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SCIENCE TEACHER

LECTURE NO. 1
KINDS OF NEURONS
NERVE IMPULSE 1. Sensory or Affarent neurons- pick up information from your body
parts or the environment and transmit this information to your spinal
an electrochemical signal that is activated by a stimulus and is transmitted
cord and your brain.
from one nerve cell or neuron to another until it reaches a tissue or organ
2. Motor or Efferent neurons- carry messages or impulses from your
that will elicit a appropriate response to the stimulus
brain to your spinal cord and to your body parts, causing them to
react.
3. Associative neurons- carry information between two neurons

Neurons have the special ability to carry signals or impulses.

A nerve impulse is an electrochemical signal moving along a neuron.

Synapse-The space or gap between two neurons.

A stimulus is any factor in the environment that influences behavior.

A response is a reaction to a condition or stimulus. An organism must be able


to respond to a stimulus in order to survive.

Reaction time is the length of time between application of a stimulus and


detection of a response.

PARTS OF THE NEURON When a receptor such as an organ perceives a stimulus, the impulse is
Cyton - main part of the neuron which contains the nucleus and the sent to the brain by the sensory neurons, which then transmit
cytoplasm information from one cell to another. A message reaches the brain, it
Cytoplasmic Extensions
processes the information and commands an effector such as a muscle or
Dendrites - the branchlike structure of the neuron that extends from the
an organ to respond. The message coming from the brain is sent through
cell body to receive an impulse.
Axon - the part of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell the motor neurons.
body.
LECTURE NO. 2
NERVOUS SYSTEM
3 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. It receives information about your environment and other parts of the
body.
2. It interprets this information.
3. It makes your body respond or react to information.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) serves as the main processing center


for the entire nervous system.

1. BRAIN- an organ located within the skull that functions as


organizer and distributor of information for the body. The brain of
an average adult is one of the largest organs of the body, weighing
about 1,300g (3 lb). It is a mushroom-shaped and divided into 3
main parts:
a. Cerebrum- large, upper part of the brain that controls activity
and thought. It is also concerned with the sensory processing,
direction of motor output, and the coordination of most bodily
activities.
b. Cerebellum- the part under the cerebrum that controls posture,
balance and coordination
c. Brainstem- the stalk of the brain, consists of the medulla
oblongata, pons and midbrain. It connects the brain to the
spinal cord and controls automatic fuctions such as breathing,
digestion, heart rate and blood pressure.
2. SPINAL CORD- this serves as a channel for signals between the
brain and the rest of the body and controls simple musculoskeletal
reflexes without input from the brain.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) connects the central nervous
system to the organs and limbs.

1. SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM-voluntary control of the body


movements
a. Sensory (Afferent)
b. Motor (Efferent)
2. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM- involuntary control of the body
movements
a. Sympathetic- it is activated when the body is in dynamic role or
stress. (breathing, increased of heart rate, sweating)
b. Parasympathetic- it maintains body functions and restores the
body to normal or relaxed mode.

LECTURE NO. 3
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
LECTURE NO. 4 which develop
exclusively for this
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM purpose. The fertilized
FEMALE DESCRIPTION FUNCTION ovum becomes an
REPRODUCTIVE embryo, develops into
a fetus and gestates
SYSTEM until childbirth.
The ovary is At puberty, the ovary The cervix is the part The function of
an organ found in begins to secrete
Cervix
of the female the cervix is to allow
the female increasing levels of reproductive flow of menstrual blood
reproductive hormones. Secondary system that connects from the uterus into the
Ovary system that produces sex characteristics the uterus (womb) to vagina.
an ovum. When begin to develop in the vagina.
released, this travels response to the The vagina is a The vagina
down the fallopian hormones. The ability fibromuscular (made accommodates the
tube into the uterus, to produce eggs and up of fibrous and male penis during sexu
where it may become reproduce develops. Vagina muscular tissue) al intercourse.
fertilized by a sperm. The ovary changes canal leading from
structure and function the outside of the
beginning at puberty. body to the cervix of
The fallopian tubes, The main function of the uterus or womb.
also known as uterine the fallopian tube is It is also referred to
tubes or saplings to transport the egg as the birth canal in
are uterine from the ovary to the the context of
appendages, lined uterus. pregnancy.
Fallopian Tubes from inside
with ciliated simple
columnar epithelium,
leading from
the ovaries of female
mammals into
the uterus, via
the uterotubal
junction.
The uterus is a pear- Its major function is to
shaped accept a fertilized ovum
muscular organ. which becomes
Uterus implanted into the
endometrium, and
derives nourishment
from blood vessels
of the testes.

