Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

The Effect of Salt Concentration to The Density of Egg

Made by:
- Angeline Felisca Tanujaya 9B/02
- Janice Geraldine Chen 9B/13
- Lynneth Darius Lie 9B/20
- Vincent Amarta Hermanto Liu 9B/32

Santa Laurensia Junior High School


2018-2019
ABSTRACT

The most common food we eat is meat, which contains large amount of protein. In
addition, another source of protein is egg. However, as all we know, egg can easily be rotten
in a short time. There are many ways to preserve eggs; starting from a traditional way until a
modern way. Lots of people use chemical substances to preserve foods. However, using
chemical substances can harm our body especially if we consume it in a large amount daily.
Therefore, in this project, we are trying to find a harmless and effective way to preserve an
egg. Moreover, we will also try to observe the salt concentration solution that can preserve the
egg in a longer time and try another method of egg preservation by using coconut water. It
might be suitable to preserve eggs by using coconut water since it is well known for its long
duration of availability. We hope to see the best salt concentration or maybe even the coconut
water to have a better way to preserve eggs.

Keywords: Egg, rotten, preservation, harmless, effective, salt concentration, coconut water.
APPROVAL STATEMENT

1. Research Title : The Effect of Salt Concentration to The Density of Egg


2. Group Leader : Janice Geraldine Chen 9B/13
3. Group Members : - Angeline Felisca Tanujaya 9B/02
- Lynneth Darius Lie 9B/20
- Vincent Amarta Hermanto 9B/32
4. Research Location : Pondok Hijau Golf Jade Utara 6 No.17, Gading Serpong,
Tangerang Selatan
5. Duration : 23 August 2018 – 1 February 2019

Tangerang, 30 January 2019


Group Leader,

Janice Geraldine Chen

Approved by
Research Tutor,

Mr. Nicholas Adityoso Putro

Acknowledged by
Principle of Santa Laurensia Junior High School,

Mr. Stevanus Liverdy, M.Pd.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover …………………………………………………………………………………… i
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………… ii
Approval Statement …………………………………………………………………… iii
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………… 1
Forewords ……………………………………………………………………………… 3
Chapter 1: Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 4
1.1 Background ……………………………………………………….………… 4
1.2 Research Problem ……………………………………………….………….. 5
1.3 Purpose of Research ……………………………………………….……….. 5
1.4 Significance Research ……………………………………………….…….... 5
1.4.1 Theoretical Benefit ……………………………………………….… 5
1.4.2 Practical Benefit ……………………………………………….…… 5
1.5 Research Boundaries ……………………………………………….……….. 5
1.5.1 Materials ………………………………………………………….... 5
1.5.2 Place …………………………………………………………........... 5
Chapter 2: Literature Review ………………………………………………………… 6
2.1 Literature Review …………………………………………………………… 6
2.2 Hypothesis …………………………………………………………………... 7
Chapter 3: Methodology ……………………………….……………………………… 9
3.1 Place and Time …………………………………………………………….... 9
3.2 Method ………………………………………………………………….…… 9
3.3 Variables …………………………………………………………………….. 9
3.3.1 Independent Variables ……………………………………………… 9
3.3.2 Dependent Variables ……………………………………………….. 9
3.3.3 Control Variables …………………………………………………... 9
3.3.4 Control Group ……………………………………………………… 9
3.4 Research Instruments ……………………………………………………….. 9
3.4.1 Materials ……………………………………………………….…… 9
3.4.2 Apparatus …………………………………………………………... 9
3.5 Research Procedures ………………………………………………………... 9
3.5.1 Logic of Thinking ………………………………………………….. 9
3.5.2 Procedures …………………………………………………………. 11
3.5.3 Data Analysis Technique ………………………………………….. 11
Chapter 4: Data and Analysis ………………………………………………………... 12
4.1 Group Data …………………………………………………………………. 12
4.2 Initial Data ………………………………………………………………….. 12
4.3 Data and Analysis …………………………………………………………... 13
4.3.1 10% Salt Concentration ……………………………………………. 13
4.3.2 20% Salt Concentration ……………………………………………. 15
4.3.3 30% Salt Concentration ……………………………………………. 17
4.3.4 40% Salt Concentration ……………………………………………. 19
4.3.5 50% Salt Concentration ……………………………………………. 21
4.3.6 Coconut Water ……………………………………………………... 22
4.4 Final Data ………………………………………………………………....... 24
Chapter 5: Conclusions and Suggestions ………………………………………………. 27
5.1 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………… 27
5.2 Suggestions ……………………………………………………………….… 27
References ……………………………………………………………………….…….. 28
FOREWORD

