Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25

Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Composite Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Review

On the free vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich


plates: A review of recent literature with some numerical results
Atteshamuddin S. Sayyad a,⇑, Yuwaraj M. Ghugal b
a
Department of Civil Engineering, SRES’s College of Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Kopargaon 423601, Maharashtra, India
b
Department of Applied Mechanics, Government College of Engineering, Karad 415124, Maharashtra, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The present article reviews the recent research done on the free vibration analysis of multilayered lam-
Available online 15 April 2015 inated composite and sandwich plates using various methods available for the analysis of plates.
Displacement fields of various displacement based shear deformation theories have been presented
Keywords: and compared. Also, some numerical results related to fundamental flexural mode frequencies of lami-
Shear deformation theory nated composite and sandwich plates are presented using a trigonometric shear and normal deformation
Normal strain/stress theory. The theory involves six unknown variables and does not require problem dependent shear correc-
Laminated composite
tion factor. Governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions of the theory are derived
Sandwich plate
Free vibration
by employing the dynamic version of the principle of virtual work. Navier-type closed-form solutions are
Natural frequency obtained for simply supported laminated composite and sandwich plates. The present results are com-
pared with exact elasticity solution and other higher order shear deformation theories wherever applica-
ble. This article cites 391 references.
Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
1.1. Navier’s method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
1.2. Levy’s method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
1.3. Finite element method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
1.4. Rayleigh–Ritz method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
1.5. State–space method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
1.6. Differential quadrature method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
1.7. Meshless method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
1.8. Radial basis functions (RBF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
1.9. Galerkin method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
1.10. Discrete singular convolution (DSC) method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
1.11. Extended Kantorovich method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
1.12. Analysis of plates based on mixed variational formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
1.13. Exact solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
1.14. The Displacement fields of several equivalent single layer plate theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
2. Mathematical formulation of trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
2.1. Assumptions made in mathematical formulation of proposed theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
2.2. The displacement field, strains, stresses and stress resultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2.2.1. The displacement field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2.2.2. Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2.2.3. Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2.2.4. Stress resultants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 9763567881.


E-mail address: attu_sayyad@yahoo.co.in (A.S. Sayyad).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.04.007
0263-8223/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
178 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

3. Governing equations of equilibrium and boundary conditions for trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
4. Navier’s solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
5. Numerical examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.1. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported symmetric cross-ply laminated composite square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.2. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported antisymmetric cross-ply laminated composite square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
5.3. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported three layered (0°/core/0°) symmetric sandwich square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.4. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported five layered (0°/90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric sandwich square plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

1. Introduction for the vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich


plates. The research reported from year 2000 to 2013 is reviewed
Structures composed of composite materials are among the with some classical references.
most important structures used in modern engineering and, espe-
cially, in the aerospace industry. Such lightweight structures are 1.1. Navier’s method
also being increasingly used in civil, mechanical and transportation
engineering applications. The rapid increase of the industrial use of Navier’s solution technique is used only for simply supported
these structures has necessitated the development of new analyt- boundary conditions. Many higher order shear deformation theo-
ical and numerical tools that suitable for the analysis and study ries have been reported in the literature for the free vibration anal-
of mechanical behavior of such structures. The behavior of struc- ysis of simply supported plates using Navier’s method. Theories of
tures composed of advanced composite materials is considerably Ambartsumian [60] Kruszewski [61], Panc [62] and Reissner [63]
more complicated than for isotropic ones. Review of various prop- are not accurate while predicting the vibration response of lami-
erties of composite material is presented by Hashin [1]. Recent nated and sandwich plates. Therefore, Reddy [64] has developed
applications of fibre reinforced polymer composites to naval ships a well known third order shear deformation theory which is fur-
and submarines are reviewed by Mouritz et al. [2]. Review of poly- ther used by many researchers for their research. Recently,
mer composites also presented by Chamis [3]. Pendhari et al. [4] Aghababaei and Reddy [65] reformulated the third-order shear
reviewed the applications of polymer composites in civil engineer- deformation plate theory of Reddy [64] using the nonlocal linear
ing constructions, whereas a historical review of mechanics of elasticity theory and applied for the bending and vibration of
composites is presented by Herakovich [5]. plates. Ray [66] has developed Zeroth order shear deformation the-
The classical plate theory (CPT) [6] and first order shear defor- ory and applied for the free vibration analysis of laminated com-
mation theory (FSDT) [7] are commonly used theory for the analy- posite plates. However, Kapuria and Dumir [67] showed that,
sis of laminated composite plates. However, CPT predicts good Zeroth order shear deformation theory developed by Ray [66] is
results for thin plates only, because, the transverse shear deforma- mathematically equivalent to Reddy’s third order shear deforma-
tion is omitted in CPT. FSDT does not satisfy shear stress free con- tion theory [64]. Matsunaga [68–72] studied vibration analysis of
ditions at top and bottom surfaces of plates. The shear correction laminated composite and sandwich plates using global higher-
factor is needed to appropriately take into account the strain order plate theory. Levy [73], Stein [74], Touratier [75], Shimpi
energy of shear deformation. Its value depends on the material et al. [76], Shimpi and Ainapure [77], Zenkour [78,79], Ghugal
coefficients, geometry, stacking scheme, boundary conditions and and Sayyad [80–84], Neves et al. [85,86], Ferreira et al. [87], Thai
loading conditions, which cannot be easily determined for practical and Vo [88] and Mantari et al. [89–92] developed some trigono-
problems. Further, FSDT is not capable of properly constraining all metric shear deformation theories for the free vibration analysis
the displacements at the clamped supports of beams and plates. of isotropic, orthotropic, laminated composite, sandwich and func-
Higher order shear deformation theories are therefore developed tionally graded plates. Soldatos [93] has developed hyperbolic
to overcome these limitations of classical laminated plate theory shear deformation theory for the analysis of laminated composite
and first order shear deformation theories for the better represen- and sandwich plates. Ghugal and Pawar [94] applied theory of
tation of the bending, buckling and vibration of the laminated com- Soldatos [93] for the free vibration analysis of orthotropic plates.
posite and sandwich plates. Recently, several new hyperbolic shear deformation theories are
Several review articles on laminated composite and sandwich developed by Akavci [95,96], Akavci and Tanrikulu [97], Meiche
plates have been reported in the literature by various researchers, et al. [98], Bessaim et al. [99], Daouadji et al. [100–102], Grover
such as Leissa [8], Reissner [9], Reddy [10,11], Kapania and Raciti et al. [103], Neves et al. [104] and Zenkour [105]. Karama et al.
[12], Noor and Burton [13], Noor et al. [14], Bert [15], Vasil’eV [106] have developed an exponential shear deformation theory
[16], Mallikarjuna and Kant [17], Reddy and Robbins [18], Liew for the free vibration analysis of laminated and composite plates
et al. [19,20], Liu and Li [21], Carvelli and Savoia [22], Altenbach which is further used by Sayyad and Ghugal [107]. Aydogdu
[23], Bose and Reddy [24,25], Carrera [26–29], Kant and [108] has carried out comparison of various shear deformation the-
Swaminathan [30], Chao and Chern [31], Ferreira and Fernandes ories for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates.
[32], Kulikov [33], Ambartsumian [34], Piskunov and Rasskazov Aydogdu [109] also developed a new shear deformation theory for
[35], Carrera and Demasi [36,37], Ghugal and Shimpi [38], the free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates. Shimpi
Alhazza and Alhazza [39], Reddy and Arciniega [40], Rohwer et al. [110] developed new first order shear deformation theories
et al. [41], Wanji and Zhen [42], Demasi [43–48], Carrera and which are further discussed by Simmonds [111] and Shimpi et al.
Brischetto [49], Sharma and Mittal [50] and Kreja [51]. Several [112]. This theory is extended by Thai and Choi [113] for the free
books are also available on vibration of plates such as, Leissa vibration analysis of laminated composite plates. Shimpi and
[52], Reddy [53], Liew et al. [54], Qatu [55], Soedel [56], Szilard Patel [114] developed two variable plate theory for the free vibra-
[57], Yang [58] and Chakraverty [59]. tion analysis of isotropic and orthotropic plates, which is extended
Various methods for the analysis of plates are available in the for the laminated composite plates by Thai and Kim [115],
literature. This article reviews the application of these methods Alibakhshi [116], Thai and Choi [117] and Thai et al. [118]. Xiang
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 179

et al. [119] developed nth-order shear deformation theory for the sandwich laminates with in-plane partial edge load. Singha and
free vibration analysis of isotropic, laminated composite and sand- Ganapathi [155] presented the large amplitude free vibration anal-
wich plates. Free vibration analysis of short fiber reinforced lami- ysis of thin laminated composite skew plates using finite element
nated plates using the Navier type solution has been performed approach. Nayak et al. [156], Aagaah et al. [157] and Latheswary
by Eruslu and Aydogdu [120]. Liu and Zhao [121] applied some et al. [158] presented natural frequencies of laminated composite
low order and high order shear deformation theories for the flexu- plates based on third order shear deformation theory using finite
ral vibration of thick rectangular sandwich panels. Forced vibration element method. Free vibrations of thick isotropic plates with
analysis of antisymmetric laminated rectangular plates with dis- higher order shear and normal deformable plate theories were car-
tributed patch mass using higher order shear deformation theory ried out by Batra and Aimmanee [159] using finite element
of Reddy has been carried out by Alibeigloo and Kari [122]. method. Batra et al. [160] also presented natural frequencies of
Messina and Soldatos [123] presented a general vibration model thick square plates made of different materials. A high precision
of angle-ply laminated plates that accounts for the continuity of triangular plate element has been developed by Shiau and Kuo
interlaminar stresses. Chen et al. [124] presented buckling and [161] for the free vibration analysis of thermally buckled compos-
vibration of initially stressed composite plates with temperature- ite sandwich plates. Free vibration analysis of laminated composite
dependent material properties in thermal environments. Thai and rectangular plate using finite element method was carried out by
Kim [125] also developed a simple four variable plate theory for Pandit et al. [162]. Givil et al. [163] studied high-order non-linear
free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates. contact effects in the dynamic behavior of delaminated sandwich
panel with a flexible core. Topal and Uzman [164] carried out free
1.2. Levy’s method vibration analysis of laminated plates using finite element method
based on higher-order shear deformation theory. Cetkovic and
Xiang et al. [126], Xiang [127], Xiang and Wang [128], Xiang and Vuksanovic [165] used Reddy’s layerwise displacement model for
Wei [129,130] employed Levy’s solution technique for the free the bending, free vibrations and buckling of laminated composite
vibration analysis of multi-span rectangular plates whereas and sandwich plates. An efficient higher-order theory and finite
Hashemi et al. [131] employed this solution technique to deter- element procedure for the free vibration analysis of laminated
mine exact solution for the free vibration analysis of plates. Thai composite and sandwich plates using global–local higher-order
and Kim [132] also employed Levy type solution technique for free theory was presented by Zhen and Wanji [166] and Zhen et al.
vibration analysis of orthotropic plates based on two variable plate [167,168]. Kulkarni and Kapuria [169], Pandit et al. [170–172],
theory [114]. The eigenfunction system of the Hamiltonian opera- Xiaohui and Wanji [173] and Khandelwal et al. [174] used zigzag
tor appearing in the free vibration of rectangular Kirchhoff plates theories for the vibration of laminated composite and sandwich
with two opposite edges simply supported is studied by Bai and plates based on finite element method. Park et al. [175] studied
Chen [133]. Aydogdu and Ece [134] presented the free vibration the effects of skew angle and layup sequence on the dynamic
analysis of rectangular isotropic plates with non-ideal boundary response of the laminated skew plates. Lal et al. [176] reported
conditions based on classical plate theory using Levy type solution. nonlinear free vibration of laminated composite plates on elastic
Hashemi et al. [135] also employed Levy type solution technique foundation with random system properties. Moleiro et al.
for the free vibration analysis of rectangular nano plates consider- [177,178] developed mixed least-squares finite element models
ing small scale effects. for free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates.
Nonlinear free vibration analysis of simply supported piezo-lami-
1.3. Finite element method nated plates has been carried out by Tanveer and Singh [179].
Vibration analysis of composite laminated plates with variable
Kant and Swaminathan [136,137], Swaminathan and Patil fiber spacing using finite element method was studied by Kuo
[138,139], Rao and Desai [140], Rao et al. [141] and Ganapathi and Shiau [180]. Brischetto and Carrera [181] used Carrera
and Makhecha [142] have carried out free vibration analysis of Unified Formulation to study free vibration response of simply-
laminated composite and sandwich plates based on higher order supported multilayered orthotropic composite plates. Shariyat
shear and normal deformation theory using finite element method. [182] has developed a generalized global–local high-order theory
Ganapathi et al. [143] developed a finite element model for the free for the vibration analyses of sandwich plates subjected to
vibration analysis of plates. Free vibration analysis of composite thermo-mechanical loads. Dehghan and Baradaran [183] carried
plates was carried out by Singh et al. [144] using higher order shear out buckling and free vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates
deformation theory with random material properties. Parhi et al. using mixed finite element method. Singh and Lal [184] studied
[145] carried out finite element dynamic analysis of laminated stochastic non-linear free vibration analysis of laminated compos-
composite plates with multiple delaminations. Rikards et al. ite plates on elastic plates. Lal and Singh [185] also studied the
[146] analyzed vibration of plates using triangular elements. stochastic free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates
Setoodeh and Karami [147] presented the free vibration analysis subjected to a thermal loading with general boundary conditions
of composite laminates with elastically restrained edges using using finite element method. Carrera et al. [186] presented refined
finite element analysis. Hull and Buchanan [148] presented vibra- finite element model for the dynamic analysis of multilayered
tion analysis of square orthotropic stepped plates based on finite plates. Van et al. [187] presented vibration analysis of laminated
element method. Forced vibration analysis of rectangular plates composite plate/shell structures via a smoothed quadrilateral flat
using finite element method has been carried out by Ahmadian shell element with in-plane rotations. Srinivasa et al. [188] pre-
and Zangeneh [149]. An accurate, three-dimensional, higher order, sented free flexural vibration on laminated composite skew plates
mixed finite element modeling for the free vibration analysis of using finite element analysis whereas Manna [189] studied free
multi-layered laminated composite plates was presented by vibration of tapered isotropic rectangular plates. Grover et al.
Desai et al. [150]. A triangular element based on Reissner– [103] developed inverse hyperbolic shear deformation theory for
Mindlin plate theory is developed by Sheikh et al. [151] for the free the free vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich
vibration analysis of plates. A non-conforming C1 finite element tri- plates using finite element modelling. The free vibration behaviour
angular model was presented by Chakrabarti and Sheikh [152,153] of sandwich functionally graded plates is investigated using finite
for the free vibration analysis of laminated plates. Chakrabarti and element method by Natarajan and Manickam [190]. Eftekhari
Sheikh [154] also presented vibration of imperfect composite and and Jafari [191] used mixed finite element and differential
180 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

quadrature formulation for free vibration of rectangular and skew employed Ritz and Galerkin formulations for accurate vibration
Mindlin plates with general boundary conditions. Elmalich and analysis of anisotropic laminated composite plates. In-plane free
Rabinovitch [192] investigated the dynamic behavior of soft-core vibration analysis of single-layer and symmetrically laminated
sandwich plates using finite element method. A higher order dis- rectangular composite plates is presented by Dozio [224] using
placement based formulation to investigate the plane strain edge Ritz method. Kumar and Lal [225] and Lal and Kumar [226] used
vibrations or end modes in composite laminated sandwich plates Rayleigh–Ritz method for the free vibrations of nonhomogeneous
has been developed by Chitnis et al. [193]. Cetkovic and orthotropic rectangular plates with bilinear thickness via classical
Vuksanovic [194] studied vibrations of isotropic, orthotropic and plate theory. Eruslu and Aydogdu [120] performed free vibration
laminated composite plates with various boundary conditions analysis of short fiber reinforced laminated plates using the Ritz
using finite element method. Chalak et al. [195,196] presented method. Carrera et al. [227] presented free-vibration analysis of
finite element model for the free vibration analysis of laminated anisotropic simply supported plates using Rayleigh–Ritz Method
composite and sandwich plates. Singh and Chakrabarti [197] also based on layer-wise, equivalent single layer and zig-zag models.
studied static, vibration and buckling behavior of laminated com- The effect of non-homogeneity of the material of plate structures
posite and sandwich skew plates under thermo-mechanical load- on the vibration frequencies was presented by Chakraverty et al.
ing using finite element model based on refined higher order [228] using Rayleigh Ritz method. Watkins and Barton [229] stud-
zigzag theory. Li et al. [198] carried out finite element analysis ied the free vibration analysis of laminated and sandwich plates on
for the free vibration of composite sandwich plates. Ribeiro [199] elastic foundation using Rayleigh–Ritz method. Natural frequen-
used a Hierarchical finite element for geometrically non-linear cies and vibration modes of laminated composite plates reinforced
vibration of thick plates. Kucukrendeci and Kucuk [200] applied with arbitrary curvilinear fiber shape paths are obtained by Honda
finite element method for the vibration analysis of laminated com- and Narita [230]. Iurlaro et al. [231] applied Rayleigh–Ritz
posite plates on elastic foundation. Thai et al. [201] presented a approach for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite
novel finite element formulation for static, free vibration and buck- and sandwich plates using refined zigzag theory. Fazzolari and
ling analyses of laminated composite plates using a new higher Carrera [232–234] and Fiorenzo et al. [235] carried out free vibra-
order shear deformation theory. tion analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates using
the hierarchical trigonometric Ritz formulation.
1.4. Rayleigh–Ritz method
1.5. State–space method
Narita [202] has developed a modified Ritz method to calculate
natural frequencies of anisotropic rectangular plates with classical Makhecha et al. [236,237] and Ding et al. [238] have presented
boundary conditions. However, Bert [203] raised two constructive method of state–space for analyzing free vibration analysis of lam-
comments on this modified Ritz method which are explained by inated rectangular plates. Xiang [127] carried out vibration analy-
Narita [204]. Free vibration response of isotropic skew plates was sis of rectangular Mindlin plates resting on non-homogenous
studied by Analas and Goker [205] using conventional Rayleigh– elastic foundations using method of state–space. Xiang and Wang
Ritz method. Wang et al. [206] presented a free vibration analysis [128] determined exact buckling loads and vibration frequencies
of skew sandwich plates with laminated faces using p-Ritz method. of multi-stepped rectangular plates based on the classical thin
Adam [207] employed Rayleigh–Ritz method to carry out vibration plate theory using concept of state–space. Xiang and Wei
analysis of orthotropic plates. Zhou et al. [208,209] presented [129,130] presented the exact solution for the vibration analysis
three-dimensional vibration analysis of thick rectangular plates of multi-span rectangular Mindlin plates using the state–space
using Ritz method. The study on vibration analysis of cross-ply technique. Based on Reddy’s higher order shear deformable plate
laminated square plates subjected to different sets of boundary theory and method of state space, Shen et al. [239] studied the
conditions has been carried out by Aydogdu and Timarci [210] dynamic response of shear deformable laminated plates exposed
using Ritz Method. Hu et al. [211] carried out vibration of angle- to thermo-mechanical loading and resting on elastic foundation.
ply laminated plates with twist by Rayleigh–Ritz procedure using On the basis of the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, a
Mindlin plate theory whereas Lee et al. [212] employed this proce- semi-analytical method, which combines the state space approach
dure for the free vibration of symmetrically laminated composite with the technique of differential quadrature, is developed for free
sandwich plates with elastic edge restraints. Gupta et al. [213] vibration of a cross-ply laminated composite rectangular plate by
studied vibration of polar orthotropic circular plate resting on Chen and Lue [240].
Winkler foundation using Ritz method. Nallim and Grossi [214]
employed Rayleigh–Ritz method for the vibration analysis of sym- 1.6. Differential quadrature method
metrically laminated elliptical and circular plates. Biancolini et al.
[215] obtained approximate solution of the frequencies of ortho- Shu [241] has presented detail information of differential
tropic plates using Rayleigh method. Zhou et al. [216] determine quadrature method with its engineering applications. Liew et al.
three-dimensional vibration solutions for rectangular plates with [242] developed an elastic bonding model based on three-dimen-
mixed boundary conditions, based on the small strain linear elas- sional theory of elasticity using the differential quadrature dis-
ticity theory and Ritz method. Zhou and Zheng [217] studied the cretization for the free vibration study of composite laminates.
vibration of skew plates by the moving least square Ritz method. Liew et al. [243] also studied vibration analysis of symmetrically
Gupta et al. [218] assessed the thermal effect on vibration of laminated plates based on FSDT using the moving least squares dif-
non-homogenous rectangular plate of linearly varying thickness ferential quadrature method. The interlaminar stresses and deflec-
using Rayleigh Ritz Method. Hashemi et al. [219] used the Ritz tions of a laminated rectangular plate under thermal vibration are
method for the vibration analysis of rectangular Mindlin plates. presented by Hong and Jane [244] by using the generalized differ-
Vibration analysis of rectangular and skew multilayered plates ential quadrature method. Free vibration of a cross-ply laminated
based on advanced variable-kinematic models using Ritz method composite rectangular plate using differential quadrature tech-
is carried out by Dozio and Carrera [220]. Hull and Buchanan nique is presented by Chen and Lue [240]. Malekzadeh et al.
[148], Eftekhari and Jafari [221] and Jafari and Eftekhari [222] are [245] also presented a semi-analytical differential quadrature ele-
carried out vibration analysis of plates based on Ritz and differen- ment method for free vibration analysis of thick plates with two
tial quadrature methods whereas Fazzolari and Carrera [223] opposite edges simply supported. Malekzadeh and Karami [246]
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 181

