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Professional Task: Unit of Work,


Discussing the Importance Needs of Low
Performing Students.

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Rational

A unit outline is not a single approach to student learning, it is in fact a whole faculty approach and
needs to be treated as such. Teachers will come from diverse backgrounds which often employ
unique pedagogy to their classrooms. Therefore, it could be considered a shortcoming of this report
only containing the unique perspective of one teacher and that a far more comprehensive unit
outline would be focused on input from all teachers. This outline does however take steps to have a
specific focus on a theoretical population of students and therefore can be as specific to achieving
and enhancing learning outcomes for low students in year 9. Looking at current NAPLAN results
(Chua, Khan, Humphry & Hassell, 2017) students currently struggle with grammar, reading and
writing. These are areas in which most students struggle with especially those of diverse or low SES
backgrounds, this outline aims to push the growth of students regardless of circumstance through
the inclusion of adjustments. Adjustments are the main component for having a dynamic approach
to pedagogy as it gives teachers options to help both students who have a severely disrupted
education of students or for students already with an advanced understanding of outcomes. When
deciding on adjustments for literacy skills it is important to first define what are the exact
requirements of the classroom. Some students will possess literacy skills at the national average of
school-age peers, others will have extremely poor to no literacy skill or have a developed in more
informal social registers. There is also the consideration for emotional, psychological and physical
trauma in higher frequency in a low SES school which is liable to hurt formal education (Fenwick &
Cooper, 2012). To affectively target the student population varies models and learning approaches
can be taken to achieve different success results. Currently many researchers have trialled a
collaborative learning approach in combination with an interactive learning model in the classroom
and have had much success in developing growth in literacy (Laal, Khattami-Kermanshahi & Laal,
2014). Collaborative learning focuses on the students being interactive with one another to work
through problems or peer-review each-others work, whereas the interactive learning model involves
digital learning and ICT into course design and delivery. Both introduce useful options for teachers
and students to receive useful feedback regularly, highlighting which areas of the unit outcomes that
students may struggle with most. Based on the success in the research reported by Laal, Khattami-
Kermanshahi & Laal (2014) the outline contains activities with workstations in which students will
work together on different parts of a problem, as well as opportunities for peer marking giving
students agency and opportunity for discussion of high performing peers. Furthermore, the outline
uses ICT in multiple ways incorporating ICT through mind map software, blogs and multimedia
assessment in which students can be interactive with both their peers and educator. Interactive ICT
also facilitates independent learning as students must develop their social interactions to facilitate
online communication, furthermore, ICT can be used as an intervention system for the educator
providing constant data and deeper social connection to students. Both approaches in conjunction
develop and deepen a student’s intrinsic motivation, which holds extensive benefits for the diverse
learning environment (Froiland & Worrell, 2016) as there is a direct association between learning
goals and academic performance, this research on the engagement of students has also been
incorporated into this unit outline. Research also shows a strong reciprocal relationship between
reading and writing, reading skills are crucial in developing the ability to write meaningfully (Reading
writers, 1992). Therefore, this outline considers the development of both reading and writing to be a
precursor to compulsory literacy skills and standards required of year 9, they are also the basic skills
required to comprehend the text presented (Reading writers, 1992). The difficulty of texts is based
off subject matter such as themes, vocabulary and as most students may already struggle with
comprehension based of off NAPLAN results. To combat the gaps in knowledge lower students, have
research from Hwang & Xi (2008) suggest that having small groups composed of higher and lower
students can build base knowledge therefore further complimenting the collaborative approach.
This outline concentrates on creating an environment where students of vastly different levels of

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literacy can develop growth, without improving upon skills of reading and writing the future issues a
student will experience in later years will be likely compounded.

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Conflict unit of work: Stage 5


