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DIRECT METHOD

A PAPER

PRESENTED TO FULFILL THE REQUIREMENT OF THE TASK OF TEFL


METODOLOGY 1

Subject is Guide by: Ahmad Subhan Roza, M. Pd

Presented by The Fifth Group:

1. Jati Alma Jaya (1601070098)


2. Khaula Anisa (1601070022)
3. Laila Nurmala Sari (1601070100)
4. Lanjar Sari (1601070103)

Class: TBI/B

TARBIYAH AND TEACHING LEARNING FACULTY


STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES OF METRO
2018
INTRODUCTION

A. Background Of Study

The current foreign language learning is one of the important subject matter and
especially in the world of education in foreign languages Learning. Indonesia badly
needed given the globalization the period is now directly or not direct use of foreign
languages in communicating more and more and popular, along with the development
of technology and science, then the foreign language skills in particular United
Kingdom Language very high to support a wide range of needs communicate in order to
improve the quality and reliability of the educational world in Indonesian. A wide
variety of ways and methods which have been expressed by educators as if explaining
that to achieve the goal and maksuddalam the context of the lessons conveyed , need a
way deemed most relevant and the most advanced in the process of teaching and
learning. English is a lesson that has become one of the subject matter in the world of
education in Indonesia, and to teach the material language United Kingdom, needed
some way or method of the adapt to conditions and the situation of learners it on its
own.

Direct method is a way in presenting lesson items of foreign language where the
teacher use that foreign language directly as medium of instruction and without using
even little the pupils' language in teaching, if there is a word which is difficult to be
understood by pupils, so the teacher can explain it by using physic appliance,
demonstrating, illustrating and the others.Among so many methods, the Direct Method
is the most known and generating many different ideas. It is called as Direct Method
because during the lesson happened, the teacher use the foreign language which taught,
while pupils' language may not be used.So it can be pulled conclusion that Direct
Method is a way in presenting English lesson items which majoring foreign language as
medium of instruction and the pupils' language not be used in learning and teaching
process.
In our opinion, Direct Method is very important to teach foreign language, because
by using it, the students can improve their speaking without using mother language. It
means that it can give the motivation to the students to practice the words from foreign
language that have been taught by their teacher, so the students have had the material to
communicate in conversation.

B. Problems

1. What is the definition about Direct Method?


2. What are the principle of Direct Method?
3. What are the procedure of Direct Method?
4. What are the characteristic of Direct Method?
5. What are the advantagee and disadvantage when we use Direct Method?

C. Purposes

1. To know about the definition of Direct Method


2. know about the principles of Direct Method
3. To know about the procedure of Direct Method
4. To know about the characteristic of Direct Method
5. To know about advantages and disadvantages when we use Direct Method
DISCUSSION

A. Definition of Direct Method


The German scholar F. Franke wrote on the psychological principles of direct
association between forms and meanings in the target language (1884) and provided a
theoretical justification for a monolingual approach to teaching. According to Franke a
language could be best taught by using it actively in the classroom. Rather than using
analytical procedures that focus on explanation of grammar rules in classroom teaching,
teachers must encourage direct and spontaneous use of the foreign language in the
classroom.
According to Fries’s. He states that “the direct method is a method of teaching a
foreign language, especially a modern language through conversation, discussion, and
reading in the language it self, without the use of the pupil’s language, translation and
without the study of the formal grammar.”1
According to Howatt :”‘The vocabulary in the Direct Method is to be simple and
familiar; the first few lessons of the Berlitz English course, for example, were based on
objects in the classroom, clothing etc. followed by verb 'to be' and common adjectives like
big, small, thin, thick etc.’
According to Thornbury this method was developed at the end of the nineteenth
century and challenged the views on grammar teaching held by the Grammar-Translation
method .
According to Richards & Rodgers, direct method In his language school in Boston in
the late 1860s his method became known as the Natural Method.2
One of the best known of its popularizers was Charles Berlitz (who never used the term
Direct Method and choose instead to call his method the Berlitz method). Almost any
method can succeed when clients are willing to pay high prices for small classes,
individual attention, and intensive study. The Direct Method did not take well in public
education, where the countraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background

1
Mahapatra bisnawath, direct method and L2 learning the reform movement, (Department of english
khatra adibasi mahavidyalaya,katra,west bengal, 2014). pages.110
2
Kamhuber philipp, Comparison of Grammar in Austrian and Spanish English Language Teaching
Textbooks, (universitat wie, 2010). Pages. 13
made such a method difficult to use. Moreover, the Direct Method was criticized for its
weak theoretical foundations. Its success may have been more a factor of the skiil and
personality of the teacher than of the methodology itself.3
In our opinion Direct method (berlitz method) is receives its name from the fact
that meaning is to be connected directly with the target language, without going through
the process of translating into the students native language.