presented a differential quadrature solution for free vibration anal- method, Liew et al. [269] and Peng et al. [270] reported vibration
ysis of thick plates on elastic foundations. Zhang et al. [247] inves- analysis of corrugated plates. Peng et al. [271] also reported free
tigated the free vibration analysis of multilayered piezoelectric vibration analysis of folded plate by mesh-free method using first
composite plates using differential quadrature method. order shear deformation theory. Liew et al. [272], Dai et al. [273]
Differential quadrature method was presented by Malekzadeh and Ferreira et al. [274,275] employed meshless method for the
[248] to study the free vibration analysis of laminated composite free vibration analyses of laminated composite plates using first
skew thin plates. Hull and Buchanan [148] and Eftekhari and order shear deformation theory. Bui et al. [276] presented a
Jafari [221] have used combination of Ritz and differential quadra- detailed analysis of natural frequencies of laminated composite
ture method to vibration problem of rectangular plates. Yas and plates using the meshfree moving Kriging interpolation method
Aragh [249] carried out free vibration analysis of continuous grad- based on the classical plate theory. Wu and Chiu [277] used
ing fiber reinforced plates on elastic foundation using differential mesh-free Galerkin methods for the free vibration analysis of mul-
quadrature method whereas Hashemi et al. [250] used differential tilayered composite plates. Xiang et al. [278] implemented mesh-
transformation method to develop a semi-analytical solution for less global collocation method based on the thin plate spline
free vibration and modal stress analyses of circular plates resting radial basis function and nth-order shear deformation theory for
on two-parameter elastic foundations. Free vibration analysis of the free vibration of sandwich plate with functionally graded face
moderately thick antisymmetric cross-ply laminated rectangular and homogeneous core. Xiang et al. [279] used meshless radial
plates with elastic edge constraints using dimensional differential point collocation method for the free vibration analysis of isotropic
quadrature method studied by Sharma et al. [251]. A simple and plates.
efficient mixed Ritz-differential quadrature method for free vibra-
tion analysis of orthotropic rectangular plates is presented by Jafari 1.8. Radial basis functions (RBF)
and Eftekhari [222]. Dehghan and Baradaran [183] carried out free
vibration analysis of thick plates using differential quadrature Roque et al. [263], Ferreira [280] and Ferreira et al. [281–286]
method. Lal and Rani [252] employed differential quadrature carried out the free vibration analysis of laminated composite
method to obtained mode shapes and frequencies of radially sym- and sandwich plates using radial basis functions. Xiang and Kang
metric vibrations of annular sandwich plates of variable thickness. [264] carried out free vibration analysis of laminated composite
Arikoglu and Ozkol [253] and Ferreira et al. [254] carried out vibra- plates based on thin plate spline radial basis function. Xiang
tion analysis of composite sandwich plates using generalized dif- et al. [287] implemented Gaussian radial basis function and first-
ferential quadrature method. Free vibration analysis of order shear deformation theory to determine natural frequencies
moderately thick symmetrically laminated general trapezoidal of generally laminated composite plates. Rodrigues et al.
plates with various combinations of boundary conditions is inves- [288,289] extended Murakami’s zig-zag theory for the vibration
tigated by Zamani et al. [255] using generalized differential analysis of laminated plates using radial basis functions and finite
quadrature method. Sharma et al. [256] employed differential differences collocation. A new effective radial basis function collo-
quadrature method to analyse free vibration of non-homogeneous cation technique for the free vibration analysis of laminated com-
orthotropic rectangular plates with parabolically varying thickness posite plates using the first order shear deformation theory is
resting on Winkler-type elastic foundation. Eftekhari and Jafari developed by Cong et al. [290,291]. Free vibration analysis of sym-
[191] used differential quadrature formulation for free vibration metric laminated composite plates by trigonometric shear defor-
of rectangular and skew plates. Mixed finite element and differen- mation theory and inverse multiquadric radial basis function was
tial quadrature method for free and forced vibration analysis of presented by Xiang and Wang [292]. Roque et al. [293] used com-
rectangular plates is employed by Eftekhari and Jafari [257]. bination of finite differences and radial basis functions for the free
Malekzadeh and Shojaee [258] extended two variable plate theory vibration analysis of plates. Ferreira and Fasshauer [294] computed
for the free vibration analysis of nanoplates using the differential natural frequencies of shear deformable beams and plates by a
quadrature method. Recently, Ferreira et al. [259] used Carrera RBF-pseudospectral method.
Unified Formulation and the generalized differential quadrature
technique for predicting the static deformations and the free vibra- 1.9. Galerkin method
tion behavior of thin and thick isotropic as well as cross-ply lami-
nated plates. Jahromi et al. [260] presented the generalized Zhang and Sainsbury [295] applied the Galerkin element
differential quadrature method for the free vibration of moderately method to the vibration of rectangular damped sandwich plates.
thick rectangular plate partially resting on Pasternak foundation. Gorman [296] reported free vibration analysis of completely free
Kamarian et al. [261] carried out free vibration analysis of func- rectangular plates by the superposition-Galerkin method. Chen
tionally graded sandwich plates resting on Pasternak foundations. et al. [297] studied free vibration analysis of thin plates of compli-
cated shapes using Galerkin’s method. Muthurajan et al. [298],
1.7. Meshless method Chien and Chen [299] and Chen et al. [300–302] employed
Galerkin’s method for the nonlinear vibration analysis of laminated
Ferreira et al. [262] and Roque et al. [263] used layerwise defor- composite rectangular plates. Givli et al. [303] presented free
mation theories for the free vibration analysis of symmetric com- vibrations analysis of delaminated sandwich panels using a modi-
posite and sandwich plates based on a meshless method. Xiang fied Galerkin approach. Gupta and Kumar [304] studied the vibra-
and Kang [264] carried out free vibration analysis of laminated tion of non-homogenous rectangular plate of linearly varying
composite plates by a meshless local collocation method based thickness using Galerkin Method. Nonlinear free vibration analysis
on thin plate spline radial basis function. Neves et al. [265] used of simply supported piezo-laminated plates has been carried out
meshless technique and a quasi-3D higher-order shear deforma- by Jayakumar et al. [305] using Galerkin’s method. Shooshtari
tion theory for the free vibration analysis of isotropic and sandwich and Razavi [306] obtained a closed form solution for linear and
functionally graded plates. Xiang et al. [266] and Liu et al. [267] nonlinear free vibrations of composite and fiber metal laminated
carried out the free vibration analysis of laminated composite rectangular plates using the Galerkin method. The vibrations of
plates using meshless radial point collocation method. Liu and fully clamped sandwich plate using Galerkin method was analyzed
Chen [268] studied free vibration analysis of thin plates of compli- by Morozov and Lopatin [307]. Liu et al. [308] also employed
cated shapes using mesh free method. Using mesh-free Galerkin Galerkin method for the free vibration analyses of sandwich panels
182 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

with square-honeycomb cores. Ritz and Galerkin formulations for layer, however, transverse normal stress and strains were dis-
accurate vibration analysis of anisotropic laminated composite carded. The ideas of zig-zag function as a tool to provide zig-zag
plates have been presented by Fazzolari and Carrera [233]. Qian effects in equivalent single layer models (ESLM) was also intro-
et al. [309] studied free and forced vibration of thick rectangular duced in the same papers. Cylindrical bending analyses of symmet-
plates by using higher order shear and normal deformable theory ric three and five-layer cross-ply simply supported plates were
and meshless local Petroc–Galerkin method. conducted. The comparison of the in-plane response to the exact
solutions demonstrated that Murakami’s theory led to accurate
1.10. Discrete singular convolution (DSC) method results even for small span-to-depth ratios.
An extension to a higher order displacement field was proposed
Wei et al. [310] studied vibration of plates by discrete singular by Toledano and Murakami [332]. Parabolic and cubic terms were
convolution method. Zhao et al. [311] examined discrete singular added to the Murakami’s displacement field; while the transverse
convolution for the prediction of high frequency vibration of plates. stress field became a fourth order one. Improvements were
Ng et al. [312] compared discrete singular convolution and gener- obtained compared to the Murakami’s [331] theory as far as asym-
alized differential quadrature method for the vibration analysis of metric cross-ply laminates were concerned. Interlaminar continu-
rectangular plates. Yunshan et al. [313] used DSC-Ritz method for ous transverse stresses, including transverse normal stress, were
the free vibration analysis of Mindlin plates. A three-dimensional considered. Both linear [331] and higher order models [332]
vibrational analysis of plates and shells based on discrete singular showed some limitations in the accurate descriptions of local
convolution method was studied by Civalek [314]. Civalek [315] stress for very thick plate cases. It became, in fact, clear to these
developed the discrete singular convolution method for vibration two scientists that to keep constant the zig-zag function in all lay-
analysis of moderately thick symmetrically laminated composite ers, consists of a non-physical constraint. The effective behaviour
plates based on the first-order shear deformation theory. Civalek of laminated structures, as they appear from exact solutions, shows
and Gurses [316–318] studied several problems on vibration of that the slope of the displacement field at layer interface is a layer
laminated composite plates using discrete singular convolution property. That is, a full Layer-Wise description is required to accu-
method. Gurses et al. [319] analyzed laminated skew plate based rately predict the behavior of a thick laminated plate.
on first order shear deformation theory using discrete singular con- Toledano and Murakami in a subsequent paper [333] applied, in
volution technique. Wang and Xu [320] reported free vibration fact, RMVT in conjunction with a layer-wise description of both
analysis of plates with free edges by the discrete singular convolu- displacement and transverse stress fields. The displacement field
tion method. Zhu and Wang [321] carried out free vibration anal- was considered linear in each layer for the in-plane components,
ysis of thin isotropic and anisotropic rectangular plates by the while the transverse displacement was kept constant for the whole
discrete singular convolution method. The discrete singular convo- plate as in classical thin-plate assumptions. Transverse normal
lution algorithm is used by Wang et al. [322] to analyze the deflec- stress was discarded and transverse shear stresses were assumed
tion and free vibration behavior of a simply supported anisotropic to be parabolic in each layer. The numerical analysis showed that
rectangular plate. the accuracy of the obtained results was independent of the lami-
nated configurations. Unfortunately, transverse normal stress and
1.11. Extended Kantorovich method transverse normal strain effects were discarded by Toledano and
Murakami [333]. Further discussions on RMVT were provided by
Shufrin and Eisenberger [323] presented the natural frequen- Soldatos [334]. The three papers by Murakami [331], and
cies for thick elastic rectangular plates for various combinations Toledano and Murakami [332,333], should be considered as the
of boundary conditions based on the Reissner–Mindlin first order fundamental works in the applications of RMVT as a tool to model
shear deformation plate theory and the higher order shear defor- multilayered structures.
mation plate theory of Reddy using extended Kantorovich method. A systematic use of RMVT to furnish a class of two dimensional
Phongsrisuk et al. [324] presented free vibration analysis of sym- theories for multilayered plate analysis, was presented by Carrera
metrically laminated composite rectangular plates using extended [335]. The layer-wise displacement and stress fields were proposed
Kantorovich method. Rahbar and Rostami [325] obtained a semi- in [335]. A further discussion was presented in [336]. The order of
analytical solution for forced vibrations response of rectangular displacement fields in the layer was taken as a free parameter of
orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions using the theories. Applications of what is reported in [335,336] to derive
extended Kantorovich method. Fallah et al. [326] employed governing equations in strong forms have been given in several
extended Kantorovich method for the free vibration analysis of other papers [337–345]. Closed-form solutions were also given in
symmetrically laminated fully clamped skew plates. these papers and compared to exact solutions and to other avail-
able two-dimensional theories. Layer-wise mixed models were
1.12. Analysis of plates based on mixed variational formulations applied by Carrera [346] for the static bending and vibration anal-
ysis of a cross-ply plates. Local and global responses were dis-
Theories based on the Reissner’s Mixed Variational cussed and compared to three dimensional solutions and related
Theorem (RMVT) are called as mixed theories or mixed models classical analysis based on PVD. Linear and parabolic displacement
in which both displacement and stress variables are assumed. and transverse stress fields were considered. As a fundamental
Such theories are reviewed in this section. The mixed variational result, the numerical analysis demonstrated that RMVT furnishes
theorem was proposed by the late Professor Reissner in a few arti- a quasi three-dimensional a priori description of transverse stres-
cles that appeared in the middle 1980s [327–329]. The literature of ses, including transverse normal components. Sandwich plates
the last 30 years shows that Reissner’s Mixed Variational were also considered in [338]. Related numerical analysis con-
Theorem (RMVT) has played a significant role toward a better firmed the suitability of RMVT to analyze static and dynamic
understanding of the structural behavior of multilayered responses of multilayered plates. Transverse normal stress effects
structures. in the static and dynamic case were discussed in [341,342].
The first application of RMVT to modeling of laminated plates Higher order displacement and stress fields (linear, up to fourth
was performed by Murakami [330,331]. He introduced a first order order) were considered in [341,342] and subsequent works.
ESL displacement field in his papers; in conjunction with an inde- In [342], ESLM and LWM, based on RMVT, were compared. It
pendent parabolic transverse shear stress layer-wise field in each was concluded that an LW description is required for very thick
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 183

plate analysis. In particular, ESLM formulation experienced diffi- et al. [357] have used RMVT together with finite element method
culties in describing transverse normal stresses and the related for the two dimensional modelling of multilayered plates. Frostig
effects. It was further concluded that ESLM implementations, and Thomsen [358–360], Frostig et al. [361] and Phan et al. [362]
based on RMVT, have at least the same accuracy as other refined studied free vibration of sandwich panels using displacement
ESLM type theories based on different approaches. Different ways model and mixed model. Carrera in his series of articles [27,335–
of computing transverse stresses were compared in [344]. 346] presented the pioneering work on the analysis of multilay-
Stresses from an assumed model, a priori, were compared to those ered structures in last two decades which inspired many research-
calculated a posteriori, i.e, from Hooke’s law and by integration of ers to intensify further research work in composite structures.
three-dimensional indefinite equilibrium equations. ESLM and Especially, his work on RMVT based refined theories for multilay-
LWM were implemented in both RMVT and PVD cases. It was ered structures is highly thought provoking, innovative and
underlined that a priori transverse stresses can only be obtained fundamental.
by RMVT.
Recently, Messina [347] has compared RMVT results to PVD 1.13. Exact solutions
ones. Both cross-ply and angle-ply plates were analyzed.
Transverse normal stresses were, however, discarded in this work. Exact natural frequencies of thick multilayered laminated com-
RMVT has been also applied to trace the response of laminated posite plates were presented by Srinivas and Rao [363] and Noor
plates subjected to thermal loadings which vary in the thickness [364]. Batra and Aimmanee [365] pointed out and presented the
direction. The superiority of RMVT formulated theories, compared in-plane distortional modes of vibration missing from the solution
to classical ones, was confirmed in [345]. The fundamental role of of Srinivas and Rao [363]. Leissa and Kang [366] and Kang and
transverse normal strains for thermal loadings which vary in the Shim [367] presented exact solutions for free vibration analysis
thickness plate directions was underlined. of rectangular plate subjected to linearly varying in-plane stresses.
Carrera [27] also presented the comparative study of static and Zhang et al. [368] have reported three-dimensional theory of elas-
dynamic analyses of cross-ply laminated plates using classical and ticity for free vibration analysis of composite laminates via layer-
mixed theories. For free vibration analysis of simply supported wise differential quadrature modelling. Vel and Batra [369]
cross-ply laminated plates; eight layer-wise mixed models (LM), presented three-dimensional exact solution for free and forced
eight equivalent single layer mixed models including zig-zag func- vibrations of simply supported functionally graded rectangular
tions and interlaminar continuity (EMZC) and four equivalent sin- plates. The first-known exact solutions for vibration of stepped
gle layer mixed models with interlaminar continuity (EMC) were rectangular Mindlin plates with two opposite edges simply sup-
considered. It is shown that layer-wise mixed LM4 model always ported and the remaining two edges being either free, simply sup-
coincides with the elasticity solution. It is also reported that the ported or clamped was presented by Xiang and Wei [130]. Zhou
RMVT based theories are more accurate than the corresponding et al. [208,209] determined three-dimensional vibration solutions
PVD based theories for both the static and dynamic analysis of for rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions. Demasi
multilayered structures. In these works, RMVT showed that it is [370] presented three-dimensional closed-form solutions and
suitable to generate theories which can include or discard trans- exact thin plate theories for isotropic plates. Xu [371] presented
verse normal stresses. three-dimensional exact solutions for the free vibration of lami-
Zenkour and Youssif [348] presented generalized mixed varia- nated transversely isotropic circular, annular and sectorial plates
tional formulation for the vibration analysis of symmetric lami- with unusual boundary conditions using a new state space tech-
nated composite plates of various boundary conditions. The nique. Hashemi et al. [131] determined exact solution for the free
simple and mixed variational formulations to develop both the vibration analysis of plates based on third-order shear deformation
analytical and numerical solutions for anisotropic elastic plates plate. Wu et al. [372] proposed a novel Bessel function method to
based on Reissner–Mindlin’s thick plate theory has been presented obtain the exact solutions for the free vibration analysis of rectan-
by Zenkour and Sheikh [349]. Yu [350] constructed a Reissner– gular thin plates with different boundary conditions. Saeidifar and
Mindlin theory for composite laminates without invoking ad hoc Ohadi [373] developed exact solution for investigating vibration of
kinematic assumptions using the variational-asymptotic method. non-uniform plate with time-dependent boundary conditions.
Instead of assuming a priori the distribution of three-dimensional Xing and Liu [374], Liu and Xing [375,376] developed new exact
displacements in terms of two-dimensional plate displacements solutions for the free vibration analysis of isotropic and orthotropic
as what is usually done in typical plate theories. Recently Demasi plates. Kashtalyan and Menshykova [377] and Li et al. [378]
[44–48] has presented a series of five research articles on mix plate reported a three-dimensional elasticity solution for functionally
theories based on generalized unified formulation. Demasi graded sandwich panels. Lim et al. [379] developed symplectic
[351,352] also used finite element method for the two-dimen- elasticity approach for exact free vibration solutions of rectangular
sional analysis modelling of laminated plates based on RMVT. Kirchhoff plates. Messina [380] presented the influence of different
Kim [353] proposed two enhanced plate theories for free vibration sets of edge–boundary conditions on the dynamics of freely vibrat-
analysis of laminated and sandwich plates via the mixed varia- ing isotropic and cross-ply multilayer laminated rectangular plates
tional formulation. To discuss the thickness locking mechanism, using three-dimensional theory of elasticity.
Carrera and Brischetto [354] have analyzed bending and vibration
problems for isotropic, orthotropic and multilayered, composite 1.14. The Displacement fields of several equivalent single layer plate
plates using classical, refined and mixed multilayered plate theo- theories
ries whereas Brischetto and Carrera [355] extended the unified for-
mulation and the Reissner’s Mixed Variational Theorem for Based on the literature reviewed in above section, the displace-
functionally graded plates. Ferreira et al. [286] have used the ment fields of several equivalent single layer plate theories avail-
RMVT together with the radial basis functions collocation for the able in the literature are compared in Table 1.
bending and free vibration analysis of laminated plates. Phoenix Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF) [27] is now well established
et al. [356] have used the RMVT for the thermal analysis of plates in the open literature for laminated composite beam, plates and
in which transverse stress assumptions are made in the framework shell analyses. Bending, buckling and vibration analyses can be
of RMVT and the resulting finite element describes a priori inter- performed within the framework of classical theories based on
laminar continuous transverse shear and normal stresses. Chinosi Principle of Virtual Displacement (PVD) or the mixed
184 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 1
Displacement fields of several equivalent single layer plate theories.

