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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

Chapter 03
Differences in Culture

True / False Questions

1. (p. 90) Norms are abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good, right, and desirable.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

2. (p. 90) For society to conduct itself appropriately, the individuals within it must possess
varied values and norms that differentiate each of the particular individuals from all others.
FALSE

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3. (p. 90) Folkways are the routine conventions of everyday life.


TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-1
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

4. (p. 91) Mores symbolism includes rituals and symbolic behavior that serve as guidelines for
expected societal actions.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

5. (p. 91) Norms that are central to the functioning of a society and to its social life are called
mores.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

6. (p. 92) There is not a strict one-to-one correspondence between a society and a nation-state.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

7. (p. 92) It is reasonable to talk about "American society" and "American culture," but there are
several societies within America, each with its own culture.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-2
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

8. (p. 92) The values and norms of a culture emerge fully formed.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: What is Culture?

9. (p. 93) Two dimensions are particularly important when explaining differences between
cultures—the degree to which the basic unit of social organizations is the individual, as
opposed to the group, and the degree to which a society is stratified into classes.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

10. (p. 93) A group is an association of two or more individuals who have a shared sense of
identity and who interact with each other in structured ways on the basis of a common set of
expectations about each other's behavior.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

11. (p. 94) The emphasis on individualism found within the United States and certain other
Western cultures may make it difficult to build successful teams within an organization to
perform collective tasks.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

12. (p. 94) A study of U.S. competitiveness by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
concluded that U.S. firms are being hurt in the global economy due to group identification.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

13. (p. 94-95) One central value of American culture is the importance attached to group
membership.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

14. (p. 95) The primacy of the value of group identification encourages managers and workers to
move from company to company.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

15. (p. 95) Japanese society is characterized by a great deal of dynamism and entrepreneurship,
reflecting the primacy of values associated with individualism.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-5
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

16. (p. 95) All societies are stratified on a hierarchical basis into social categories or social
strata.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

17. (p. 96) A class system is a more rigid form of social stratification in which social mobility is
less possible.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

18. (p. 96) Historically, British society was divided into three main classes: the upper class, the
middle class, and the elite class.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

19. (p. 97) The class system in Britain perpetuated itself from generation to generation, and the
mobility was limited.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

20. (p. 97) In the U.S., an individual can move smoothly from the working class to the upper
class in a lifetime by his/her own economic achievement.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

21. (p. 98) Class consciousness refers to a condition where people tend to perceive themselves in
terms of their class background, and this shapes their relationships with members of other
classes.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

22. (p. 99) Religion is a system of shared beliefs and rituals that are concerned with the realm of
the sacred.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

23. (p. 99) The relationship among religion, ethics, and society is straightforward and relatively
easy to discern.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

3-7
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

3-8
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

24. (p. 99) Christianity is the second largest of the world's major religions, with 1.7 billion
adherents.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

25. (p. 99) With around 2 billion adherents, Islam is the largest of the world's major religions.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

26. (p. 101) Some sociologists have argued that of the two main branches of Christianity,
Catholicism and Protestantism, the former has the most important economic implications.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

27. (p. 102) Islam requires unconditional acceptance of the uniqueness, power, and authority of
God and the understanding that the objective of life is to fulfill the dictates of his will in the
hope of admission to paradise.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

3-9
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

28. (p. 102) The biggest single cause of Islamic fundamentalism is social pressures created in
traditional Islamic societies by the move toward modernization.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

29. (p. 103) In several Muslim countries, fundamentalists have gained power and have used this
to try to make Islamic law the law of the land.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

30. (p. 103) Muslim fundamentalists have been most successful in Iran, where a fundamentalist
party has held power since 1979, but they have also have had an influence in many other
countries.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

31. (p. 105) The prohibition of the payment or receipt of interest, which is considered usury, is
one of the economic principles of Islam.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

3-10
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

32. (p. 105) Unlike Christianity and Islam, Hinduism's founding is not linked to a particular
person.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

