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The International School for Children

In Partial Fulfillment

of the

Requirements

in

Science Investigative Research

The Production of Paper from Corn (Zea Mays) Husks


Presented by:

Juliana P. Zorilla

Christina A. Ramos

Presented to:

Mr. Mark Albert G. Raqueno

A.Y. 2018- 2019


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

Introduction ..…………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………………………………. 5

Formulation of the Hypothesis …………………………………………………………………. 5

Significance of the Study ...……………………………………………………………………... 6

Scope and Delimitation …………………………………………………………………………. 7

Definition of Terms ………………………………………………………………………………8

Review of Related Literature …………………………………………………………………….9

Review of Related Studies ……………………………………………………………………….11

Theoretical Framework ………………………………………………………………………….13

Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………….14

Implication ………………………………………………………………………………………15

Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………17

Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………18

Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………18

Recommendation………………………………………………………………………………...18

Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………….19

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ABSTRACT

The study investigates the strength of the corn husk as a great source of pulp including its

ability to be used as a paper. Corn husks stand as the main raw material being utilized in the study

because of its fibrous characteristic and having cellulose content. The Handmade papers were

produced from four different samples, starch was added to the first three with the ratio of one

tablespoon, two tablespoon and three tablespoons, respectively. Results showed that, the paper

sample with one tablespoon of starch has the closest similarities to a hardwood paper such as its

strength and flexibility. However, the paper sample with two tablespoon and three tablespoons of

starch showed a different kind of texture, flexibility and strength. Thus, the first sample can be

used as a decorative paper due to having common characteristics with a wood -made paper.

Generally, corn husks have the ability to create useable papers, that can be utilized in the near

future based from the experiments done.

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

As the world continuous to grow into a magnificent state, a crisis is starting to build

behind. Nowadays, certain countries suffer from huge scarcity of raw materials, causing conflicts

between property of natural resources. Moreover, a huge demand of paper increases despite not

having enough resources. This issue started an idea to find an effective alternative to a wood made

paper. Corn husk began to be used as a raw material to make paper due to its fibrous characteristic.

Aside from that, it has cellulose content which contributes to the idea of it being utilized to make

paper. This study will feature cornhusks and its capability as a great source of pulp to make paper.

An innovation was introduced from the past years, researchers have stated that corn

husk has a great potential to create pulp used to make paper. Cornhusk is or were cleansed using

water and separated from other foreign materials. The paper sheets were cut into its selected size

required for laboratory testing and acceptability test. On the other hand, the papers made from trees

initially goes to landfills, which produces methane, a green-house gas and is very harmful to the

environment.

Heightened concerns on increasing wood consumption and raw-material

availability for the paper industry have resulted in a renewed attention on the benefits of corn

husks. Several agricultural food crop residues specifically corn husks which do not have immediate

beneficial applications in many communities have been proposed to be potential sources of pulp.

Since, they stand to be potential sources for pulp with lesser environmental degradation threat than

wood, laboratory tests are further done by other researchers, that may help increase the

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acceptability of cornhusks as a mandatory source of pulp.

Based from other researches, cornhusks have been cultivated in other countries due

to its major contribution to the environment’s sustainability. Cornhusks are less harmful and grants

environmental progress to some countries like Nigeria. This present study, will generally show

certain experiments showing the use of cornhusks, proving that it’s a great source of potential pulp.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

How is it feasible for the researchers to utilize cornhusk as a raw material to make paper?

HYPOTHESIS

Ha. Utilization of corn husk as a main raw material to make paper is feasible.

Ho. Utilization use of corn husk as a main raw material to make paper is not feasible.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of the study will greatly contribute to the benefits of employing cornhusks as

a raw material instead of throwing them away. It will also be a great endeavor in promoting the

idea of using residues like corn husks, as a component to make a new and satisfying creation. Thus,

will establish a foundation for the youth to develop such intellectual skills in making use of the

things around them. Moreover, will be significant to sustain the wellness of the environment,

despite the continuous destructions like landslide, floods, etc. The study will also give attention to

the economy of a country, specifically its resource availability. Lastly, will contribute to the

society, as this may serve as their livelihood and can sustain their daily needs.

