0°/90°)1 Present 2.4967 0.2557 2.8060 0.4367 3.1415 2.3357 3.4181 4.5131 3.6543 6.6949

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.4936 0.3795 2.8011 0.2613 3.1331 2.0620 3.4060 4.1431 3.6384 6.2307

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.4868 0.6512 2.7955 0.0608 3.1284 1.9089 3.4020 4.0208 3.6348 6.1255

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.4934 0.3875 2.7896 0.1503 3.0856 0.5147 3.3110 1.2383 3.4909 1.9241

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.4626 1.6180 2.7745 0.6908 3.0753 0.1792 3.3028 0.9876 3.4832 1.6993

Reddy [64] 2.4867 0.6552 2.7954 0.0573 3.1284 1.9089 3.4020 4.0208 3.6348 6.1255

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.4867 0.6552 2.7954 0.0573 3.1284 1.9089 3.4020 4.0208 3.6348 6.1255

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.4866 0.6592 2.7934 0.0143 3.1204 1.6483 3.3858 3.5255 3.6090 5.3723

Mindlin [7] 2.4834 0.7870 2.7757 0.6479 3.0824 0.4105 3.3285 1.7734 3.5333 3.1620

Kirchhoff [6] 2.7082 8.1938 3.0968 10.845 3.5422 15.388 3.9335 20.272 4.2884 25.208

Noor [364] 2.5031 0.0000 2.7938 0.0000 3.0698 0.0000 3.2705 0.0000 3.4250 0.0000

4 (0°/90°)2 Present 2.6102 0.3056 3.2871 0.8994 3.8575 2.5331 4.2191 3.7654 4.4726 4.6981

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6080 0.3896 3.2863 0.8748 3.8583 2.5544 4.2208 3.8072 4.4747 4.7473

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2782 0.6262 3.8506 2.3497 4.2139 3.6375 4.4686 4.6045

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6058 0.4736 3.2593 0.0460 3.7870 0.6592 4.1093 1.0649 4.3288 1.3320

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.5728 1.7340 3.2404 0.5341 3.7735 0.3004 4.0985 0.7993 4.3197 1.1189

Reddy [64] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2781 0.6231 3.8506 2.3497 4.2139 3.6375 4.4686 4.6045

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2781 0.6231 3.8506 2.3497 4.2139 3.6375 4.4686 4.6045

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2779 0.6170 3.8500 2.3337 4.2133 3.6227 4.4682 4.5951

Mindlin [7] 2.6017 0.6302 3.2898 0.9823 3.8754 3.0089 4.2479 4.4737 4.5083 5.5338

Kirchhoff [6] 2.8676 9.5256 3.8877 19.335 4.9907 32.654 5.8900 44.859 6.6690 56.113

Noor [364] 2.6182 0.0000 3.2578 0.0000 3.7622 0.0000 4.0660 0.0000 4.2719 0.0000

6 (0°/90°)3 Present 2.6326 0.4312 3.3722 0.1931 3.9763 1.0264 4.3420 1.4889 4.6010 2.0381

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6299 0.5333 3.3700 0.1278 3.9745 0.9807 4.3483 1.6362 4.6060 2.1490

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3621 0.1070 3.9672 0.7952 4.3419 1.4866 4.6005 2.0270

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6284 0.5900 3.3541 0.3447 3.9338 0.0534 4.2845 0.1449 4.5220 0.2861

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.5949 1.8570 3.3349 0.9151 3.9205 0.3913 4.2741 0.0982 4.5135 0.0976

Reddy [64] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3620 0.1099 3.9672 0.7952 4.3418 1.4842 4.6004 2.0248

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3620 0.1099 3.9672 0.7952 4.3418 1.4842 4.6004 2.0248

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3620 0.1099 3.9672 0.7952 4.3418 1.4842 4.6003 2.0226

Mindlin [7] 2.6228 0.8018 3.3673 0.0475 3.9771 1.0468 4.3531 1.7484 4.6106 2.2510

Kirchhoff [6] 2.8966 9.5537 4.0215 19.4848 5.2234 32.7117 6.1963 44.831 7.0359 56.037

Noor [364] 2.6440 0.0000 3.3657 0.0000 3.9359 0.0000 4.2783 0.0000 4.5091 0.0000

10 (0°/90°)5 Present 2.6440 0.5379 3.4159 0.2657 4.0383 0.1140 4.4200 0.4294 4.6742 0.5248

Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6413 0.6395 3.4128 0.3562 4.0339 0.0050 4.4140 0.2931 4.6745 0.5312

Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4051 0.5810 4.0270 0.1661 4.4079 0.1545 4.6692 0.4172

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6408 0.6583 3.4065 0.5401 4.0175 0.4016 4.3880 0.2977 4.6397 0.2172

Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6071 1.9260 3.3872 1.1036 4.0043 0.7289 4.3778 0.5294 4.6316 0.3914

Reddy [64] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4050 0.5839 4.0269 0.1686 4.4078 0.1522 4.6692 0.4172

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4050 0.5839 4.0269 0.1686 4.4078 0.1522 4.6692 0.4172

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4050 0.5839 4.0268 0.1711 4.4074 0.1431 4.6682 0.3957

Mindlin [7] 2.6335 0.9329 3.4053 0.5752 4.0255 0.2033 4.4023 0.0273 4.6577 0.1699

Kirchhoff [6] 2.8966 8.9644 4.0215 17.416 5.2234 29.494 6.1963 40.789 7.0359 51.316

Noor [364] 2.6583 0.0000 3.4250 0.0000 4.0337 0.0000 4.4011 0.0000 4.6498 0.0000

modular and aspect ratios. Results are presented at m = 1 and n = 1. natural frequencies of anti-symmetric laminated composite square

The numerical values of natural frequencies are presented in plate with respect to a=h ratios and number of layers with

Tables 4 and 5. E1 =E2 ¼ 40.

From Table 4 it is observed that the natural frequencies for anti-

symmetric lamination scheme predicted by present theory are in 5.3. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported three layered

excellent agreement with exact values given by Noor [364]. For (0°/core/0°) symmetric sandwich square plates

E1 =E2 ¼ 3, present theory predicts more accurate results than

Reddy [64]. The percentages of error predicted by present theory In this problem, thickness of face sheets is 0.1h and thickness of

for two layered (0°/90°) laminated composite plate when core is 0.8h where ‘h’ is the overall thickness of the plate. Core of

E1 =E2 ¼ 3, 10, 20, 30, 40 are 0.2557, 0.4367, 2.3357, 4.5131, the plate is made up of Material 2. Elastic moduli of face sheets

6.6949, respectively. Two variable plate theory presented by Thai are assumed as ‘R’ times the elastic modulus of core

and Kim [115], Kant and Manjunatha [381] and Pandya and Kant i.e.ðQ ij Þf ¼ RðQ ij Þc . Results are obtained for m = 1 and n = 1. The

[382] overestimates the natural frequencies as compared to those value of R is varied from 1 to 15. When R = 1, plate is orthotropic

obtained by present theory. Fig. 4 presents the variation of natural plate and for other values of R it becomes sandwich plate. The

frequencies of anti-symmetric laminated composite square plate non-dimensional frequencies obtained by present theory are com-

with respect to modular ratios for various number of layers and pared with existing literature as shown in Table 6. The non-dimen-

a=h ¼ 5. Table 5 shows the comparison of natural frequencies of sional natural frequencies are presented for a/h = 10. From Table 6

anti-symmetric laminated composite plates for various a=h ratios it is observed that for R = 1, present theory predicts the exact value

and found to agree well with those obtained by other higher order of natural frequencies and for R = 15, natural frequencies obtained

theories available in the literature. Fig. 5 presents the variation of by present theory are in excellent agreement with exact solution.

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 193

Table 5 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx

mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of anti-symmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; E1 =E2 ¼ 40Þ.

2 4 10 20 50 100

2 (0°/90°)1 Present 14.5089 5.2584 1.0593 0.2783 0.0452 0.0113

Reddy [64] 14.2925 5.2216 1.0568 0.2776 0.0451 0.0113

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 12.7295 4.9425 1.0431 0.2766 0.0450 0.0113

Pandya and Kant [382] 12.6865 4.9315 1.0415 0.2763 0.0450 0.0113

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.2925 5.2216 1.0568 0.2776 0.0451 0.0113

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 13.7543 5.1657 1.0548 0.2775 0.0451 0.0113

