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AN ANALYSIS OF DEIXIS IN 9 SUMMERS 10 AUTUMNS NOVEL

BY IWAN SETYAWAN

Submitted to fulfilment the final exam of Semantic and Pragmatic

by

Sakina Noviandani.W.P

0917012491

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

TEACHERS’ TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

UNIVERSITAS PEKALONGAN

2019
A. Background of Study

Language is a main part of human‘s life because it functions as a tool for communication and
interaction among humans hence, language is more than a sign. People can communicate and
interact with each other by using language for many purposes. The existence of language
among humans for communication and interaction is a natural phenomenon. This natural
phenomenon can be used written and spoken. One of the linguistic areas that learn about
language that can help human in using it is pragmatics. Laurence R. Horn and Gregory Ward
(2006) stated that pragmatics is the study of those context dependent aspects of meaning
which are systematically abstracted away from the construction of content or logical form. In
the other words, pragmatics can be defined as the study of contextual meaning. So, there must
be a relationship between language and the context. The most noticeable technique to
manifest the relationship between language and context is through deixis. Deixis means
pointing and has its root in Greek. In this paper, the researcher would like to analyse three
types of deixis of in BTS Speech at United Nation. These three types of deixis are person,
temporal and spatial deixis. Deixis can be found in short story, novel and movie, etc. This
study analyzed BTS speech at United Nation. There were many utterance in that novel that
could be anlyzed to find out the deixis. Therefore, the topic of deixis was choosen because it
is important to know the meaning of the novel. It is important to make the sentence become
clearer so the readers will understand it. The writer thought that the result of this study would
have important value that can be used to analyze deixis in this speech. This paper anlyzed
deixis expressions in the movie while other studies use novels and narrative texts as the data
sources, etc.

B. Objectives
Based on the background of the study above, the problem in this study can be
formulated as follows
1. To find the types of deixis that found in BTS speech at United Nations
2. To know the deixis presentage in BTS speech at United Nations

C. Literature

Pragmatics is the study of meaning in relation to be context in which a person is speaking or writing.
It also includes social situational and textual context (Paltridge, 2006: 53). In this case pragmatic also
assumes that when people communicate with other they normally follow some kind of cooperative
principle. It means that that make understanding about the language they have to share what they
know and how they cooperate their communication.

While according to Yule (1996: 3) Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. It concerned with a
study of meaning as communication by a speaker (a writer) and interpreted by listener (a reader).
Levinson (1985: 9) also argues that pragmatics is a study of those relations between language and
context that are grammaticalized or encoded the structure of language. He also states that the
pragmatics is study of relation between language and context that are basic to an account of language
understanding (1985: 21).

Deixis is a way of referring to something related of the speaker context. There are three types
of deixis, namely temporal deixis, persona deixis, and temporal deixis. The three deixis relies
on the interpretation of speakers and speech partners who are in the same context.
Meanwhile, Yule (1996:9) states that deixis is a technical term (from Greek) for one of the
most basic things we do with utterances. It means ‘pointing’ is called a deictic expression.
Hurford (1984:63) also states that a deictic word is one which takes some element of its
meaning from the situation (i.e. the speaker, the addressee, the time and the place) of the
utterance in which it is used. Furthermore, Jack Richards, et.al (1985:75) states in their book
“Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics” that deixis is a term for a word or phrase
which directly relates an utterance to a time, place, or person(s). According to Bambang
kaswanti Purwo (1984: 1) a word is said to be Deixis if the reference to moving or changing,
depending on who becomes the speaker, time, person and place speech those words. In the
field of linguistics there is also the term is often called referral or reference, word or phrase
that refers to word, phrases or expressions that will be given.
Yule (2006:13) stated that deixis is a way of referring to something related of the speaker
context. There are three types of deixis, namely persona deixis, time deixis and place deixis.
The three of deixis relies on the interpretation of speakers and speech partners who are in the
some context. My research focuses on three types of deixis in the novel.
In classifying explanation of deixis above, here is an example of deixis.
Example of persona deixis:
“The Sea King had been a widower for many years, and his aged mother kept house for
him.
“Sea King” means as a subject and as the third singular person “his” refers to as the
first singular person “him” refers to as the first singular person.
Example of time deixis:
“The Sea king has been widower for many years”
Year is temporal deixis (time)
Example of place deixis:
“I know that I had shall love the world up there and all the people who live it”.
Do they never die as we do here in the sea
Here and there are spatial deixis (place)
Now day’s, the people are easy to show their feeling by reading a short story. Short
story is something like us fairy tale and drama; makes the reader enjoyed to communication
and shares their feelings. Short story is another way to communicate people’s feeling to
someone else through story. It is also the representation of the composers’ emotion to
describe the feelings, such as falling in love, sad, happy, jealous, broken heart, missing
someone, and others.
meaning. It means that pragmatic is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated
by the speaker and listener.