Theory Year Displacement field No. of unknowns


Kirchhoff [6] 1850 u ¼ u0 ðx; y; tÞ  z @w
@x ; v ¼ v 0 ðx; y; tÞ  z @w
@y ; w ¼ w0 03
Mindlin [7] 1951 u ¼ u0  z/; v ¼ v 0  zw; w ¼ w0 05

2
h  i
2
Ambartsumian [60] 1958 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ 2z h4  z3 / 05
h 2 i
2
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ 2z h4  z3 w
w ¼ w0

h  i
5 4z2
Kruszewski [61], Panc [62] Reissner [63] 1949, 1975, 1975 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ 4
z 1  3h 2 / 05
h  i
4z2
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ 5
4
z 1  3h2
w
w ¼ w0

h  2  i
Reddy [64] 1984 u ¼ u0 þ z /  43 hz / þ @w @x
0
05
h   i
v ¼ v 0 þ z w  43 hz 2 w þ @w@y0
w ¼ w0

Kant and Manjunatha [381] 1988 u ¼ u0 þ zhx þ z2 u0 þ z3 hx 12


v ¼ v 0 þ zhy þ z2 v 0 þ z3 hy
w ¼ w0 þ zhz þ z2 w0 þ z3 hz

Pandya and Kant [382] 1988 u ¼ u0 þ zhx þ z2 u0 þ z3 hx 09


v ¼ v 0 þ zhy þ z2 v 0 þ z3 hy
w ¼ w0

Levy [73], Stein [74], Touratier [75] 1877, 1986, 1991 u ¼ u0  z @w


@x
þ ph sin phz / 05
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ ph sin phz w
w ¼ w0

   
Soldatos [93] 1992 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ z cosh 12  h sinh hz / 05
 1  
v ¼ v 0  z @y þ z cosh 2  h sinh hz w
@w

w ¼ w0

Shimpi et al. [76] 2003 u ¼ u0  z @w


@x
þ sin phz / 06
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ sin phz w
w ¼ w0 þ cos pz n
h

h   z 3 i
Ray [66] 2003 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ k1x 3 z
2 h
2 h
Qx 05
h   z 3 i
v ¼ v0  z @w
@y
þ 1
ky
3 z
2 h
 2 h Qy
w ¼ w0

Ferreira et al. [87] 2005 u ¼ u0  z @w


@x
þ sin phz / 05
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ sin phz w
w ¼ w0

Shimpi et al. [110] 2006 u ¼ u0  z @w b


v ¼ v 0  z @w w ¼ wb þ ws
s 04
@x ; @y ;
Shimpi et al. [110] 2006 u ¼ u0  z @/ v h¼ v 0  z@/ w ¼ w0 04
@x ; ;
 i
@y
2
Shimpi and Patel [114] 2006 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b
 z  14 þ 53 hz @ws
@x 04
h  i
5 z 2 @ws
v ¼ v 0  z @y  z  4 þ 3 h
@ws 1
@y
w ¼ wb þ ws

   
Akavci [96] 2008 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ 32p h tanh hz  z sec2 h 12 / 05
 z  
v ¼ v 0  z @y þ 2 h tanh h  z sec h 12 w
@w 3p 2

w ¼ w0

h     i
2
Akavci [96] 2008 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ zsech phz2  zsech p4 1  p2 tanh p4 / 05
h     i
2
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ zsech phz2  zsech p4 1  p2 tanh p4 w
w ¼ w0
h  i
2
Karama et al. [106] 2009 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ z exp 2 hz / 05
h  i
2
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ z exp 2 hz w
w ¼ w0
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 185

Table 1 (continued)

Theory Year Displacement field No. of unknowns

2 ðz=hÞ2
Aydogdu [109] 2009 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ zm ln m / 05
2 ðz=hÞ2
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ zm ln m w
w ¼ w0

Ghugal and Sayyad [80] 2010 u ¼ u0  z @w


@x
þ ph sin phz / 06
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ ph sin phz w
w ¼ w0 þ ph cos phz n

2
Mantari et al. [91] 2011 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ zm2 ðz=hÞ / 05
2 ðz=hÞ2
v ¼ v0  z @w
@y
þ zm w
w ¼ w0

h i
ðh=pÞ sinhðpz=hÞz @ws
Meiche et al.[98] 2011 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b
 coshðp=2Þ1 @x 04
h i
ðh=pÞ sinhðpz=hÞz @ws
v ¼ v 0  z @w@ys
 coshðp=2Þ1 @y
w ¼ wb þ ws

2n1 n  
Xiang et al. [119] 2011 u ¼ u0 þ z/x  1n h
z /x þ @w
@x 05
   
n1
v ¼ v 0 þ z/y  1n 2h zn /y þ @w
@y
w ¼ w0

 
Neves et al. [85] 2011 u ¼ u0 þ zu1 þ sin phz uz 09
 
v ¼ v 0 þ zv 1 þ sin phz v z
2
w ¼ w0 þ zw1 þ z w2

   pz 
Mantari et al. [89] 2012 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ sin phz em cosð h Þ þ mhpz / 05
   p z 
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ sin phz em cosð h Þ þ mhpz w
w ¼ w0

  
Mantari et al. [90] 2012 u ¼ u0  z @w þ tanðmzÞ  mz sec2 mh / 05
@x
  2 
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ tanðmzÞ  mz sec2 mh2
w
w ¼ w0

h    i
2
Daouadji et al. [100] 2012 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b
 z 1 þ 32p sech ð12Þ  32p h tanh hz @w @x
s
04
h    z i @w
2 1
v ¼ v 0  z @y  z 1 þ 2 sech 2  2 h tanh h @ys
@ws 3p 3p

w ¼ wb þ ws

 
Neves et al. [104] 2012 u ¼ u0 þ zu1 þ sinh phz uz 09
 
v ¼ v 0 þ zv 1 þ sinh phz v z
2
w ¼ w0 þ zw1 þ z w2

 
4z3 4z3
Thai et al. [201] 2012 u ¼ u0  z  3h 2 bx 
3h2 x
/ 07
 
4z3 4z3
v ¼ v 0  z  3h2 by  3h2 /y
w ¼ w0

3  
Zenkour [79] 2013 u ¼ u0  z @w þ h3 50b h
sin phz @/ 04
@x ð109 hbþ41Þ p @x
3  
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ h3 50a35 aþ1 p
ð100 4Þ
h
sin phz @/
@y
  h
w ¼ w0 þ cos phz /

 
Thai and Vo [88] 2013 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b
 z  ph sin phz @w s
04
  @x
v ¼ v 0  z @w@ys  z  ph sin phz @w@ys
w ¼ wb þ ws
   
Bessaim et al. [99] 2013 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b
 z  h sinh hz þ z cosh 12 @w s
05
 z   @x
v ¼ v 0  z @y  z  h sinh h þ z cosh 12 @w@ys
@ws

   
w ¼ wb þ ws þ cosh hz  cosh 12 /

(continued on next page)


186 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 1 (continued)

Theory Year Displacement field No. of unknowns

h      i
2
Daouadji et al. [102] 2013 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b
 z 1  sech phz2 þ zsech p4 1  p2 tanh p4 @w @x
s
04
h        i
2
v ¼ v 0  z @w@ys  z 1  sech phz2 þ zsech p4 1  p2 tanh p4 @w@ys
w ¼ wb þ ws

Grover et al. [103] 2013 1   05


u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ sinh rzh  z p2rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi /
h r 2 þ4

1  
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ sinh rzh  z p2rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 h
ffi w
r þ4
w ¼ w0

h   i
3
Zenkour [105] 2013 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
þ h sinh hz  43 hz 2 cosh 12 @/ @x 04
h   i
3
v ¼ v 0  z @w
@y
þ h sinh hz  43 hz 2 cosh 12 @/ @y
h  1i
1 2
w ¼ w0 þ 12 cosh hz  4z
h2
cosh 2
/

3
Thai and Kim [125] 2013 u ¼ u0  z @w
@x
b 4z
 3h 2
@ws
@x 04
4z3
v ¼ v0  z @w
@y
s
 3h2 @ws
@y
w ¼ wb þ ws

theories/models based on Reissner’s Mixed Variational


Theorem (RMVT). The two dimensional theories of layered struc-
tures are developed by making assumptions in the thickness direc-
tion z. Displacements uðux ; uy ; uz Þ and transverse stresses
rn ðsxz ; syz ; szz Þ are the variables expanded. Such expansions are
made according to the following formulas:

u ¼ F t ut þ F b ub þ F r ur ¼ F s us ; s ¼ t; b; r; r ¼ 2; . . . ; N
rn ¼ F t rnt þ F b rnb þ F r rnr ¼ F s rns ; s ¼ t; b; r; r ¼ 2; . . . ; N
where F t ; F b and F r are the base functions used for z expansion; the
first two polynomials are related to the linear part of such expan-
sions, while F r introduces the N 1 higher order terms (power of
z and Legendre polynomials) i.e, F r ¼ zr . As discussed in [27], trans- Fig. 1. Plate geometry and coordinate system.
verse stresses demand a Legendre layer-wise expansion in thick-
ness coordinate, whereas both Taylor and Legendre expansions
could be used for the displacement unknowns.
The thickness assumptions made in above formulas permits one 2.1. Assumptions made in mathematical formulation of proposed
to develop a large variety of two-dimensional theories. Depending theory
on the variational statement used (PVD or RMVT), the description
of variables (equivalent single layer or layer-wise), the order of the Assumptions of the proposed trigonometric shear and normal
expansion of the plate thickness coordinate N, a number of two-di- deformation theory are as follows:
mensional theories can be constructed. These theories are able to
cover a large part of the known classical and refined modelling of 1. The displacement components u and v are the displacements in
laminated plates. Thus the most of the reviewed theories as well x and y-directions and each consists of extension, bending and
as the displacement models quoted in the Table 1 can be viewed shear components
as particular cases of the Carrera Unified Formulation. The CUF u ¼ u0 þ ub þ us ; v ¼ v0 þ vb þ vs ð1Þ
method can be easily employed to obtain the governing equations
and the boundary conditions of the various theories reviewed
within the framework of PVD and/or RMVT. (a) u0 and v 0 are the extension components in the x and y-di-
rections respectively.
(b) The bending components ub and v b are assumed to be sim-
2. Mathematical formulation of trigonometric shear and ilar to the displacements given by the classical laminated
normal deformation theory plate theory.
@w @w
Consider a solid rectangular plate of the length ‘a’, width ‘b’, ub ¼ z ; v b ¼ z ð2Þ
@x @y
thickness ‘h’ and origin of coordinate system ‘o’ as shown in
Fig. 1. The plate is made up of orthotropic composite material. A (c) Shear components us and v s are assumed to be sinusoidal in
transverse load qðx; yÞ is applied on the upper surface of the plate nature with respect to thickness coordinate, such that the
ði:e: z ¼ h=2Þ. maximum shear stress occurs at neutral plane.
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 187

8 k 9 2 38 9
h pz h pz > rx > Q k11 Q k12 Q k13 0 0 0 k
> ex >
us ¼ sin /; vs ¼ sin w ð3Þ >
> >
> 6 7>> >
>
p h p h > k
>
> ry >
>
> 6 Qk Q k22 Q k23 7>> ek >>
>
> >
> 6 12 0 0 0 7>>
> y >
>
>
>
> >
> 6 k 7> >
2. The transverse displacement w in z direction is assumed to be a < rk = 6Q Q k23 Q k33 0 0 0
>
7 < ek >=
z 6 13 7 z
function of coordinates x; y and z coordinates. ¼ 6 7 ð9Þ
>
>
> s k
xy
>
>
>
6 0
6 0 0 Q k66 0 0 7>
7>
k >
> cxy >
>
>
> >
> 6 7>> k > >
>
> s k >> 6 7>> c >
>
h pz >
> yz >
> 4 0 0 0 0 Q k44 0 5>>
> yz >
>
w ¼ wðx; yÞ þ cos n ð4Þ >
: k > ; : k > ;
p h szx 0 0 0 0 0 Q k55 czx
h i
3. The plate is subjected to transverse load only. where frk g; fek g and Q kij are the stress vector, strain vector and
transformed rigidity matrix, respectively. The elements of trans-
2.2. The displacement field, strains, stresses and stress resultants h i
formed rigidity matrix Q kij are taken from Reddy [53].
2.2.1. The displacement field
Based upon the before mentioned assumptions, the displace- 2.2.4. Stress resultants
ment field of the trigonometric shear and normal deformation the- The force and moment resultants acting on the cross-section of
ory takes the following form. the laminate are defined as:

@w h pz N Z
X hkþ1 N Z
X hkþ1
uðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ u0  z þ sin /ðx; y; tÞ; Nx ¼ rkx dz; Ny ¼ rky dz;
@x p h hk hk
k¼1 k¼1
@w h pz N Z
v ðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ v 0  z þ sin wðx; y; tÞ X hkþ1
@y p h Nxy ¼ skxy dz ð10Þ
h pz k¼1 hk
wðx; y; z; tÞ ¼ wðx; y; tÞ þ cos nðx; y; tÞ ð5Þ N Z N Z
p h X hkþ1 X hkþ1
Mcx ¼ rkx z dz; Mcy ¼ rky z dz;
k¼1 hk k¼1 hk
Here /; w and n represent rotations of the plate at neutral surface.
N Z
X hkþ1
Mcxy ¼ skxy z dz ð11Þ
2.2.2. Strains hk
k¼1
The normal and shear strains associated with the displacement N Z N Z
X hkþ1 X hkþ1
field are obtained using following relations: Msx ¼ rkx f ðzÞ dz; Msy ¼ rky f ðzÞ dz;
k¼1 hk k¼1 hk
@u @v @w N Z
X hkþ1
ex ¼ ; ey ¼ ; ez ¼
Msxy ¼ skxy f ðzÞ dz ð12Þ
@x @y @z
hk
@u @ v @u @w @ v @w k¼1
cxy ¼ þ ; cxz ¼ þ ; cyz ¼ þ ð6Þ N Z
X hkþ1 N Z
X hkþ1
@y @x @z @x @z @y
V sxz ¼ skxz f 0 ðzÞ dz; V syz ¼ skyz f 0 ðzÞ dz;
k¼1 hk k¼1 hk
Using Eqs. (5) and (6) strains obtained are as follows: N Z
X hkþ1

8 9 8 0 9 8 9 8 9 V szz ¼ rkzz g 0 ðzÞ dz ð13Þ


< ex = < ex =
hk
> > > > < kx >
> < gx >
> k¼1
= =
ey ¼ e0y þ z ky þ f ðzÞ gy ; @M x @M xy @My @Mxy
> Vx ¼ þ2 ; Vy ¼ þ2 ð14Þ
:c > ; > : 0 > ; >
: >
; >
:g > ; @x @y @y @x
xy cxy kxy xy
( ) ( ) ( )
czx 0 c0zx bzx By substituting Eq. (9) into Eqs. (10)–(14) and integrating through
¼ f ðzÞ 0 þ gðzÞ ; and fez g ¼ g 0 ðzÞn ð7Þ
cyz cyz byz the thickness of the plate, the stress resultants are given as follows:
p
Nx ¼ A11 e0x þ B11 kx þ As11 gx þ A12 e0y þ B12 ky þ As12 gy  As13 n
where h
p
Ny ¼ A12 e0x þ B12 kx þ As12 gx þ A22 e0y þ B22 ky þ As22 gy  As23 n
@u0 @v 0 @u @v @2w h
e0
x ¼ ; e 0
y ¼ ; c ¼ 0þ 0;
0
xy kx ¼  2 ; Nxy ¼ A66 c0xy þ B66 kxy þ As66 gxy
@x @y @y @x @x
2 2 ð15Þ
@ w @ w
ky ¼  ; kxy ¼ 2
@y2 @x@y
@/ @w @/ @w p
gx ¼ ; gy ¼ ; gxy ¼ þ c0zx ¼ /; c0yz ¼ w; M cx ¼ B11 e0x þ D11 kx þ Bs11 gx þ B12 e0y þ D12 ky þ Bs12 gy  Bs13 n
@x @y @y @x h
p
@n @n M cy ¼ B12 e0x þ D12 kx þ Bs12 gx þ B22 e0y þ D22 ky þ Bs22 gy  Bs23 n
bzx ¼ ; byz ¼ ; h
@x @y
M cxy ¼ B66 0xy
c þ D66 kxy þ Bs66 gxy
h pz h pz 0 pz
f ðzÞ ¼ sin ; gðzÞ ¼ cos ; f ðzÞ ¼ cos ; ð16Þ
p h p h h
0 pz
g ðzÞ ¼  sin ð8Þ p
h M sx ¼ As11 e0x þ Bs11 kx þ Ass11 gx þ As12 e0y þ Bs12 ky þ Ass12 gy  Ass13 n
h
p
M sy ¼ As12 e0x þ Bs12 kx þ Ass12 gx þ As22 e0y þ Bs22 ky þ Ass22 gy  Ass23 n
2.2.3. Stresses h
Since the laminate is made of several orthotropic layers, the M sxy ¼ As66 c0xy þ Bs66 kxy þ Ass66 gxy
th
stress–strain relations in the k layer are given as: ð17Þ
188 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201


h h
V sxz ¼ Acc55 bzx þ c0zx ; V syz ¼ Acc44 byz þ c0yz at x ¼ 0 and x ¼ a at y ¼ 0 and y ¼ b
p p
p Either Nx ¼ 0 or u0 ¼ 0 Either N xy ¼ 0 or u0 ¼ 0
V szz ¼ As13 e0x þ Bs13 kx þ Ass13 gx þ As23 e0y þ Bs23 ky þ Ass23 gy  Ass33 n
h Either N xy ¼ 0 or v 0 ¼ 0 Either Ny ¼ 0 or v 0 ¼ 0
ð18Þ Either Vx ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0 Either Vy ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0
where Aij ; Bij ; Dij ; Asij ; Bsij ; Assij ; Accij are the plate stiffnesses, defined Either M cx ¼ 0 or @w=@x ¼ 0 Either M cy ¼ 0 or @w=@y ¼ 0
as follows: Either M sx ¼ 0 or / ¼ 0 Either M sxy ¼ 0 or / ¼ 0
N Z
Either M sxy ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0 Either M sy ¼ 0 or w ¼ 0
X hkþ1 
f Aij Bij Dij g ¼ Q kij 1 z z2 dz; ði; j ¼ 1; 2; 3; 6Þ; Either V sxz ¼ 0 or n ¼ 0 Either V syz ¼ 0 or n ¼ 0
k¼1 hk

N Z
X hkþ1
h pz
f Asij Bsij g ¼ Q kij sin f 1 z gdz; ði; j ¼ 1; 2; 3; 6Þ;
k¼1 hk p h The governing equations in-terms of unknown variables are
N Z
X hkþ1 2 obtained as follows:
h 2 pz
fAssij g ¼ Q kij sin dz; ði; j ¼ 1; 2; 3; 6Þ; @ 2 u0 @ 2 u0 @2v 0 @3w
k¼1 hk p2 h du0 :  A11 2
 A66 2
 ðA12 þ A66 Þ þ B11 3
@x @y @x@y @x
N Z
X hkþ1
pz @3w @2/ @2/
fAccij g ¼ Q kij cos2 dz; ði; j ¼ 4; 5Þ þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þ  As11 2  As66 2
k¼1 hk h @x@y2 @x @y
ð19Þ @2w p @n @ 2 u0
 ðAs12 þ As66 Þ þ As13 þ I1 2
@x@y h @x @t
3. Governing equations of equilibrium and boundary conditions @3w @2/
 I2 2
þ I3 2 ¼ 0 ð22Þ
for trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory @x@t @t
@ 2 u0 @2v 0 @2v 0 @3w
The governing equations and boundary conditions of the pro- dv 0 : ðA12 þ A66 Þ  A66 2
 A22 2
þ B22 3
@x@y @x @y @y
posed theory are derived using dynamic version of principle of vir-
tual work. The principle of virtual work is applied in the following @3w @2/ @2w
þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þ 2
 ðAs12 þ As66 Þ  As66 2
analytical form: @x @y @x@y @x
N Z
X hkþ1 Z b Z a h @2w p @n @2v 0 @3w @2w
k k k k k
 As22 þ As23 þ I1 2
 I2 2
þ I3 2 ¼ 0
r e þr e þr e þs
xd x yd y zd z c þs
yz d yz c
xz d zx
@y 2 h @y @t @y@t @t
k¼1 hk 0 0
Z Z ð23Þ
i b a
þs k
c dx dy dz  qðx; yÞ dw dx dy !
xy d xy
0 0 @ 3 u0 @ 3 u0 @3v 0 @3v 0
" # dw :  B11  ðB þ 2B Þ þ  B
N Z
X Z Z @x3
12 66
@x@y2 @x2 @y
22
@y3
hkþ1 b a
@2u @2v @2w
þ qðkÞ 2
du þ 2 dv þ 2 dw dx dy dz ¼ 0
k¼1 hk 0 0 @t @t @t @4w @4w @4w @3/
þ D11 4
þ D22 4 þ ð2D12 þ 4D66 Þ 2 2  Bs11 3
ð20Þ @x @y @x @y @x
!
3 3 3
Substituting expressions for stresses and virtual strains into the @ / @ w @ w p @2n
 ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þ þ  Bs22 3 þ Bs13 2
principle of virtual work and integrating Eq. (20) by parts and col- @x@y2 @x2 @y @y h @x
! !
lecting the coefficients of du0 ; dv 0 ; dw; d/; dw and dn, the following
p @2n @ 3 u0 @3v 0 @4w @4w
governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained in- þ Bs23 2 þ I2 þ  I 4 þ
h @y @x@t 2 @y@t 2 @x2 @t 2 @y2 @t 2
terms of stress resultants: !
@2w @3/ @3w
þ I1 2 þ I 5 þ ¼ qðx; yÞ ð24Þ
@Nx @Nxy @ 2 u0 @3w @2/ @t @x@t 2
@y@t 2
du0 : þ ¼ I1 2  I2 þ I 3
@x @y @t @x@t2 @t 2
@Nxy @Ny @2v 0 @3w @2w @ 2 u0 @ 2 u0 @2v 0 @3w
dv 0 : þ ¼ I1  I2 þ I3 2 d/ : As11 2
 As66 2
 ðAs12 þ As66 Þ þ Bs11 3
@x @y @t 2
@y@t 2
@t @x @y @x@y @x
@ 2 Mx @ 2 M xy @ 2 M y @3w @2/ @2/
dw : þ2 þ þ qðx; yÞ þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þ  Ass11  Ass66
@x 2 @x@y @y2 @x@y2 @x2 @y2
! !
@ 3 u0 @3v 0 @4w @4w @2w p @n
¼ I2 þ  I4 þ þ Acc55 /  ðAss12 þ Ass66 Þ þ Ass13
@x@t 2 @y@t2 @x2 @t 2 @y2 @t 2 @x@y h @x
! ð21Þ h @n @ 2 u0 @3w @2/
@2w @3/ @3w þ Acc55 þ I3  I5 þ I7 2 ¼ 0 ð25Þ
þ I 1 2 þ I5 þ p @x @t 2
@x@t 2
@t
@t @x@t 2 @y@t2
s @ 2 u0 @2v 0 @2v 0 @3w
@Msx @M xy @ 2 u0 @3w @2/ dw : ðAs12 þ As66 Þ  As66  As22 þ Bs22 3
d/ : þ  V sxz ¼ I3 2  I5 2
þ I7 2 @x@y @x 2 @y 2 @y
@x @y @t @x@t @t
@3w @2/ @2w
@Msy @Msxy @ 2
v 0 @ 3
w @2w þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þ  ðAss12 þ Ass66 Þ  Ass66 2
dw : þ  V syz ¼ I3  I 5 þ I 7
2
@x @y @x@y @x
@y @x @t 2 @y@t2 @t2
s @2w p @n h @n @2v 0
@V sxz @V yz p s @2w @2n  Ass22 þ Acc44 w þ Ass23 þ Acc44 þ I3
dn : þ  V zz ¼ I6 2 þ I8 2 @y2 h @y p @y @t 2
@x @y h @t @t
@3w @2w
 I5 2
þ I7 2 ¼ 0 ð26Þ
The boundary conditions along the edges are of the following form: @y@t @t
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 189

p @u0 p @v 0 p @2w p @2w where [K], [M], fDg and x are stiffness matrix, mass matrix, ampli-
dn :  As13  As23 þ Bs13 2 þ Bs23 2 tude vector and natural frequencies, respectively. The elements of
h @x h @y h @x h @y
stiffness matrix [K] are defined as follows:
p @/ h @/ p @w h @w
 Ass13  Acc55  Ass23  Acc44
h @x p @x h @y p @y
K 11 ¼ A11 a2 þ A66 b2 ; K 12 ¼ ðA12 þ A66 Þab;
2 2 2 2 2 2  
h @ n h @ n p @ w 2
@ n K 13 ¼  B11 a3 þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þab2
 Acc44  Acc55 2 þ 2 Ass33 n þ I6 2 þ I8 2 ¼ 0
p2 @y2 p2 @x h @t @t
ð27Þ
K 14 ¼ As11 a2 þ As66 b2 ; K 15 ¼ ðAs12 þ As66 Þab;
p
K 16 ¼ As13 a; K 21 ¼ K 12
4. Navier’s solution h