Mindlin [7] 13.0260 5.0218 1.0473 0.2769 0.0451 0.0113

Kirchhoff [6] 21.5168 6.5153 1.1154 0.2817 0.0452 0.0113

4 (0°/90°)2 Present 14.4663 6.0920 1.4857 0.4152 0.0689 0.0173

Reddy [64] 14.3865 6.0848 1.4846 0.4143 0.0687 0.0173

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.3865 6.0848 1.4846 0.4143 0.0687 0.0173

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 14.3100 6.0848 1.4843 0.4143 0.0687 0.0173

Mindlin [7] 14.1640 6.1343 1.4921 0.4150 0.0688 0.0173

Kirchhoff [6] 35.2590 10.2122 1.7145 0.4317 0.0692 0.0173

6 (0°/90°)3 Present 14.8277 6.2612 1.5483 0.4354 0.0725 0.0182

Reddy [64] 14.6853 6.2424 1.5463 0.4344 0.0723 0.0182

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.6853 6.2424 1.5463 0.4344 0.0723 0.0182

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 14.5450 6.2409 1.5463 0.4344 0.0723 0.0182

Mindlin [7] 14.2480 6.2408 1.5501 0.4348 0.0723 0.0182

Kirchhoff [6] 37.7238 10.7923 1.8046 0.4541 0.0728 0.0182

10 (0°/90°)5 Present 15.0499 6.3510 1.5793 0.4454 0.0742 0.0186

Reddy [64] 14.8810 6.3276 1.5770 0.4444 0.0740 0.0186

Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.8810 6.3276 1.5770 0.4444 0.0740 0.0186

Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 14.6803 6.3229 1.5770 0.4444 0.0740 0.0186

Mindlin [7] 14.2850 6.2893 1.5779 0.4445 0.0740 0.0186

Kirchhoff [6] 39.0160 11.0821 1.8492 0.4652 0.0746 0.0186

Table 6 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency x

mn ¼ xmn ah q=Q 11 of symmetric (0°/Core/0°) sandwich plate with a=b ¼ 1 and a=h ¼ 10.

Source R

1 % Error 2 % Error 5 % Error 10 % Error 15 % Error

Present 4.7419 0.0000 5.5704 2.3439 7.6594 0.7181 9.8149 0.0459 11.7033 4.4620

Karama et al. [106] 4.7421 0.0042 – – – – – – 11.4932 2.5867

Chakrabarti and Sheikh [152] 4.7367 0.1097 5.6949 0.1613 7.6949 0.2579 9.7708 0.4037 11.1464 0.5088

Touratier [75] 4.7412 0.0148 – – – – – – 11.5240 2.8616

Reddy [64] 4.7409 0.0211 – – – – – – 11.7240 4.6468

DiSciuva [391] 4.7698 0.5884 5.7244 0.3559 7.7296 0.1918 9.8222 0.1203 11.2137 0.0919

Srinivas and Rao [363] 4.7419 0.0000 5.7041 0.0000 7.7148 0.0000 9.8104 0.0000 11.2034 0.0000

Table 7 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency x

mn ¼ xmn ða=hÞ ðq=E2 Þf of ﬁve layered antisymmetric (0°/90°/Core/0°/90°) sandwich plate with a=b ¼ 1, and tc =tf ¼ 10.

Source a=h

2 4 10 20 50 100

Present 0.8778 1.6767 4.1312 7.5829 13.3791 15.5978

Reddy [64] 1.6252 3.1013 7.0473 11.2664 15.0323 15.9522

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 1.1941 2.1036 4.8594 8.5955 13.6899 15.5093

Pandya and Kant [382] 1.1734 2.0913 4.8519 8.5838 13.6577 15.4647

Senthilnathan et al. [383] 1.6252 3.1013 7.0473 11.2664 15.0323 15.9522

Whitney and Pagano [384] 5.2017 9.0312 13.869 15.5295 16.1264 16.2175

Rao et al. [141] 0.7141 0.9363 1.8480 3.4791 7.7355 11.9400

Higher order shear deformation theory of Reddy [64] overesti- The face sheets of the plate are made up of Material 3 and core is

mates the natural frequencies for R = 15. made up of Material 4. With reference to numerical values pre-

sented by Kant and Swaminathan [136,137], similar results are

5.4. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported ﬁve layered (0°/ obtained by using present theory and compared with existing liter-

90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric sandwich square plates ature in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 7 shows the fundamental frequencies of ﬁve layered anti-