33. (p. 106) According to Max Weber, the ascetic principles embedded in Hinduism do not
encourage the kind of entrepreneurial activity found in Protestantism.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

34. (p. 107) Because Buddhists stress spiritual achievement rather than involvement in the world,
the emphasis on wealth creation that is embedded in Protestantism is not found in Buddhism.
TRUE

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

35. (p. 112) The most famous study of how culture relates to values in the workplace was
undertaken by Max Weber.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

3-12
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

36. (p. 115) There is evidence that economic progress is accompanied by a shift in values away
from individualism and toward collectivism.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

37. (p. 116) Traditionalists think that children should be taught to obey and that the first duty of a
child is to make his/her parents proud.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

38. (p. 116) Well-being values tend to stress that economic and physical security are more
important than self-expression.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

39. (p. 116) Advances in transportation and communication technologies are causing cultural
values to be distinct from each other.
FALSE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

3-13
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

40. (p. 116) Countertrends such as Islamic fundamentalism and the separatist movement in
Quebec are in many ways a reaction to the pressures for cultural convergence.
TRUE

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

Multiple Choice Questions

41. (p. 90) Which anthropologist defined culture as "that complex whole which includes
knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and other capabilities acquired by man as a
member of society"?
A. David Ricardo
B. Michael Porter
C. Edward Tylor
D. Raymond Vernon

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

42. (p. 90) This is a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and
that when taken together constitute a design for living.
A. Religion
B. Clique
C. Fraternity
D. Culture

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-14
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

43. (p. 90) The social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular
situations are:
A. values.
B. beliefs.
C. needs.
D. norms.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

44. (p. 90) _____ form the bedrock of a culture.


A. Folkways
B. Mores
C. Values
D. Norms

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

45. (p. 90) _____ are the abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good, right, and
desirable.
A. Mores
B. Values
C. Culture
D. Norms

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-15
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

46. (p. 90) A(n) _____ is a group of people who share a common set of values and norms.
A. cohort
B. society
C. fellowship
D. entity

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

47. (p. 90) Gabrielle Green, a manager at Cryptic Corporation, believes in empowerment,
upward mobility, and motivating her employees. This describes her:
A. criterion.
B. values.
C. norms.
D. folkways.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

48. (p. 90) Why do values form the bedrock of a culture?


A. Values are abstract concepts without considerable emotional significance.
B. Values provide the context within which a society's norms are established and justified.
C. Values are social rules that govern people's actions toward one another.
D. Values are routine conventions of everyday life and violation of them is not normally a
serious matter.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-16
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

49. (p. 90) Which of the following is best identified as being the routine conventions of
everyday life?
A. Folkways
B. Mores
C. Culture
D. Values

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

50. (p. 90) An act, as simple as shaking hands when meeting new people, is an example of
practicing:
A. values.
B. norms.
C. social mobility.
D. criterion.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

51. (p. 91) What is the difference between folkways and mores?
A. Folkways are norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a society.
B. Violating mores can bring serious retribution.
C. Mores include rituals and symbolic behavior.
D. Folkways have much greater significance than mores.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-17
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

52. (p. 91) Which of the following are norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a
society and to its social life?
A. Folkways
B. Mores
C. Values
D. Models

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

53. (p. 91) _____ include rituals and symbolic behavior.


A. Folkways
B. Mores
C. Values
D. Criteria

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

54. (p. 91) The concept of how time is valued in other countries is an example of which of the
following?
A. Fellowship
B. Mores
C. Laws
D. Folkways

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

3-18
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

55. (p. 92) The relationship between culture and country is often:
A. congruent.
B. homogeneous.
C. ambiguous.
D. similar.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

56. (p. 92) Which of the following is NOT considered a prevailing factor in the formation of
values and norms of a culture?
A. Political philosophies
B. Dominant religion
C. Homogeneity
D. Dominant language

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: What is Culture?