B. The principles of Direct Method

In his The Art of Learning and Studying Foreign Languages, Francois Gouin (1880),
described a painful set of experiences that finally led to his insights about language
teaching. Having decided in midlife to learn German, he took up residency in Hamburg for
one year. But rather than attempting to converse with the natives, he engaged in a rather
bizarre sequence of attempts to "master" the language. Upon arrival in Hamburg he felt he
should memorize a German grammar immediately. A generation 1ater,partly dirough the
efforts of visionaries Like Maximilian Berlitz, applied linguists finally established the
credibility of such approaches in what became known as the Direct Method.
The basic premise of Berlitz's method was that second language learning should be
more like first language learning: tots of active oral interaction, spontaneous use of the
language, no translation between first and second languages, and little or no analysis of
grammatical rules. Richards and Rodgers sum-marized the principles of the Direct
Method:
Therefore,the principles of direct method is very important when we teach the
student with using direct method,we can apply the principles of direct method through
combination of ideas,visuals or daily activities experienced by the students.
1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language. It means that
language learners learn the target language in the classroom most of the time.
2. Only everyday vocabulary and .sentences were taught.It means that only everyday
vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing
are introduced in intermediate phase. Those become the base of the syllabus for this method.

3
H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. (San
Franscisco State University, 2001). pages.21-22.
3. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression organized
around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small,
intensive classes.
4. Grammar was taught inductively.It means that The teacher presents students with
many examples to show how the concept of Grammar works, without giving any
long explanation about how the concept is used. The students are expected to notice
how the concept is to be used and determine the grammar rule.
5. New teaching points were introduced orally.
6. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures,
abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
7. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
8. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized. It means that these cases are
essential.4
In our opinion the principles of direct method It means that the teachers always give
the new materials, such as vocabulary. The students can develop their ability in the
class.The principles of the Direct Method kept developing from year to year. There was
always some effort to systemize the teaching of language and the method was also
combined with other traditional methods. One of examples of this method is that teacher
explains new vocabulary using realia, visual aids or demonstrations.5

C. The Procedure Of Direct Method.

As stated earlier, language teaching presented through the direct method may take
different forms. No standardized procedure characterizes the method. Different people
may develop their own procedures as long as the procedures are based on the principles of
the method. Nowdays, there is not much literature related to the method even though still
many people use techniques that can be classified under the principles of the method in
teahing another language in the classroom. The principle procedure is that language is first
introduced through the ear, and then reinforced through the eye and hand by reading and
writing. The following procedure is adapted from Larsen-Freeman.

1. The students are called on one by one and they read the text loudly.

4
Jack C. Richards And Theodore S. Rodgers,.Approacnes and Methods in Language Teaching ,
(Cambridge Language Teaching Library, 1986). Pages.9-10
5
Robert J. Dipietro, Strategic Interaction: Learning Languages through Scenarios. (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1987). Pages.62
2. After the students finish reading the passage, they are asked in the target language if
they have questions.
3. The teacher answers the students’ question in the target language.
4. The teacher works with the students on the pronunciation
5. The teacher gives question to the students and the questions and statements are about
the students in the classroom.
6. The student make up their own questions and statements and direct them to other
students in the classroom.
7. The teacher instructs the students to turn to an exercise in the lesson which asks them
to fill in the blanks.
8. The students read a sentence out loud and supply the missing word as they are
reading.
9. The teacher asks the students to take out their notebooks and he/she gives them a
dictation; the passage is about the topic that has been discussed.

Another way of teaching a language through the direct method is also suggested by
Titone (cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 12). This way is actually not a procedure but
more as a set of techniques suggested by Berlitz, one of the American reformers who
attempted to build a language teaching methodology based on the direct method. These
techniques are still popular among language teachers even though these techniques are not
arranged procedurally.