The epididymis is a long, It transports and


coiled tube that rests on stores sperm cells
the backside of each that are produced in
Epididymis testicle. the testes. It also is
the job of the
epididymis to bring
the sperm to
maturity, since the
sperm that emerge
from the testes are
immature and
incapable of
fertilization.
is part of the male During ejaculation,
reproductive system of the smooth muscle
many vertebrates; these in the walls of the
ducts vas deferens
Vas Deferens transport sperm from contracts reflexively.
the epididymis to The sperm is
the ejaculatory ducts in transferred from the
anticipation of ejaculation. vas deferens into the
It is a partially coiled tube urethra, collecting
which exits the abdominal secretions from the
cavity through the inguinal male accessory sex
canal. glands such as
the seminal
MALE DESCRIPTION FUNCTION vesicles, prostate
gland and
REPRODUCTIVE
the bulbourethral
SYSTEM glands, which form
The testes, commonly The testes have the bulk of semen.
known as the testicles, are two functions – to
Testes a pair of ovoid glandular produce sperm and A bulbourethral gland, is The bulbourethral
organs that are central to to produce one of two small exocrine gland contributes up
the function of the male hormones, glands in the reproductive to 4 ml of fluid
reproductive system. particularly Bulbourethral system of many male during sexual
testosterone. Sperm Gland mammals. They arousal. The
are produced in the are homologous to Barthol secretion is a clear
seminiferous tubules
in's glands in females. fluid rich in micro penis, is covered with a
proteins that help to loose layer of skin called
lubricate the foreskin.
distal urethra and
neutralize The urethra is the tube In males, it has the
acidic urine which that carries urine from the additional function
remains in the bladder to outside of the of ejaculating semen
urethra. Urethra body. when the man
The prostate gland is a During male seminal reaches orgasm.
male reproductive organ emission, sperm is When the penis is
whose main function is transmitted from erect during sex, the
to secrete prostate fluid, the vas deferens into flow of urine is
one of the components of the male urethra via blocked from
Prostate semen. The muscles of the the ejaculatory the urethra, allowing
prostate gland also help ducts, which lie only semen to be
Gland propel this seminal fluid within the prostate ejaculated at orgasm
into the urethra during gland. . This is the loose pouch-like Sac that holds
ejaculation sac of skin that hangs Testes, found outside
Seminal The seminal The seminal Scrotum behind and below the body
vesicles vesicular vesicles secrete a
Vesicles glands, or seminal glands, significant
penis. It contains the Kept outside due to
testicles (also called sperm not
are a pair of simple proportion of the testes), as well as many developing at body
tubular glands fluid that ultimately nerves and blood vessels. temp.
poster inferior to becomes semen.
the urinary bladder of The excretory duct
some male mammals. of
Seminal vesicles are each seminal gland
located within the pelvis. opens into the
They secrete fluid that corresponding vas
partly composes deferens as it enters
the semen. the prostate gland.
This is the male organ To produce, maintain
used in sexual intercourse. and transport sperm
It has three parts: the (the male
root, which attaches to the reproductive cells)
Penis wall of the abdomen; the and protective fluid
body, or shaft; and the (semen) To
glans, which is the cone- discharge sperm
shaped part at the end of within the female
the penis. The glans, also reproductive tract.
called the head of the
LECTURE NO. 5
MENSTRUATION
What is menstruation? Menstruation (men-STRAY-shuhn) is a
woman's monthly bleeding. When you menstruate, your body sheds the lining
of the uterus (womb). Menstrual blood flows from the uterus through the small
opening in the cervix and passes out of the body through the vagina (see how
the menstrual cycle works below). Most menstrual periods last from 3 to 5 days.