57. (p. 92) Factors such as _____ and _____ clearly influence the values and norms of a society.
A. routines; folkways.
B. conduct; culture.
C. rites; rituals.
D. social structure; religion.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: What is Culture?

3-19
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

58. (p. 92) Which of the following is NOT a dimension of culture?


A. Religion
B. Language
C. Education
D. Geographic location

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: What is Culture?

59. (p. 93) Which are the two attributes that are particularly important when explaining
differences between cultures?
A. Language and education
B. Basic unit and social stratification
C. Economic and political philosophy
D. Religion and language

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

60. (p. 93) Although there are many different aspects of social structure, what are the two main
dimensions that stand out when explaining differences between cultures?
A. The degree to which the basic unit of social organization is the group; the degree to which
the basic unit of society is a clique.
B. The degree to which the basic unit of social organization is the individual; the degree to
which a society is heterogeneous.
C. The degree to which the basic unit of social organization is the extended family; the degree
to which the basic unit of society is heterogeneous.
D. The degree to which the basic unit of social organization is the individual; the degree to
which a society is stratified into classes.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

61. (p. 93) Which of the following is an association of two or more individuals who have a
shared sense of identity and who interact with each other in structured ways on the basis of a
common set of expectations about each other's behaviors?
A. A folkway
B. A ritual
C. A more
D. A group

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

62. (p. 93) A society's _____ refers to its basic social organization.
A. "social bureaucracy"
B. "social regime"
C. "social structure"
D. "social hierarchy"

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

63. (p. 93) Which of the following is considered to be the basic building block of social
organizations in many of the Western societies?
A. Folkways
B. Individuals
C. Groups
D. Teams

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

3-22
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

64. (p. 93) In a family, individuals interact together to create a sense of identity and character. A
family would be an example of a(n):
A. society.
B. norm.
C. group.
D. assembly.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

65. (p. 94) The United States has an emphasis on individualism. This emphasis may lead to
which of the following problems?
A. Creation of a dynamic entrepreneurial economy.
B. An adverse impact on managerial loyalty to the company.
C. Creating pressures for mutual self-help and collective action.
D. New products and new ways of doing business.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

66. (p. 94) How does high managerial mobility help U.S. organizations?
A. Managers possess knowledge, experience, and a network of interpersonal contacts that
come from years of working within the same company.
B. They can draw on company-specific experience, knowledge, and a network of contacts to
find solutions to current problems.
C. Identify how good practices and techniques developed in one firm might be profitably
applied to other firms.
D. They allow managers to successfully build teams within an organization to perform
collective tasks.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

67. (p. 94) The high level of entrepreneurial activity in the United States can be attributed in part
to the high level of emphasis placed on the _____ in the American society.
A. group
B. cadre
C. community
D. individual

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

68. (p. 94) A focus on the "individual" rather than the "group" is evident in many _____
cultures.
A. Asian
B. Western
C. South American
D. African

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

69. (p. 94) In contrast to the Western emphasis on the _____, in many other societies the _____
is the primary unit of social organization.
A. individual; group
B. group; clan
C. coterie; individual
D. hierarchy; community

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-25
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

70. (p. 94-95) The importance attached to _____ is a central value of the Japanese culture.
A. individualism
B. group membership
C. personal distinctiveness
D. group dynamism

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

71. (p. 95) How does group primacy harm the Japanese society?
A. It provides strong incentive for individual members of the group to work together for the
common good.
B. It lacks close cooperation between individuals within a company and between companies.
C. It lacks dynamism and entrepreneurship.
D. It offers lifetime employment in a particular company.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

72. (p. 95) Which of the following is best described as hierarchical social categories often based
on family background, occupation, and income?
A. Social significance
B. Social strata
C. Societal norm
D. Social mobility

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-26
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

73. (p. 95) All societies are graded on a hierarchical basis into social categories, or:
A. social strata.
B. individual basic units.
C. social segments.
D. social organizations.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

74. (p. 95) What is social mobility?