1. Never translate: demonstrate


2. Never explain: act
3. Never make speech: ask questions
4. Never imitate mistake: correct
5. Never speak with single words: use sentences
6. Never speak too much: make students speak much
7. Never speak the book: use your lesson plan
8. Never jump around: follow your plan
9. Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student
10. Never speak too slowly: speak normally
11. Never speak too quickly: speak naturally
12. Never speak too loudly: speak naturally
13. Never be impatient: take it easy
As stated earlier that there is no fixed procedure of the direct method. This causes
confusion among language teachers; language teachers may argue that they have used the
direct method in the class even though they may not have used it in a real sense. Refering
to the concepts of approach, method and technique introduced by anthony, which has been
discussed in chapter one (cited in Richards and Rodgers, probably, the direct method is not
real method since there is no overall plan or language teaching. The method only fefers to
assumptions about language and language learning, and some techniques that have been
developed from the assumptions. It is understandable since the method had been born long
before the concept of method itself was introduced in 1963.

The birth of the direct method really contributed a great deal of improvement in
teaching another language in the word. Because of the method language teaching gradually
has swung from the teaching of grammar to teaching to communicate in the target
language. The direct method is believed to be the first method that encourages language
teachers to teach a second/foreign language by modeling first language learning. In this
method grammar is taught inductively with no explanations of grammar rules, which is
really an improvement in language teaching.

In our opinion Although the teacher usually using or developing their own
procedures, provided the procedure that used remain suitable with the principles of direct
method.One of things that become the basis of the language teaching procedure by using
direct method is:first language introduced through the ear,then through the eyes,and the
last is by reading and writing.

D. Characteristic of Direct Method

The characteristic of direct method there are:

1. The direct method of teaching foreign languages.


2. Sometimes called the natural method.
3. Refrains from using the learners native languages.
4. Uses only the target language.
5. It was established in germany and france around 1990
6. Teaching vocabulary through pantomiming,real-life objects and other visual
materials.
7. Teaching grammar by using an inductive approach(i.e.having learners find out rules
through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language).
8. Centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation).
9. Focus on question-answer patterns.
10. Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language.
11. Only everyday vocabulary and sentence are taught during the initial
phase;grammar,reading and writting are introduced n intermediate phase.
12. Oral communication skills are built up in the carefully graded progression
organized exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
13. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
14. Students should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson.
15. Students are taught from inseption to ask question as well as answer them.6

In our opinion about the procedure of direct method is teachers using this method
force students to understand the meaning target language directly,so when the teacher
introduces word or phrase of the target language, the teacher demonstrate the meaning
through the use of reality,a picture or a mime,a teacher should not perceive it directly into
the native language students.

E. Advantage and disadvantage of Direct Method

1. Advantage of Direct Method

Clearly the Direct Method is a shift away from the Grammar Translation Method.
One of its positive points is that it promises to teach the language and Not about the
language. More advantages can be listed as follows:

a. It is a natural method. It teaches the second language in the same way as one
learns one’s mother tongue. The language is taught through demonstration and
conversation in context. Pupils, therefore, acquire fluency in speech. They are
quick at understanding spoken English. They can converse in English with felicity
and ease.

6
Larsen diane, using the direct method in teaching to improve students’ speaking skill at purikids
language course, (University Of Murcia2000). pages 11
b. There is no gap between active and passive vocabulary. This method does not
differentiate between active and passive vocabularies. According to this method
whatever is required for understanding through English is also required for
expressing through it. If English is taught through the mother tongue, the gulf
between the active and passive vocabularies is widened. The learner acquires
more of passive vocabulary because he concentrates on understanding English
rather than expressing through it.
c. This method is based on sound principles of education. It believes in introducing
the particular before general, concrete before abstract and practice before theory.
d. According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way of getting started".
e. It makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond
between a word and its meaning.
f. It is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils.
g. According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way of getting started". In a few months
over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences.
This serves as a strong foundation of further learning.
h. Due to application of the Direct Method, students are able to understand what
they learn, think about it and then express their own ideas in correct English about
what they have read and learnt.
i. Psychologically it is a sound method as it proceeds from the concrete to the
abstract.
j. This method can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class.
k. Through this method, fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of
expression are properly developed.