What is the menstrual cycle? When periods (menstruations)


come regularly, this is called the menstrual cycle. Having regular menstrual
cycles is a sign that important parts of your body are working normally. The
menstrual cycle provides important body chemicals, called hormones, to keep
you healthy. It also prepares your body for pregnancy each month. A cycle is
counted from the first day of 1 period to the first day of the next period. The
average menstrual cycle is 28 days long. Cycles can range anywhere from 21 to
35 days in adults and from 21 to 45 days in young teens.The rise and fall of
levels of hormones during the month control the menstrual cycle.
What happens during the menstrual cycle? In the first half of the cycle,
levels of estrogen (the “female hormone”) start to rise. Estrogen plays an
important role in keeping you healthy, especially by helping you to build strong
bones and to help keep them strong as you get older. Estrogen also makes the
lining of the uterus (womb) grow and thicken. This lining of the womb is a place
that will nourish the embryo if a pregnancy occurs. At the same time the lining
of the womb is growing, an egg, or ovum, in one of the ovaries starts to mature.
At about day 14 of an average 28-day cycle, the egg leaves the ovary. This is
called ovulation.
After the egg has left the ovary, it travels through the fallopian tube to the
uterus. Hormone levels rise and help prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy. A
woman is most likely to get pregnant during the 3 days before or on the day of
ovulation. Keep in mind, women with cycles that are shorter or longer than As above, when your menstrual cycles come regularly, this means that
average may ovulate before or after day 14. important parts of your body are working normally. In some cases, not
A woman becomes pregnant if the egg is fertilized by a man’s sperm cell and having menstrual periods can mean that your ovaries have stopped
attaches to the uterine wall. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break apart. Then, producing normal amounts of estrogen. Missing these hormones can
hormone levels drop, and the thickened lining of the uterus is shed during the have important effects on your overall health. Hormonal problems, such
menstrual period. as those caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or serious
What is a typical menstrual period like? During your period, you shed problems with the reproductive organs, may be involved. It’s important
the thickened uterine lining and extra blood through the vagina. Your period to talk to a doctor if you have this problem.
may not be the same every month. It may also be different than other women's  Dysmenorrhea (dis-men-uh-REE-uh) — painful periods, including severe
periods. Periods can be light, moderate, or heavy in terms of how much blood cramps. Menstrual cramps in teens are caused by too much of a
comes out of the vagina. This is called menstrual flow. The length of the period chemical called prostaglandin (pros-tuh-GLAN-duhn). Most teens with
also varies. Most periods last from 3 to 5 days. But, anywhere from 2 to 7 days dysmenorrhea do not have a serious disease, even though the cramps
is normal. can be severe. In older women, the pain is sometimes caused by a
For the first few years after menstruation begins, longer cycles are common. A disease or condition such as uterine fibroids or endometriosis.
woman's cycle tends to shorten and become more regular with age. Most of the For some women, using a heating pad or taking a warm bath helps ease
time, periods will be in the range of 21 to 35 days apart. their cramps. Some over-the-counter pain medicines can also help with
What kinds of problems do women have with their periods? Women can these symptoms. They include:
have a range of problems with their periods, including pain, heavy bleeding, and
skipped periods. o Ibuprofen (eye-byu-PROH-fuhn) (for instance, Advil, Motrin, Midol
 Amenorrhea (ay-men-uh-REE-uh) — the lack of a menstrual period. This Cramp)
term is used to describe the absence of a period in:
o Ketoprofen (key-toh-PROH-fuhn) (for instance, Orudis KT)
o Young women who haven't started menstruating by age 15
o Naproxen (nuh-PROK-suhn) (for instance, Aleve)
o Women and girls who haven't had a period for 90 days, even if If these medicines don’t relieve your pain or the pain interferes with work
they haven't been menstruating for long or school, you should see a doctor. Treatment depends on what’s causing
the problem and how severe it is.
o Pregnancy  Abnormal uterine bleeding — vaginal bleeding that’s different from
normal menstrual periods. It includes:
o Breastfeeding
o Bleeding between periods
o Extreme weight loss
o Bleeding after sex
o Eating disorders
o Spotting anytime in the menstrual cycle
o Excessive exercising
o Bleeding heavier or for more days than normal
o Stress o Bleeding after menopause
Abnormal bleeding can have many causes. Your doctor may start by
o Serious medical conditions in need of treatment checking for problems that are most common in your age group. Some of
them are not serious and are easy to treat. Others can be more serious.
Treatment for abnormal bleeding depends on the cause.
In both teens and women nearing menopause, hormonal changes can
cause long periods along with irregular cycles. Even if the cause is  Your period occurs more often than every 21 days or less often than
hormonal changes, you may be able to get treatment. You should keep in every 35 days.
mind that these changes can occur with other serious health problems,
such as uterine fibroids, polyps, or even cancer. See your doctor if you  You are bleeding for more than 7 days.
have any abnormal bleeding.
 You are bleeding more heavily than usual or using more than 1 pad or
When does a girl usually get her first period? tampon every 1 to 2 hours.
Want help teaching your daughter about her changing body?
In the United States, the average age for a girl to get her first period is 12. This
does not mean that all girls start at the same age. A girl can start her period  You bleed between periods.
anytime between the ages of 8 and 15. Most of the time, the first period starts
about 2 years after breasts first start to develop. If a girl has not had her first  You have severe pain during your period.
period by age 15, or if it has been more than 2 to 3 years since breast growth
started, she should see a doctor.  You suddenly get a fever and feel sick after using tampons.