Unit overview: Conflict English
This unit students will explore the construct of conflict and how it is portrayed in a range of texts. Students will analyse different types of conflict and learn to distinguish
both internal and external conflict. Through close study of Shakespeare’s Othello, an understanding of how conflict may unfold will be developing and understanding the
rising friction in the play and how conflict is ultimately resolved. Through the sustained emphasis of key scenes, students will build skills in analysis and language to explore
the conflict of the play. Students will be given openings to develop deep knowledge in evaluative responses. In conjunction students engage in comparative studies of a
range of texts that widen the theme of conflict.
Outcomes Assessment overview
EN5-1A responds to and composes increasingly sophisticated and sustained texts The following formative and summative assessment have been integrated
for understanding, interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and throughout the unit.
pleasure
EN5-2A effectively uses and critically assesses a wide range of processes, skills, Assessment for learning.
strategies and knowledge for responding to and composing a wide range of texts in
different media and technologies -short response: ‘How does Shakespeare create the rising conflict through his use of
EN5-3B selects and uses language forms, features and structures of texts language and sentence structure?’
appropriate to a range of purposes, audiences and contexts, describing and -Othello letter Writing to Iago as a ghost
explaining their effects on meaning -Group presentation of songs reflecting conflict
EN5-4B effectively transfers knowledge, skills and understanding of language -Explanation of Iago’s feelings towards Othello
concepts into new and different contexts -Analysis of metaphors and personification
EN5-5C thinks imaginatively, creatively, interpretively and critically about
information and increasingly complex ideas and arguments to respond to and Assessment as learned
compose texts in a range of contexts
EN5-6C investigates the relationships between and among texts -Students individual reflections through activities
EN5-9E purposefully reflects on, assesses and adapts their individual and -Peer assessment for many activities and presentations
collaborative skills with increasing independence and effectiveness -individual reflection on feedback for activities

Assessment of learning

-Exposition: ‘In the world of Othello, conflict start from places we didn’t expect’
-Response: ‘Human conflict often arises between two opposing forces’

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources


EN5-1A Introduction to the unit: Conflict
• appreciate, explain and respond to the aesthetic -Introducing the unit comprises of understanding what you students my Mindmap software: https://coggle.it/
qualities and the power of language in an know of the term “conflict” and what their impressions of the unit of
increasingly sophisticated range of texts work are.
• analyse ideas, information, perspectives, - *digital or hard copy mind map*.
contexts and ideologies and the ways they are Class discussion of scenarios/explanations of conflict. (Books, Movies,
presented in increasingly demanding, sustained Life).
imaginative, informative and persuasive texts -Develop ideas presented so far in lesson. Students in small groups create
EN5-3B a small plot with 4 main events in a short story and present to class.
• use voice effects, eg tone, volume, pitch, -Model tasks, designate groups when necessary depending on students
pauses and change of pace, for specific effects that should not be together or for students who could use peer help.
such as arguing a point of view or attempting to -Scenario discussion: should be cautious taking care to avoid students
persuade an audience to a course of action with issues at home, conflict discussion should be fictional in that sense
EN5-4B (family conflict, friends, fighting, war.) + create poster of the different
• use prediction, speculation, hypothesis and examples of conflict. The criteria for a successful poster would be
paraphrasing as strategies for accessing complex identifying 3 types of conflict and who would be involved.
types of texts with unfamiliar ideas or structures
EN5-5C - In small groups students to work through aimed at learning
• critically evaluate the ways bias, stereotypes, Shakespearian language. Students will be given a list of insults presented
perspectives and ideologies are constructed in some of his plays or find their own insults. Then have an insult battle
in texts against the other team.
EN5-9E Individual student reflection
• understand and apply appropriate How easy or difficult did you find creating your own insults? What
metalanguage to reflect on their learning challenges did your group face? How did your group decide on what to
experiences present? What could you convey about conflict from this activity?
*opportunity for an ICT copy to be created instead, such as google
• use and assess individual and group processes
classroom or blog software*
to investigate, clarify, critically evaluate and
present ideas

Blog software:
http://edublogs.org

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources

EN5-1A Different types of conflict


• appreciate, explain and respond to the aesthetic -What is a successful story? An example model to show what is being
qualities and the power of language in an taught:
increasingly sophisticated range of texts ‘the teen woke up in the early morning’ ‘he performed his normal
• analyse ideas, information, perspectives, morning ablutions’ ‘he went to school and attended every lesson’ ‘he
contexts and ideologies and the ways they are went home and watched tv till bedtime’
presented in increasingly demanding, sustained Students should be asked what they thought of the plot, and what they
imaginative, informative and persuasive texts think may be missing. Students should then be given the opportunity to
EN5-4B make changes to involve conflict and make the story more interesting.
• use prediction, speculation, hypothesis and -Have a discussion with students that conflict in a plot is usually
paraphrasing as strategies for accessing complex important to creating interest, it should harrow the protagonist during
types of texts with unfamiliar ideas or structures the entire story coming to a crescendo and having an ultimate resolution.
EN5-5C It is also important to discuss the possibilities of stories with multiple
• reflect on, extend, endorse or refute others’ minor conflicts running alongside the major conflict. The Unsaid by Daniel Gbemi Akinlolu
interpretations of and responses to literature -Discuss complex terms contained in stories by pairing them with familiar
• understand and use the language of argument, terms to students for example a protagonist becomes a hero and have
eg the use of logic, evidence, refutation, ellipsis, students annotate the short poem “The Unsaid” showing structural
irrelevance, circumlocution, and analyse how features of its plot. What is the setting? where is the rising tension? its
it affects responses climax, falling action and resolution.
• critically evaluate the ways bias, stereotypes, Following up this activity with some short questions
perspectives and ideologies are constructed 1. what conflict occurred.
in texts 2. Where does it occur in the story?
3. Who does the conflict involve (what specific constructs not
necessarily people)?
4. How is the conflict resolved?
*can be done as a classroom together or as a blog task*