First and for most, we would like to thank the Almighty God for giving us His blessing
and kindness to be able to carry out this scientific research since the beginning until the end.
This research, which is entitled “The Effectiveness of Salt Concentration to The Density of
Egg” has the purpose to find a new method and also to find the most effective salt concentration
to preserve an egg. This research would not have been finished, if it weren’t for the guidance
that we received from the people that have supported us throughout the entire time of study.
Therefore, we would like to give our utmost appreciation to:
1. Mr. Stevanus Liverdy, M.Pd, as the Principal of Santa Laurensia Junior High School
who has given us the opportunity to be able to do this research
2. Mr. Nicholas Adityoso Putro, as our mentor and consultant, who has guided us
throughout this research, and he also supported us and helped us non-stop in doing this
scientific research.
3. The research team’s parents who have given support, help and advice regarding the
research that we were doing, also the time and place to do this research
4. The research team’s friends who were supportive as well as giving us advice and help
when needed during the process of this research.

We are aware that this research is nowhere near perfect. Therefore, we do accept
constructive criticism and suggestions from anyone that can make this research even better.

Tangerang, 19 September 2018,

The Research Team


Chapter I
Introduction

1.1 Background
We live in a world which is full of living things. One of the characteristics of living
things is the need for nutrition. Undoubtedly, in order to move, foods are required as they are
our source of energy. However, as time goes by, all those foods might be rotten and not fresh
anymore, which cannot be eaten by us, human. Therefore, lots of people are trying to find the
best way to preserve food so it can last longer.
These days, the egg is commonly consumed in the world as an essential food ingredient.
In fact, almost every kind of food especially beverages use an egg as their main ingredient.
For instance, crepes, pancakes, and pies. This can be proven as the demand for egg keeps
increasing dramatically since 2000. In 2000, the production of egg was 51,113,000 tons, while
in 2009, it increased to 62,840,000 tons. Which means, it increased to 22.9 %. (1)
In order to preserve the egg, numerous amount of people used chemical substances such
as benzoates and nitrites to preserve egg. However, using this method will harm the egg and
also the consumer who daily consumes it. There are some people who consider to not use
chemical substances to preserve the egg. Instead, they usually buy lots of eggs and put them
in the refrigerator. Yet, based on our own experiences, after 2 to 3 months, the egg will no
longer be fresh nor edible. Another way to preserve an egg is by making it into a salted egg
and boil it. However, using this method will not help much as we could not make a cake or
pie by using boiled salted eggs. Hence, we would like to find a new and harmless method to
preserve egg, so it won't jeopardize our health. (2)
After some researches, we found that salt can be used to preserve foods as most bacteria
and fungi cannot survive in a high salt concentrated place due to hypertonic nature of salt. (3)
In addition, we would like to examine and observe whether it is true or not. In this way, we
can find a new method in preserving egg. Besides, we would also like to find the best and
suitable salt concentration to preserve egg. In other words, we would like to observe whether
10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% salt concentration would preserve the egg in a longer time.
We will dip the egg into a glass of salt concentrated water. From this, we wish to create a
harmless, safe, and convenient method to preserve the egg. We hope that through this
experiment and study, readers may be able to use this method easily on their own and
experience its effectiveness in preserving the egg. We believe, this experiment will be useful
for lots of people around the world as they won't have to worry about their health anymore.
1.2 Research Problem
What will be the density of an egg that is being immersed in a particular concentrated salt
solution for several weeks?

1.3 Purpose of Research


The goal of this research is to find which concentrated salt solution is the best to preserve
the eggs longer.

1.4 Significance of Research


1.4.1 Theoretical Benefit
To find an effective way to preserve eggs by using non-dangerous chemical
substances such as food dissolved substances.
1.4.2 Practical Benefit
It helps the society to consume a better quality and healthy eggs which can be kept
in a long time and sterilized in good condition.