How long does a woman have periods? How often should I change my pad and/or tampon? You should change a
pad before it becomes soaked with blood. Each woman decides for herself what
Women usually have periods until menopause. Menopause occurs between the works best. You should change a tampon at least every 4 to 8 hours. Make sure
ages of 45 and 55, usually around age 50. Menopause means that a woman is to use the lowest absorbency tampon needed for your flow. For example, use
no longer ovulating (producing eggs) or having periods and can no longer get junior or regular tampons on the lightest day of your period. Using a super
pregnant. Like menstruation, menopause can vary from woman to woman and absorbency tampon on your lightest days increases your risk for toxic shock
these changes may occur over several years.The time when your body begins syndrome (TSS). TSS is a rare but sometimes deadly disease. TSS is caused by
its move into menopause is called the menopausal transition. This can last bacteria that can produce toxins. If your body can’t fight the toxins, your
anywhere from 2 to 8 years. Some women have early menopause because of immune (body defense) system reacts and causes the symptoms of TSS (see
surgery or other treatment, illness, or other reasons. If you don’t have a period below).
for 90 days, you should see your doctor. He or she will check for pregnancy,
early menopause, or other health problems that can cause periods to stop or Young women may be more likely to get TSS. Using any kind of tampon puts you
become irregular. at greater risk for TSS than using pads. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
recommends the following tips to help avoid tampon problems:
When should I see a doctor about my period? See your doctor about your
period if:  Follow package directions for insertion.

 You have not started menstruating by the age of 15.  Choose the lowest absorbency for your flow.

 You have not started menstruating within 3 years after breast growth  Change your tampon at least every 4 to 8 hours.
began, or if breasts haven't started to grow by age 13.
 Consider switching between pads and tampons.
 Your period suddenly stops for more than 90 days.
 Know the warning signs of TSS (see below).
 Your periods become very irregular after having had regular, monthly
cycles.
 Don't use tampons between periods.
1. What is Menstruation?
 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________

2. For how many days does menstruation last?


 ________________________________________________

3. What are the importance of having a monthly period?


 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________

4. What is the average Menstrual cycle?


 ________________________________________________

5.What is ovulation?
 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________

6. What happens if the egg is fertilized?


 ________________________________________________
________________________________________________

GUIDE QUESTIONS:
GETTING TO KNOW DNA AND RNA

DNA: The Genetic Material


 DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
 It is a type of macromolecule known as nucleic acid.
 It is often called as “ the blueprint of life “ because it contains the code of
instructions for building an organism and ensuring that the organism
functions correctly.
 The structure of DNA is like a twisted or spiral ladder. Long strands of
alternating sugars and phosphate groups make up the vertical sidepieces
of the ladder. The rungs of the ladder are made up of nitrogenous bases
(adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine). These small units that make up
DNA – sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base – are called nucleotides.