Students likely require guided practice of paragraphing before they can


independently write paragraphs. For this task students will reflect on the
mind maps performed in week 1 and begin to categorise those conflicts
as internal or external. Examples
1. People vs people
2. People vs society

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources


3. People vs nature
4. People vs themselves.
Students will pick one of their categorised conflicts and write a short story
using the exposition scaffold. Exposition scaffold
EN5-2A Othello – introduction ‘
• consider how aspects of texts, including -The text of Othello is introduced to students. Question which students Various publications of Othello to suit
characterisation, setting, situations, issues, have already had some exposure to the story? Present the cover and students’ ability levels:
ideas, tone and point of view, can evoke a range images from the films and question students what they can gleam from • Cambridge School Shakespeare
of responses, including empathy, sympathy, the story? Read the blurb on the back of the book and then the • No Fear Shakespeare
antipathy and indifference introduction, ask students what nature of conflict may be present in the • The Graphic Shakespeare series
• interpret, analyse and evaluate how different story. (remind students about the categorising activity they performed). Various film adaptations.
perspectives of issue, event, situation, Students will then individually write a new prologue using current Adjustments: The graphic novel version
individuals or groups are constructed to serve contemporary language. of the play is more appropriate for
specific purposes in texts -Read or view Act 1. (for all reading parts of the play): Provide students who may find the language of
• use comprehension strategies to compare and opportunities collaborative reading either as a class or in a reading group. the play challenging.
contrast information within and between texts, The reading groups can act as workstations for the teacher to consolidate
identifying and analysing embedded understanding of the plot.
perspectives, and evaluating supporting -As each act is read the teacher will compile a collaborative plot summary
evidence that will be distributed to students physically of through google
EN5-4B classroom.
• use prediction, speculation, hypothesis and -each act the educator should discuss the conflict with the class, what is
paraphrasing as strategies for accessing complex the major conflict happening in the act? Is it internal or external? Who is
types of texts with unfamiliar ideas or structures involved? Why? Students should add this to their blog or in physical
EN5-5C workbooks and update as they read.
• reflect on, extend, endorse or refute others’ *Some students may require more explanation and modelling of and
interpretations of and responses to literature internal or external conflict*
EN5-6C Individual student reflection
• analyse and evaluate text structures and Is this conflict something that characters are caught in or is it self-
language features of literary texts and make imposed? Students should be encouraged to answer with a structure like
relevant thematic and intertextual connections the exposition scaffold. If this is performed on students’ blogs students
with other texts can responds to each other’s points

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources


EN5-1A Othello on characters
• appreciate, explain and respond to the aesthetic -Students make a compilation of the conflicts that have occurred
qualities and the power of language in an between characters and who Is involved in them. *this could be adjusted
increasingly sophisticated range of texts to be partially completed be the teacher and filled in later by the student
EN5-2A like a PEEL paragraph. Students will select characters from each conflict
• consider how aspects of texts, including and describe their motivations + a quote as evidence. Explain how that
characterisation, setting, situations, issues, quote gives insight to the character. Explain to students that a character
ideas, tone and point of view, can evoke a range having internal conflict would be both the antagonist and protagonist of
of responses, including empathy, sympathy, that conflict and would have motivations for both reasoning.
antipathy and indifference -Exploring Iago students will analyse his motivations. Using the following
• interpret, analyse and evaluate how different quotes explain what it says about the character (“FOR WHEN MY
perspectives of issue, event, situation, OUTWARD ACTION DOTH DEMONSTRATE THE NATIVE ACT AND FIGURE
individuals or groups are constructed to serve OF MY HEART IN COMPLIMENT EXTERN, ’TIS NOT LONG AFTER BUT I WILL
specific purposes in texts WEAR MY HEART UPON MY SLEEVE FOR DAWS TO PECK AT; I AM NOT
• use comprehension strategies to compare and WHAT I AM.”) *an alternative would be students can choose their own
contrast information within and between texts, quote or words to describe the character justifying their choices.
identifying and analysing embedded -Brabantio accuses Othello of abducting his daughter. Have students
perspectives, and evaluating supporting highlight words that suggest anger, contempt and threat. Are these
evidence mainly nouns, verbs or adjectives?
EN5-6C -Explain to students Paragraph structure using the TEEL approach to
• analyse and evaluate text structures and analysing language (technique, example, effect, link to question) using
language features of literary texts and make this method analyse how effective the following example in ACT1, SCENE
relevant thematic and intertextual connections 1 is in describing conflict. “In Venice, the gullible Rodorigo, an
with other texts unsuccessful suitor to the senator’s daughter Desdemona, is persuaded
by the wily Iago to help overthrow their common enemy, Othello.”
*alternatively, students find their own example and use the TEEL method
to analyse it *
-Read/view Act 2.
RESENTMENT AND REDRESS
Act 1, Scene I