In this section Navier solution for the simply supported rectan-  


K 22 ¼ A66 a2 þ A22 b2 ; K 23 ¼  B22 b3 þ ðB12 þ 2B66 Þa2 b ;
gular plate is developed satisfying the following boundary
K 24 ¼ ðAs12 þ As66 Þab
conditions.
p
at x ¼ 0 : Nx ¼ v 0 ¼ w ¼ w ¼ n ¼ Mcx ¼ M sx ¼ 0 K 25 ¼ As66 a2 þ As22 b2 ; K 26 ¼ As23 b; K 31 ¼ K 13 ; K 32 ¼ K 23
h
at x ¼ a : Nx ¼ v 0 ¼ w ¼ w ¼ n ¼ M cx ¼ Msx ¼0
K 33 ¼ D11 a4 þ 2ðD12 þ 2D66 Þa2 b2 þ D22 b4 ;
at y ¼ 0 : N y ¼ u0 ¼ w ¼ / ¼ n ¼ Mcy ¼ M sy ¼0  
K 34 ¼  Bs11 a3 þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þab2
at y ¼ b : Ny ¼ u0 ¼ w ¼ / ¼ n ¼ M cy ¼ M sy ¼ 0 ð28Þ
 
Following the Navier solution procedure, the trigonometric forms of K 35 ¼  Bs22 b3 þ ðBs12 þ 2Bs66 Þa2 b ;
p p 
u0 ðx; yÞ; v 0 ðx; yÞ; wðx; yÞ; /ðx; yÞ; wðx; yÞ and nðx; yÞ that satisfies the K 36 ¼  Bs13 a2 þ Bs23 b2 ; K 41 ¼ K 14
boundary conditions exactly are given by: h h

X
1 X
1 X
1 X
1
u0 ðx; yÞ ¼ umn cos ax sin by; v 0 ðx; yÞ ¼ v mn sin ax cos by K 42 ¼ K 24 ; K 43 ¼ K 34 ; K 44 ¼ ðAss11 a2 þ Ass66 b2 þ Acc55 Þ;
m¼1 n¼1 m¼1 n¼1 K 45 ¼ ðAss12 þ Ass66 Þab
X
1 X
1 X
1 X
1
wðx; yÞ ¼ wmn sin ax sin by; /ðx; yÞ ¼ /mn cos ax sin by
p h
m¼1 n¼1 m¼1 n¼1 K 46 ¼ Ass13 þ Acc55 a; K 51 ¼ K 15 ; K 52 ¼ K 25 ;
X
1 X 1 X
1 X 1 h p
wðx; yÞ ¼ wmn sin ax cos by; nðx; yÞ ¼ nmn sin ax sin by K 53 ¼ K 35 ; K 54 ¼ K 45
m¼1 n¼1 m¼1 n¼1

ð29Þ
K 55 ¼ ðAss66 a2 þ Ass11 b2 þ Acc44 Þ;

where a ¼ mp=a; b ¼ np=b and umn ; v mn ; wmn ; /mn ; wmn ; nmn are the p h
K 56 ¼ Ass23 þ Acc44 b; K 61 ¼ K 16 ; K 62 ¼ K 26
unknown coefficients to be determined. Substituting this form of h p
solution and setting transverse load ðqÞ equal to zero into the gov-
erning Eqs. (22)–(27) yields a set of algebraic equations which can K 63 ¼ K 36 ; K 64 ¼ K 46 ; K 65 ¼ K 56 ;
!
be written in matrix form as follows: h
2
h
2
p2
2 2
K 66 ¼ Acc55 a þ Acc44 b þ Ass33 : ð32Þ
82 3 p2 p2 h
2

> K 11 K 12 K 13 K 14 K 15 K 16
>
>
>
>6 7 The elements of mass matrix [M] are given as follows:
>6 K 26 7
>6 K 21
>
>
K 22 K 23 K 24 K 25 7
>
>6 7
<6 K 31 K 32 K 33 K 34 K 35 K 36 7 mp
6 7 M11 ¼ I1 ; M 12 ¼ 0; M13 ¼ I2 ; M 14 ¼ I3 ;
6 7 a
>
>6 K 41 K 42 K 43 K 44 K 45 K 46 7
>
>6 7
>
>6 7 M15 ¼ 0; M 16 ¼ 0; M 21 ¼ M 12
>
>6K K 52 K 53 K 54 K 55 K 56 7
>
>4 51 5
>
:
K 61 K 62 K 63 K 64 K 65 K 66
2 398 9 8 9 np
M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 15 M 16 >> umn > > 0 > M22 ¼ I1 ; M 23 ¼ I2 ; M24 ¼ 0; M 25 ¼ I3 ;
>> > > > b
6 7>
>
>
>
> > >
> > >
>
6 M 21 M 22 M 23 M 24 M 25 M 26 7>>
>> v mn >
> >
>
>
>
> 0>>
> M26 ¼ 0; M 31 ¼ M 13 ; M32 ¼ M23
6 7>
>>
> >
> >
> >
>
6 7>
>>
> >
> >
> >
>
6 M 31 M 32 M 33 M 34 M 35 7
M 36 7=< wmn = < 0=
26
x 6 7 ¼ 2 2
6 M 41 M 42 M 43 M 44 M 45 M 46 7>> > > >
6 7>
>>
> /mn >> >0>
> > m p n2 p2 mp
6 7>
>>
>>
> > >
>
> > >
> >
> M33 ¼ I4 þ 2
þ I1 ; M34 ¼ I5 ;
6M M 52 M 53 M 54 M 55 7>
>
M 56 5>>
> >
> >
> >
> a2 b a
4 51
>> wmn >
>>
> > >
> >0> > np
;: >
; : > ; M35 ¼ I5 ; M 36 ¼ I6 ; M41 ¼ M14
M 61 M 62 M 63 M 64 M 65 M 66 nmn 0 b
ð30Þ
M 42 ¼ M 24 ; M43 ¼ M34 ; M 44 ¼ I7 ; M 45 ¼ 0;
In a compact form, Eq. (30) can be written as follows: ð33Þ
M 46 ¼ 0; M 55 ¼ I7 ; M 56 ¼ 0; M 66 ¼ I8
ð½K  x2 ½MÞfDg ¼ f0g ð31Þ where
190 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

X
N Z hkþ1 X
N Z hkþ1 shear and normal deformation theory in predicting the natural fre-
I1 ¼ qðkÞ dz; I2 ¼ qðkÞ zdz; quencies of simply supported laminated composite and sandwich
k¼1 hk k¼1 hk
X
N Z hkþ1 plates. The effects of aspect ratio ða=hÞ, modulus ratio ðE1 =E2 Þ and
ðkÞ h pz
I3 ¼ q sin dz number of layers ðNÞ on the natural frequencies are investigated.
k¼1 hk p h The natural frequencies obtained by using present theory are com-
XN Z hkþ1 X
N Z hkþ1
h pz pared with those existing in literature. The following material
I4 ¼ qðkÞ z2 dz; I5 ¼ qðkÞ z sin dz;
k¼1 hk k¼1 hk p h properties are used in the various illustrated examples.
X N Z hkþ1
h pz Material 1:
I6 ¼ qðkÞ cos dz
hk p h
k¼1
Z E1 E3 G12 G13 G23
X
N hkþ1 2
h pz ¼ open; ¼ 1; ¼ ¼ 0:6; ¼ 0:5;
I7 ¼ qðkÞ sin
2
dz; E2 E2 E2 E2 E2
k¼1 hk p2 h
l12 ¼ l13 ¼ l23 ¼ 0:25 and qðkÞ ¼ constant ð35Þ
X N Z hkþ1 2
ðkÞ h 2 pz
I8 ¼ q cos dz ð34Þ Material 2:
k¼1 hk p2 h
Q 22 Q 33 Q 12
The amplitude vector fDg is given by fDg ¼ fumn ; v mn ; wmn ; /mn ; ¼ 0:543103; ¼ 0:530172; ¼ 0:23319;
Q 11 Q 11 Q 11
wmn ; nmn gT .
Q 13 Q 23
¼ 0:010776; ¼ 0:098276;
5. Numerical examples
Q 11 Q 11
Q 44 Q 55 Q 66
In the preceding section, Navier solution procedure for the free
¼ 0:266810; ¼ 0:159914; ¼ 0:262931 and
Q 11 Q 11 Q 11
vibration analysis has been explained. In this section, various plate
problems are presented to prove the efficiency of the trigonometric qðkÞ ¼ constant ð36Þ

Table 2 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx
 mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of symmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; a=h ¼ 5Þ.

No. of Lamination scheme Source E1 /E2


layers
3 % Error 10 % Error 20 % Error 30 % Error 40 % Error
3 (0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6308 0.6270 3.2696 0.4415 3.7037 3.1484 3.9498 3.8720 4.1176 4.2552
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6286 0.7101 3.2679 0.4933 3.7011 3.2164 3.9456 3.9743 4.1150 4.3156
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6211 0.9934 3.2604 0.7216 3.6940 3.4021 3.9390 4.1349 4.1053 4.5412
Matsunaga [68] 2.6276 0.7479 3.2664 0.5389 3.6967 3.3315 3.9362 4.2030 4.0951 4.7784
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6285 0.7139 3.2678 0.4963 3.7005 3.2321 3.9438 4.0181 4.1074 4.4924
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6209 1.0009 3.2603 0.7247 3.6934 3.4178 3.9371 4.1811 4.1012 4.6365
Mindlin [7] 2.6258 0.8158 3.2793 0.1461 3.7110 2.9575 3.9541 3.7674 4.1158 4.2970
Kirchhoff [6] 2.9198 10.289 4.1264 25.647 5.4043 41.322 6.4336 56.577 7.3196 70.199
Noor [364] 2.6474 0.0000 3.2841 0.0000 3.8241 0.0000 4.1089 0.0000 4.3006 0.0000
4 (0°/90°/90°/0°) Present 2.6337 1.4555 3.3190 1.0627 3.8210 0.0811 4.1192 0.2531 4.3248 0.5580
Liew et al. [243] – – 3.3196 1.0810 3.8272 0.0811 4.1308 0.5354 4.342 0.9580
Xiang and Wang [292] – – 3.3684 2.5669 3.8684 1.1584 4.1664 1.4019 4.3752 1.7299
Xiang et al. [287] – – 3.3284 1.3489 3.8948 1.8488 4.2436 3.2808 4.4900 4.3992
Aydogdu [109] 2.6726 0.0000 3.2841 0.0000 3.8241 0.0000 4.1088 0.0000 4.3008 0.0000
Karama et al. [106] 2.6252 1.7736 3.3124 0.8617 3.8168 0.1909 4.1168 0.1947 4.3244 0.5487
Mantari et al. [91] 2.6260 1.7436 3.3144 0.9226 3.8208 0.0863 4.1220 0.3213 4.3304 0.6882
Phan and Reddy [385] 2.6238 1.8259 3.3087 0.7491 3.8105 0.3556 4.1088 0.0000 4.3148 0.3255
Noor [364] 2.6726 0.0000 3.2841 0.0000 3.8241 0.0000 4.1088 0.0000 4.3008 0.0000
5 (0°/90°/0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6445 0.5341 3.3846 0.7128 3.9500 0.7338 4.2879 0.6050 4.5181 0.4254
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6416 0.6432 3.3802 0.8419 3.9439 0.8871 4.2809 0.7673 4.5106 0.5906
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6340 0.9290 3.3723 1.0737 3.9365 1.0731 4.2743 0.9203 4.5047 0.7207
Matsunaga [68] 2.6384 0.7635 3.3621 1.3729 3.9012 1.9602 4.2156 2.2809 4.4257 2.4618
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6413 0.6545 3.3753 0.9857 3.9298 1.2415 4.2575 1.3097 4.4783 1.3025
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6337 0.9403 3.3674 1.2174 3.9225 1.4249 4.2508 1.4650 4.4722 1.4369
Zhen et al. (FEM) [168] 2.6308 1.0494 3.3540 1.6105 3.8932 2.1612 4.2081 2.4548 4.4187 2.6160
Mindlin [7] 2.6337 0.9403 3.3680 1.1998 3.9306 1.2214 4.2714 0.9875 4.5068 0.6744
Kirchhoff [6] 2.9198 9.8206 4.1264 21.047 5.4043 35.813 6.4336 49.133 7.3196 61.317
Noor [364] 2.6587 0.0000 3.4089 0.0000 3.9792 0.0000 4.3140 0.0000 4.5374 0.0000
7 (0°/90°/0°/90°/0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6669 0.1089 3.4498 0.1917 4.0928 0.9397 4.4117 0.2104 4.6581 0.2099
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6460 0.6757 3.4202 0.6680 4.0310 0.5845 4.4008 0.4569 4.6533 0.3128
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6384 0.9610 3.4125 0.8916 4.0240 0.7571 4.3947 0.5949 4.6480 0.4263
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6457 0.6869 3.4169 0.7638 4.0218 0.8114 4.3857 0.7985 4.6324 0.7605
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6381 0.9722 3.4091 0.9904 4.0147 0.9865 4.3795 0.9387 4.6270 0.8762
Mindlin [7] 2.6376 0.9910 3.4079 1.0252 4.0147 0.9865 4.3818 0.8867 4.6315 0.7798
Kirchhoff [6] 2.9198 9.6021 4.1264 19.842 5.4043 33.284 6.4336 45.523 7.3190 56.794
Noor [364] 2.6640 0.0000 3.4432 0.0000 4.0547 0.0000 4.4210 0.0000 4.6679 0.0000
9 (0°/90°/0°/90°/0°/90°/0°/90°/0°) Present 2.6501 0.5218 3.4269 0.4734 4.0423 0.3058 4.4173 0.0837 4.6751 0.1542
Khdeir and Librescu [387] 2.6375 0.9947 3.4079 1.0252 4.0138 1.0087 4.3788 0.9545 4.6260 0.8976
Franco et al. [388] 2.6466 0.6532 3.4253 0.5199 4.0398 0.3675 4.4097 0.2556 4.6601 0.1671
Matsunaga [68] 2.6452 0.7057 3.4143 0.8393 4.0157 0.9618 4.3762 1.0133 4.6198 1.0304
Zhen et al. (FEM) [168] 2.6361 1.0473 3.4029 1.1704 4.0020 1.2997 4.3628 1.3164 4.6063 1.3197
Noor [364] 2.6640 0.0000 3.4432 0.0000 4.0547 0.0000 4.4210 0.0000 4.6679 0.0000
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 191

Material 3: in table caption. The frequencies are obtained for the various mod-
6 6 ular ratios ðE1 =E2 Þ.
E1 ¼ 19  10 psi ð131 GPaÞ; E2 ¼ 1:5  10 psi ð10:34 GPaÞ; The comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies
E2 ¼ E3 obtained using present theory with other theories and finite ele-
G12 ¼ G23 ¼ 1  106 psi ð6:895 GPaÞ; ment formulation for various modular ratios is shown in Table 2.
The results are obtained for a=h ¼ 5. Results are presented for
G13 ¼ 0:9  106 psi ð6:205 GPaÞ;
the fundamental flexural mode ðm ¼ n ¼ 1Þ. Examination of
l12 ¼ l13 ¼ 0:22; l23 ¼ 0:49 and Table 2 reveals that the present theory predicts most accurate
qf ¼ 0:057lb=in3 ð1627 kg=m3 Þ ð37Þ results for natural frequencies as compared to those presented by
other researchers when plate is symmetrically laminated. The per-
Material 4: centage errors predicted by present theory for three layered (0°/
E1 ¼ E2 ¼ E3 ¼ 2G ¼ 1000psi ð0:00689 GPaÞ; 90°/0°) laminated composite plate when E1 =E2 ¼ 3, 10, 20, 30, 40
are 0.6270, 0.4415, 3.1484, 3.8720, 4.2552 respectively,
G12 ¼ G13 ¼ G23 ¼ 500psi ð0:00345 GPaÞ;
whereas, model 2 of Kant and Swaminathan [136,137] gives the
l12 ¼ l13 ¼ l23 ¼ 0; and qc ¼ 0:03403lb=in3 ð97 kg=m3 Þ ð38Þ maximum percentage error for this lamination scheme. Similar
kind of trend is observed for other modular ratios and lamination
Various plate examples considered are as follows:
scheme. For four layered (0°/90°/90°/0°) plate Aydogdu [109] pre-
dicts exact values of natural frequencies for all E1 =E2 ratios. Fig. 2
1. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported symmetric cross-
shows that natural frequencies of symmetrically laminated com-
ply laminated composite square plates.
posite plate are increased with respect to increase in modular
2. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported antisymmetric
ratios and number of layers. Table 3 shows the comparison of nat-
cross-ply laminated composite square plates.
ural frequencies for E1 /E2 ¼ 40 and varying a=h ratio. Observation
3. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported three layered
of Table 3 reveals that the natural frequencies are decreased with
(0°/core/0°) symmetric sandwich square plates.
increase in a=h ratio i.e., when plate is thick; the values of frequen-
4. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported five layered (0°/
cies are higher and when plate is thin, those are lower. Fig. 3 shows
90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric sandwich square plates.
the variation of natural frequencies of three layered (0°/90°/0°) and
four layered (0°/90°/90°/0°) laminated composite plates for various
Numerical results of these problems are presented in Tables 2–8
a=h ratios from which it is observed that the natural frequencies
and graphically shown in Figs. 2–5 followed by subsequent
predicted by present theory and all other theories are almost same
discussions.
for a=h ¼ 100.
5.1. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported symmetric cross-ply
5.2. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported antisymmetric cross-
laminated composite square plates
ply laminated composite square plates
In this problem, the free vibration analysis of a simply sup-
In this problem, the anti-symmetrically cross-ply laminated
ported multilayered symmetric cross-ply laminated composite
composite square plate made up of Material 1 is considered.
square plate is presented. Number of layers is varied from 3 to 9.
Number of layers is varied from 2 to 10. All the layers have equal
All the individual layers have equal thickness. The thickness of
thickness. The non-dimensional form of frequencies is taken as
plate is measured from top to bottom. The plate is made up of pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Material 1. The non-dimensional form of frequencies is presented x
 mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 and values are obtained for the various

Table 3 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx
 mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of symmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; E1 =E2 ¼ 40Þ.

No. of layers Lamination scheme Source a=h


2 4 5 10 12.5 20 25 50 100
3 (0°/90°/0°) Present 13.5346 5.5541 4.1176 1.4720 1.0155 0.4380 0.2880 0.0748 0.0189
Reddy [64] 13.0125 – 4.1160 1.4766 – – – – –
Xiang et al. [287] 13.8325 – 4.2792 1.4753 – – – – –
Matsunaga [68] 13.9890 – 4.3660 1.5300 – – – – –
Liew et al. [243] 13.0125 – 4.1160 1.4767 – – – – 0.0188
Ferreira [280] 13.0275 – 4.1228 1.4804 – – – – 0.0184
4 (0°/90°/90°/0°) Present 13.8453 5.8423 4.3248 1.5130 1.0364 0.4422 0.2899 0.0749 0.0189
Xiang et al. [287] – 6.1337 – 1.5059 – 0.4225 – – –
Aydogdu [109] – – 4.2912 1.5062 – 0.4406 – 0.0746 0.0186
Zhen and Wanji [166] 13.5750 5.7754 4.2917 1.5166 – 0.4451 0.2918 0.0756 0.0192
Akhras and Li [386] – 5.8262 – 1.5103 – 0.4410 – – –
Ray [66] – 5.6038 – 1.5061 – 0.4410 – – 0.0188
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 13.5083 5.8044 – 1.5105 – 0.4412 – 0.0747 0.0188
Pandya and Kant [382] 13.4823 5.7944 – 1.5095 – 0.4411 – 0.0747 0.0188
Matsunaga [68] 13.3027 5.7492 4.2750 1.5072 1.0327 0.4409 0.2888 0.0746 0.0188
Wu et al. [389] 13.2925 5.7456 4.2728 1.5069 1.0325 0.4409 0.2888 0.0746 0.0188
Cho et al. [390] 14.8075 – 4.2692 1.5066 – 0.4383 0.2888 0.0746 0.0188
Senthilnathan et al. [383] 15.0043 6.3770 – 1.5941 – 0.4498 – 0.0750 0.0189
Phan and Reddy [385] 13.9400 5.9356 4.3956 1.5270 1.0416 0.4417 0.2888 0.0704 0.0187
Reddy [64] 13.7663 5.8272 – 1.5107 – 0.4411 – 0.0747 0.0188
Whitney and Pagano [384] 13.7495 5.8718 – 1.5143 – 0.4415 – 0.0747 0.0188
Mindlin [7] 13.7300 5.8556 4.3280 1.5083 1.0316 0.4395 0.2878 0.0743 0.0187
Kirchhoff [6] 39.5750 11.1918 7.2860 1.8652 1.1972 0.4691 0.3004 0.0752 0.0188
192 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 4 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx
 mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of antisymmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; a=h ¼ 5Þ.