1.5 Research Boundaries


Some limitations we have for our research include:
1.5.1 Materials:
- Using standard chicken eggs
- Using the same brand of salt solutions
- Using the same type of coconut water
1.5.2 Place:
This method of preserving egg will be effective towards chicken eggs purely
from Indonesia, especially in Tangerang city as different region has different kind
of egg. The best salt concentration that we will find may have different effect
towards eggs in different areas of the world, depending on location, climate, or
other aspects.
Chapter II
Literature Review

2.1 Literature Review


2.1.1 Introduction of egg
According to “The Role of The Egg Industry
In Global Poultry,” by International Egg
Commission Egg yolks and whole eggs store
significant amounts of protein inside and are
widely used in cookery. Due to their protein
content, the United States Department of
Agriculture categorizes eggs as meats within the
food guide pyramid. Despite the nutritional value
of eggs, there are some potential health issues
arising from cholesterol content, salmonella, Picture 1.1 Contents of egg
contamination, and allergy to eggs protein.

2.1.2 Composition of egg whites


“white” is the common name for the clear liquid contained within an egg. In chickens,
it is formed from the layers of secretion of the anterior section of the hen oviduct during
the passage of the egg. It forms around both fertilized and unfertilized yolks. The purpose
of egg white is to protect the egg yolk and provide additional nutrition during the growth
of the embryo.
Egg white consists of approximately 90% water and dissolved 10% protein. While the
yolk contains high amount of fats. The egg white did not contain any fat and there is less
than 1% of carbohydrate content. Egg white has many uses in food and many other
applications, including the preparation of vaccines, such as those for influenza.
2.1.3 Composition of egg yolks
The yolk in a newly laid egg is round and firm. As the yolk ages, it absorbs water from
the egg white, which increases its size and causes it to stretch.
The yolk color is determined based on the diet of the hen. If the diet contains yellow or
orange plant pigments, then they are stored in the yolk. A diet without such colorful food
may result in an almost colorless yolk.
2.1.4 Preservation Method of egg
According to Anthony Tamayo, the simplest method preserves an
egg is by treating it with salt. Salt draws out of bacteria and molds,
which prevents their growth. The Chinese salted duck eggs are made
by immersing duck eggs in brine or coating them individually with
a pace of salt and mud or clay. The eggs stop absorbing salt after
approximately a month, having reached osmotic equilibrium. The
yolks take on an orange-red color and solidify, but the white remains

Picture 1.2 Salt and water


somewhat liquid. These often are boiled before consumption and are served with rice
congee.
According to Myrid Richard, another method is to make pickled eggs, by boiling them
first and immersing them in a mixture of vinegar, salt, and spices, such as ginger or
allspice. Frequently, beetroot juice is added to impart a red color to the eggs. If the eggs
are immersed in it for a few hours, the distinct red, white, and yellow colors may be seen
when the eggs are sliced. If marinated for several days or more, the red color will reach
the yolk. If the eggs are marinated in the mixture for several weeks or more, the vinegar
will dissolve much of the shell’s calcium carbonate and penetrate the egg, making it acidic
enough to inhibit the growth of bacteria and molds pickled eggs made this way generally
keep for a year or more without refrigeration. (4)

2.1.5 How to make salt?


According to Niluh Komangri, salt is an example of a kitchen spice that has an
important role in additional taste, salt is a mineral that is made up of natrium and chloride
which creates crystals and organisms into natrium chloride (NaCI). In Indonesia, salt is
still traditionally made by salt farmers.
The farmers in Indonesia mostly make materials for salt from sea water and by
gathering salt and maybe be said salt that still has crystals without yodium, after that
process they send the raw outcome to big companies to add yodium to the salt making it
into a finished product.
There are also different ways to make salt, by gathering sea water and distilling it under
sunlight to evaporate the water leaving the crystalized salt behind until the natrium
chloride is left and after that, the crystals are gathered and cleansed and dried. The bits of
crystals that are washed multiple times until the salt is “totally clean”. (5)

2.1.6 Chemical Content in egg shell


Based on Compound Interest, the egg shell mostly made up of Calcium Carbonate
(CaCO3), the chemical which also made up most of the se shell. The shell isn’t actually
completely solid – it has thousands of tiny pores, around 9,000 on average, which allow
gases to pass in and out. As we’ll see later, this can have implications for cooking. Also
the egg shell will dissolve if it’s being dipped in an acidic fluid. (6)