A. The hierarchical categories within a society, defined on the basis of such elements as
family background, income, and occupation.
B. An association of two or more individuals who interact with each other in structured ways
on the basis of a common set of expectations about each other's behavior.
C. The extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which they are born.
D. Significance attached to the family or village to which an individual belonged.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

75. (p. 95) The family of Maria Banditos places a staunch value on achieving formal, higher
education. However, when Maria decided to apply to the prominent university in her city, she
was not given admission because the university admitted students from only one particular
class. This problem is most closely related to low:
A. social mobility.
B. social potential.
C. group significance.
D. emphasis on cast system.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-27
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

76. (p. 95) A(n) _____ is a closed system of stratification in which the family into which a
person is born determines social position.
A. class system
B. ethical system
C. social strata system
D. caste system

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

77. (p. 95) The most rigid system of stratification is a _____ system.
A. degree
B. caste
C. cross-cultural
D. class

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

78. (p. 95-96) Although the number of societies with caste systems has diminished rapidly during
the 20th century, one partial example still remains. This is:
A. China.
B. Japan.
C. Britain.
D. India.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

79. (p. 96) A _____ system is a less rigid form of social stratification in which social mobility is
possible.
A. rank
B. class
C. criterion
D. position

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

80. (p. 96) Individuals born into a(n) _____ at the bottom of the hierarchy can work their way
up, while individuals at the top can work their way down.
A. class system
B. caste system
C. ethical system
D. religious system

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

81. (p. 96) Historically, British society has been divided into three main classes:
A. the upper class, the middle class, and the working class.
B. the Protestants, the Catholics, and the Jews.
C. the Christians, the Hindus, and the Muslims.
D. the urban dwellers, the central class, and the rural peasants.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-29
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

82. (p. 97) In the United States, class membership is most influenced by which of the
following?
A. Family background
B. Caste in which the person was born
C. Personal economic achievements
D. Degree of schooling

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

83. (p. 97) The _____ in the United States is less extreme than in Britain and mobility is greater.
A. social system
B. class system
C. norm system
D. rank system

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

84. (p. 97) The historic division of _____ was strengthened during the high point of Communist
rule because of a rigid system of household registration that restricted most citizens to the
place of their birth for a lifetime.
A. Russia
B. Iraq
C. China
D. Japan

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

85. (p. 98) Sociologists now hypothesize that a new class system is emerging in _____, based
less on the rural-urban divide and more on urban occupation.
A. China
B. Russia
C. Japan
D. Norway

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

86. (p. 98) What type of consciousness refers to a condition where people perceive themselves
in terms of their background, and this shapes their relationships with members of other
classes?
A. Social
B. Rank
C. Class
D. Norm

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

87. (p. 98) A form of _____ has been played out in British society in the traditional hostility
between upper-middle-class managers and their working-class employees.
A. class consciousness
B. denominational awareness
C. ethical consciousness
D. religious consciousness

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

88. (p. 98) In _____ society, the high degree of social mobility and the extreme emphasis on
individualism limit the impact of class background on business operations.
A. Chinese
B. American
C. Indian
D. British

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

89. (p. 99) The system of shared beliefs and rituals that are concerned with the realm of the
sacred is referred to as:
A. religion.
B. ethics.
C. group.
D. caste.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

90. (p. 99) _____ systems refer to a set of moral principles, or values, that are used to guide and
shape behavior.
A. Class
B. Ethical
C. Social
D. Economic

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

91. (p. 99) Most of the world's ethical systems are a product of:
A. economic heritage.
B. class systems.
C. folkways.
D. religions.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

92. (p. 101) Which German sociologist made a connection between Protestant ethics and "the
spirit of capitalism" in 1904?
A. Abram Maslow
B. Max Weber
C. Alfred Schmidt
D. Joachim Wach