Direct method is very specific learning target,using diect method students can easily
understand any given material,direct method has many advantages for example:students
can immediately express their own ideas of what they have learned.this method is good for
teaching specific facts and basics skills,teachers can also measure the extent of english
student’s skills through this direct method.
2. The Disadvantages

Major fallacy of Direct Method is the belief that second language can be learned in
the same way as the first languageis acquired.Second language learning is a determined
process, whereas, the learning of the first language is the natural one, so learning of the
both cannot be considered on the same lines and on the same principles.The direct
methods does not rules out the teaching of grammar instead it stresses upon the
inductive teaching of grammar.Some key disadvantages of this method as are under;

a. There are many words that cannot be interpreted directly in second language and
much time and are wasted in making attempts for this purpose.
b. This method assumes that the auditory appeal is stronger than the visual, but it has
been experienced that many of the learners learn more with their oralaural sense
like ears and tongue.
c. This methods ignores systematic written work and reading activities and
sufficient attention is not paid to reading and writing.
This method does not hold well in higher classes
d. There are many abstract words which cannot be interpreted directly in English
and much time and energy are wasted in making attempts for the purpose.
e. This method is based on the principles that auditory appeal is stronger that visual.
But there are children who learn more with visual than with their oral- aural sense
like ears and tongue.
f. The method ignores systematic written work and reading activities and sufficient
attention is not paid to reading and writing.
g. Since in this method, grammar is closely bound up with the reader, difficulty is
experienced in providing readers of such kind
h. There is dearth of teachers trained and interested in teaching English in this
method.
i. This method may not hold well in higher classes where the Translation Method is
found suitable.
j. In larger classes, this method is not properly applied and teaching in this method
does not suit or satisfy the needs of individual students in large classes7.

7
Abdullah sayeh, A Contrastive Study of the Grammar Translation and the Direct Methods of
Teaching. 3rd (International Conference on Business, Economics, Management and Behavioral Sciences
ICBEMBS, 2013).pages 127-128
In our opinion this method prefers learning through heaaring rather than
vision,whereas many students prefer visual learning.This method also can’t be
used in a larger class,because this method is ony able to meets the needs in
smaller classes.In addition this method also requires more time in learning
because it should give more attention to each students,so that it can hinder the
development of teacher creativity.
CONCLUSION

Direct Method is the method that associated with Francois Gouin and Charles Berlitz
and focused in thinking and communicating the target language directly without
explanation in translation. The Direct Method was developed as the rejection or movement
against Grammar Translation method.

The direct method of teaching emerged as the reaction to the Grammar-Translation


method. It sought to immerse the learner in the same way as when a first language is
learnt. All teaching is done in the target language, grammar is taught inductively, there is a
focus on speaking and listening, and only useful ‘everyday’ language is taught. The
weakness in the Direct Method is its assumption that a second language can be learnt in
exactly the same way as a first, when in fact the conditions under which a second language
is learnt are very different. The teacher and the students are more like partners in the
teaching or learning process. The teacher is as the facilitator of the language and the
students is the active learners who are active in learning and exploring the target language.
REFERENCES

Abdullah sayeh,2013. A Contrastive Study of the Grammar Translation and the Direct
Methods of Teaching. 3rd International Conference on Business,
Economics,Management and Behavioral Sciences. ICBEMBS. 2013.

H. Douglas Brown, 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language


Pedagogy. San Franscisco State University.

Jack C. Richardsaand Theodore S. Rodgers,1986.Approacnes and Methods in Language


Teaching , Cambridge Language Teaching Library.

Kamhuber philipp,2010. Comparison of Grammar in Austrian and Spanish English


Language Teaching Textbooks.Universitat Wien.

Larsen diane.2000. Using The Direct Method In Teaching To Improve Students’ Speaking
Skill At Purikids Language Course.University Of Murcia.

Mahapatra bisnawath, 2014.direct Method And L2 Learning The


ReforMovement.Department of english khatra adibasi mahavidyalaya,katra,west
bengal. Robert J. Dipietro. 1987. Strategic Interaction: Learning Languages through
Scenarios. New York: Cambridge University Press.