Table 1.1 Physiochemical properties of coconut water


2.1.7 Composition of coconut water
Based on Tetra Pak, analytical studies have shown that coconut water contains nutrients
such as glucose, amino acids and electrolytes such as potassium, calcium and magnesium.
Coconut water also have PH 4.78 which makes it categorized as an acidic fluid. As it is
said, when the egg shell that contain Calcium Carbonate being dipped in a acidic fluid the
egg shell will dissolve because the acetic acid breakdown the calcium and the carbonate.
When the Calcium Carbonate reacts with acidic substances, it will produce carbon
dioxide. (7)

2.1.8 What happen if the egg is dipped in a glass of alcohol?


According to Anne Marie Helmenstine, the white of egg consists of albumin. A few
minutes after adding alcohol to the egg, the sight of the white of the egg will start to turn
cloudy, meaning the alcohol is causing a chemical reaction, denaturing, or changing the
conformation of the protein molecules so they form new linkages with each other. As the
alcohol diffuses into the white of the egg, the egg yolk that contains protein and fats, which
will not be affected by the alcohol. (8)

2.2 Hypothesis
The eggs that are dipped in a higher salt concentration solution will have higher density
after a week compared to the eggs that are dipped in a lower salt concentration solution
because just like a salted egg, it tends to have high density.
Chapter III
Methodology

3.1 Place and Time


It will take place in one of our team members’ house. Specifically, in Pondok Hijau Golf
Jade Utara 6 No.17, Gading Serpong, Tangerang Selatan. We will put it in a box with the
same temperature and light intensity. We also will do it in the afternoon and would check
every 3 days for the span of 2 weeks upon beginning the experiment.

3.2 Method
The method that we will use is experiment research.

3.3 Variables
3.3.1 Independent variables:
Different treatments on the eggs. We will dip it in salt solution with different salt
concentration and coconut water.
3.3.2 Dependent variables:
The density of the eggs after we dip it into salt concentration solution.
3.3.3 Control variables:
- The volume of water
- The type of salt
- The egg from the same species
- The day we start to dip the eggs
3.3.4 Control Group:
There will be an egg that we dip in a normal water without any solvent.

3.4 Research Instruments


3.4.1 Apparatus
- 9 plastic glasses
- A measuring cylinder
- A triple beam balance
- 2 spoons
- A calculator
3.4.2 Materials
- Water (200 ml for each glass)
- Salt
- 18 chicken eggs

3.5 Research Procedure


3.5.1 Logic of thinking
When we dip the water into the salt and sugar concentration solution, the osmosis
will happen.
LOGIC OF THINKING
PROBLEM
What will be the density of an egg that is being immersed in a particular concentrated salt solution for
several weeks?

Find the most effective way to preserve an egg with harmless substances.

SOLUTION 1 SOLUTION 2 SOLUTION 3


Refrigeration Making it into a Salt Preservation of eggs
salted egg. (dipping an egg in a salt
solution)

CHOSEN ANSWER
Salt can be used to preserve the egg as most bacteria and fungi cannot survive in a high salt
concentrated place due to hypertonic nature of salt. In addition, we would like to examine
and observe whether it is true or not. We will dip the egg in a glass of salt solution and find
the most effective salt solution concentration.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE


Different treatments of eggs. (Dip it in The density of the eggs after we dip it into salt concentration
different salt concentration. solution.

HYPOTHESIS
The eggs that are dipped in a higher salt concentration solution will have higher density after a week compared to the
eggs that are dipped in a lower salt concentration solution because just like a salted egg, it tends to have high density.
.

GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 GROUP 5 GROUP 6


Chicken Egg, Chicken Egg, Chicken Egg, Chicken Egg, Chicken Egg, Chicken Egg,
Salt Salt Salt Salt Salt Coconut
Concentration: Concentration: Concentration: Concentration: Concentration: water
10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Each Group has 3 repetitions, and will have


same controlled variables applied.