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

93. (p. 101) According to Max Weber, what is the relationship between Protestantism and the
emergence of modern capitalism?
A. A promise of salvation in the next world, rather than this world, paved the way for
capitalism.
B. Conforming to hierarchical domination of religious and social life paved the way for the
individual economic and political freedoms.
C. Nations with Catholic or Orthodox majorities lack significant and sustained entrepreneurial
activity and economic growth.
D. Emphasis on the importance of hard work and wealth creation and frugality facilitated the
development of capitalism.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

94. (p. 102) Which of the following is NOT one of the major principles of Islam?
A. Leading a severe ascetic lifestyle.
B. Being generous but not a squanderer.
C. Avoiding killing except for justifiable causes.
D. Dealing justly and equitably with other.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

95. (p. 102) The rise of fundamentalism is, in part, a response to:
A. fanaticism.
B. the move toward modernization.
C. the narrowing gap between the rich and the poor.
D. intolerance.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

96. (p. 103) Which of the following principles is NOT consistent with the teachings of the
Koran?
A. The protection of the rights of private property
B. Earning a legitimate profit through trade economics
C. Free enterprise
D. Treating people who hold properties as owners

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

97. (p. 105) Islamic countries are likely to be receptive to international businesses as long as
those businesses:
A. employ Islamic people.
B. have property in an Islamic nation.
C. behave in a manner that is consistent with Islamic ethics.
D. adhere to Islamic beliefs.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

98. (p. 105) Which of the following religions prohibits the payment or receipt of interest?
A. Christianity
B. Islam
C. Confucianism
D. Hinduism

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

99. (p. 106) _____ believe there is a moral force in society that requires the acceptance of certain
responsibilities.
A. Muslims
B. Hindus
C. Christians
D. Confucians

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

100. (p. 106) This famous Indian nationalist and spiritual leader was the embodiment of Hindu
asceticism.
A. Jawaharlal Nehru
B. Mahatma Gandhi
C. Indira Gandhi
D. Siddhartha Gautama

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

101. (p. 107) According to Buddhism, _____ originates in people's desire for pleasure.
A. wealth
B. spiritual enlightenment
C. spiritual stagnation
D. suffering

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

102. (p. 107) Siddhartha offered the Noble Eightfold Path as a route for transformation. Which
one of the following is NOT emphasized in this teaching?
A. Worldly possessions
B. Right thinking
C. Meditation
D. Mindfulness

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

3-37
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

103. (p. 107) What is the similarity between Hinduism and Buddhism?
A. Buddhism, like Hinduism, supports the caste system.
B. Buddhism also advocates extreme ascetic behavior.
C. Buddhism also stresses afterlife and spiritual achievement.
D. Hinduism, like Buddhism, follows the Noble Eightfold Path for transformation.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

104. (p. 107) In _____ thought, loyalty to one's superiors is regarded as a sacred duty, an
absolute obligation.
A. Buddhism
B. Confucian
C. Islam
D. Christianity

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

105. (p. 107) Of the following religions, which one is noted for having ethics that speak of the
values of loyalty, reciprocal obligations, and honesty as being central to its system?
A. Buddhist
B. Islamic
C. Hindu
D. Confucian

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

106. (p. 108) Which of the following best describes the most literal meaning of "guanxi"?
A. Honesty
B. Knowledge
C. Connections
D. Loyalty

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Religious and Ethical Systems

107. (p. 109) _____ is one of the defining characteristics of a culture.


A. Language
B. Wealth
C. Business
D. Networking

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Language

108. (p. 110) The most widely spoken language in the world is:
A. Chinese.
B. English.
C. French.
D. Spanish.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Language

3-39
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

109. (p. 110) _____ is the mother tongue of the largest number of people in the world.
A. English
B. Chinese
C. Japanese
D. Spanish

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Language

110. (p. 110) Which one of the following languages is being utilized more and more when
conducting international business dealings?
A. Spanish
B. English
C. French
D. Japanese

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Language

111. (p. 110) The recent trends in international business strongly indicate that when Japanese and
German businesspeople conduct business together, the language in which they will
communicate is almost certain to be:
A. French.
B. German.
C. Japanese.
D. English.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Language

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

112. (p. 110) _____ refers to unspoken language.