In this section, efﬁciency of present theory is checked free vibra- symmetric sandwich plates for various a=h ratios. With reference

tion analysis of ﬁve layered (0°/90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric to exact solution presented by Rao et al. [141], present theory pre-

sandwich plate. Thickness of plate is measured from top. The ratio dicts excellent values of fundamental frequencies as compared to

of thickness of core to thickness of face sheet ðtc =tf Þ is taken as 10. those presented by Rao and Desai [140], Kant and Manjunatha

194 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 8 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Non-dimensional fundamental frequency x

mn ¼ xmn ða=hÞ ðq=E2 Þf of ﬁve layered antisymmetric (0°/90°/Core/0°/90°) sandwich plate with a=b ¼ 1, tc =tf ¼ 10.

1 2 3 4 5 6

10 Present 4.1312 6.7339 8.6150 9.6638 11.0885 13.1232

Reddy [64] 7.0473 11.9087 15.2897 17.3211 19.8121 23.5067

Rao and Desai (ESL) [140] 4.9624 8.1934 10.5172 11.9867 13.7488 16.4514

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 4.8594 8.0187 10.2966 11.7381 13.4706 16.1320

Pandya and Kant [382] 4.8519 7.9965 10.2550 11.6809 13.3889 16.0039

Senthilnathan et al. [383] 7.0473 11.9624 15.2897 17.3698 19.8325 23.5067

Whitney and Pagano [384] 13.869 30.6432 41.5577 50.9389 58.3636 71.3722

100 Present 15.5978 38.3778 53.5165 69.8024 80.0727 100.3965

Reddy [64] 15.9521 42.2271 60.1272 83.9982 96.3132 124.2047

Rao and Desai (ESL) [140] 15.5480 39.2652 73.4951 55.1512 84.2919 106.5897

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 15.5093 39.0293 54.7618 72.7572 83.4412 105.3781

Pandya and Kant [382] 15.4646 38.9232 54.6330 72.5925 83.2699 105.1807

Senthilnathan et al. [383] 15.9521 42.3708 60.1272 84.4215 96.7259 124.2047

Whitney and Pagano [384] 16.2175 44.7072 64.5044 94.9097 108.9049 143.7969

Fig. 2. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to modular ratios ðE1 =E2 Þ for

symmetrically laminated composite square plates.

Fig. 4. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to modular ratios ðE1 =E2 Þ for

anti-symmetrically laminated composite square plates.

Fig. 3. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to aspect ratios ða=hÞ for three

layered ðN ¼ 3Þ and four layered ðN ¼ 4Þ symmetrically laminated composite Fig. 5. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to aspect ratios ða=hÞ for anti-

square plates. symmetrically laminated composite square plates.

A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 195

[381], Pandya and Kant [382], Reddy [64], Senthilnathan et al. ratios is compared with exact solutions wherever applicable.

[383] and Whitney and Pagano [384]. Natural frequencies of this From the numerical results following observations are pointed out.

problem are also obtained for various modes of vibration and pre-

sented in Table 8. For higher modes of vibration, present theory is (a) The ﬂexural mode frequencies obtained by the present the-

also in good agreement with other theories. The theory of Whitney ory for laminated composite plates are in excellent agree-

and Pagano [384] gives very high estimate of frequencies for all ment with those of exact solutions for all problems,

modes of vibration. Similarly, theories of Reddy [64], and especially in symmetric laminates.

Senthilnathan et al. [383] also yield considerably high values of fre- (b) For antisymmetric sandwich plates, present theory predicts

quencies compared to those of present and other higher order more accurate results as compared to other equivalent sin-

theories. gle layer theories for all modes of vibrations.

(c) It is also concluded that due to consideration of effect of

6. Conclusions transverse normal strain, the present theory is useful for

the dynamic analysis of composite plates where large num-

The increasing use of laminated composites and sandwich ber of Eigen frequencies and Eigen vectors of thickness-

structures in various ﬁelds of engineering necessitated the devel- stretch mode are required.

opment of various reﬁned theories which predicts the accurate (d) The present trigonometric shear and normal deformation the-

dynamic behaviour of such structures. The basic aim of this review ory yields the exact value of dynamic shear correction factor.

article is to present various methods available for the analysis of

laminated composite and sandwich plates and to guide the

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