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Before energy, can be used, it has to transformed by a complex process into ATP(a

form which the organism can handle easily). ATP acronym stands for adenosine
triphosphate.

ATP- is a member of a group of organic compounds containing phosphate groups


that are linked by means of “energy rich” chemical bonds.

When this bond is broken (giving adenosine diphosphate and inorganic


phosphate), about 7.2 Calories of Energy is made available to do work. However
when the organism is resting and energy is not immediately needed, the reverse
reaction takes place (the phosphate group is reattached to the molecule).

Thus, the ATP molecule acts as a rechargeable “chemical battery”, storing energy
when it is not needed, but able to release it instantly when the organism requires
it. There is often a misbelieve about the “high-energy bond” of ATP. In fact, the
energy is coming from the whole molecule that is the equilibrium between ATP
and ADP + Pi and not from the particular bond.

NADPH(Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Hydrogen). This molecule


is very important in the life cycle of any cell. In fact, a lot of reductive biosynthesis
reaction requires NADPH as an “electron donor”.

Enzymes that function primarily in the “reductive direction” utilize NADP+/NADPH


cofactor pair as co-factors. For example, the reactions of fatty acid biosynthesis
and asteroid biosynthesis utilize large amounts of NADPH. Another example is the
conversion of ribonucleotides (RNA) to deoxyribonucleotide (DNA) requies NADPH
as the electron source, so that any rapid proliferating cell needs huge quantities of
NADPH.

The NADPH is mainly generated through the phosphate pathway. This pathway
provides the cell with ribose-5-phosphate (r5P)for the synthesis of nucleotides
(unit of DNA).

Undoubtedly, ATP and NADPH are essentials for the maintenance of chemistry of
the cell.
Respiration is the breakdown of glucose to make energy using oxygen.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is the process through which plants make food for themselves in form of glucose.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION:-

1. FORMULA

Respiration:-

Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + water

Photosynthesis:-

Carbon dioxide + water = Glucose + Oxygen

2. TIME OF PROCESS

Respiration:-

It is a process that is not timely and is done in both day and night

Photosynthesis:-

Photosynthesis use energy from the sun to make glucose and oxygen in the day.

3. GLUCOSE USAGE

Respiration:-

Animals and human use glucose and oxygen to carry out respiration

Photosynthesis:-

Plants produce glucose and oxygen to carry out respiration.

4. CARBON DIOXIDE

Respiration:-

In respiration, carbon dioxide is exhaled where as oxygen is inhaled by living beings

Photosynthesis:-

In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is inhaled during day and oxygen is exhaled where as in night plants inhale
oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
Photosynthesis is where the plant takes in carbon dioxide in the presence of light to produce glucose and water
vapour and oxygen to the surroundings.

Respiration is where the plant takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide to the surroundings. This occurs all
the time.

Photosynthesis and respiration occur during different parts of the day. Photosynthesis mainly occurs during
daytime as there would be light. The plant takes in the energy from the light and carbon dioxide to produce its
'food' and as a result oxygen is given out as a by product. The oxygen exits through the stomata on the leaves
and into the air.

Respiration however occurs mainly at night when no light is present. It is very similar to human respiration as it
takes in the oxygen in the air to break down its food supply and in turn gives out carbon dioxide. Some people
advise not to keep plants in your room if you keep it closed for this very reason!

There is a specific time however (about sunset) when the rate of photosynthesis is equal to the rate of
transpiration. This is known as compensation point. Basically what happens is that all the oxygen being created
in photosynthesis is being used for respiration and all the carbon dioxide produced in respiration is being used
up for photosynthesis. Therefore there would be no net product being produced.

In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water yield glucose and oxygen. In respiration, process glucose and
oxygen yield carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast while respiration takes
place in the mitochondria.