A. Discrete communication
B. Nonverbal communication
C. Silent communication
D. Passive communication

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Language

113. (p. 112) Of the following, who is noted as having isolated four dimensions that he claimed
summarized different cultures?
A. Geert Hofstede
B. Michael Porter
C. Max Weber
D. Abraham Maslow

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

114. (p. 112) Which one of the following dimensions focuses on how a society deals with the
fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities?
A. Collectivism
B. Individualism
C. Uncertainty avoidance
D. Power distance

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

115. (p. 112) What is uncertainty avoidance?


A. The extent to which a society teaches individuals either to prize personal achievement or to
conversely look after the interests of their collective first and foremost.
B. The extent to which a society allows inequalities of physical and intellectual capabilities
between people to grow into inequalities of power and wealth.
C. The extent to which a society differentiates and emphasizes traditional gender and work
roles.
D. The extent to which cultures socialize members to accept ambiguous situations and to
tolerate uncertainty.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

116. (p. 113) Which of the following countries scores high on individualism and low on power
distance?
A. Argentina
B. Panama
C. United States
D. Indonesia

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

117. (p. 113) Which of the following is a criticism of Hofstede's research?


A. Findings are consistent with standard Western stereotypes about cultural differences.
B. It represents a starting point for managers trying to figure out how cultures differ.
C. There is no evidence that differences in culture affect values and practices in the
workplace.
D. Research assumes there is a one-to-one correspondence between culture and the nation-
state.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

118. (p. 114) What is Confucian dynamism?


A. The extent to which a society adheres to Confucian values about time, persistence,
ordering by status, protection of face, respect for tradition, and reciprocation of gifts.
B. A tacit acknowledgment that if you have the right guanxi, legal rules can be broken, or at
least bent, as per the teachings of Confucius.
C. The extent to which a society follows Confucian values of allowing inequalities of physical
and intellectual capabilities between people to grow into inequalities of power and wealth.
D. The extent to which a society teaches individuals either to prize personal achievement or to
conversely look after the interests of their collective first and foremost.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

119. (p. 115) How is the new generation of Japanese workers different from traditional Japanese
workers?
A. The new generation Japanese worker is loyal to his boss and the organization and will
remain with it for a lifetime.
B. The new generation Japanese worker would give up evenings, weekends, and vacations to
serve the organization.
C. The traditional Japanese worker acts more like a Westerner, a gaijian.
D. The new generation Japanese worker is likely to be more direct than the traditional
Japanese worker.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

120. (p. 116) According to the World Values Survey, how do values change?
A. The study links the changes in values to countries' religious development.
B. As countries get richer, people shift from survival values to values that stress the
importance of diversity, belonging, and participation in political processes.
C. As countries get richer, the majority of the population starts believing that the first duty of
a child is to make his/her parents proud.
D. As countries get richer, values become more traditional.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

Essay Questions

121. (p. 90) Describe what is meant by the term "culture." Differentiate between the terms
culture, values, and norms.

Culture can be defined as a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of
people and that when taken together constitute a design for living. Values and norms are the
underpinnings of culture. Values are abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good,
right, and desirable. Put differently, values are shared assumptions about how things ought to
be. Norms are the social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in a
particular situation.

AACSB: Analytic
BT: Knowledge
Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective: 3-1
Topic: What is Culture?

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

122. (p. 93) What are the two dimensions of a society's social structure that stand out as being of
particular importance when explaining differences between cultures?

The first is the degree to which the basic unit of social organization is the individual, as
opposed to the group. Western societies tend to emphasize the primacy of the individual,
while groups tend to figure much larger in many other societies. The second dimension is the
degree to which a society is stratified into classes or castes. Some societies are characterized
by a relatively high degree of social stratification and relatively low mobility between strata
(e.g., Indian), while other societies are characterized by a low degree of social stratification
and high mobility between strata (e.g. American).