MEASURING DEPENDENT VARIABLE


Measure the mass and volume to find the density of the eggs after two weeks.
3.5.2 Procedure

1. Prepare the materials and apparatus.

2. Measure the amount of salt by using beaker.

3. Pour the salt into the water and mix it until the solvent is all mixed with the solution.

4. Pour 200ml of water into a measuring cylinder and put an egg inside it.

5. Find the volume of egg by observing the increase volume of water.

6. Measure the mass of the egg by using triple beam balance.

7. Calculate the density of egg by dividing the mass of egg with the volume.

8. Put the egg into the salt solution and let it be for 2 weeks.

9. Repeat these steps by using different amount of salt in the solution.

10. After 2 weeks, calculate the density of each egg and find the difference.

3.5.3 Data Analysis Technique


The technique to take the data are quantitative and qualitative. We use both techniques
because quantitative techniques are going to be used to take the data of the density of
egg and to compare it to other egg and qualitative are going to be used to compare the
color and taste of the eggs.
Chapter IV
Data and Analysis

4.1 Group Data


Groups Treatments Mass of salt (gram) Volume of salt (ml) Volume of water
1 10% salt concentration 20 g 9.25 ml 200 ml
2 20% salt concentration 40 g 18.5 ml 200 ml
3 30% salt concentration 60 g 27.75 ml 200 ml
4 40% salt concentration 80 g 37.0 ml 200 ml
5 50% salt concentration 100 g 46.25 ml 200 ml
6 Coconut Water 0g 0 ml 200 ml
Control - 0g 0 ml 200 ml
Table 4.1 Group Data
4.2 Initial Data

Repetition Mass (gram) Volume (ml) Density (g/cm3)


RA 74 g 60 ml 1.23 g/cm3
Group 1:
RB 79 g 80 ml 0.9875 g/cm3
Treatment: 10%
RC 78 g 70 ml 1.11429 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 77 g 70 ml 1.11059 g/cm3

RA 76 g 60 ml 1.267 g/cm3
Group 2:
RB 74 g 60 ml 1.23 g/cm3
Treatment: 20%
RC 85 g 80 ml 1.0625 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 78.3 g 66.67 ml 1.1865 g/cm3

RA 78 g 70 ml 1.1143 g/cm3
Group 3:
RB 75 g 60 ml 1.25 g/cm3
Treatment: 30%
RC 76 g 60 ml 1.267 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 76.3 g 63.3 ml 1.21043 g/cm3

RA 72 g 70 ml 1.0285 g/cm3
Group 4:
RB 72 g 60 ml 1.2 g/cm3
Treatment: 40%
RC 72 g 70 ml 1.0285 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 72 g 53.3 ml 1.08267 g/cm3
RA 76 g 60 ml 1.267 g/cm3
Group 5:
RB 75 g 70 ml 1.0714 g/cm3
Treatment: 50%
RC 73 g 70 ml 1.043 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 74.67 g 53.3 ml 1.12713 g/cm3

RA 77 g 70 ml 1.1 g/cm3
Group 6:
RB 77 g 70 ml 1.1 g/cm3
Treatment: Coconut
RC 74 g 70 ml 1.057 g/cm3
Water
Average 76 g 70 ml 1.08567 g/cm3

RA 75 g 60 ml 1.25 g/cm3
Control Group: RB 73 g 60 ml 1.23 g/cm3
Treatment: - RC 76 g 60 ml 1.27 g/cm3
Average 74.67 g 60 ml 1.25 g/cm3

Table 4.2 Initial Data


4.3 Data and Analysis
4.3.1 10% salt concentration
- Data:
Group 1:
Treatment: 10% Salt concentration
Day Pictures
A B C

3
6

12

15

Table 4.3 Data of 10% Salt concentration group

- Analysis:
Day 0- Eggs A, B, and C were separated to their own individual cups with the categorized 10%
salt concentration, in the first day all the eggs still contained the same amount of density based
on their position in the cup, the shells were also still intact with its surface colour still normal.

Day 3- In the 3rd day of being in the cup, egg A and B were still normal with little to no change
since day 0, but egg C started to show signs of increase in density when it slowly increased in
the cup and with some parts of its shell broke off from the egg.