TALK OF LOVE AND WAR IN VENICE


Act 1, scene 3

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources


EN5-2A Othello on rising action and concluding action
• consider how aspects of texts, including -read/view Act 3
characterisation, setting, situations, issues, -Together as a class upon completing act 3 scene 3 Iago confronts Othello
ideas, tone and point of view, can evoke a range on the dangers of being jealous. Discuss who is the conflict in this scene
of responses, including empathy, sympathy, between are their multiple conflicts? And identify the internal or external
antipathy and indifference conflicts presented.
• interpret, analyse and evaluate how different -In groups students identify what in the discussion between Iago and BEWARE OF JEALOUSY
perspectives of issue, event, situation, Othello exemplify an increase in tension. As well as using quote to justify Act 3, Scene 3,
individuals or groups are constructed to serve your reasoning.
specific purposes in texts -read/view Act 4
• use comprehension strategies to compare -Students are to analyse using the TEEL method why Iago may have
and contrast information within and between warned Othello about jealousy. Why does he choose to help Othello?
texts, identifying and analysing embedded Students answer guided questions along side this. For example.
perspectives, and evaluating supporting *Why does Iago choose to still have a helpful relationship with Othello, is
evidence it purely to stay secretive?
• use a range of software, including word *Why did Does Desdemona lose Othello’s token so easily.
processing programs, confidently, flexibly *How do things of little value become as valid as proof “holy writing” to
and imaginatively to create, edit and publish one who is jealous
texts, considering the identified purpose and *What is the token symbolic of?
the characteristics of the user -read/view act 5
EN5-4B Assessment
• locate, select, synthesise and creatively use Assessment work is to be begun late in this week, so students are to be
information, ideas and arguments from texts informed of it during the beginning
to compose new texts Students create a visual presentation of an analysis of a scene in the play.
EN5-6C It should be either a.
• analyse and evaluate text structures and • storyboard
language features of literary texts and make • PowerPoint presentation
relevant thematic and intertextual connections • multimedia presentation.
with other texts *help students that struggle with ICT with easy to follow instructions for • presentation software
EN5-9E presentation tools* https://prezi.com/
• choose effective learning processes, resources • adobe movie maker
and technologies appropriate for particular https://spark.adobe.com/
tasks and situations • blender
https://www.blender.org/

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Content Teaching, learning and assessment Resources


EN5-2A WEEK 6 Othello completed.
• consider how aspects of texts, including -students present presentations Infront of class and are given feedback by
characterisation, setting, situations, issues, teacher on their assessment while awaiting grading.
ideas, tone and point of view, can evoke a -final task is an Individual student reflection on the scene you presented
range of responses, including empathy, on, which will be collected in conjunction to the presentation. for
sympathy, antipathy and indifference example imagine you are Iago or Othello.
• interpret, analyse and evaluate how different - What are emotions and thoughts throughout the scene?
perspectives of issue, event, situation, - What is your internal monologue when reactive to other
individuals or groups are constructed to serve characters?
specific purposes in texts - What are the consequences of your actions?
• use comprehension strategies to compare - What alternative futures could you have chosen?
and contrast information within and between *this final part of the assessment may be completed as a letter from the
texts, identifying and analysing embedded character from his future self or from someone close to them.
perspectives, and evaluating supporting -The letter format should also be scaffolded by the educator.
evidence
EN5-3B
• refine vocabulary choices to discriminate
between shades of meaning, with deliberate
attention to the effect on audiences

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Exposition scaffold
When do I use it?
Expositions are commonly used to examine issues from a range of perspectives (giving the
for and against or the positive or negative) on a topic and then form an opinion based on
the evaluation of the arguments presented.

Some examples of exposition are: Some essays, editorials for the newspaper, debates,
current affairs.

SCAFFOLD

Introduction
It involves the statement or the issue concerned and then the inclusion of alternative and
opposing points of view.