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-2
Topic: Social Structure

3-46
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

123. (p. 95-97) Describe the concept of social mobility. Does social mobility vary significantly
from society to society? Describe the extremes in terms of a society that has low social
mobility and a society that has high social mobility.

Social mobility refers to the extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which
they are born. Social mobility varies significantly from society to society. The most rigid
system of stratification is a caste system. A caste system is a closed system of stratification in
which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born, and change in
that position is usually not possible during an individual's lifetime.
A class system is a less rigid form of social stratification in which social mobility is possible.
It is a form of open stratification in which the position a person has by birth can be changed
through his/her own achievements or luck. Individuals born into a class at the bottom of the
hierarchy can work their way up; conversely, individuals born into a class at the top of the
hierarchy can slip down.
The class system in the United States is less extreme than in Britain and mobility is greater.
Like Britain, the United States has its own upper, middle, and working classes. However,
class membership is determined to a much greater degree by individual economic
achievements, as opposed to background and schooling. Thus, an individual can, by his/her
own economic achievement, move smoothly from the working class to the upper class in a
lifetime. Successful individuals from humble origins are highly respected in American society.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Application
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-47
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

124. (p. 98) What is meant by the term "class consciousness"? Under what circumstances can
class consciousness be bad?

The term class consciousness refers to a condition where people tend to perceive themselves
in terms of their class background, and this shapes their relationships with members of other
classes. This has been played out in British society in the traditional hostility between upper-
middle-class managers and their working-class employees. Mutual antagonism and lack of
respect historically made it difficult to achieve cooperation between management and labor in
many British companies and resulted in a relatively high level of industrial disputes.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

125. (p. 101) What is meant by the Protestant work ethic? What impact has the Protestant work
ethic had on the emergence of modern day capitalism?

In 1904, a German sociologist, named Max Weber, made a connection between Protestant
ethics and "the spirit of capitalism." Weber drew this conclusion by observing that, in Western
Europe, the business leaders and owners of capital were overwhelmingly Protestant. This
relationship led Weber to conclude that there was a link between Protestantism and the
emergence of modern capitalism. Weber argued that Protestant ethics emphasized the
importance of hard work and wealth creation, and frugality. According to Weber, this kind of
value system was needed to facilitate the development of capitalism.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-3
Topic: Social Structure

3-48
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

126. (p. 112-114) Hofstede isolated four dimensions that he claimed characterized the cultures of
different countries. Briefly describe each of Hofstede's four dimensions. Should Hofstede's
dimensions be used by managers to determine how cultures differ and what would that mean
for management practices?

Hofstede's four dimensions are: power distance, individualism versus collectivism,


uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity versus femininity. Each of these dimensions is briefly
described below.
Power Distance: This dimension focuses on how a society deals with the fact that people are
unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities. According to Hofstede, high power distance
cultures are found in countries that let inequalities grow over time into inequalities of power
and wealth. Low power distance cultures are found in societies that try to play down such
inequalities as much as possible.
Individualism versus Collectivism: This dimension focuses on the relationship between the
individual and his/her fellows. In individualistic societies, the ties between individuals are
loose, and individual achievement and freedom are highly valued. In societies where
collectivism is emphasized, the ties between individuals are tight.
Uncertainty Avoidance: This dimension measures the extent to which different cultures
socialize their members into accepting ambiguous situations and tolerating uncertainty.
Members of high uncertainty avoidance cultures place a premium on job security, career
patterns, retirement benefits, and so on. Lower uncertainty avoidance cultures are
characterized by a greater readiness to take risks and less emotional resistance to change.
Masculinity versus Femininity: Finally, this dimension looks at the relationship between
gender and work roles. In masculine cultures, sex roles are sharply differentiated and
traditional "masculine values," such as achievement and the effective exercise of power,
determines cultural ideals. If feminine cultures, sex roles are less sharply distinguished, and
little differentiation is made between men and women in the same job.
Hofstede used these dimensions to develop charts that provided descriptive information about
cultures. These charts were intended to be used by managers to understand the dynamics of
different cultures.
As articulated in the text, Hofstede's model has some weaknesses, and should not be used as
the sole determinant of how one interface with individuals from other cultures. On the other
hand, it represents a starting point for managers trying to figure out how cultures differ and
what that might mean for management practices.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

127. (p. 113-114) What are the criticisms against Hofstede's research?