The Equation

Photosynthesis : 6CO2 + 12H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H20

Respiration : 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + ATP (energy)

Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds in presence of
sunlight. Respiration is the set of metabolic reactions that take in cells of living organisms that convert nutrients
like sugar into ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) and waste products. Processes in photosynthesis are divided on
basis of requirement of sunlight while respiration processes are divided on basis of requirement of oxygen.
Hence in photosynthesis you have the light dependent reactions and the dark reactions while inrespiration there
is aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

One difference of photosynthesis and respiration is that their process is being reversed. In photosynthesis,
carbon dioxide and water is yielded to glucose or also known as sugar and oxygen while in respiration, it is the
other way around. Sugar and oxygen is yielded to carbon dioxide and water. In other words, in photosynthesis,
carbon dioxide is absorbed and oxygen is released while in respiration, oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide
is released.

Another difference of the two is that photosynthesis can occur only in presence of sunlight while respiration
doesn't require sunlight for it to perform the process. The main function of photosynthesis is to produce food
and it captures energy for it to perform the process while respiration breakdowns food and it releases energy in
the process.

Ultimately, the energy in organic molecules comes from the sun. Energy enters an ecosystem in the form of
sunlight and exists as heat. Photosynthesis generates organic molecules and oxygen used by the mitochondria of
eukaryotes for the process of cellular respiration. Respiration breaks this feul down, which generates ATP. The
waste products of repsiration, carbon dioxide and water, are the raw materials needed for photosynthesis.
1. photosynthesis:the process in which carbon dioxide and water react in the presence of sunlight and
chlorophyll(present in the leaves of plants) to form glucose is called the photosynthesis.oxygen and
water are released in this process as bi_products.this process takes place in plants only in daytime as it
needs sunlight.reaction is as follows: 6CO2 + 12H2O-----> C6H12O6 + 6O2
+ 6H2O where C6H12O6 is the glucose.
2. respiration:the process in which breakdown of organic material(GLUCOSE) takes place in the presence
of oxygen to give carbon dioxide and water is called the respiration.energy is also released in this
process.it takes place in plants both in day and at night because it doesnt need sunlight.reaction is as
follows: C6H12O6 + 6O2 -----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY .

In order for plants to perform their important functions, certain processes are required. Two of these are
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. While the two have characteristics in common, there are many
differences between them.

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants use light from the sun to make food. After the photosynthesis
happens, then the cells in the plant use cellular respiration to turn this food into energy that the plant can
actually use. Photosynthesis happens before respiration can.

Both involve a type of organelle inside the cells, but photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplasts, which
contain chlorophyll. Cellular respiration takes place inside the mitochondria, which are the organelles that are
able to break down glucose.

In photosynthesis, the energy that is used comes from sunlight, which is converted into energy. In cellular
respiration, the energy is taken from glucose and then transferred to ATP, also known as adenosine triphosphate
or derived energy, for the organism to use. Determine what part energy plays in both processes. Photosynthesis
needs energy from the light in order to start the whole process. But in cellular respiration, energy is produced
from the glucose that results in photosynthesis. In other words, photosynthesis needs energy to make glucose,
while cellular respiration uses this glucose to actually create energy. In scientific equations, photosynthesis
takes carbon dioxide from the air, water and sunlight to create sugar. After this happens, oxygen is released
back into the air. Cellular respiration takes these same sugars and combines them with oxygen to release the
energy as ATP. Carbon dioxide and water are released due to this.

Cellular respiration is the careful enzymatic taking apart of glucose molecules. Some of the energy trapped in
the bonds of this sugar molecule is captured and stored in the bonds of ATP molecules. The destruction of
one glucose molecule results in the construction of 36 ATP molecules. The energy not captured in ATP is lost
to the surroundings as heat. The ATP formed is used by cells for processes such as growth.

Photosynthesis is the plant process where light energy is used to generate the production of ATP. The ATP so
formed is used to form the bonds between carbon dioxide molecules and hydrogen atoms released from water
by the light energy. The process forms sugar (glucose) molecules and produces oxygen as a waste product. At a
glance, the equations: sugar + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + ATP energy (cellular respiration) and
carbon dioxide + water + sun's energy --> sugar + oxygen (photosynthesis) look to be the reverse of each other.
In fact they are both very complex and dissimilar processes.

1. Photosynthesis occurs only in plants while respiration in all living things.


2. Photosynthesis occurs in presence of sun light whereas respiration always and require no light but air.
3. In Photosynthesis solar energy is converted into chemical energy and in respiration chemical energy is
converted into heat energy.
Photosynthesis uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide into glucose. Oxygen is produced as a by product
during photosynthesis.

