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# Unit -III PART A

## 1. Define principal waves

Transverse Electromagnetic(TEM) waves are called principal waves. In TEM
both electric and magnetic fields are entirely transverse. No component of Ez and
Hz. So Ez=0; Hz=0.

2. Define waveguides.
Waveguide is a hollow metallic tube of uniform cross section (rectangular or
circular) in which the electromagnetic waves are propagated. Waves that are
guided along the walls of the tube are called guided waves.

## 3. Mention the characteristics of TEM waves.

It is a special type of TM wave.
It does not have either Ez or Hz component. So Ez=0; Hz=0
It is also known as principal waves.

## 4. What is cut off wavelength?

￼c = 2a/m where a= separation between plates. m= mode.
The wave having the wavelength greater than ￼c will not be propagated.

5. What is the dominant mode for TE and TM waves between parallel planes?
The lowest order mode is called Dominant mode. Dominant mode for TE is
TE10.
Dominant mode for TM is TM11.

## 6. What is the wave impedence for TE and TM wave ?

Wave impedance(Z) is the ratio of electric field intensity(E) to magnetic field
intensity(H). ZTM =￼. √(1-fc/f)2 ZTE= ￼/ √(1-fc/f)2 where ￼ is
the characteristic impedance or intrinsic impedance.

## 7. What is called wave impedence ?

Wave impedance(Z) is the ratio of electric field intensity(E) to magnetic field
intensity(H). Z=E/H. Unit: ohm.
8. What do you mean by TM waves?
TM(Transverse Magnetic) waves or E waves are the waves in which there is a
component of electric field in the direction of propagation (Ez) but there is no
component of magnetic field(Hz) in the direction of propagation Hz=0.

9. Write down the expression for cut off frequency when the wave is
propagated in between two parallel plates.
Cut off frequency(fc)is the frequency at which the wave propagation stops. fc=m/
(2a√￼). Unit: Hz

￼￼￼￼￼

## Unit –IV PART A

1. A rectangular waveguide has the following dimensions l=2.54cm, b=1.27cm,
thickness= 0.127m. Calculate cutoff frequency for TE11 mode.

## Fc=1/(2￼) √￼ . √(m￼/a)2 + (n￼/b)2 ; m=1 n=1 a=2.54cm;b=1.27cm

Fc =( c/2 ) √(m/a)2 + (n/b)2
Fc =13.2 GHz.

## 2. Why waveguide is taken circular or rectangular form?

Waveguides usually take the form of rectangular or circular cylinders because
of its simpler form in use and & less expensive to manufacture.

## 3. Define Transverse Electric waves.

TM(Transverse Electric) waves or H waves are the waves in which there is a
component of magnetic field in the direction of propagation (Hz) but there is no
component of electric field(Ez) in the direction of propagation Ez=0.

## 4. Mention the applications of waveguide.

Waveguides are used as attenuators and phase shifters.

## 5. Why rectangular or circular cavities can be used as microwave resonators?

Rectangular or circular cavities can be used as microwave resonators
because they
have natural resonant frequency and behaves like LCR circuit.

## 6. Calculate the lowest resonant frequency of a rectangular cavity resonator of

dimension a=2cm, b=1cm, d=3cm.
Fc=1/(2￼) √￼ . √(m￼/a)2 + (n￼/b)2 ; a=2cm;b=1cm
2 2
Fc =( c/2 ) √(m/a) + (n/b)

## 7. What are the dominant modes in rectangular waveguides?

The lowest order mode is called Dominant mode in rectangular waveguides.
The cutoff wavelength should be the highest value.
Dominant mode for TE is TE10.
Dominant mode for TM is TM11.

## 8. What is guide wave length ?

Guide wavelength is the distance traveled by the wave along the waveguide
when the phase angle changes through 2￼ radians.

## 9. Draw the field distribution in TM wave in rectangular wave guide.

Refer the book for the diagram
10. What is cutoff frequency?
Cut off frequency(fc)is the frequency at which the wave propagation stops.
Unit: Hz.

UNIT V

## 1. Define circular waveguide.

Circular Waveguide is a hollow metallic tube of circular cross section in which
the electromagnetic waves are propagated.

## 2. Define wave impedance.

Wave impedance(Z) is the ratio of electric field intensity(E) to magnetic field
intensity(H). Z=E/H. Unit: ohm.

## Rectangular or circular cavities can be used as microwave resonators because

they have natural resonant frequency and behaves like LCR circuit.

## 4. Calculate the lowest resonant frequency of a rectangular cavity resonator of

dimension a=2cm, b=1cm, d=3cm.

## 5. What is the use of cavity resonator ?

Cavity resonators are used in microwave amplifiers, oscillators, wavemeters and
filters.
6. What are the applications of cavity resonators?
Cavity resonators are used in microwave amplifiers, oscillators, wavemeters
and filters.

## 7. What is dominant mode of TM wave in circular waveguide ?

The lowest order mode is called Dominant mode in circular waveguides. The
cutoff wavelength should be the highest value.
Dominant mode for TE is TE11
Dominant mode for TM is TM01.

## 8. State the boundary condition for TE wave in circular waveguide.

The boundary condition is given by Jn( row. h )=0.

## 9. Find the resonant frequency of a rectangular cavity of size 5 cm for the

dominant mode.
Mode = 101; m=1; n=0; p=1

## F0=1/(2￼) √￼ . √(m￼/a)2 + (n￼/b)2 ; a=5cm;b=5cm c=5cm

F0 =( c/2 ) √(m/a)2 + (n/b)2

F0=4.24GHz.

## 10. What is cavity resonator?

It consists of a metallic enclosure that confines the electromagnetic energy.
The stored electric and magnetic energy determines the equivalent inductance and
capacitance. Walls of cavity determines the equivalent resistance. Cavity resonators
are represented by R,L,C.

## TE Transverse Electric waves

TM Transverse Magnetic waves.
Other name: H waves
Other name: E waves
component of magnetic field in z direction is present(Hz)
component of electric field in z direction is present(Ez)
Ez=0.
Hz=0.