Structure of the nucleotide
A nucleotide consists of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a
nitrogen – containing base.

LECTURE 6
The nirogenous bases. Purine bases have double-ring structures. Pyrimidine
bases have single-ring structures.

DNA Base Pairing


DNA REPLICATION
 Erwin Chargaf, an Austrian biochemist, analyzed the DNA of different
Replication is the process where DNA makes a copy of itself. It is a semi-
organisms and found out that all four bases are found in the DNA of all
conservative process – meaning that one old strand is conserved and new strand is
organisms. The proportion, however, differs somewhat from organism to
made. Replication is happening in our cells right now. In every living organisms.
organism.
DNA replication happens over and over again and it happens remarkably fast. In
 According to Chargaff’s rules, in the base composition of DNA, the amount
human cells, for instance, about 50 nucleotides are added every second to a new
of adenine closely equals the amount of thymine (A = T ). Likewise, the
strand of DNA.
amount of guanine roughly equals the amount of cytosine. ( G = C ).
 Accordingly, adenine will pair with thymine (A – T or T – A) by two hydrogen
GENETIC INFORMATION
bonds, while guanine will pair with cytosine (G – C or C – G) with tree
hydrogen bonds.
The genetic information, which characterizes the structure and function of
any organism, is present and stored in the sequences of its DNA. These sequences
encode proteins, which carry out most of the functions in all organisms. The
information on the DNA is made available by transciption of genes to mRNAs.
Messenger RNA or mRNA is a class of RNA molecules that carry information in
protein synthesis. These mRNAs are translated into various amino acid sequences
of all proteins in an organism. In summary, the flow goes like this: DNA encodes
RNA; then, RNA encodes proteins. This is known as the Central Dogma of
Molecular Biology.

Comparison between DNA and RNA CENTRAL DOGMA OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY


The genetic information flows from a DNA to an RNA copy of the DNA gene,
to the amino acids that are joined together to produce the protein coded for by
the gene.

Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes. It


refers to the process in which individual cells make or generate new specific
proteins. The making of proteins is important because proteins make up one of
four building blocks of life and are involved in just about every life process. The
process starts with instructions carried by a gene to build a particular protein.

Key Players

1. DNA – stores genetic information.


2. Gene – a sequence of DNA that encodes for a particular protein LECTURE 7
3. Proteins – large molecules composed of amino acids INFORMATION FLOWS FROM DNA TO RNA TO PROTEINS
4. RNA – a polymer of nucleotides, usually single-stranded, that copies genetic
information. TRANSCRIPTION
Transcription is the copying of a DNA gene into RNA. It happens inside the
cell’s nucleus, produces a transcript of the original gene, with the RNA nucleotides
substituted for DNA nucleotides. The copy is produced by the help of RNA
polymerase, an enzyme that bonds nucleotides together to make a new RNA
molecule.
TRANSLATION
After DNA is transcribed into an mRNA molecule during transcription, the
mRNA must be translated to produce protein. In translation, mRNA, transfer RNA
(tRNA), and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.
Translation produces three major types of RNA molecules. Translation is the
process that converts or translates an mRNA message into polypeptides which
make up a protein.

Three major types of RNA molecule

1. mRNA (messenger RNA)


- It carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the
cytoplasm.
2. tRNA(transfer RNA)
-Its job is to convert the three-letter words (codon) to the corresponding amino
acid.
3. rRNA(ribosomal RNA)
- It translates genetic information into proteins.
- Their main function is to heal wounds, fight infections and build muscle.
- Proteins are also essential part of your diet, as they provide some of the
energy we get from our food.