No. of layers Lamination scheme Source E1 =E2


3 % Error 10 % Error 20 % Error 30 % Error 40 % Error
2 (0°/90°)1 Present 2.4967 0.2557 2.8060 0.4367 3.1415 2.3357 3.4181 4.5131 3.6543 6.6949
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.4936 0.3795 2.8011 0.2613 3.1331 2.0620 3.4060 4.1431 3.6384 6.2307
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.4868 0.6512 2.7955 0.0608 3.1284 1.9089 3.4020 4.0208 3.6348 6.1255
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.4934 0.3875 2.7896 0.1503 3.0856 0.5147 3.3110 1.2383 3.4909 1.9241
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.4626 1.6180 2.7745 0.6908 3.0753 0.1792 3.3028 0.9876 3.4832 1.6993
Reddy [64] 2.4867 0.6552 2.7954 0.0573 3.1284 1.9089 3.4020 4.0208 3.6348 6.1255
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.4867 0.6552 2.7954 0.0573 3.1284 1.9089 3.4020 4.0208 3.6348 6.1255
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.4866 0.6592 2.7934 0.0143 3.1204 1.6483 3.3858 3.5255 3.6090 5.3723
Mindlin [7] 2.4834 0.7870 2.7757 0.6479 3.0824 0.4105 3.3285 1.7734 3.5333 3.1620
Kirchhoff [6] 2.7082 8.1938 3.0968 10.845 3.5422 15.388 3.9335 20.272 4.2884 25.208
Noor [364] 2.5031 0.0000 2.7938 0.0000 3.0698 0.0000 3.2705 0.0000 3.4250 0.0000
4 (0°/90°)2 Present 2.6102 0.3056 3.2871 0.8994 3.8575 2.5331 4.2191 3.7654 4.4726 4.6981
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6080 0.3896 3.2863 0.8748 3.8583 2.5544 4.2208 3.8072 4.4747 4.7473
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2782 0.6262 3.8506 2.3497 4.2139 3.6375 4.4686 4.6045
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6058 0.4736 3.2593 0.0460 3.7870 0.6592 4.1093 1.0649 4.3288 1.3320
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.5728 1.7340 3.2404 0.5341 3.7735 0.3004 4.0985 0.7993 4.3197 1.1189
Reddy [64] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2781 0.6231 3.8506 2.3497 4.2139 3.6375 4.4686 4.6045
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2781 0.6231 3.8506 2.3497 4.2139 3.6375 4.4686 4.6045
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.6003 0.6837 3.2779 0.6170 3.8500 2.3337 4.2133 3.6227 4.4682 4.5951
Mindlin [7] 2.6017 0.6302 3.2898 0.9823 3.8754 3.0089 4.2479 4.4737 4.5083 5.5338
Kirchhoff [6] 2.8676 9.5256 3.8877 19.335 4.9907 32.654 5.8900 44.859 6.6690 56.113
Noor [364] 2.6182 0.0000 3.2578 0.0000 3.7622 0.0000 4.0660 0.0000 4.2719 0.0000
6 (0°/90°)3 Present 2.6326 0.4312 3.3722 0.1931 3.9763 1.0264 4.3420 1.4889 4.6010 2.0381
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6299 0.5333 3.3700 0.1278 3.9745 0.9807 4.3483 1.6362 4.6060 2.1490
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3621 0.1070 3.9672 0.7952 4.3419 1.4866 4.6005 2.0270
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6284 0.5900 3.3541 0.3447 3.9338 0.0534 4.2845 0.1449 4.5220 0.2861
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.5949 1.8570 3.3349 0.9151 3.9205 0.3913 4.2741 0.0982 4.5135 0.0976
Reddy [64] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3620 0.1099 3.9672 0.7952 4.3418 1.4842 4.6004 2.0248
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3620 0.1099 3.9672 0.7952 4.3418 1.4842 4.6004 2.0248
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.6223 0.8207 3.3620 0.1099 3.9672 0.7952 4.3418 1.4842 4.6003 2.0226
Mindlin [7] 2.6228 0.8018 3.3673 0.0475 3.9771 1.0468 4.3531 1.7484 4.6106 2.2510
Kirchhoff [6] 2.8966 9.5537 4.0215 19.4848 5.2234 32.7117 6.1963 44.831 7.0359 56.037
Noor [364] 2.6440 0.0000 3.3657 0.0000 3.9359 0.0000 4.2783 0.0000 4.5091 0.0000
10 (0°/90°)5 Present 2.6440 0.5379 3.4159 0.2657 4.0383 0.1140 4.4200 0.4294 4.6742 0.5248
Bose and Reddy (GTTR) [25] 2.6413 0.6395 3.4128 0.3562 4.0339 0.0050 4.4140 0.2931 4.6745 0.5312
Bose and Reddy (STTR) [25] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4051 0.5810 4.0270 0.1661 4.4079 0.1545 4.6692 0.4172
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 2.6408 0.6583 3.4065 0.5401 4.0175 0.4016 4.3880 0.2977 4.6397 0.2172
Pandya and Kant [382] 2.6071 1.9260 3.3872 1.1036 4.0043 0.7289 4.3778 0.5294 4.6316 0.3914
Reddy [64] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4050 0.5839 4.0269 0.1686 4.4078 0.1522 4.6692 0.4172
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4050 0.5839 4.0269 0.1686 4.4078 0.1522 4.6692 0.4172
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 2.6337 0.9254 3.4050 0.5839 4.0268 0.1711 4.4074 0.1431 4.6682 0.3957
Mindlin [7] 2.6335 0.9329 3.4053 0.5752 4.0255 0.2033 4.4023 0.0273 4.6577 0.1699
Kirchhoff [6] 2.8966 8.9644 4.0215 17.416 5.2234 29.494 6.1963 40.789 7.0359 51.316
Noor [364] 2.6583 0.0000 3.4250 0.0000 4.0337 0.0000 4.4011 0.0000 4.6498 0.0000

modular and aspect ratios. Results are presented at m = 1 and n = 1. natural frequencies of anti-symmetric laminated composite square
The numerical values of natural frequencies are presented in plate with respect to a=h ratios and number of layers with
Tables 4 and 5. E1 =E2 ¼ 40.
From Table 4 it is observed that the natural frequencies for anti-
symmetric lamination scheme predicted by present theory are in 5.3. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported three layered
excellent agreement with exact values given by Noor [364]. For (0°/core/0°) symmetric sandwich square plates
E1 =E2 ¼ 3, present theory predicts more accurate results than
Reddy [64]. The percentages of error predicted by present theory In this problem, thickness of face sheets is 0.1h and thickness of
for two layered (0°/90°) laminated composite plate when core is 0.8h where ‘h’ is the overall thickness of the plate. Core of
E1 =E2 ¼ 3, 10, 20, 30, 40 are 0.2557, 0.4367, 2.3357, 4.5131, the plate is made up of Material 2. Elastic moduli of face sheets
6.6949, respectively. Two variable plate theory presented by Thai are assumed as ‘R’ times the elastic modulus of core
and Kim [115], Kant and Manjunatha [381] and Pandya and Kant i.e.ðQ ij Þf ¼ RðQ ij Þc . Results are obtained for m = 1 and n = 1. The
[382] overestimates the natural frequencies as compared to those value of R is varied from 1 to 15. When R = 1, plate is orthotropic
obtained by present theory. Fig. 4 presents the variation of natural plate and for other values of R it becomes sandwich plate. The
frequencies of anti-symmetric laminated composite square plate non-dimensional frequencies obtained by present theory are com-
with respect to modular ratios for various number of layers and pared with existing literature as shown in Table 6. The non-dimen-
a=h ¼ 5. Table 5 shows the comparison of natural frequencies of sional natural frequencies are presented for a/h = 10. From Table 6
anti-symmetric laminated composite plates for various a=h ratios it is observed that for R = 1, present theory predicts the exact value
and found to agree well with those obtained by other higher order of natural frequencies and for R = 15, natural frequencies obtained
theories available in the literature. Fig. 5 presents the variation of by present theory are in excellent agreement with exact solution.
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 193

Table 5 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Comparison of non-dimensional fundamental frequencies ðx
 mn ¼ xmn ah q=E2 Þ of anti-symmetric cross-ply laminated square plate ða ¼ b; E1 =E2 ¼ 40Þ.

No. of Layers Lamination Scheme Source a=h


2 4 10 20 50 100
2 (0°/90°)1 Present 14.5089 5.2584 1.0593 0.2783 0.0452 0.0113
Reddy [64] 14.2925 5.2216 1.0568 0.2776 0.0451 0.0113
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 12.7295 4.9425 1.0431 0.2766 0.0450 0.0113
Pandya and Kant [382] 12.6865 4.9315 1.0415 0.2763 0.0450 0.0113
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.2925 5.2216 1.0568 0.2776 0.0451 0.0113
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 13.7543 5.1657 1.0548 0.2775 0.0451 0.0113
Mindlin [7] 13.0260 5.0218 1.0473 0.2769 0.0451 0.0113
Kirchhoff [6] 21.5168 6.5153 1.1154 0.2817 0.0452 0.0113
4 (0°/90°)2 Present 14.4663 6.0920 1.4857 0.4152 0.0689 0.0173
Reddy [64] 14.3865 6.0848 1.4846 0.4143 0.0687 0.0173
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.3865 6.0848 1.4846 0.4143 0.0687 0.0173
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 14.3100 6.0848 1.4843 0.4143 0.0687 0.0173
Mindlin [7] 14.1640 6.1343 1.4921 0.4150 0.0688 0.0173
Kirchhoff [6] 35.2590 10.2122 1.7145 0.4317 0.0692 0.0173
6 (0°/90°)3 Present 14.8277 6.2612 1.5483 0.4354 0.0725 0.0182
Reddy [64] 14.6853 6.2424 1.5463 0.4344 0.0723 0.0182
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.6853 6.2424 1.5463 0.4344 0.0723 0.0182
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 14.5450 6.2409 1.5463 0.4344 0.0723 0.0182
Mindlin [7] 14.2480 6.2408 1.5501 0.4348 0.0723 0.0182
Kirchhoff [6] 37.7238 10.7923 1.8046 0.4541 0.0728 0.0182
10 (0°/90°)5 Present 15.0499 6.3510 1.5793 0.4454 0.0742 0.0186
Reddy [64] 14.8810 6.3276 1.5770 0.4444 0.0740 0.0186
Thai and Kim (RPT1) [115] 14.8810 6.3276 1.5770 0.4444 0.0740 0.0186
Thai and Kim (RPT2) [115] 14.6803 6.3229 1.5770 0.4444 0.0740 0.0186
Mindlin [7] 14.2850 6.2893 1.5779 0.4445 0.0740 0.0186
Kirchhoff [6] 39.0160 11.0821 1.8492 0.4652 0.0746 0.0186

Table 6 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Non-dimensional fundamental frequency x
 mn ¼ xmn ah q=Q 11 of symmetric (0°/Core/0°) sandwich plate with a=b ¼ 1 and a=h ¼ 10.

Source R
1 % Error 2 % Error 5 % Error 10 % Error 15 % Error
Present 4.7419 0.0000 5.5704 2.3439 7.6594 0.7181 9.8149 0.0459 11.7033 4.4620
Karama et al. [106] 4.7421 0.0042 – – – – – – 11.4932 2.5867
Chakrabarti and Sheikh [152] 4.7367 0.1097 5.6949 0.1613 7.6949 0.2579 9.7708 0.4037 11.1464 0.5088
Touratier [75] 4.7412 0.0148 – – – – – – 11.5240 2.8616
Reddy [64] 4.7409 0.0211 – – – – – – 11.7240 4.6468
DiSciuva [391] 4.7698 0.5884 5.7244 0.3559 7.7296 0.1918 9.8222 0.1203 11.2137 0.0919
Srinivas and Rao [363] 4.7419 0.0000 5.7041 0.0000 7.7148 0.0000 9.8104 0.0000 11.2034 0.0000

Table 7 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Non-dimensional fundamental frequency x
 mn ¼ xmn ða=hÞ ðq=E2 Þf of five layered antisymmetric (0°/90°/Core/0°/90°) sandwich plate with a=b ¼ 1, and tc =tf ¼ 10.

Source a=h
2 4 10 20 50 100
Present 0.8778 1.6767 4.1312 7.5829 13.3791 15.5978
Reddy [64] 1.6252 3.1013 7.0473 11.2664 15.0323 15.9522
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 1.1941 2.1036 4.8594 8.5955 13.6899 15.5093
Pandya and Kant [382] 1.1734 2.0913 4.8519 8.5838 13.6577 15.4647
Senthilnathan et al. [383] 1.6252 3.1013 7.0473 11.2664 15.0323 15.9522
Whitney and Pagano [384] 5.2017 9.0312 13.869 15.5295 16.1264 16.2175
Rao et al. [141] 0.7141 0.9363 1.8480 3.4791 7.7355 11.9400

Higher order shear deformation theory of Reddy [64] overesti- The face sheets of the plate are made up of Material 3 and core is
mates the natural frequencies for R = 15. made up of Material 4. With reference to numerical values pre-
sented by Kant and Swaminathan [136,137], similar results are
5.4. Free vibration analysis of a simply supported five layered (0°/ obtained by using present theory and compared with existing liter-
90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric sandwich square plates ature in Tables 7 and 8.
Table 7 shows the fundamental frequencies of five layered anti-
In this section, efficiency of present theory is checked free vibra- symmetric sandwich plates for various a=h ratios. With reference
tion analysis of five layered (0°/90°/core/0°/90°) antisymmetric to exact solution presented by Rao et al. [141], present theory pre-
sandwich plate. Thickness of plate is measured from top. The ratio dicts excellent values of fundamental frequencies as compared to
of thickness of core to thickness of face sheet ðtc =tf Þ is taken as 10. those presented by Rao and Desai [140], Kant and Manjunatha
194 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

Table 8 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Non-dimensional fundamental frequency x
 mn ¼ xmn ða=hÞ ðq=E2 Þf of five layered antisymmetric (0°/90°/Core/0°/90°) sandwich plate with a=b ¼ 1, tc =tf ¼ 10.

a=h Source Modes


1 2 3 4 5 6
10 Present 4.1312 6.7339 8.6150 9.6638 11.0885 13.1232
Reddy [64] 7.0473 11.9087 15.2897 17.3211 19.8121 23.5067
Rao and Desai (ESL) [140] 4.9624 8.1934 10.5172 11.9867 13.7488 16.4514
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 4.8594 8.0187 10.2966 11.7381 13.4706 16.1320
Pandya and Kant [382] 4.8519 7.9965 10.2550 11.6809 13.3889 16.0039
Senthilnathan et al. [383] 7.0473 11.9624 15.2897 17.3698 19.8325 23.5067
Whitney and Pagano [384] 13.869 30.6432 41.5577 50.9389 58.3636 71.3722
100 Present 15.5978 38.3778 53.5165 69.8024 80.0727 100.3965
Reddy [64] 15.9521 42.2271 60.1272 83.9982 96.3132 124.2047
Rao and Desai (ESL) [140] 15.5480 39.2652 73.4951 55.1512 84.2919 106.5897
Kant and Manjunatha [381] 15.5093 39.0293 54.7618 72.7572 83.4412 105.3781
Pandya and Kant [382] 15.4646 38.9232 54.6330 72.5925 83.2699 105.1807
Senthilnathan et al. [383] 15.9521 42.3708 60.1272 84.4215 96.7259 124.2047
Whitney and Pagano [384] 16.2175 44.7072 64.5044 94.9097 108.9049 143.7969

Fig. 2. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to modular ratios ðE1 =E2 Þ for
symmetrically laminated composite square plates.

Fig. 4. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to modular ratios ðE1 =E2 Þ for
anti-symmetrically laminated composite square plates.

Fig. 3. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to aspect ratios ða=hÞ for three
layered ðN ¼ 3Þ and four layered ðN ¼ 4Þ symmetrically laminated composite Fig. 5. Variation of natural frequencies with respect to aspect ratios ða=hÞ for anti-
square plates. symmetrically laminated composite square plates.
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 195

[381], Pandya and Kant [382], Reddy [64], Senthilnathan et al. ratios is compared with exact solutions wherever applicable.
[383] and Whitney and Pagano [384]. Natural frequencies of this From the numerical results following observations are pointed out.
problem are also obtained for various modes of vibration and pre-
sented in Table 8. For higher modes of vibration, present theory is (a) The flexural mode frequencies obtained by the present the-
also in good agreement with other theories. The theory of Whitney ory for laminated composite plates are in excellent agree-
and Pagano [384] gives very high estimate of frequencies for all ment with those of exact solutions for all problems,
modes of vibration. Similarly, theories of Reddy [64], and especially in symmetric laminates.
Senthilnathan et al. [383] also yield considerably high values of fre- (b) For antisymmetric sandwich plates, present theory predicts
quencies compared to those of present and other higher order more accurate results as compared to other equivalent sin-
theories. gle layer theories for all modes of vibrations.
(c) It is also concluded that due to consideration of effect of
6. Conclusions transverse normal strain, the present theory is useful for
the dynamic analysis of composite plates where large num-
The increasing use of laminated composites and sandwich ber of Eigen frequencies and Eigen vectors of thickness-
structures in various fields of engineering necessitated the devel- stretch mode are required.
opment of various refined theories which predicts the accurate (d) The present trigonometric shear and normal deformation the-
dynamic behaviour of such structures. The basic aim of this review ory yields the exact value of dynamic shear correction factor.
article is to present various methods available for the analysis of
laminated composite and sandwich plates and to guide the
researchers for the future research. Many displacement based References
higher order shear deformation theories have been reported in
[1] Hashin Z. Analysis of composite materials – a survey. J Appl Mech
the literature for the vibration analysis of plates which are pre- 1983;50:481–505.
sented in Table 1. Based on the review presented in this paper, fol- [2] Mouritz AP, Gellert E, Burchill P, Challis K. Review of advanced Composite
lowing points are observed. Structures for a naval ships and submarines. Compos Struct 2001;53:21–41.
[3] Chamis CC. Polymer composite mechanics review–1965 to 2006. J Reinf Plast
Compos 2007;26(10):987–1019.
1. Still Navier’s method is widely used by various researchers for [4] Pendhari SS, Kant T, Desai YM. Application of polymer composites in civil
the free vibration analysis of simply supported laminated com- construction: a general review. Compos Struct 2008;84:114–24.
[5] Herakovich CT. Mechanics of composites: a historical review. Mech Res
posite and sandwich plates based on higher order plate
Commun 2012;41:1–20.
theories. [6] Kirchhoff GR. Uber das gleichgewicht und die bewegung einer elastischen
2. A five or six variable plate theories are more accurate than four Scheibe. J Reine Angew Math (Crelle’s J) 1850;40:51–88.
variable plate theories for the analysis of laminated composite [7] Mindlin RD. Influence of rotatory inertia and shear on flexural motions of
isotropic, elastic plates. J Appl Mech 1951;18:31–8.
or sandwich plates. Higher order shear deformation theories [8] Leissa AW. The free vibration of rectangular plates. J Sound Vib
with four unknown variables are effectively applied to function- 1973;31:257–93.
ally graded plates only, their application to laminated compos- [9] Reissner E. Reflections on the theory of elastic plates. Appl Mech Rev
1985;38:1453–64.
ite and sandwich plates is still in rudimentary stage. It is seen [10] Reddy JN. On refined computational models of composite laminates. Int J
that four variable theories present inaccurate response for all Numer Methods Eng 1989;27:361–82.
the inplane and transverse stresses in case of laminated and [11] Reddy JN. A review of refined theories of laminated composite plates. Shock
Vib Digest 1990;22(7):3–17.
sandwich plates. [12] Kapania RK, Raciti S. Recent advances in analysis of laminated beams and
3. Plate theories considering the effect of shear deformation as plates. AIAA J 1989;27(7):923–46.
well as transverse normal strain/stress are rarely found in liter- [13] Noor AK, Burton WS. Refinement of higher-order laminated plate theories.
Appl Mech Rev 1989;42:1–13.
ature in spite of addressing the accurate structural behavior of [14] Noor AK, Burton WS, Bert CW. Computational models for sandwich panels
laminated plates under statics and dynamics. and shells. Appl Mech Rev 1996;49(3):155–99.
4. It is also pointed out that the free vibration analysis of antisym- [15] Bert CW. Literature review: research on dynamic behavior of composite and
sandwich plates – V: Part II. Shock Vib Digest 1991;23:9–21.
metric sandwich plates using Navier’s method is not fully
[16] Vasil’ev VV. The theory of thin plates. Mekh Tverd Tela [Mech Solids (Engl
explored in the literature. Transl)] 1992;27:22–42.
5. For the built-in boundary conditions, finite element method is [17] Mallikarjuna, Kant T. A critical review and some results of recently developed
widely used by various researchers whereas other methods of refined theories of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and sandwiches.
Compos Struct 1993;23:293–312.
analysis still need more attention. [18] Reddy JN, Robbins DH. Theories and computational models for composite
6. A great deal of research work is available on linear free vibra- laminates. Appl Mech Rev 1994;47(6):147–65.
tion analysis of plate. However, more research is required on [19] Liew KM, Xiang Y, Kitipornchai S. Research on thick plate vibration: a
literature survey. J Sound Vib 1995;180:163–76.
non-linear free vibration analysis of plates. [20] Liew KM, Zhao X, Ferreira AJM. A review of meshless methods for laminated
7. The use of mixed theories based on Reissner’s Mixed Variational and functionally graded plates and shells. Compos Struct 2011;93:2031–41.
Theorem should be further intensified in the analysis of multi- [21] Liu DS, Li XY. An overall view of laminate theories based on displacement
hypothesis. J Compos Mater 1996;30:1539–61.
layered structures for addressing the accurate structural behav- [22] Carvelli V, Savoia M. Assessment of plate theories for multilayered angle-ply
ior under statics and dynamics. plates. Compos Struct 1997;39:197–207.
[23] Altenbach H. Theories for laminated and sandwich plates. Mech Compos
Mater 1998;34(3):243–52.
Present paper also deals with the numerical assessment of [24] Bose P, Reddy JN. Analysis of composite plates using various plate theories.
trigonometric shear and normal deformation theory on free vibra- Part 1: formulation and analytical solutions. Struct Eng Mech
tion of multilayered laminated composite and sandwich plates. The 1998;6:583–612.
[25] Bose P, Reddy JN. Analysis of composite plates using various plate theories.
theory is variationally consistent and does not require shear cor-
Part 2: finite element model and numerical results. Struct Eng Mech
rection factor. The presented theory considers the effect of trans- 1998;6:727–46.
verse shear deformation as well as transverse normal strain. The [26] Carrera E. An assessment of mixed and classical theories on global and local
accuracy of the fundamental flexural mode frequencies using pre- response of multilayered orthotropic plates. Compos Struct 2000;50:183–98.
[27] Carrera E. Developments, ideas, and evaluations based upon Reissner’s mixed
sent theory and other refined theories of simply supported lami- variational theorem in the modeling of multilayered plates and shells. Appl
nated composite and sandwich plates, for different modular Mech Rev 2001;54:301–29.
196 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