Arguments
A series of arguments with supporting evidence, which can argue for and against the issue
or concern for each point of view that is put forward.
 Use a new paragraph for each new argument
 Each new paragraph begin with a topic sentence that states the argument for
that paragraph.
 Back up each argument with evidence. Examples and quotations can be used.

Conclusion
A summing up of the arguments and a statement of the position of the author is included
in a concluding statement.

Language Features:
 Emotive words and phrases should be used.
 Usually in present tense.
 Use of repetition.
 Analysing opposing points of view and thought provoking questions and phrases.
 Three connectives to indicate sequence of points, (e.g. firstly, secondly, thirdly)
 Conjunctions used to link reasons and actions, opinions or to link cause/action and
effect
 A variety of verbs used e.g. action verbs (run, ruin and drive)
 A variety of mental verbs used e.g. (hope, believe)
 Occasional use of passive voice should be used e.g. instead of saying “the people
are concerned about the intersection”, the author may restate this as, “Concern
has been raised about the intersection”.

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EXAMPLE OF EXPOSITION
Fast Food and Progress Action verbs:
Opening Proposal
The local community is divided over the build
statement proposal to build a fast-food outlet,
Identification belonging to one of the world’s largest
of the issue. food chains, in the area. Many people
believe support of the proposal will provide Mental verbs
benefits to the area while others consider Believe
it would be detrimental to the town. Should consider
the proposal be denied?

Firstly, the outlet will bring opportunities


for part time employment for many of
Words and the young people in the area. Currently, Arguments
groups of employment opportunities in the local for the
words to signal area are limited. proposal,
consideration including
of arguments. Secondly, is that the establishment of the supporting
outlet will provide a much-needed facts.
service for the community. With only one
fish and chip and pizza shop there are
limited choices of fast food in the local
area.

On the other hand, the fast food outlet


Conjunction to
will alter the quiet atmosphere of the
connect cause
area because it will encourage people
and effect.
to travel from further afield to buy the
widely advertised and popular fast food.

Another point to be considered is the Arguments


‘visual pollution’ the outlet will create against the
with its large neon signs and huge proposal,
advertising hoardings. The community is including
renowned for its conservation of the supporting
environment. Allowing the outlet to open facts.
up in the area could signal the beginning
of the end of the natural surroundings.

Group of After considering both sides of the


words to signal argument, it is my opinion that the Conclusion,
the summing proposal to build a fast-food store should including
up of the be supported. A fast–food store would consideration
arguments. be an asset to the local area, as it will of arguments
provide employment for the local and writer’s
residents as well as encouraging people stance on the
outside the area to visit and perhaps issue.
generate more spending in the other
stores. The visual pollution is not a

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relevant issue because all the other


shops in the area have advertising signs
of some description. The local council
can also enforce restrictions on the size
and type of hoarding used.

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References

Akinlolu, D. (2019). Bright Light Cafe - Short Story - The_Unsaid. Retrieved 12 September 2019, from
http://www.brightlightmultimedia.com/blcafe/ShrtStories-TheUnsaid.htm

Chua, H., Khan, R., Humphry, S., & Hassell, R. (2017). Effect of national partnerships on
NAPLAN. Cogent Education, 4(1). doi: 10.1080/2331186x.2016.1273166

Exposition scaffold. MCSS. ACT. EDU. AU.


http://www.mcss.act.edu.au/__data/assets/word_doc/0007/363463/Exposition_Template_and_Sca
ffold.doc

Fenwick, L., & Cooper, M. (2012). Prevailing pedagogies for classes in low SES contexts and the
implications for standards-based reform in Australia. The Australian Educational Researcher, 39(3),
349-361. doi: 10.1007/s13384-012-0066-8

Froiland, J., & Worrell, F. (2016). INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, LEARNING GOALS, ENGAGEMENT, AND
ACHIEVEMENT IN A DIVERSE HIGH SCHOOL. Psychology In The Schools, 53(3), 321-336. doi:
10.1002/pits.21901

Hwang, S., & Xi, J. (2008). Structural and Individual Covariates of English Language Proficiency. Social
Forces, 86(3), 1079-1104. doi: 10.1353/sof.0.0017

Laal, M., Khattami-Kermanshahi, Z., & Laal, M. (2014). Teaching and Education; Collaborative
Style. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4057-4061. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.890

Reading writers. (1992). English Journal, 81(4), 59. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-
com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/docview/237286709?accountid=36155

Teel writing program. (2019). Retrieved 12 September 2019, from


https://learn.stleonards.vic.edu.au/yr7eng/files/2012/07/Year-7-English-TEEL-Paragraph-Writing-
Guide-Wonder.pdf

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