The Genetic code


Scientists use the genetic code in order to determine the sequence of
amino acids that a gene codes. It is like a dictionary that cells use to determine
which amino acid will be translated from each sequence of mRNA codons. A codon
is a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for an amino acid.
LECTURE 8 EVOLUTION
GENETIC MUTATION - Evolution does not simply mean change; it is the change in the
characteristics of a population of an organism passed over the course of
Mutation – is any change in the DNA sequence of an organism. generations.
Causes of Mutation Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
1. Errors made during mitosis and meiosis - A French naturalist, he described a two part process by which change was
2. Environmental factors. gradually introduced into the species and passed down through
Types of Mutation generations.
1. Gene Mutation – a type of mutation that affects a single gene during replication. - His theory is known as the theory of transformation. it is also referred to as
2. Chromosomal mutation – affects the entire chromosomes during meiosis. Lamarckism.
Example: - He explained that animals changed as they adapted to environmental
1. Cri-du-chat syndrome. It is caused by a deletion on the short arm of influences.
chromosome 5.it is caused by a break in the DNA molecule that makes up a - The characteristics were then passed on to their offspring.
chromosome. Lamarck’s Theory of Transformation
2. Down’s Syndrome – it is a birth defect which takes place when an individual 1. Use and disuse – the idea states that organisms lose characteristics they do not
possesses three copies of chromosome 21, instead of the normal two copies. require and develop instead those that are useful for their survival.
3. Patau Syndrome – (trisomy 14), characterized by severe cleft palate and an Example;
average life span of 6 months. a. use: toes of water birds.
4. Edward’s Syndrome – (trisomy 18) has multiple defects, clenched fist, and an b. disuse: wings of penguins
average life span of 3 months. 2. Inheritance of acquired traits – this idea states that the traits acquired by an
5. Klinefelter Syndrome – males have one or more extra X sex chromosomes. This individual over a lifetime can be passed down to its offspring.
genetic condition results when a boy is born with an extra copy of X chromosome. Example: Neck of giraffe
It adversely affects testicular growth, resulting in smaller testicle, which can lead to Darwinian Theory of evolution
lower production of the sex hormone testosterone. Furthermore, it may also cause Charles Darwin
reduced muscle mass, reduced body and facial hair, and enlarged breast tissue. - He developed a theory of evolution to explain biological change.
6. Turner Syndrome – females have only one X sex chromosome. The most - According to him, species survived through a process called natural
common feature of Turner syndrome is short stature, a webbed neck, puffiness or selection.
swelling of the hands and feet, and skeletal abnormalities. An early loss of ovarian - His theory states that those that successfully adapted to meet the changing
function is also very common. environment flourished, but those that failed to evolve and reproduce died
and eliminated in the population.
- He published detailed explanations of his theory in “on the origin of
species” in 1859.

LECTURE 9 Theory of Natural Selection


- It is popularly understood as “survival of the fittest”.
(Fitness means ability to survive and produce more offspring compared with
other members in the population)

- This idea also states that individual organisms that have adapted traits that
are suitable to their environments will live long enough to breed and pass
down those desirable traits to their offspring. b. Analogous structure
- refer to body parts of organism that are similar in function but are structurally
- Natural selection is the result of the interactions between genetic variations different.
in a population and the environment. (Example: fin of shark (fish), wing of penguin (bird) and flipper of
dolphin(mammal).
4 principles
1. Organisms within the species exhibit variation
2. Organisms exhibit competition
3. Organisms within a population differ in their reproductive success.
4. Organisms develop adaptation.

Evidence of evolution

1. Fossil evidence 3. Evidence of comparative embryology


- Fossil is the preserved remains or traces of any organism from past life. - The comparison of structures that appear during the different stages of different
it can be direct (body fossils like bones, teeth, shells and leaves) or indirect (trace organisms.
fossils like footprints, tooth marks, tracks, burrows)
-fossils are found most commonly in layers of sedimentary rocks.

2. Evidence of comparative anatomy


- The comparison of body structures among different species.
a. Homologous structure
– refer to body parts that are similar in structure but perform different functions in
different organisms.
(Example. limbs of human, cheetah whale and bat) 4. Evidence from vestiges
- Organisms show the presence of functionless and reduced remnants of organs
that once have been present and functional in their ancestor.
LECTURE 10 3. Parallel Evolution. It is the individual evolution of similar traits of two related
PATTERNS OF EVOLUTION species that have come from a common ancestor.

1. Convergent Evolution. The species that are not closely related to each other
independently develop similar kinds of traits as they adapt to shared and/or similar
environment. As a result, these unrelated species become more and more similar
in appearance and develop analogous structures.