Sugar and other carbohydrates are used as fuel by cells. During the process of Cellular Respiration, glucose is
broken down using oxygen. This reaction releases energy which is used to create ATP molecules.

The differences between photosynthesis and respiration are :

Photosynthesis produces food Respiration breaks down food

In photosynthesis carbon dioxide In respiration glucose is broke down into


combines with water to produce glucose carbon dioxide and water

Photosynthesis absorbs sun’s energy Respiration releases energy trapped in food or


glucose

Photosynthesis takes place in the presence No catalyst is needed for respiration


of a catalyst chlorophyll

CO2 is absorbed in photosynthesis CO2 is released in respiration

Oxygen is released in photosynthesis Oxygen is absorbed in respiration

Photosynthesis has to take place in sunlight Respiration does not need sunlight

Photosynthesis occurs only during daytime Respiration occurs at all times during the lifetime
of the living cell

Photosynthesis and respiration are reactions that complement each other in the environment. They are in
reality the same reactions but occurring in reverse. While in photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water yield
glucose and oxygen, through the respiration process glucose and oxygen yield carbon dioxide and water.

They work well since living organisms supply plants with carbon dioxide which undergoes photosynthesis and
produces glucose and these plants and bacteria give out oxygen which all living organisms need for respiration.

Comparison chart
Cellular Respiration versus Photosynthesis comparison chart
Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis
Yes; theoretical yield is 38 ATP molecules per
Production of ATP Yes
glucose but actual yield is only about 30-32.
Reactants C6H12O6 and 6O2 6CO2 and 12H2O and light energy
Requirement of Sunlight not required; cellular respiration occurs at Can occur only in presence of
sunlight all times. sunlight
Chemical Equation 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 +6H2O + ATP 6CO2 + 12H2O + light -->
(formula) (energy) C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H20
Production of ATP via oxidation of organic sugar The production of organic carbon
Process compounds. [1] glycolosis: breaking down of (glucose and starch) from inorganic
sugars; occurs in cytoplasm [2] Krebs Cycle: carbon (carbon dioxide) with the use
Cellular Respiration versus Photosynthesis comparison chart
Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis
occurs in mitochondria; requires energy [3] of ATP and NADPH produced in the
Electron Transport Chain-- in mitochondria; light dependent reaction
converts O2 to water.
Fate of oxygen and Oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide is Carbon dioxide is absorbed and
carbon dioxide released. oxygen is released.
Energy required or Releases energy in a step wise manner as ATP
Requires energy
released? molecules
Main function Breakdown of food. Energy release. Production of food. Energy Capture.
Carbon dioxide and water combine in
Glucose is broken down into water and carbon
Chemical reaction presence of sunlight to produce
dioxide (and energy).
glucose and oxygen.
4 stages: Glycolysis, Linking Reaction (pyruvate 2 stages: The light dependent
Stages oxidation), Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain reaction, light independent reaction.
(oxidative phosphorylation). (AKA light cycle & calvin cycle)
H+ proton gradient across the inner mitochondria H+ gradient across thylakoid
What powers ATP
membrane into matrix. High H+ concentration in membrane into stroma. High H+
synthase
the intermembrane space. concentration in the thylakoid lumen
C6 H12 O6 (or G3P) and 6O2 and
Products 6CO2 and 6H2O and energy(ATP)
6H20
What pumps Electron transport chain. Electrochemical gradient
protons across the creates energy that the protons use to flow Electron transport chain
membrane passively synthesizing ATP.
Occurs in which
Mitochondria Glycolysis (cytoplasm) Chloroplasts
organelle?
Final electron
O2 (Oxygen gas) NADP+ (forms NADPH )
receptor
Occurs in which Occurs in all living organisms (plants and Occurs in plants, protista (algae), and
organisms? animals). some bacteria.
Electron source Glucose, NADH + , FADH2 Oxidation H2O at PSII
Catalyst - A
substance that Reaction takes places in presence of
No catalyst is required for respiration reaction.
increases the rate of chlorophyll.
a chemical reaction
High electron
From breaking bonds From light photons.
potential energy