[28] Carrera E. Theories and finite elements for multilayered anisotropic [68] Matsunaga H. Vibration and stability of cross-ply laminated composite plates
composite plates and shells. Arch Comput Methods Eng 2002;9(2):87–140. according to a global higher-order plate theory. Compos Struct
[29] Carrera E. Historical review of zig-zag theories for multilayered plates and 2000;48:231–44.
shells. ASME Appl Mech Rev 2003;56(3):287–308. [69] Matsunaga H. Vibration and stability of thick plates on elastic foundation.
[30] Kant T, Swaminathan K. Estimation of transverse/interlaminar stresses in ASCE J Eng Mech 2000;126(1):27–34.
laminated composites – a selective review and survey of current [70] Matsunaga H. Vibration and stability of angle-ply laminated composite plates
developments. Compos Struct 2000;49:65–75. subjected to in-plane stresses. Int J Mech Sci 2001;43:1925–44.
[31] Chao CC, Chern YC. Comparison of natural frequencies of laminates by 3-D [71] Matsunaga H. Vibration of cross-ply laminated composite plates subjected to
theory, Part I: rectangular plates. J Sound Vib 2000;230(5):985–1007. initial in-plane stresses. Thin Walled Struct 2002;40:557–71.
[32] Ferreira AJM, Fernandes AA. A review of numerical methods for the analysis [72] Matsunaga H. Free vibration and stability of angle-ply laminated composite
of composite and sandwich structures. Multimaterials technologies – and sandwich plates under thermal loading. Compos Struct
solutions and opportunities, DOGMA conference, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2007;77(2):249–62.
2000. p. 71–76. [73] Levy M. Memoire sur la theorie des plaques elastique planes. J Math Pure
[33] Kulikov GM. Non-linear analysis of multilayered shells under initial stress. Int Appl 1877;30:219–306.
J Non-Linear Mech 2001;36:323–34. [74] Stein M. Nonlinear theory for plates and shells including effect of shearing.
[34] Ambartsumian SA. Nontraditional theories of shells and plates. Appl Mech AIAA J 1986;24:1537–44.
Rev 2002;55(5):35–44. [75] Touratier M. An efficient standard plate theory. Int J Eng Sci
[35] Piskunov VG, Rasskazov AO. Evolution of the theory of laminated plates and 1991;29(8):901–16.
shells. Int Appl Mech 2002;38(2):135–66. [76] Shimpi RP, Arya H, Naik NK. A higher order displacement model for the plate
[36] Carrera E, Demasi L. Classical and advanced multilayered plate elements analysis. J Reinf Plast Compos 2003;22(18):1667–88.
based upon PVD and RMVT. Part 1: derivation of finite element matrices. Int J [77] Shimpi RP, Ainapure AV. Free vibration of two-layered cross-ply laminated
Numer Methods Eng 2002;55:191–231. plates using layer-wise trigonometric shear deformation theory. J Reinf Plast
[37] Carrera E, Demasi L. Classical and advanced multilayered plate elements Compos 2004;23(4):389–405.
based upon PVD and RMVT. Part 2: numerical implementations. Int J Numer [78] Zenkour AM. A comprehensive analysis of functionally graded sandwich
Methods Eng 2002;55:253–91. plates: Part 2—Buckling and free vibration. Int J Solids Struct
[38] Ghugal YM, Shimpi RP. A review of refined shear deformation theories for 2005;42:5243–58.
isotropic and anisotropic laminated plates. J Reinf Plast Compos [79] Zenkour AM. Bending of FGM plates by a simplified four-unknown shear and
2002;21:775–813. normal deformations theory. Int J Appl Mech 2013;5(2):1–15.
[39] Alhazza KA, Alhazza AA. A review of the vibrations of plates and shells. Shock [80] Ghugal YM, Sayyad AS. A static flexure of thick isotropic plates using
Vib Digest 2004;36(5):377–95. trigonometric shear deformation theory. J Solid Mech 2010;2(1):
[40] Reddy JN, Arciniega R. A shear deformation plate and shell theories: from 79–90.
stavsky to present. Mech Adv Mater Struct 2004;11(6):535–82. [81] Ghugal YM, Sayyad AS. Free vibration of thick isotropic plates using
[41] Rohwer K, Friedrichs S, Wehmeyer C. Analyzing laminated structures from trigonometric shear deformation theory. J Solid Mech 2011;3(2):
fibre-reinforced composite material – an assessment. Tech Mech 172–82.
2005;25:59–79. [82] Ghugal YM, Sayyad AS. Free vibration of thick orthotropic plates using
[42] Wanji C, Zhen W. A selective review on recent development of displacement- trigonometric shear deformation theory. Lat Am J Solids Struct
based laminated plate theories. Recent Pat Mech Eng 2008;1:29–44. 2011;8:229–43.
[43] Demasi L. 13 Hierarchy plate theories for thick and thin composite plates: the [83] Ghugal YM, Sayyad AS. Static flexure of thick orthotropic plates using
generalized unified formulation. Compos Struct 2008;84:256–70. trigonometric shear deformation theory. J Struct Eng (India) 2013;39(5):
[44] Demasi L. 16 mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified 512–21.
formulation. Part I: governing equations. Compos Struct 2009;87:1–11. [84] Ghugal YM, Sayyad AS. Stress analysis of thick laminated plates using
[45] Demasi L. 16 mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified trigonometric shear deformation theory. Int J Appl Mech 2013;5(1):1–23.
formulation. Part II: layerwise theories. Compos Struct 2009;87:12–22. [85] Neves AMA, Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Roque CMC, Cinefra M, Jorge RMN, et al.
[46] Demasi L. 16 mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified Bending of FGM plates by a sinusoidal plate formulation and collocation with
formulation. Part III: advanced mixed high order shear deformation radial basis functions. Mech Res Commun 2011;38:368–71.
theories. Compos Struct 2009;87:183–94. [86] Neves AMA, Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Roque CMC, Cinefra M, Jorge RMN, et al.
[47] Demasi L. 16 mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified A quasi-3D sinusoidal shear deformation theory for the static and free
formulation. Part IV: zig-zag theories. Compos Struct 2009;87:195–205. vibration analysis of functionally graded plates. Composites: Part B
[48] Demasi L. 16 mixed plate theories based on the generalized unified 2012;43:711–25.
formulation. Part V: results. Compos Struct 2009;88:1–16. [87] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Jorge RMN. Analysis of composite plates by
[49] Carrera E, Brischetto S. A survey with numerical assessment of classical and trigonometric shear deformation theory and multiquadrics. Comput Struct
refined theories for the analysis of sandwich plates. Appl Mech Rev 2005;83:2225–37.
2009;62:1–17. [88] Thai HT, Vo TP. A new sinusoidal shear deformation theory for bending,
[50] Sharma AK, Mittal ND. Review on stress and vibration analysis of composite buckling, and vibration of functionally graded plates. Appl Math Model
plates. J Appl Sci 2010;10(23):3156–66. 2013;37(5):3269–81.
[51] Kreja I. A literature review on computational models for laminated composite [89] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Soares CG. A new higher order shear deformation
and sandwich panels. Cent Eur J Eng 2011;1(1):59–80. theory for sandwich and composite laminated plates. Composites: Part B
[52] Leissa AW. Vibration of plates. NASA SP-160: Washington; 1969. 2012;43:1489–99.
[53] Reddy JN. Mechanics of laminated composite plates, theory and [90] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Soares CG. A new trigonometric shear deformation
analysis. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1997. theory for isotropic, laminated composite and sandwich plates. Int J Solids
[54] Liew KM, Wang CM, Xiang Y, Kitipornchai S. Vibration of Mindlin plates: Struct 2012;49:43–53.
programming the p-version Ritz method. Elsevier; 1998. [91] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Soares CG. Static and dynamic analysis of laminated
[55] Qatu MS. Vibration of laminated shells and plates. Amsterdam: Elsevier; composite and sandwich plates and shells by using a new higher-order shear
2004. deformation theory. Compos Struct 2011;94:37–49.
[56] Soedel W. Vibrations of shells and plates. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2004. [92] Mantari JL, Oktem AS, Soares CG. Bending and free vibration analysis of
[57] Szilard R. Theories and applications of plate analysis: classical, numerical and isotropic and multilayered plates and shells by using a new accurate higher-
engineering methods. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2004. order shear deformation theory. Composites: Part B 2012;43:3348–60.
[58] Yang J. An introduction to the mathematical theory of vibrations of elastic [93] Soldatos KP. A transverse shear deformation theory for homogeneous
plates. Singapore: World Scientific; 2007. monoclinic plates. Acta Mech 1992;94:195–200.
[59] Chakraverty S. Vibration of plates. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2009. [94] Ghugal YM, Pawar MD. Buckling and vibration of plates by hyperbolic shear
[60] Ambartsumian SA. On the theory of bending plates. Izv Otd Tekh Nauk AN deformation theory. J Aerosp Eng Technol 2011;1(1):1–12.
SSSR 1958;5:69–77. [95] Akavci SS. Buckling and free vibration analysis of symmetric and
[61] Kruszewski ET. Effect of transverse shear and rotatory inertia on the natural antisymmetric laminated composite plates on an elastic foundation. J Reinf
frequency of a uniform beam. NACA Technical Note 1909; 1949. Plast Compos 2007;26:1907–19.
[62] Panc V. Theories of elastic plates. Prague: Academia; 1975. [96] Akavci SS. Two new hyperbolic shear displacement models for orthotropic
[63] Reissner E. On transverse bending of plates including the effects of transverse laminated composite plates. Mech Compos Mater 2010;46:215–26.
shear deformation. Int J Solids Struct 1975;25:495–502. [97] Akavci SS, Tanrikulu AH. Buckling and free vibration analysis of laminated
[64] Reddy JN. A simple higher order theory for laminated composite plates. J Appl composite plates by using two new hyperbolic shear-deformation theories.
Mech 1984;51:745–52. Mech Compos Mater 2008;44(2):145–54.
[65] Aghababaei R, Reddy JN. Nonlocal third-order shear deformation plate theory [98] Meiche NE, Tounsi A, Ziane N, Mechab I, Bedia EAA. New hyperbolic shear
with application to bending and vibration of plates. J Sound Vib deformation theory for buckling and vibration of functionally graded
2009;326:277–89. sandwich plate. Int J Mech Sci 2011;53:237–47.
[66] Ray MC. Zeroth-order shear deformation theory for laminated composite [99] Bessaim A, Houari MSA, Tounsi A, Mahmoud SR, Bedia EAA. A new higher-
plates. J Appl Mech 2003;70:374–80. order shear and normal deformation theory for the static and free vibration
[67] Kapuria S, Dumir PC. Discussion: zeroth-order shear deformation theory for analysis of sandwich plates with functionally graded isotropic face sheets. J
laminated composite plates. J Appl Mech 2004;71:594–5. Sandw Struct Mater 2013;15(6):671–703.
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 197

[100] Daouadji TH, Henni AH, Tounsi A, Bedia EAA. A new hyperbolic shear [133] Bai E, Chen A. A symplectic eigenfunction expansion approach for free
deformation theory for bending analysis of functionally graded plates. Model vibration solutions of rectangular Kirchhoff plates. J Vib Control
Simul Eng 2012;2013:1–10. 2012;19(8):1208–15.
[101] Daouadji TH, Tounsi A, Hadji L, Henni AH, Bedia EAA. A theoretical analysis [134] Aydogdu M, Ece MC. Buckling and vibration of non-ideal simply supported
for static and dynamic behavior of functionally graded plates. Mater Phy rectangular isotropic plates. Mech Res Commun 2006;33:532–40.
Mech 2012;14:110–28. [135] Hashemi SH, Zare M, Nazemnezhad R. An exact analytical approach for free
[102] Daouadji TH, Tounsi A, Bedia EAA. A new higher order shear deformation vibration of Mindlin rectangular nano-plates via nonlocal elasticity. Compos
model for static behavior of functionally graded plates. Adv Appl Math Mech Struct 2013;100:290–9.
2013;5(3):351–64. [136] Kant T, Swaminathan K. Analytical solution for free vibration analysis of
[103] Grover N, Singh BN, Maiti DK. Analytical and finite element modeling of laminated composite and sandwich plates based on a higher order refined
laminated composite and sandwich plates: an assessment of a new shear theory. Compos Struct 2001;53:73–85.
deformation theory for free vibration response. Int J Mech Sci 2013;67:89–99. [137] Kant T, Swaminathan K. Free vibration of isotropic, orthotropic, and
[104] Neves AMA, Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Roque CMC, Cinefra M, Jorge RMN, et al. multilayer plates based on higher order refined theories. J Sound Vib
A quasi-3D hyperbolic shear deformation theory for the static and free 2001;241(2):319–27.
vibration analysis of functionally graded plates. Compos Struct [138] Swaminathan K, Patil SS. Analytical solutions using a higher order refined
2012;94:1814–25. computational model with 12 degrees of freedom for the free vibration
[105] Zenkour AM. A simple four-unknown refined theory for bending analysis of analysis of antisymmetric angle-ply plates. Compos Struct
functionally graded plates. Appl Math Model 2013;37:9041–51. 2008;82(2):209–16.
[106] Karama M, Afaq KS, Mistou S. A new theory for laminated composite plates. [139] Swaminathan K, Patil SS. Higher order refined computational models for the
Proc IMechE Part L: J Mater: Des Appl 2009;223:53–62. free vibration analysis of antisymmetric angle ply plates. J Reinf Plast Compos
[107] Sayyad AS, Ghugal YM. Bending and free vibration analysis of thick isotropic 2008;27:541–53.
plates by using exponential shear deformation theory. Appl Comput Mech [140] Rao MK, Desai YM. Analytical solutions for vibrations of laminated and
2012;6(1):65–82. sandwich plates using mixed theory. Compos Struct 2004;63:361–73.
[108] Aydogdu M. Comparison of various shear deformation theories for bending, [141] Rao MK, Scherbatiuk K, Desai YM, Shah AH. Natural vibrations of laminated
buckling, and vibration of rectangular symmetric cross-ply plate with simply and sandwich plates. ASCE J Eng Mech 2004;130(11):1268–78.
supported edges. J Compos Mater 2006;40(23):2143–55. [142] Ganapathi M, Makhecha DP. Free vibration analysis of multilayered
[109] Aydogdu M. A new shear deformation theory for laminated composite plates. laminates based on an accurate higher order theory. Composites: Part B
Compos Struct 2009;89:94–101. 2001;32:535–43.
[110] Shimpi RP, Patel HG, Arya H. New first order shear deformation theories. J [143] Ganapathi M, Patel BP, Makhecha DP. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of thick
Appl Mech 2006;74(3):523–33. composite/sandwich laminates using an accurate higher-order theory.
[111] Simmonds JG. Discussion: new first order shear deformation theories. J Appl Composites: Part B 2004;35:345–55.
Mech 2008;75(4):1. [144] Singh BN, Yadav D, Iyenger NGR. Natural frequencies of composite plates
[112] Shimpi RP, Patel HG, Arya H. Closure: new first order shear deformation with random material properties using higher order shear deformation
theories. J Appl Mech 2008;75(4):1. theory. Int J Mech Sci 2001;43:2193–214.
[113] Thai HT, Choi DH. A simple first order shear deformation theory for laminated [145] Parhi PK, Bhattacharyya SK, Sinha PK. Finite element dynamic analysis of
composite plates. Compos Struct 2013;106:754–63. laminated composite plates with multiple delaminations. J Reinf Plast
[114] Shimpi RP, Patel HG. Free vibrations of plate using two variable refined plate Compos 2000;19:863–82.
theory. J Sound Vib 2006;296:979–99. [146] Rikards R, Chate A, Ozolinsh O. Analysis for buckling and vibrations of
[115] Thai HT, Kim SE. Free vibration of laminated composite plates using two composite sti€ened shells and plates. Compos Struct 2001;51:361–70.
variable refined plate theory. Int J Mech Sci 2010;52:626–33. [147] Setoodeh AR, Karami G. A solution for the vibration and buckling of
[116] Alibakhshi R. The effect of anisotropy on free vibration of rectangular composite laminates with elastically restrained edges. Compos Struct
composite plates with patch mass. Int J Eng Trans B: Appl 2003;60:245–53.
2012;25(3):223–32. [148] Hull PV, Buchanan GR. Vibration of moderately thick square orthotropic
[117] Thai HT, Choi DH. Analytical solutions of refined plate theory for bending, stepped thickness plates. Appl Acoust 2003;64:753–63.
buckling and vibration analyses of thick plates. Appl Math Model [149] Ahmadian MT, Zangeneh MS. Forced vibration analysis of laminated
2013;37:8310–23. rectangular plates using super elements. Sci Iran 2003;10(2):260–5.
[118] Thai HT, Park M, Choi DH. A simple refined theory for bending, buckling and [150] Desai YM, Ramtekkar GS, Shah AH. Dynamic analysis of laminated composite
vibration of thick plates resting on elastic foundation. Int J Mech Sci plates using a layer-wise mixed finite element model. Compos Struct
2013;73:40–52. 2003;59:237–49.
[119] Xiang S, Jin YX, Bi ZY, Jiang SX, Yang MS. A nth order shear deformation [151] Sheikh AH, Dey P, Sengupta D. Vibration of thick and thin plates using a new
theory for free vibration of functionally graded and composite sandwich triangular element. ASCE J Eng Mech 2003;129:1235–44.
plates. Compos Struct 2011;93:2826–32. [152] Chakrabarti A, Sheikh AH. A new triangular element based on higher order
[120] Eruslu SO, Aydogdu M. Free vibration analysis of short fiber reinforced shear deformation theory for flexural vibration of composite plates. Int J
laminated plates with first shear deformation theory. Turkish J Eng Env Sci Struct Stab Dyn 2002;2(2):163–84.
2012;36:95–107. [153] Chakrabarti A, Sheikh AH. Vibration of imperfect composite and sandwich
[121] Liu Q, Zhao Y. Effect of soft honeycomb core on flexural vibration of sandwich laminates with in-plane partial edge load. Compos Struct
panel using low order and high order shear deformation models. J Sandw 2005;71(2):199–209.
Struct Mater 2007;9:95–108. [154] Chakrabarti A, Sheikh AH. Vibration of laminated faced sandwich plate by a
[122] Alibeigloo A, Kari MR. Forced vibration analysis of antisymmetric laminated new refined element. ASCE J Aerosp Eng 2004;17(3):123–34.
rectangular plates with distributed patch mass using third order shear [155] Singha MK, Ganapathi M. Large amplitude free flexural vibrations of
deformation theory. Thin Walled Struct 2009;47:653–60. laminated composite skew plates. Int J Non-Linear Mech 2004;39:1709–20.
[123] Messina A, Soldatos KP. A general vibration model of angle-ply laminated [156] Nayak AK, Moy SSJ, Shenoi RA. Free vibration analysis of composite sandwich
plates that accounts for the continuity of interlaminar stresses. Int J Solids plates based on Reddy’s higher-order theory. Composites: Part B
Struct 2002;39:617–35. 2002;33:505–19.
[124] Chen CS, Chen CW, Chen WR, Chang YC. Thermally induced vibration and [157] Aagaah MR, Mahinfalah M, Jazar GN. Natural frequencies of laminated
stability of laminated composite plates with temperature-dependent composite plates using third order shear deformation theory. Compos Struct
properties. Meccanica 2013;48:2311–23. 2006;72:273–9.
[125] Thai HT, Kim SE. A simple higher-order shear deformation theory for bending [158] Latheswary S, Valsarajan KV, Rao YVKS. Free vibration analysis of laminated
and free vibration analysis of functionally graded plates. Compos Struct plates using higher-order shear deformation theory. J IEI (India)
2013;96:165–73. 2004;85:18–24.
[126] Xiang Y, Zhao YB, Wei GW. Levy solutions for vibration of multi-span [159] Batra RC, Aimmanee S. Vibrations of thick isotropic plates with higher order
rectangular plates. Int J Mech Sci 2002;44:1195–218. shear and normal deformable plate theories. Comput Struct 2005;83:
[127] Xiang Y. Vibration of rectangular Mindlin plates resting on non-homogenous 934–55.
elastic foundations. Int J Mech Sci 2003;45:1229–44. [160] Batra RC, Qian LF, Chen LM. Natural frequencies of thick square plates made
[128] Xiang Y, Wang CM. Exact buckling and vibration solutions for stepped of orthotropic, trigonal, monoclinic, hexagonal and triclinic materials. J Sound
rectangular plate. J Sound Vib 2002;250(3):503–17. Vib 2004;270:1074–86.
[129] Xiang Y, Wei GW. Exact solutions for vibration of multi-span rectangular [161] Shiau LC, Kuo SY. Free vibration of thermally buckled composite sandwich
Mindlin plates. J Vib Acoust 2002;124:545–51. plates. J Vib Acoust 2006;128:1–7.
[130] Xiang Y, Wei GW. Exact solutions for buckling and vibration of stepped [162] Pandit MK, Haldar S, Mukhopadhyay M. Free vibration analysis of laminated
rectangular Mindlin plates. Int J Solids Struct 2004;41:279–94. composite rectangular plate using finite element method. J Reinf Plast
[131] Hashemi SH, Fadaee M, Taher HRD. Exact solutions for free flexural vibration Compos 2007;26:69–80.
of Levy-type rectangular thick plates via third-order shear deformation plate [163] Givil HS, Rabinovitch O, Frosting Y. High-order non-linear contact effects in
theory. Appl Math Model 2011;35:708–27. the dynamic behavior of delaminated sandwich panel with a flexible core. Int
[132] Thai HT, Kim SE. Levy-type solution for free vibration analysis of orthotropic J Solids Struct 2007;44:77–99.
plates based on two variable refined plate theory. Appl Math Model [164] Topal U, Uzman UV. Free vibration analysis of laminated plates using first-
2012;36:3870–82. order shear deformation theory. Proc Phy 2007;111:493–8.
198 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