3. Coevolution. It occurs when closely interacting species exert selective


pressures on each other so they evolve together in a kind of conversation of
adaptations. It is common among predator-prey and host-parasite pairs.

2. Divergent Evolution. It is the process of two or more related species becoming


increasingly dissimilar. The trait held by a common ancestor evolves into different
variations over time as the species diversify to new habitats.
LECTURE 11
BIODIVERSITY

It is the variability among living organisms from all sources. (Terrestrial,


marine, and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes of which they
are a part.)
2 COMPONENTS

1. Species richness
- refers to the number of different species in the community.
2. Relative abundance of diferent species
-refers to how common or rare the species are relative to one another in the
community.

STABILITY OF ECOSYSTEM
-refers to its ability to resist change and return to its original species composition
after being disturbed.

The value of species can be divided into 3 categories

1. Direct economic value


- The species is considered to have economic value if their products are sources of
food, medicine, clothing, shelter and energy.

2. Indirect economic value – a species has an indirect economic value if there are
benefits produced by the organism without using them.(certain species maintain
the chemical quality of natural bodies of water, prevent soil erosion and floods,
cycle material in the soil, and absorbs pollutants)

3. Aesthetic value – a lot of species provides visual or artistic enjoyment.


(a forested landscape, natural park, prayer mountains)
Population 2. Random distribution
 Is a group of individuals of the same species living in a given area at a – The individuals are spaced at unpredictable distance from each other.
particular time.

Population Ecology
 Is the study that focuses on the factors that influence a population’s
size, growth rate, density, and population structure.

Patterns of Dispersion

1. Uniform distribution
– The individuals are equally spaced apart.

3. A Clumped distribution
– The individuals are grouped together.
LECTURE 12
BIOMOLECULES
Population Growth
Biochemistry is the study of substances and chemical reactions involved in
Growth in Ecology means a change in number, either positive or negative.
 Positive growth – occurs when population is increasing in number. life processes. Biomolecules are formed from smaller and simpler organic
 Negative growth – occurs when population is decreasing in number. compounds and are much larger in size compared with other organic compounds.
 Zero growth – occurs if there is no increase or decrease in number. The major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic
acids. All of them contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids, proteins, and
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE OF POPULATION nucleic acids may contain nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.

1. Immigration – the movement of individuals into a population from another  CARBOHYDRATES they are molecules made from aldehydes and ketones
population. containing numerous hydroxyl groups. May be types of sugar known as
2. Births – these increase the number of individuals in a population. monosaccharides and disaccharides; they may also be long polymers of
3. Emigration – the movement of individuals out of a population and into another.
monosaccharides known as polysaccharides.
4. Deaths – the size of a population decreases when individuals die.
1.Monosaccharides-are composed of a single ring
Population size can also be afected by the following: 2.Disaccharides-consist of two monosaccharides that are chemically combined
1. Density dependent factors – any factor dependent on the density of the
3.Polysaccharides-are polymers containing numerous monosaccharides
population in question.
Example: disease, predation and other factors that have an increasing monomers.
impact on birth and death rates as the population increases in size.  LIPIDS are water-insoluble molecules that are composed of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen. It include fats and oils, waxes, steroids, and phospholipids.
2. Density independent factors – any factors not dependent upon density of the Fats and oils are triglycerides that are combinations of glycerol and three fatty
population in question. acids.
Example: climate and natural calamities, such as floods, fires, earthquakes,
meteor impacts, and volcanic eruptions – these affect population birth and death  NUCLEIC ACIDS are made up of nucleotides that consist of a nitrogen
rates randomly. base, a phosphate group, and a cyclic 5-carbon sugar. The two types of nucleic
acids are deoxyribonucleic acid- DNA and ribonucleic acid-RNA.