Day 6- In the 6th day of being in the cup, egg A and B continued similarly to egg C with their
shells also partly broken off and density increase, same went for egg C with more increase
density until it had steadily placed itself in a position slightly floating in the cup and about 20%
of its shell had broken off and mixed with the solution.
Day 9- In the 9th day of the experiment egg A, B and C had similar appearance with all 3 eggs
staying close to the bottom with the solution containing parts of the egg’s shell. The colour of
the egg A, B, and C had also seemed to be brighter from when it was documented at day 0.

Day 12- On day 12, all 3 eggs had reached a point where most of their shell had broken off the
egg and mixed with solution with its colour turning peach like.

Day 15- On the last day of the experiment, when the egg was measured its mass, weight, and
density showed a 70ml increase in all eggs, the shells were also smoother than when it was in
day 0 and when boiled the inner egg is still edible and uncontaminated from its colour and fresh
scent.

Aftermath- After extracting the eggs out of the glass, all boiled eggs stayed sanitary and edible
as change in density was slim proving little to no nitrogen entered the egg, the eggs also had
almost no change in colour after boiled that to a normal egg, appearance-wise it is edible too.

4.3.2 20% Salt concentration


- Data:
Group 2:
Treatment: 20% Salt concentration
Pictures
Day
A B C

3
6

12

15

Table 4.4 Data of 20% Salt concentration group

- Analysis:
Day 0- Egg A, B, and C were placed in their cups with 20% salt solution, all eggs were placed
and were floating on the water, when placed all eggs experienced no change in density or shell
colour changed and were still intact.

Day 3- On the 3rd day of experiment all eggs experienced no change, the eggs were floating
and shells still intact with no colour change.

Day 6- At the 6th day of the experiment the egg had not increased in the density as it had not
sunk, part of its skin had broken off a little and had mixed with the solution but the egg’s shell
had not changed colour.
Day 9- At the 9th experimental day almost no changes had happened, egg still floated and barely
any parts of the shell broke off with the colour remaining the same, but after checking its
density, it has increased slightly by 0.2g with it’s shell’s surface softened.

Day 12- At the 12th day of the experiment some bubbles continuously appeared due to
evaporation but no significant amount of water changed the outcome of experiment as all the
other eggs had close results in the end.

Day 15- At the last day of experiment the eggs had most of its skin still intact with peach like
colour with a soft surface.

Aftermath- After being boiled the eggs were edible with its appearance same to a normal egg
and taste-wise similar to that of a fresh egg but one of the egg has a slightly off scent which
had a similar scent to nitrogen.

4.3.3 30%Salt Concentration


- Data:
Group 3:
Treatment: 30% Salt concentration
Pictures
Day
A B C

6
9

12

15

Table 4.5 Data of 30% Salt concentration group

- Analysis:
Day 0- Egg A, B, and C were placed in their cups with 30% salt concentration, all eggs had
same mass and volume when started and floated on day 0.

Day 3- All eggs stayed afloat with not a single egg having a part of it’s shell broken off

Day 6- Egg A and C were no different when it started, but egg B had started to have some parts
of it’s shell broken off from the egg. The Colour was still the same and all eggs were still
floating.

Day 9- Egg A, B, and C lost a small part of its shell at the bottom edge with its colour still
stayed the same since day 0, however eggs were still floating.

Day 12- Egg A, B, and C were all still floating and had not lost any more of its shell since day
9 and no other change had happened.

Day 15- Eggs had all increased in density by 0.2g and its surface softened and showed a little
squishy texture on its bottom edge.
Aftermath- Eggs were all sanitary and edible with soft surface as most of its skin had been
separated but had a scent of nitrogen when cracked after boiling.

4.3.4 40% Salt Concentration


- Data:
Group 4:
Treatment: 40% Salt concentration
Pictures
Day
A B C

12
15

Table 4.6 Data of 40% Salt concentration group

- Analysis:
Day 0- Eggs were put in their cups with 40% salt concentration in the water. The eggs did’t
change when enter water, colour and texture stayed the same.

Day 3-On the 3rd day all the eggs still floated and remained with fully intact shell and no colour
change.

Day 6- Throughout these days the shell had not changed in any way and the colour stayed the
same.

Day 9- On the 9th day of the experiment bubbles appeared due to evaporation in egg C but did
not change much of the outcome as the amount evaporated was approximately 3ml.