[165] Cetkovic M, Vuksanovic DJ. Bending, free vibrations and buckling of [196] Chalak HD, Chakrabarti A, Sheikh AH, Iqbal MA. C0 FE model based on HOZT
laminated composite and sandwich plates using a layerwise displacement for the analysis of laminated soft core skew sandwich plates: bending and
model. Compos Struct 2009;88:219–27. vibration. Appl Math Model 2013;38(4):1211–23.
[166] Zhen W, Wanji C. Free vibration of laminated composite and sandwich plates [197] Singh SK, Chakrabarti A. Static, vibration and buckling analysis of skew
using global–local higher-order theory. J Sound Vib 2006;298:333–49. composite and sandwich plates under thermo mechanical loading. Int J Appl
[167] Zhen W, Cheung YK, Lo SH, Wanji C. Effects of higher-order global–local shear Mech Eng 2013;18(3):887–98.
deformations on bending, vibration and buckling of multilayered plates. [198] Li D, Liu Y, Zhang X. A layerwise/solid-element method of the linear static and
Compos Struct 2008;82:277–89. free vibration analysis for the composite sandwich plates. Composites: Part B
[168] Zhen W, Wanji C, Xiaohui R. An accurate higher-order theory and C0 finite 2013;52:187–98.
element for free vibration analysis of laminated composite and sandwich [199] Ribeiro P. A hierarchical finite element for geometrically non-linear vibration
plates. Compos Struct 2010;92:1299–307. of thick plates. Meccanica 2003;38:115–30.
[169] Kulkarni SD, Kapuria S. Free vibration analysis of composite and sandwich [200] Kucukrendeci I, Kucuk H. Vibration analysis of laminated composite plates on
plates using an improved discrete Kirchhoff quadrilateral element based on elastic foundation. J Appl Sci 2013;13(5):749–54.
third-order zigzag theory. Comput Mech 2008;42:803–24. [201] Thai CH, Tran LV, Tran DT, Thoi TN, Xuan HN. Analysis of laminated
[170] Pandit MK, Sheikh AH, Singh BN. Vibration characteristic of laminated composite plates using higher-order shear deformation plate theory and
sandwich plates with soft core based on an improved higher-order zigzag node-based smoothed discrete shear gap method. Appl Math Model
theory. Proc IMechE Part C: J Mech Eng Sci 2008;222:1443–52. 2012;36:5657–77.
[171] Pandit MK, Singh BN, Sheikh AH. Stochastic free vibration response of soft [202] Narita Y. Combinations for the free-vibration behaviors of anisotropic
core sandwich plates using an improved higher-order zigzag theory. J Aerosp rectangular plates under general edge conditions. J Appl Mech
Eng 2010;23:14–23. 2000;67:568–73.
[172] Pandit MK, Sheikh AH, Singh BN. Analysis of laminated sandwich plates [203] Bert CW. Discussion: combinations for the free-vibration behavior of
based on an improved higher order zigzag theory. J Sandw Struct Mater anisotropic rectangular plates under general edge conditions. J Appl Mech
2010;12:307–25. 2001;68:685–6.
[173] Xiaohui R, Wanji C. Free vibration analysis of laminated and sandwich plates [204] Narita Y. Closure: combinations for the free-vibration behavior of anisotropic
using quadrilateral element based on an improved zig-zag theory. J Compos rectangular plates under general edge conditions. J Appl Mech
Mater 2011;45:2173–87. 2001;68:685–6.
[174] Khandelwal RP, Chakrabarti A, Bhargava P. Vibration and buckling analysis of [205] Anlas G, Goker G. Vibration analysis of skew fibre-reinforced composite
laminated sandwich plate having soft core. Int J Struct Stab Dyn laminated plates. J Sound Vib 2001;242(2):265–76.
2013;13(8):1–35. [206] Wang CM, Ang KK, Yang L. Free vibration of skew sandwich plates with
[175] Park T, Lee SY, Seo JW, Voyiadjis GZ. Structural dynamic behaviour of skew laminated facings. J Sound Vib 2000;235(2):317–40.
sandwich plates with laminated composite faces. Composites: Part B [207] Adam C. Moderately large flexural vibrations of composite plates with thick
2008;39:316–26. layers. Int J Solids Struct 2003;40:4153–66.
[176] Lal A, Singh BN, Kumar R. Nonlinear free vibration of laminated composite [208] Zhou D, Cheung YK, Au FTK, Lo SH. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of
plates on elastic foundation with random system properties. Int J Mech Sci thick rectangular plates using Chebyshev polynomial and Ritz method. Int J
2008;50(7):1203–12. Solids Struct 2002;39:6339–53.
[177] Moleiro F, Soares CMM, Soares CAM, Reddy JN. Mixed least-squares finite [209] Zhou D, Cheung YK, Lo SH, Au FTK. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of
element models for static and free vibration analysis of laminated composite rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation. Int J Numer Methods Eng
plates. Comput Method Appl M 2009;198:1848–56. 2004;59(10):1313–34.
[178] Moleiro F, Soares CMM, Soares CAM, Reddy JN. Layerwise mixed least- [210] Aydogdu M, Timarci T. Vibration analysis of cross-ply laminated square
squares finite element models for static and free vibration analysis of plates with general boundary conditions. Compos Sci Technol
multilayered composite plates. Compos Struct 2010;92:2328–38. 2003;63:1061–70.
[179] Tanveer M, Singh AV. Nonlinear forced vibrations of laminated piezoelectric [211] Hu XX, Sakiyama T, Lim CW, Xiong Y, Matsuda H, Morita C. Vibration of
plates. J Vib Acoust 2010;132:1–13. angle-ply laminated plates with twist by Rayleigh–Ritz procedure. Comput
[180] Kuo SY, Shiau LC. Buckling and vibration of composite laminated plates with Methods Appl M 2004;193:805–23.
variable fiber spacing. Compos Struct 2009;90:196–200. [212] Lee CR, Kam TY, Sun SJ. Free-vibration analysis and material constants
[181] Brischetto S, Carrera E. Importance of higher order modes and refined identification of laminated composite sandwich plates. ASCE J Eng Mech
theories in free vibration analysis of composite plates. Trans ASME J Appl 2007;133:874–86.
Mech 2010;77:1–14. [213] Gupta US, Ansari AH, Sharma S. Buckling and vibration of polar orthotropic
[182] Shariyat M. A generalized global–local high-order theory for bending and circular plate resting on Winkler foundation. J Sound Vib 2006;297:457–76.
vibration analyses of sandwich plates subjected to thermo-mechanical loads. [214] Nallim LG, Grossi RO. Natural frequencies of symmetrically laminated
Int J Mech Sci 2010;52:495–514. elliptical and circular plates. Int J Mech Sci 2008;50:1153–67.
[183] Dehghan H, Baradaran GH. Buckling and free vibration analysis of thick [215] Biancolini ME, Brutti C, Reccia L. Approximate solution for free vibrations of
rectangular plates resting on elastic foundation using mixed finite element thin orthotropic rectangular plates. J Sound Vib 2005;288(1–2):321–44.
and differential quadrature method. Appl Math Comput [216] Zhou D, Cheung YK, Lo SH, Au FTK. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of
2011;218(6):2772–84. rectangular plates with mixed boundary conditions. J Appl Mech
[184] Singh BN, Lal A. Stochastic analysis of laminated composite plates on elastic 2005;72:227–36.
foundation: the cases of post-buckling behavior and nonlinear free vibration. [217] Zhou L, Zheng WX. Vibration of skew plates by the MLS-Ritz method. Int J
Int J Pres Ves Pip 2010;87:559–74. Mech Sci 2008;50:1133–41.
[185] Lal A, Singh BN. Stochastic free vibration of laminated composite plates in [218] Gupta AK, Johri T, Vats RP. Study of thermal gradient effect on vibrations of a
thermal environments. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 2010;23:57–77. non-homogeneous orthotropic rectangular plate having bi-direction linearly
[186] Carrera E, Buttner A, Nalif JP, Wallmerperger T, Kroplin B. A comparison of thickness variations. Meccanica 2010;45(3):393–400.
various two-dimensional assumptions in finite element analysis of [219] Hashemi SH, Karimi M, Taher HRD. Vibration analysis of rectangular Mindlin
multilayered plates. Int. J. Comput Methods Eng Sci Mech 2010;11:313–27. plates on elastic foundations and vertically in contact with stationary fluid by
[187] Van HN, Duy NM, Karunsena W, Cong TT. Buckling and vibration analysis of the Ritz method. Ocean Eng 2010;37(2-3):174–85.
laminated composite plate/shell structures via a smoothed quadrilateral flat [220] Dozio L, Carrera E. Ritz analysis of vibrating rectangular and skew
shell element with in-plane rotations. Comput Struct 2011;89:612–25. multilayered plates based on advanced variable-kinematic models. Compos
[188] Srinivasa CV, Suresh YJ, Kumar WPP. Free flexural vibration studies on Struct 2012;94:2118–28.
laminated composite skew plates. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2012;4(4):13–24. [221] Eftekhari SA, Jafari AA. A mixed method for free and forced vibration of
[189] Manna M. Free vibration of tapered isotropic rectangular plates. J Vib Control rectangular plates. Appl Math Model 2012;36:2814–31.
2012;18:76–91. [222] Jafari AA, Eftekhari SA. An efficient mixed methodology for free vibration and
[190] Natarajan S, Manickam G. Bending and vibration of functionally graded buckling analysis of orthotropic rectangular plates. Appl Math Comput
material sandwich plates using an accurate theory. Finite Elem Anal Des 2011;218:2670–92.
2012;57:32–42. [223] Fazzolari FA, Carrera E. Advanced variable kinematics Ritz and Galerkin
[191] Eftekhari SA, Jafari AA. A simple and accurate mixed FE-DQ formulation for formulations for accurate buckling and vibration analysis of anisotropic
free vibration of rectangular and skew Mindlin plates with general boundary laminated composite plates. Compos Struct 2011;94:50–67.
conditions. Meccanica 2013;48:1139–60. [224] Dozio L. In-plane free vibrations of single-layer and symmetrically laminated
[192] Elmalich D, Rabinovitch O. A high-order finite element for dynamic analysis rectangular composite plates. Compos Struct 2011;93:1787–800.
of soft-core sandwich plates. J Sandw Struct Mater 2012;14(5):525–55. [225] Kumar Y, Lal R. Vibrations of nonhomogeneous orthotropic rectangular plates
[193] Chitnis MR, Desai YM, Kant T. Edge vibrations in composite laminated with bilinear thickness variation resting on Winkler foundation. Meccanica
sandwich plates by using a higher order displacement based theory. J Sound 2012;47:893–915.
Vib 2000;238(5):791–807. [226] Lal R, Kumar Y. Characteristic orthogonal polynomials in the study of
[194] Cetkovic M, Vuksanovic D. Vibrations of isotropic, orthotropic and laminated transverse vibrations of nonhomogeneous rectangular orthotropic plates of
composite plates with various boundary conditions. J Serb Soc Comput Mech bilinearly varying thickness. Meccanica 2012;47:175–93.
2012;6(1):83–96. [227] Carrera E, Fazzolari FA, Demasi L. Vibration analysis of anisotropic simply
[195] Chalak HD, Chakrabarti A, Iqbal MA, Sheikh AH. free vibration analysis of supported plates by using variable kinematic and Rayleigh–Ritz method. J Vib
laminated soft core sandwich plates. J Vib Acoust 2013;135(1):1–15. Acoust 2011;133:1–16.
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 199

[228] Chakraverty S, Jindal R, Agarwal VK. Effect of non-homogeneity on natural [258] Malekzadeh P, Shojaee M. Free vibration of nanoplates based on a nonlocal
frequencies of vibration of elliptic plates. Meccanica 2007;42:585–99. two-variable refined plate theory. Compos Struct 2013;95:443–52.
[229] Watkins RJ, Barton O. Characterizing the vibration of an elastically point [259] Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Cinefra M, Viola E, Tornabene F, Fantuzzi N, et al.
supported rectangular plate using eigensensitivity analysis. Thin Walled Analysis of thick isotropic and cross-ply laminated plates by generalized
Struct 2009;48:327–33. differential quadrature method and a unified formulation. Composites: Part B
[230] Honda S, Narita Y. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of laminated 2014;58:544–52.
composite plates reinforced with arbitrary curvilinear fiber shape paths. J [260] Jahromi HN, Aghdam MM, Fallah A. Free vibration analysis of Mindlin plates
Sound Vib 2012;331:180–91. partially resting on Pasternak foundation. Int J Mech Sci 2013;75:1–7.
[231] Iurlaro L, Gherlone M, Sciuva MD, Tessler A. Assessment of the refined zigzag [261] Kamarian S, Yas MH, Pourasghar A. A Free vibration analysis of three-
theory for bending, vibration, and buckling of sandwich plates: a comparative parameter functionally graded material sandwich plates resting on Pasternak
study of different theories. Compos Struct 2013;106:777–92. foundations. J Sandw Struct Mater 2013;15(3):292–308.
[232] Fazzolari FA, Carrera E. Free vibration analysis of sandwich plates with [262] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Jorge RMN. Free vibration analysis of symmetric
anisotropic face sheets in thermal environment by using the hierarchical laminated composite plates by FSDT and radial basis functions. Comput
trigonometric Ritz formulation. Composites: Part B 2013;50:67–81. Method Appl M 2005;194:4265–78.
[233] Fazzolari FA, Carrera E. Accurate free vibration analysis of thermo- [263] Roque CMC, Ferreira AJM, Jorge RMN. Free vibration analysis of composite
mechanically pre/post-buckled anisotropic multilayered plates based on a and sandwich plates by a trigonometric layerwise deformation theory and
refined hierarchical trigonometric Ritz formulation. Compos Struct radial basis functions. J Sandw Struct Mater 2006;8:497–515.
2013;95:381–402. [264] Xiang S, Kang GW. Local thin plate spline collocation for free vibration
[234] Fazzolari FA, Carrera E. Coupled Thermoelastic effect in free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates. Eur J Mech-A/Solids 2012;33:
analysis of anisotropic multilayered plates and FGM plates by using a 24–30.
variable-kinematics Ritz formulation. Eur J Mech-A/Solid 2014;44:157–74. [265] Neves AMA, Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Cinefra M, Roque CMC, Jorge RMN, et al.
[235] Fiorenzo A, Fazzolari FA, Carrera E. Coupled Thermoelastic effect in free Static, free vibration and buckling analysis of isotropic and sandwich
vibration analysis anisotropic multilayered plates and FGM plates by using a functionally graded plates using a quasi-3D higher-order shear deformation
variable-kinematics Ritz formulation. Eur J Mech-A/Solids 2014;44:157–74. theory and a meshless technique. Composites: Part B 2013;44:657–74.
[236] Makhecha DP, Ganapathi M, Patel BP. Dynamic analysis of laminated [266] Xiang S, Jiang SX, Bi ZY, Jin YX, Yang MS. A nth-order meshless generalization
composite plates subjected to thermal/mechanical loads using an accurate of Reddy’s third-order shear deformation theory for the free vibration on
theory. Compos Struct 2001;51:221–36. laminated composite plates. Compos Struct 2011;93:299–307.
[237] Makhecha DP, Ganapathi M, Patel BP. Vibration and damping analysis of [267] Liu GR, Zhao X, Dai KY, Zhong ZH, Li GY, Han X. Static and free vibration
laminated/sandwich composite plates using higher-order theory. J Reinf Plast analysis of laminated composite plates using the conforming radial point
Compos 2002;21(6):559–75. interpolation method. Compos Sci Technol 2008;68:354–66.
[238] Ding HJ, Chen WQ, Xu RQ. On the bending, vibration and stability of [268] Liu GR, Chen XL. A mesh-free method for static and free vibration analysis of
laminated rectangular plates with transversely isotropic layers. Appl Math thin plates of complicated shape. J Sound Vib 2001;241:839–55.
Mech 2001;22(1):17–24. [269] Liew KM, Peng LX, Kitipornchai S. Vibration analysis of corrugated Reissner–
[239] Shen HS, Zheng JJ, Huang XL. Dynamic response of shear deformable Mindlin plates using mesh-free Galerkin method. Int J Mech Sci
laminated plates under thermo-mechanical loading and resting on elastic 2009;51:642–52.
foundations. Compos Struct 2003;60:57–66. [270] Peng LX, Liew KM, Kitipornchai S. Buckling and free vibration analyses of
[240] Chen WQ, Lue CF. 3D Free vibration analysis of cross-ply laminated plates stiffened plates using the FSDT mesh-free method. J Sound Vib
with one pair of opposite edges simply supported. Compos Struct 2006;289:421–49.
2005;69:77–87. [271] Peng LX, Kitipornchai S, Liew KM. Free vibration analysis of folded plate
[241] Shu C. Differential quadrature and its application in engineering. Springer; structures by the FSDT mesh-free method. Comput Mech 2007;39:799–814.
2000. [272] Liew KM, Wang J, Ng TY, Tan MJ. A free vibration and buckling analyses of
[242] Liew KM, Zhang JZ, Ng TY, Reddy JN. Dynamic characteristics of elastic shear-deformable plates based on FSDT meshfree method. J Sound Vib
bonding in composite laminates: a free vibration study. J Appl Mech 2004;276:997–1017.
2003;70:860–70. [273] Dai KY, Liu GR, Lim KM, Chen XL. A mesh-free method for static and free
[243] Liew KM, Huang YQ, Reddy JN. Vibration analysis of symmetrically laminated vibration analysis of shear deformable laminated composite plate. J Sound
plates based on FSDT using the moving least squares differential quadrature Vib 2004;269:633–52.
method. Comput Method Appl M 2003;192:2203–22. [274] Ferreira AJM, Fasshauer GE, Batra RC. Natural frequencies of thick plates
[244] Hong CC, Jane KC. Shear deformation in thermal vibration analysis of made of orthotropic, monoclinic, and hexagonal materials by a meshless
laminated plates by the GDQ method. Int J Mech Sci 2003;45(1): method. J Sound Vib 2009;319:984–92.
21–36. [275] Ferreira AJM, Castro LMS, Bertoluzza S. A high order collocation method for
[245] Malekzadeh P, Karami G, Farid M. A semi-analytical DQEM for free vibration the static and vibration analysis of composite plates using a first-order
analysis of thick plates with two opposite edges simply supported. Comput theory. Compos Struct 2009;89:424–32.
Method Appl M 2004;193(45-47):4781–96. [276] Bui TQ, Nguyen MN, Zhang C. An efficient meshfree method for vibration
[246] Malekzadeh P, Karami G. Vibration of non-uniform thick plates on elastic analysis of laminated composite plates. Comput Mech 2011;48:175–93.
foundation by differential quadrature method. Eng Struct 2004;26(10): [277] Wu CP, Chiu KH. RMVT-based mesh-less collocation and element free
1473–82. Galerkin methods for the quasi 3D free vibration analysis of multilayered
[247] Zhang Z, Feng C, Liew KM. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of composite and FGM plates. Compos Struct 2011;93:1433–48.
multilayered piezoelectric composite plates. Int J Eng Sci 2006;44:397–408. [278] Xiang S, Kang GW, Yang MS, Zhao Y. Natural frequencies of sandwich plate
[248] Malekzadeh P. A differential quadrature nonlinear free vibration analysis of with functionally graded face and homogeneous core. Compos Struct
laminated composite skew thin plates. Thin Walled Struct 2007;45: 2013;96:226–31.
237–50. [279] Xiang S, Kang GW, Xing B. A nth-order shear deformation theory for the free
[249] Yas MH, Aragh BS. Free vibration analysis of continuous grading fiber vibration analysis on the isotropic plates. Meccanica 2012;47:1913–21.
reinforced plates on elastic foundation. Int J Eng Sci 2010;48:1881–95. [280] Ferreira AJM. Free vibration analysis of Timoshenko beams and Mindlin
[250] Hashemi SH, Omidi M, Taher HRD. The validity range of CPT and Mindlin plates by radial basis functions. Int J Comput Meth 2005;2(1):15–31.
plate theory in comparison with 3-D vibrational analysis of circular plates on [281] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Jorge RMN, Kansa EJ. Static deformations and
the elastic foundation. Eur J Mech-A/Solids 2009;28:289–304. vibration analysis of composite and sandwich plates using a layerwise theory
[251] Sharma AK, Mittal ND, Sharma A. Free vibration analysis of moderately thick and multiquadrics discretizations. Eng Anal Bound Elem 2005;29:
antisymmetric cross-ply laminated rectangular plates with elastic edge 1104–14.
constraints. Int J Mech Sci 2011;53:688–95. [282] Ferreira AJM, Fasshauer GE, Batra RC, Rodrigues JD. Static deformations and
[252] Lal R, Rani R. Mode shapes and frequencies of radially symmetric vibrations vibration analysis of composite and sandwich plates using a layerwise theory
of annular sandwich plates of variable thickness. Acta Mech and RBF-PS discretizations with optimal shape parameter. Compos Struct
2014;225(6):1565–80. 2008;86:328–43.
[253] Arikoglu A, Ozkol I. Vibration analysis of composite sandwich plates by the [283] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Carrera E, Cinefra M, Polit O. Two higher order Zig-
generalized differential quadrature method. AIAA J 2012;50(3):620–30. Zag theories for the accurate analysis of bending, vibration and buckling
[254] Ferreira AJM, Viola E, Tornabene F, Fantuzzi N, Zenkour AM. Analysis of response of laminated plates by radial basis functions collocation and a
sandwich plates by generalized differential quadrature method. Math Probl unified formulation. J Compos Mater 2011;45:2523–36.
Eng 2013;2013:1–12. [284] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Neves AMA, Jorge RMN, Soares CMM, Liew KM.
[255] Zamani M, Fallah A, Aghdam MM. Free vibration analysis of moderately thick Buckling and vibration analysis of isotropic and laminated plates by radial
trapezoidal symmetrically laminated plates with various combinations of basis functions. Composites: Part B 2011;42:592–606.
boundary conditions. Eur J Mech-A/Solids 2012;36:204–12. [285] Ferreira AJM, Roque CMC, Carrera E, Cinefra M. Analysis of thick isotropic and
[256] Sharma S, Gupta US, Singhal P. Vibration analysis of non-homogeneous cross-ply laminated plates by radial basis functions and a Unified
orthotropic rectangular plates of variable thickness resting on Winkler Formulation. J Sound Vib 2011;330:771–87.
foundation. J Appl Sci Eng 2012;15(3):291–300. [286] Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Cinefra M, Roque CMC. Radial Basis Functions
[257] Eftekhari SA, Jafari AA. Mixed finite element and differential quadrature Collocation for the Bending and Free Vibration analysis of Laminated Plates
method for free and forced vibration and buckling analysis of rectangular using the Reissner-Mixed Variational Theorem. Eur J Mech-A/Solids
plates. Appl Math Mech 2012;33(1):81–98. 2013;39:104–12.
200 A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201