Hofstede's research has been criticized on a number of points. First, Hofstede assumes there is
a one-to-one correspondence between culture and the nation-state, but many countries have
more than one culture. Hofstede's results do not capture this distinction. Second, the research
may have been culturally bound. The research team was composed of Europeans and
Americans. The questions they asked of IBM employees and their analysis of the answers
may have been shaped by their own cultural biases and concerns. So it is not surprising that
Hofstede's results confirm Western stereotypes, because it was Westerners who undertook the
research. Third, Hofstede's informants worked not only within a single industry, the computer
industry, but also within one company, IBM. At the time, IBM was renowned for its own
strong corporate culture and employee selection procedures, making it possible that the
employees' values were different in important respects from the values of the cultures from
which those employees came. Also, certain social classes (such as unskilled manual workers)
were excluded from Hofstede's sample. A final caution is that Hofstede's work is now
beginning to look dated. Cultures do not stand still; they evolve, albeit slowly. What was a
reasonable characterization in the 1960s and 1970s may not be so today.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

3-50
Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

128. (p. 114) Which was the fifth dimension Hofstede added to his research? How does it relate
to economic growth rate?

Hofstede expanded his original research to include a fifth dimension that he argued captured
additional cultural differences not brought out in his earlier work. He referred to this
dimension as "Confucian dynamism." According to Hofstede, Confucian dynamism captures
attitudes toward time, persistence, ordering by status, protection of face, respect for tradition,
and reciprocation of gifts and favors. The label refers to these "values" being derived from
Confucian teachings. As might be expected, East Asian countries such as Japan, Hong Kong,
and Thailand scored high on Confucian dynamism, while nations such as the United States
and Canada scored low. Hofstede and his associates went on to argue that their evidence
suggested that nations with higher economic growth rates scored high on Confucian
dynamism and low on individualism—the implication being Confucianism is good for
growth.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-4
Topic: Culture and the Workplace

129. (p. 115-116) How does economic development and globalization affect social change?

Several studies have suggested that economic advancement and globalization may be
important factors in societal change. For example, there is evidence that economic progress is
accompanied by a shift in values away from collectivism and toward individualism. One
reason for this shift may be that richer societies exhibit less need for social and material
support structures built on collectives, whether the collective is the extended family or the
paternalistic company.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

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Chapter 03 - Differences in Culture

130. (p. 116) According to the World Value Survey, what causes values to change?

The World Value Survey linked changes in values to changes in a country's level of economic
development. According to this research, as countries get richer, a shift occurs away from
"traditional values" linked to religion, family, and country, and toward "secular rational"
values. Traditionalists say religion is important in their lives. They have a strong sense of
national pride; they also think that children should be taught to obey and that the first duty of
a child is to make his/her parents proud. They say abortion, euthanasia, divorce, and suicide
are never justified. At the other end of this spectrum are secular rational values.
Another category in the World Values Survey is quality of life attributes. At one end of this
spectrum are "survival values," the values people hold when the struggle for survival is of
paramount importance. These values tend to stress that economic and physical security are
more important than self-expression. People who cannot take food or safety for granted tend
to be xenophobic, are wary of political activity, have authoritarian tendencies, and believe that
men make better political leaders than women. "Self-expression" or "well-being" values stress
the importance of diversity, belonging, and participation in political processes.

AACSB: Reflective thinking


BT: Comprehension
Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: 3-5
Topic: Cultural Change

3-52