 PROTEINS are made up of amino acids bound by peptide bonds. Amino


acid contains an amine group, carboxylic acid group, and variable group.
Proteins are polymers of amino acids. They are found as structural 3. alanine 13. lysine
materials in hair, nails and connective tissues. Enzymes are proteins that act as 4. glutamine 14. tyrosine
biological catalysts. 5. valine 15. arginine
6. serine 16. methionine
The 20 common amino acids
7. leucine 17. histidine
1. glycine 11. tryptophan
8. threonine 18. proline
2. asparagine 12. glutamic acid
9. isoleucine 19. phenylalanine
N U C L E I C A C I D S A B
10. aspartic acid 20. cysteine
 FOOD LABELS contains the amounts of carbohyrates, proteins, and lipids
E A M I N O I L K S T S G F in the form of fat and cholesterol for each serving of the food

G A F E G H I J N L G D L R  KEY TERMS
 BIOMOLECULE- is any molecule that is produced by a living organism,
O B D F R C M I M S Q I U T
including large macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and
R C S Q A P E P T Z V O C D nucleic acids.

D U T R L T O N O H U E O Q  CONDENSATION REACTION-is a process by which two molecules form a


bond with the removal of a molecule of water.
Y W U S O P S N P C X S S S
 HYDROLYSIS-is a reaction in which water is added to a reactant, breaking
H C A R B O H Y D R A T E S the reactant into two product molecules.

X A P E D X H Q P A W C T D  MONOMER- is a small molecule that joins with other similar molecules to


make a polymer; repeating units of a polymer.
Y R V M E Y J I E T E E U I
 POLYMER- is a large organic molecule consisting of small repeating units
A B Z Y K G R Y P S R P B P called monomers.

C O B L F E K X T O W Z Q I carbohydrates peptide starch lipids polymers hydrogen


steroids glucose proteins sugar fats uracil
H N G O L N M N I O S V R L nucleic acids carbon oxygen

J I C P B Y A D D T A M J A Word Hunt: Find the words related to biomolecules in the word bank.

E D R A G U S J E F A F P M
CLASSIFICATION

MONOSACCHARIDES 1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

FRUCTOSE LACTOSE 6

CELLULOSE STARCH
LIPIDS

STRUCTURAL TYPES

8. 10.

9. 10.
. CONCEPT MAP III. ANALOGY: Write the best answer on the space provided. Choose from the
box below(10 points)

OILS STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES


1. RNA: single strand; _________________________ double strands
GLYCOGEN  MALTOSE  GLUCOSE  2. _____________________: Protein; nucleotides: Nucleic acid
WAXES 3. sucrose: Disaccharides; glucose: __________________________
4. _____________________: animals; starch: plants
 SUCROSE STEROIDS  DISACCHARIDES 5. cellulose: ________________________; lactose: Disaccharides
 FATS 6. sucrose: glucose-fructose; ______________________: glucose-glucose
7. energy for cells: Carbohydrates: storing energy: ____________________
CARBOHYDRATES 8. valine,lysine,methionine: Proteins; DNA and RNA: ___________________
9. ______________________: rice; Protein: egg white 2. Why do you think marathon runners eat a meal rich in
10.milk:________________________; fruits: fructose
carbohydrates the day before race?

IV. MATCHING TYPE: Match column A with its correct description on column B. ________________________________________________________________________________
Write the letter only. (10 points ) ________________________________________________________________________________
A B
3. Why is cellulose different from starch and glycogen?
_______1. CARBOHYDRATES A. low calorie sweeter;also known as fruit
sugar ________________________________________________________________________________
_______2. LIPIDS B. known as biological catalyst; speed up ________________________________________________________________________________
biochemical reactions
4. Give 2 differences between DNA and RNA.
_______3. AMINO ACIDS C. the most abundant types are the fats and
________________________________________________________________________________
oils also called triglycerides
_______4. NUCLEIC ACIDS D. excess glucose stored in the liver ________________________________________________________________________________
_______5. ENZYMES E. major source of energy for the body 5. Why some people called lactose intolerant?
_______6. LACTASE F. foods rich in fiber, it speeds movement ________________________________________________________________________________
of the food through digestive tracts
________________________________________________________________________________
_______7. CELLULOSE G. compounds with the same molecular
Formula

_______8. GLYCOGENH. made up of a sugar called galactose and glucose


_______9. ISOMERS I. the building blocks of proteins
______10. FRUCTOSE J. both DNA and RNA are polymers that are
made up of nucleotides

V. Explain briefly (5 points each)

1. Why foods rich in fats should be taken in moderation?

________________________________________________________________________________

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