[287] Xiang S, Wang KM, Ai YT, Sha YD, Shi H. Natural frequencies of generally [317] Civalek O, Gurses M. Frequency analysis of trapezoidal plates and membrane
laminated composite plates using the Gaussian radial basis function and using discrete singular convolution. Asian J Civil Eng 2009;9(6):593–605.
first-order shear deformation theory. Thin Walled Struct 2009;47:1265–71. [318] Civalek O, Gurses M. Free vibration of annular Mindlin plates with free inner
[288] Rodrigues JD, Roque CMC, Ferreira AJM, Cinefra M, Carrera E. Radial basis edge via discrete singular convolution method. Arab J Sci Eng 2009;34:81–90.
functions-differential quadrature collocation and a unified formulation for [319] Gurses M, Civalek O, Kokmaz AK, Ersoy H. Free vibration analysis of
bending, vibration and buckling analysis of laminated plates, according to symmetric laminated skew plates by discrete singular convolution
Murakami’s Zig-Zag theory. Comput Struct 2012;90–91:107–15. technique based on first order shear deformation theory. Int J Numer
[289] Rodrigues JD, Roque CMC, Ferreira AJM, Carrera E, Cinefra M. Radial basis Methods Eng 2009;79:290–313.
functions–finite differences collocation and a Unified Formulation for [320] Wang X, Xu S. Free vibration analysis of beams and rectangular plates with
bending, vibration and buckling analysis of laminated plates, according to free edges by the discrete singular convolution. J Sound Vib
Murakami’s zig-zag theory. Compos Struct 2011;93:1613–20. 2010;329(10):1780–92.
[290] Cong DN, Duy NM, Karunasena W, Cong TT. Integrated RBF network method [321] Zhu Q, Wang X. Free vibration analysis of thin isotropic and anisotropic
for Free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates. IOP Conf Ser: Mater rectangular plates by the discrete singular convolution algorithm. Int J
Sci Eng 2010;10(1):1–9. Numer Methods Eng 2011;86(6):782–800.
[291] Cong DN, Duy NM, Karunasena W, Cong TT. Free vibration analysis of [322] Wang X, Wang Y, Xu S. DSC analysis of a simply supported anisotropic
laminated composite plates based on FSDT using one-dimensional IRBFN rectangular plate. Compos Struct 2012;94:2576–84.
method. Comput Struct 2011;89(1-2):1–13. [323] Shufrin I, Eisenberger M. Stability and vibration of shear deformable plates—-
[292] Xiang S, Wang KM. Free vibration analysis of symmetric laminated composite first order and higher order analyses. Int J Solids Struct 2005;42:1225–51.
plates by trigonometric shear deformation theory and inverse multiquadric [324] Phongsrisuk K, Ingsuwan P, Rangsri W, Klongpanich W. Free vibration
RBF. Thin Walled Struct 2009;47:304–10. analysis of symmetrically laminated composite rectangular plates using
[293] Roque CMC, Rodrigues JD, Ferreira AJM. Analysis of thick plates by local radial extended Kantorovich method. Maejo Int J Sci Technol 2010;4(3):512–32.
basis functions-finite differences method. Meccanica 2012;47: [325] Rahbar RA, Rostami HH. A semi-analytical solution for forced vibrations
1157–71. response of rectangular orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions.
[294] Ferreira AJM, Fasshauer GE. Computation of natural frequencies of shear J Mech Sci Technol 2010;24:357–64.
deformable beams and plates by a RBF- pseudospectral method. Comput [326] Fallah A, Kargarnovin MH, Aghdam MM. Free vibration analysis of
Methods Appl Mech Eng 2006;196:134–46. symmetrically laminated fully clamped skew plates using extended
[295] Zhang QJ, Sainsbury MG. The Galerkin element method applied to the Kantorovich method. Key Eng Mat 2011;471-472:739–44.
vibration of rectangular damped sandwich plates. Comput Struct [327] Reissner E. On a certain mixed variational theory and proposed application.
2000;74(6):717–30. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1984;20:1366–8.
[296] Gorman DJ. Free vibration analysis of completely free rectangular plates by [328] Reissner E. On a mixed variational theorem and on a shear deformable plate
the superposition-Galerkin Method. J Sound Vib 2000;237(5):901–14. theory. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1986;23:193–8.
[297] Chen XL, Liu GR, Lim SP. An element free Galerkin method for the free [329] Reissner E. On a certain mixed variational theorem and on laminated elastic
vibration analysis of composite laminates of complicated shape. Compos shell theory. Proceedings of Euromech-Colloquium 1986;219:17–27.
Struct 2003;59:279–89. [330] Murakami H. Laminated composite plate theory with improved in-plane
[298] Muthurajan KG, Sankaranarayanasamy K, Tiwari SB, Rao BN. Nonlinear responses. In: Proceedings of PVP conference, New Orleans 98(2); 1985. p.
vibration analysis of initially stressed thin laminated rectangular plates on 257–263.
elastic foundations. J Sound Vib 2005;282:949–69. [331] Murakami H. Laminated composite plate theory with improved in-plane
[299] Chien RD, Chen CS. Nonlinear vibration of laminated plates on an elastic responses. Appl Mech 1986;53:661–6.
foundation. Thin Walled Struct 2006;44:852–60. [332] Toledano A, Murakami H. A high-order laminated plate theory with improved
[300] Chen CS, Fung CP, Chien RD. Nonlinear vibration of orthotropic plates with in-plane responses. Int J Solids Struct 1987;23:111–31.
initial stresses on a two-parameter elastic foundation. J Reinf Plast Compos [333] Toledano A, Murakami H. A composite plate theory for arbitrary laminate
2006;25(3):283–301. configurations. J Appl Mech 1987;54:181–9.
[301] Chen CS, Fung CP, Chien RD. A further study on nonlinear vibration of initially [334] Soldatos KP. Cylindrical bending of cross-ply laminated plates refined 2D
stressed plates. Appl Math Comput 2006;172(1):349–67. plate theories in comparison with the exact 3D elasticity solution. Tech
[302] Chen CS, Fung CP, Chien RD. Nonlinear vibration of an initially stressed Report No. 140, Dept. of Mathematics, University of Ioannina, Greece; 1987.
laminated plate according to a higher-order theory. Compos Struct [335] Carrera E. A class of two-dimensional theories for anisotropic multilayered
2007;77:521–32. plates analysis. Accademia delle Scienze di Torino, Memorie Scienze Fisiche
[303] Givli HS, Rabinovitch O, Frostig Y. High-order free vibrations of delaminated 1995;19–20:1–39.
simply supported sandwich panels with a transversely flexible core – a [336] Carrera E. C 0z Requirements-Models for the two dimensional analysis of
modified Galerkin approach. J Sound Vib 2007;301(1–2):253–77. multilayered structures. Compos Struct 1997;37:373–84.
[304] Gupta AK, Kumar L. Thermal effect on vibration of non-homogenous visco- [337] Carrera E. A refined multilayered finite element model applied to linear and
elastic rectangular plate of linearly varying thickness. Meccanica nonlinear analysis of sandwich structures. Compos Sci Technol
2008;43(1):47–54. 1998;58:1553–69.
[305] Jayakumar K, Yadav D, Rao BN. Nonlinear free vibration analysis of simply [338] Carrera E. Mixed layer-wise models for multilayered plates analysis. Compos
supported piezo-laminated plates with random actuation electric potential Struct 1998;43:57–70.
difference and material properties. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul [339] Carrera E. A Reissner’s mixed variational theorem applied to vibration
2009;14. 1646–166. analysis of multilayered shells. J Appl Mech 1999;66:69–78.
[306] Shooshtari A, Razavi S. A closed form solution for linear and nonlinear free [340] Carrera E. Evaluation of layer-wise mixed theories for laminated plates
vibrations of composite and fiber metal laminated rectangular plates. analysis. AIAA J 1998;26:830–9.
Compos Struct 2010;92:2663–75. [341] Carrera E. Transverse normal stress effects in multilayered plates. J Appl
[307] Morozov EV, Lopatin AV. Fundamental frequency of fully clamped composite Mech 1999;66:1004–12.
sandwich plate. J Sandw Struct Mater 2010;12:591–618. [342] Carrera E. A study of transverse normal stress effects on vibration of
[308] Liu J, Cheng YS, Li RF, Au FTK. A semi-analytical method for bending, buckling, multilayered plates and shells. J Sound Vib 1999;225:803–29.
and free vibration analyses of sandwich panels with square-honeycomb [343] Carrera E. Single-layer vs multi-layers plate modelings on the basis of
cores. Int J Struct Stab Dyn 2010;10(1):127–51. Reissner’s mixed theorem. AIAA J 2000;38:342–3.
[309] Qian LF, Batra RC, Chen LM. free and forced vibration of thick rectangular [344] Carrera E. A priori vs a posteriori evaluation of transverse stresses in
plates by using higher order shear and normal deformable theory and multilayered orthotropic plates. Compos Struct 2000;48:245–60.
meshless local Petroc–Galerkin (MLPG) method. Comput Model Eng Sci [345] Carrera E. An assessment of mixed and classical theories for thermal stress
2003;4:519–34. analysis of orthotropic plates. J Therm Stresses 2000;23:797–831.
[310] Wei GW, Zhao YB, Xiang Y. A novel approach for the analysis of high- [346] Carrera E. Layer-wise mixed models for accurate vibration analysis of
frequency vibrations. J Sound Vib 2002;257(2):207–46. multilayered plates. ASME J Appl Mech 1998;65:820–8.
[311] Zhao YB, Wei GW, Xiang Y. Discrete Singular convolution for the prediction of [347] Messina A. Two generalized higher order theories in free vibration studies of
high frequency vibration of plates. Int J Solids Struct 2002;39:65–88. multilayered plates. J Sound Vib 2001;242:125–50.
[312] Ng CHW, Zhao YB, Wei GW. Comparison of discrete singular convolution and [348] Zenkour AM, Youssif YG. Free vibration analysis of symmetric cross-ply
generalized differential quadrature for the vibration analysis of rectangular laminated elastic plates. Mech Res Commun 2000;27(2):165–72.
plates. Comput Method Appl M 2004;193:2483–506. [349] Zenkour AM, Sheikh KE. Buckling and free vibration of elastic plates using
[313] Yunshan H, Wei GW, Xiang Y. DSC-Ritz method for the free vibration analysis simple and mixed shear deformation theories. Acta Mech 2001;146:183–97.
of Mindlin plates. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2005;62:262–88. [350] Yu W. Mathematical construction of a Reissner–Mindlin plate theory for
[314] Civalek O. Three-dimensional vibration, buckling and bending analyses of composite laminates. Int J Solids Struct 2005;42:6680–99.
thick rectangular plates based on discrete singular convolution method. Int J [351] Demasi L. Refined multilayered plate elements based on Murakami zig-zag
Mech Sci 2007;49:752–65. functions. Compos Struct 2005;70:308–16.
[315] Civalek O. Free vibration analysis of symmetrically laminated composite [352] Demasi L. Treatment of stress variables in advanced multilayered plate
plates with first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) by discrete singular elements based on Reissnerls mixed variational theorem. Comput Struct
convolution method. Finite Elem Anal Des 2008;44:725–31. 2006;84:1215–21.
[316] Civalek O, Gurses M. Discrete singular convolution for free vibration analysis [353] Kim JS. Free vibration of laminated and sandwich plates using enhanced plate
annular membranes. Math Comput Appl 2009;14(2):131–8. theories. J Sound Vib 2007;308:268–86.
A.S. Sayyad, Y.M. Ghugal / Composite Structures 129 (2015) 177–201 201

[354] Carrera E, Brischetto S. Analysis of thickness locking in classical, refined and [373] Saeidifar M, Ohadi AR. Bending vibration and buckling of non-uniform plate
mixed multilayered plate theories. Compos Struct 2008;82:549–62. with time-dependent boundary conditions. J Vib Control 2011;17:1371–93.
[355] Brischetto S, Carrera E. Advanced mixed theories for bending analysis of [374] Xing YF, Liu B. New exact solutions for free vibrations of thin orthotropic
functionally graded plates. Comput Struct 2010;88:1474–83. rectangular plates. Compos Struct 2009;89:567–74.
[356] Phoenix SS, Singh BN, Satsangi SK. Analysis of thermo-elastic plates based on [375] Liu B, Xing Y. Exact solutions for free in-plane vibrations of rectangular plates.
Reissner’s mixed variational theorem. Compos Struct 2011;93:590–8. Acta Mech Solida Sin 2011;24(6):556–67.
[357] Chinosi C, Cinefra M, Croce LD, Carrera E. Reissner’s mixed variational [376] Liu B, Xing Y. Exact solutions for free vibrations of orthotropic rectangular
theorem toward MITC finite elements for multilayered plates. Compos Struct Mindlin plates. Compos Struct 2011;93:1664–72.
2013:99;443–52. [377] Kashtalyan M, Menshykova M. Three-dimensional elasticity solution for
[358] Frostig Y, Thomsen OT. High-order free vibration of sandwich panels with a sandwich panels with a functionally graded core. Compos Struct
flexible core. Int J Solids Struct 2004;41(5–6):1697–724. 2009;87:36–43.
[359] Frostig Y, Thomsen OT. On the free vibration of sandwich panels with a [378] Li Q, Iu VP, Kou KP. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of functionally
flexible and material temperature dependent core - Part I – Mathematical graded material sandwich plates. J Sound Vib 2008;311:498–515.
formulation. Compos Sci Technol 2009;69(6):856–62. [379] Lim CW, Lu CF, Xiang Y, Yao W. On new symplectic elasticity approach for
[360] Frostig Y, Thomsen OT. On the vibration of sandwich panels with a flexible exact free vibration solutions of rectangular Kirchhoff plates. Int J Eng Sci
and material temperature dependent core - Part II – Numerical study. 2009;47(1):131–40.
Compos Sci Technol 2009;69(6):863–9. [380] Messina A. Influence of the edge–boundary conditions on three-dimensional
[361] Frostig Y, Phan CN, Kardomateas GA. Free vibration of unidirectional free vibrations of isotropic and cross-ply multilayered rectangular plates.
sandwich panels, Part I: compressible core. J Sandw Struct Mater Compos Struct 2011;93(8):2135–51.
2013;15(4):377–411. [381] Kant T, Manjunatha BS. An un-symmetric FRC laminate C3 finite element
[362] Phan CN, Frostig Y, Kardomateas GA. Free vibration of unidirectional model with 12 degrees of freedom per node. Eng Comput 1988;5:300–8.
sandwich panels, Part II: incompressible core. J Sandw Struct Mater [382] Pandya BN, Kant T. Finite element stress analysis of laminated composite
2013;15(4):412–28. plates using higher-order displacement model. Compos Sci Technol
[363] Srinivas S, Joga Rao CV, Rao AK. Bending, vibration and buckling of simply 1988;32:137–55.
supported thick orthotropic rectangular plate and laminates. Int J Solids [383] Senthilnathan NR, Lim KH, Lee KH, Chow ST. Buckling of shear-deformable
Struct 1970;6:1463–81. plates. AIAA J 1987;25:1268–71.
[364] Noor AK. Free vibrations of multilayered composite plates. AIAA J [384] Whitney JM, Pagano NJ. Shear deformation in heterogeneous anisotropic
1973;11(7):1038–9. plates. J Appl Mech 1970;37:1031–6.
[365] Batra RC, Aimmanee S. Missing frequencies in previous exact solutions of free [385] Phan ND, Reddy JN. Analyses of laminated composite plates using a higher
vibrations of simply supported rectangular plates. J Vib Control order deformation theory. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1985;21(12):2201–19.
2003;265:887–96. [386] Akhras G, Li W. Static and free vibration analysis of composite plates using
[366] Leissa AW, Kang JH. Exact solutions for vibration and buckling of an SS-C-SS- spline finite strips with higher-order shear deformation. Composites: Part B
C rectangular plate loaded by linearly varying in-plane stresses. Int J Mech Sci 2005;36:496–503.
2002;44:1925–45. [387] Khdeir AA, Librescu L. Analysis of symmetric cross-ply elastic plates using a
[367] Kang JH, Shim HJ. Exact solutions for the free vibrations of rectangular plates higher-order theory, Part II: buckling and free vibration. Compos Struct
having in-plane moments acting on two opposite simply supported edges. J 1988;9:259–77.
Sound Vib 2004;273:933–48. [388] Franco CVM, Soares CMM, Soares CAM. Higher order models on the Eigen
[368] Zhang JZ, Ng TY, Liew KM. Three-dimensional theory of elasticity for free frequency analysis and optimal design of laminated Composite Structures.
vibration analysis of composite laminates via layerwise differential Compos Struct 1997;39(3-4):237–53.
quadrature modelling. Int J Numer Methods Eng 2003;57(13):1819–44. [389] Wu CP, Chen WY. Vibration and stability of laminated plates based on a local
[369] Vel SS, Batra RC. Three-dimensional exact solution for the vibration of high order plate theory. J Sound Vib 1994;177(4):503–20.
functionally graded rectangular plates. J Sound Vib 2004;272:703–30. [390] Cho KN, Bert CW, Striz AG. Free vibrations of laminated rectangular plates
[370] Demasi L. Three-dimensional closed form solutions and exact thin plate analyzed by high order individual-layer theory. J Sound Vib
theories for isotropic plates. Compos Struct 2007;80:183–95. 1991;145(3):429–42.
[371] Xu RQ. Three-dimensional exact solutions for the free vibration of laminated [391] DiSciuva M. Bending, vibration, and buckling of simply supported thick
transversely isotropic circular, annular and sectorial plates with unusual multilayered orthotropic plates: an evaluation of a new displacement model.
boundary conditions. Arch Appl Mech 2008;78:543–58. J Sound Vib 1986;105(3):425–42.
[372] Wu JH, Liu AQ, Chen HL. Exact solutions for free-vibration analysis of
rectangular plates using Bessel functions. J Appl Mech 2007;74:1247–51.