Day 12- On the 12th day egg A, B, and C all had its skin intact with a smooth surface.

Day 15- On the last day of the experiment not much had changed in the outer appearance of
the egg but when examined, the egg increased its density by 0.3g and its surface became soft
and squishy.

Aftermath- After boiling the eggs we found out that egg B was faulty due to human mistakes
when boiling the egg causing end data for egg B to be lost, but egg A and C remained intact
with, after boiling, the egg was edible with its appearance same to a fresh egg with its taste not
far from it, only a little bit of bitterness was shown with a slim scent of nitrogen.
4.3.5 50% Salt Concentration
- Data:
Group 5:
Treatment: 50% Salt concentration
Pictures
Day
A B C

12

15

Table 4.7 Data of 50% Salt concentration group


- Analysis:
Day 0- Eggs were placed in separated cups of 50% salt solution, all eggs floated and no change
happened.

Day 3- Physical appearance had not changed, shell intact with same colour, but when examined
averagely the eggs had increased in density by 0.4g and became heavy in weight although it
was still floating.

Day 6- On the 6th day of the experiment, egg A and B had most of the skin torn out with C
having a small fraction of its skin not intact.

Day 9- On the 9th day of the experiment, the eggs have lost most of its skin with a soft surface.

Day 12- On day 12, the eggs were still afloat with no density change since day 3.

Day 15- On the last day of experiment little to no change had happened since day 12.

Aftermath- On the time of boiling all eggs floated and after boiled the eggs appeared normal,
or alike a fresh egg with it being edible as smell although a small amount of nitrogen was
released upon cracking, the looks and taste of it show it was not edible.

4.3.6 Coconut Water


- Data:
Group 6:
Treatment: Coconut Water
Pictures
Day
A B C

0
3

12

15

Table 4.8 Data of Coconut Water group


- Analysis:
Day 0- On the 1st day of experiment, all eggs were placed in cups filled with 200ml of coconut
water, and when placed all eggs instantly sunk to the bottom of the cup with some parts of it’s
shell starting to dissolve and break off to the coconut water. This happened because coconut
water contains a lot of amino acids leading the egg’s outer shell to break apart.

Day 3- On the 3rd day of the experiment almost the entire shell of all the eggs had broken apart
from the egg and changed colour to peach and the egg floated to the top.
Day 6- All 3 eggs have lost its outer shell and still floating. The egg although has lost its shell
still was in the same colour since day 3, remaining peach.

Day 9- Egg B, and C had no more changes since it was day 6 but egg A’s shell had turned
black and was afloat with the eggs.
Day 12-15 nothing else had changed in the days but after examination it showed that the density
of the egg had increased almost 1g without its shell, when examined and researched why a part
of it is black, it was because it was rotting, the egg also became very squishy due to the calcium
left in the egg shell stole the carbon back from the carbon dioxide that’s in the cup from the
acidic reaction giving the egg pressure making it softer. The black part smelled like nitrogen
and after research of previous similar experiments from other people indicate it is a bacteria
infected skin.

Aftermath: After boiling the eggs all eggs were solidified due to salt increase from the acids
and created a thick layer of whites. With a rotten scent and appearance that of black shows it
is not edible.

4.4 Final Data

Repetition Mass (gram) Volume (ml) Density (g/cm3)


RA 74 g 70 ml 1.02 g/cm3
Group 1:
RB 80g 71 ml 1.127 g/cm3
Treatment: 10%
RC 81g 71 ml 1.14 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 78.3 g 70.6 ml 1.0956 g/cm3

RA 75g 67 ml 1.12 g/cm3


Group 2:
RB 72g 69 ml 1.04 g/cm3
Treatment: 20%
RC 82g 82 ml 1.0 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 76.3 g 72.6 ml 1.0956 g/cm3

Group 3: RA 73g 78ml 0.94 g/cm3


Treatment: 30% RB 77g 74ml 1.04 g/cm3
Salt Concentration RC 82 g 72ml 1.14 g/cm3
Average 77.3 g 74.6 ml 1.04 g/cm3

RA 69g 70ml 0.99 g/cm3


Group 4:
RB 72g 67ml 1.07 g/cm3
Treatment: 40%
RC 71g 68ml 1.04 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 70.67 g 68.3 ml 1.03 g/cm3