D. Research Design
In this research use descriptive qualitative method. According to Heigham andCrocker
(2009:5) qualitative research entails collecting primarily contextual data and examining it
using interpretative analysis. It means that, this method gives clear description about the
problem that is being researched. In this case the reseacher going to analyze the novel “9
Summers 10 Autumns” by Iwan Setyawan and then category of types of deixis.
E. Data Source
The data source is from the novel “9 Summers 10 Autumns” by Iwan Setyawan .The data
for this research is taken from all utterances in forms of direct speech, and also the
researcher selects the data in this short story which only contains three deixis they are
person deixis, time deixis and place deixis.
F. Finding and Discussion
After the data were collected, the data were classified based on the types. There are three
types of deifies: person deixis, temporal deixis, and spatial deixis. Here are the examples
of deixis types on The 9 Summers 10 Autumns Novel chapter 23 and 24.

No. Person Deixis Temporal Deixis Spatial Deixis


1. “Have you tried Mexican 1. “Hey, Lizz Wright is on 1. “In my entire life, I
Food?” the stage now” never expected to be
2. “I think you should give it 2. “No no, you cannot just here at all. Thank
a try. It’s pretty good” leave me. Let me tell you so much”
3. “You might like your story here, now, in 2. “I cannot wait to try
Guacamole and chips” Venice, about the cities I Italian food here”
4. “Wow, the food is really visited during my 3. “No no, you cannot
good. I love it.” college days. But once just leave me. Let me
5. “I cannot believe this. Oh again, you can’t leave tell your story here,
my gosh!” me. Here’s how the story now, in Venice,
6. “In my entire life, I never goes” about the cities I
expected to be here at all. visited during my
Thank you so much” college days.”
7. “I have to go after this 4. “But once again, you
vacation, somewhere. can’t leave me.
8. “I can stay with you Here’s how the story
forever and please share a goes”
few more stories while 5. “I wish I could bring
we’re here in Venice them here, to enjoy
before I go” the beauty of
9. “I can stay with you Venice”
forever and please share a
few more stories while
we’re here in Venice
before I go”
10. “I can stay with you
forever and please share a
few more stories while
we’re here in Venice
before I go”
11. “No no, you cannot just
leave me. Let me tell your
story here, now, in Venice,
about the cities I visited
during my college days.
But once again, you can’t
leave me. Here’s how the
story goes”
12. “No no, you cannot just
leave me. Let me tell your
story here, now, in Venice,
about the cities I visited
during my college days.
But once again, you can’t
leave me. Here’s how the
story goes”
13. “But once again, you can’t
14. leave me. Here’s how the
story goes”
“You cannot leave me”
15. “There are still plenty of
stories I have not told
you”
16. “There are still plenty of
stories I have not told
you”
17. “I wish I could bring them
here, to enjoy the beauty
of Venice”
“I wish I could bring them
here, to enjoy the beauty
of Venice”

The result of the research shows that there are some types of deixis found. The types of deixis
in the movie are; Person deixis: I,. place deixis: here. Time deixis: now. The percentage of
the data of deixis used in 9 Summers 10 Autumn novel explained below. The first type of
deixis that reaches the greatest precentage is the person deixis, it was used 17 times or
(70.83%). The detail of the person deixis are the first person 14 times or (82.35%), the second
person was used six times or (35.30%). The third person use 0 time or (0%). The second type
included spatial deixis, it was used four times or (11,08%). The third was the temporal deixis
it was used two times or (3,16%).
REFERENCE

Fatkhunurohmah, Novie Ima. 2010. A Pragmatic Analysis of Personal Deixis in Iron


Lady Movie Manuscript. Surakarta: Universitas Muhammadiyah.
Levinson, S. C. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nordquist, Richard. 2015. Deictic Expression. Available from:
http://grammar.about.com/od/d/g/deicticterm.htm