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(Shiro & McNeil)


Social Reconstructionist


Technological /





(Eisner & Vallance)


Social reconstruction-


Curriculum as

Cognitive processes

Some key

Growth of individual

relevance Interdependence, includes

rationalism Help children

Technology Process, scientific

Focuses on the how,


as central theme,

community action,

learn accumulated

evidence for proper

not the what (Eisner


autonomy, individual,

possibility is a common theme, planning the

knowledge of our culture (Shiro)

'how' to organize material.

& Vallance)

Some core

discovery, enriching, personal success

future, not planning for the future


Focus on needs and concerns of individuals. Goal of education is growth of individuals (Shiro) School should fully enter the learner's life through the curriculum (Eisner & Vallance)

Education can effect social change. Students can reconstruct society vs adapt to it. (McNeil) Students are agents of change. (Shiro) Learning should be contextual. (McNeil)

Teachers are mini- experts who deliver content (Shiro)

There is a systemic method to learning various topics (McNeil). Focus on the 'proper' presentation of material.

Purpose of education is to determine needs of society and have student become adults who can meet those needs (Shiro). Skill development can be independent of content (Eisner & Vallance)


drives the


What types of learning processes are used?

Where is content sought? How is it organized?

Student interests is where content is derived. Construction of meaning as a result of interacting with physical, social and intellectual environment (Shiro)

Educators must construct contexts and environments for meaning-making to occur. Educators must develop warm relationships with students (McNeil)

Content is sought from opportunities for student growth

Students, based on local problems in their communities (McNeil) Students are not recipients, they are active learners (McNeil) When students have a vision of the possible, education should provide opportunity to help students act on that vision (Shiro)

Includes community action, bringing students into nature, personal investment in community well-being, students can improve the real world

Content is sought from learners and their communities and can be therefore very interdisciplinary

Teacher as expert (Shiro). Students as receivers of knowledge (McNeil).

Inquirers pass knowledge to teachers to learners. Students are not the inquirers (Shiro)

Content is sought from experts, and is organized into discreet subjects

Developer of the technology, or of the learning process. Organization of the presentation of material is prepared before the learner enters the picture (Eisner & Vallance) Often the government.

Standards-based. Teaching to the test. Mastery learning.(McNeil)

Content is sought from research into the proper sequence of what to deliver, when.

Teacher who has decided, perhaps based on presribed list of skills, which skills are needed by the students. List of 'required' skills may be created by curriculum writers.

Activities specific for subject-specific skill building and life- skills building.

Rarely focused on content.