Photosynthesis vs Cellular Respiration


Definitions of photosynthesis and respiration
Photosynthesis is a process in photoautotrophs that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds in the
presence of sunlight. Respiration is the set of metabolic reactions that take in cells of living organisms that
convert nutrients like sugar into ATP (adenosine tri phosphate) and waste products.
Processes involved
Processes in photosynthesis are divided on basis of requirement of sunlight while respiration processes are
divided on basis of requirement of oxygen. Hence in photosynthesis you have the light dependent reactions and
the dark reactions while in respiration there is aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

In photosynthesis light dependent reactions, ultra violet light strikes chlorophyll pigments which excites
electrons leading to separation of oxygen molecules from carbon dioxide. In the dark reactions, carbon
molecules now independent of oxygen are converted into carbohydrates and stored in plant cells as energy and
food source. In aerobic cellular respiration oxygen is utilized to convert organic compounds into energy and in
anaerobic respiration converts organic compounds into energy without using oxygen.

Site of Reactions
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts and organelles of a plant cell. Respiration takes place in the
cytoplasm and mitochondria in the cell of a living organism.

Energy, ATP, and Enzymes

Energy - the ability to do work, that is, to move matter against opposing forces such as gravity and friction

 kinetic energy - the energy of motion.


 potential energy - stored energy, the capacity to do work

Thermodynamics - the study of energy transformation

 The First Law of Thermodynamics - Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it can neither be
created nor destroyed
o The total energy of the universe is constant
o Mass is a form of energy (this is only important when considering atomic reactions, so we won't
dwell on it here...)
 The Second Law of Thermodynamics - Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy
of the universe
o There is a trend toward randomness
o Energy must be spent to retain order - this spending of energy usually releases heat, which
increases the entropy elsewhere

Free Energy - the portion of a system's energy the can perform work

 It is called "free" energy because this is the energy which can perform work, not because there is no
energy cost to the system
 There still ain't no free lunch

Exergonic Reaction - a process with a net release of free energy

 Sometimes called spontaneous, but that doesn't mean that it will occur rapidly
 Burning paper is exergonic, but paper just doesn't ignite when it is exposed to air - it requires an initial
input of energy to start the reaction

Endergonic Reaction - a process which absorbs free energy from the surroundings

 Most synthesis reactions are endergonic

Energy Coupling - the use of an exergonic process to drive and endergonic process

 The free energy released from the exergonic process is absorbed by the endergonic process

Types of Cellular Work

 Mechanical - beating of cilia, muscle contractions, etc.


 Transport - pumping of molecules and ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration
gradient, etc.
 Chemical - pushing endergonic reactions that would not occur spontaneously

ATP - Power To Drive Cellular Work

ATP - Adenosine triphosphate - a close relative to Adenine, a nucleotide found in DNA.

 Contains three phosphate groups connected to each other in sequence


 The bonds can be broken by hydrolysis
o When the terminal phosphate bond is broken, a molecule of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is formed
o This forms adenosine diphosphate, ADP + (Pi)
o This generates free energy, which can be used by the cell to do work
 Usually, ATP functions by transferring its phosphate group to another molecule, creating a phosphorylated
intermediate.
o This phosphorylated intermediate is usually less stable (more reactive) than the original molecule, which
drives the reaction
 Obviously, for the cell to function, ATP must rapidly be regenerated.
o One muscle cell can consume and regenerate over 10,000,000 ATP's a second
o If ATP couldn't be regenerated, humans would have to consume nearly their body weight in ATP each
day

Enzymes and Chemical Reactions

Catalyst - a chemical agent that changes the state of a reaction without being consumed in the reaction
Substrate - reactants
Intermediates - compounds formed between initial reactants & products
Products - products
Cofactors- helpers for enzymes (carry e-)
Energy Carriers - sources of quick energy (ATP)

Enzymes are protein catalysts

 Actually, some RNA molecules possess enzymatic functions, but well over 99% of all enzymes are proteins
 they do not do the impossible - they only speed up reactions
 they are not consumed in a reaction
 they work for both the forward and the reverse reaction
 they are highly selective