RA 71g 64ml 1.11 g/cm3


Group 5:
RB 81g 78ml 1.04 g/cm3
Treatment: 50%
RC 70g 70ml 1.0 g/cm3
Salt Concentration
Average 74 g 70.67 ml 1.05 g/cm3

RA 111g 118ml 0.94 g/cm3


Group 6:
RB 99g 110ml 0.9 g/cm3
Treatment: Coconut
RC 80g 82ml 0.975 g/cm3
Water
Average 96.67 g 103.3 ml 0.9383 g/cm3

RA 75 g 60 ml 1.1 g/cm3
Control Group: RB 73 g 60 ml 1.2 g/cm3
Treatment: - RC 76 g 60 ml 1.15 g/cm3
Average 74.67g 60 ml 1.15 g/cm3

Table 4.9 Final Data

Treatments Density in Week 0 (g/cm3) Density in Week 2 (g/cm3)

10% Salt concentration 1,11059 1,0956

20% Salt concentration 1,1865 1,0956

30% Salt concentration 1,21043 1,04

40% Salt concentration 1,08267 1,03

50% Salt concentration 1,12713 1,05

Coconut Water 1,08567 0,9383

Control Group (water) 1,25 1,15

Table 4.10 Final Average Data


Graph 4.1 Final Average Graph

- Analysis:
10% salt solution was the best from the 5 other independent variables (solutions) because from
the experiment 20%-50% salt solution caused the eggs to float (less dense and less fresh) over
weeks as the 10% salt solution kept the egg fresh sunk underwater the whole experiment. In
the other hand, the coconut water devastated the egg and left bacteria which end up
contaminated the egg.
Chapter V
Closing

5.1 Conclusion
1. The water with salt solution works best because it is the most capable solution to
stabilize egg density, but the best amount of salt solution is 10% because it keeps the
density original compared to the other amounts. On the other hand, the egg that dipped
in coconut water will decrease at the most compared to salt solution or water and the
coconut water will also rot the egg.
2. The water that has salt concentration had an affect of an egg’s preservation proven by
our experiment, on the other hand, using coconut water to preserve an egg is not to be
even thought about as it contaminates the egg and results in the acceleration of the egg
being rotten with an unpleased scent.

5.2 Suggestion
1. If people are going to do this experiment again, do not use the coconut water to preserve
eggs because it will not preserve it, instead it will just peel off the eggs shell and
therefore rot the egg. Also, we suggest to search about the chemical formula of coconut
water and write the chemical reaction formula of egg shell and coconut water.
2. To those who would like to resume our research, we would advice them with changing
the type of liquid used or concentration, we would also advice them by prolonging the
time frame of the experiment to prove effectiveness, last advice would be not to use
coconut water or any other liquid that contains high acidity that will fail this
experiment.
REFERENCES

(1) International Egg Commission. The Role of the Egg Industry in the Global
Poultry. London: Hans-Wilhelm Windhorst, 2012. Printed.
(2) Tamayo, Anthony. “5 Easy Ways to Preserve Your Fresh Eggs”. Web 7 th
December 2018.
https://thegrownetwork.com/5-easy-ways-to-preserve-your-fresh-eggs/
(3) Marie Helmenstine, Anne. “How Does Salt Preserve Food”. Web 7 th
December 2018.
https://www.thoughtco.com/why-does-salt-work-as-preservative-607428
(4) Myrick, Richard. “Egg Fun Facts”. Web 7th December 2018.
https://mobile-cuisine.com/did-you-know/egg-fun-facts/
(5) Andyani, Niluh Komang Tri. “Cara Membuat Garam Dapur”. Web 27th March
2019.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/214827842/Cara-Membuat-Garam-Dapur
(6) Compound Interest. “The Chemistry of Eggs & Egg Shells”. Web 7th
December 2018.
https://www.compoundchem.com/2016/03/26/eggs/
(7) Tetra Pak. “The Chemistry of Coconut Water”. Web 26th January 2019.
https://coconuthandbook.tetrapak.com/chapter/chemistry-coconut-water
(8) Helmenstine, Anne Marie. “How to cook an egg with alcohol”. Web 27th
March 2019.
https://www.thoughtco.com/cook-an-egg-with-alcohol-607469