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SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

The scope of the study tells only about the potential of corn husks as papers in the future.

It also includes whether the product will be successful and can be a great raw material to make use

in the future. Aside from that, the research only aims to see the benefits and if it will be possible

to utilize corn husks turned into paper mandatorily. Moreover, tells about how beneficial it can be

for the society and the environment. Thus, can make advantageous effects to our daily living.

However, it includes limited information about production of corn husk in the Philippines and

some foreign countries. It also showcases the methodology or how to make corn husk paper, and

other components used or contained by the variables. The study, on the other hand, do not show

percentages, specifically about when and how was it created in every country (local or foreign).

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

Advantageous. The chances of effectiveness; beneficial

Association. A relationship, bond or tie.

Component. An element of a whole.

Cornhusk. Outer part or coating or a corn.

Durability. Fragility or the ability to withstand damage.

Economy. Resources of a country or region.

Employ. Make use of.

Endeavor. To achieve something or attempt.

Expenditure. An amount of money spent.

Mandatory. Being required by law; compulsory.

Potential. Showing capacity to develop something.

Residues. Remaining parts or leaving

Sustain. Strengthen or to comfort.

Tensile strength. Resistance for a material to break under tension.

Utilization. Effective use of something.

Variable. Not consistent or liable to change.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

RELATED LITERATURE

According to Greganda et.al (2016) this environment- friendly product is an effective way

to lessen the cut down of trees as early as now and promote a hand- made product. Aside from

that, Flores et.al (2018) said that it is very effective to create recycling paper from corn husk

because it has a high-quality texture that is easy to write or paint in.

Due to making this product, Philippine Paper Manufacturers Association, Inc. (PPMAI)

had calculated that, it saves about $700 million per year in foreign exchange from imported paper

and board. And due to this, it caused Philippines to have a strong economic performance Suba

(2018).

Because of increasing wood and raw- material consumption it resulted the attention of the

people to non- wood materials like corn husk Gominho et.al (2001). Aside from that, they used

this to promote innovations from the use of corn husks. Hurter et.al (1998) that this product causes

a lot of advantages and benefits to our economy and society. In the Philippines, logging is

widespread and caused it for forest loss.

Although the government bans timber harvesting, cut down of trees etc., logging is still

relevant to the country. Due to this situation, there is an increasing demand for alternative pulp

and paper Dindan (2017).

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The promotion of this product throughout the country will create a block of hope for the

environment to sustain its well state and make the people be more innovative and responsible

citizen for their own community Santos (2014).

Based from Barami (2013) he made paper from corn husks and had approximated that a

kilo of corn husks can yield 80 sheets of paper. And had said that it’s a huge help for conserving

commercial papers. Thus, will greatly help retain the increasing level of their economy. Aside

from that, Masudi (2011) a young scientist suggested the idea of corn husk paper in the areas

of UAE and was said to be a successful project for them, because of this they are gradually

accepting the concept of making papers from corn husks.

Hurter (1988) stated that due to shortage of raw materials for pulping and the increasing

demand of papers, renewed interest in making paper out of agricultural residues including corn

husks was introduced. He said that the countries mostly experience this problem are those with

insufficient forest resources specifically, Mediterranean countries like Greece, Italy, and Spain.

Also, Aremu et. al (2015) a Nigerian Researcher said that, more people nowadays are

realizing that the Earth is being exhausted from its natural resources. As this issue becomes

crucial, alternative fibers from non- wood sources was said to provide a good solution in

hunting the destruction of the environment.

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RELATED STUDIES

According to Fiscal (2013) the physical characteristics that was showcased in the product

are its durability, texture, color and thickness. And the respondents that were asked to rate it had

concluded that corn husk is a great raw material to make pulp and paper. Also, he had made a

laboratory test about the tensile strength of paper out of corn husk and generalized that it’s a good

alternative for timber paper.

The 0.5 to 1mm length and about 100mm width of the corn husk paper made it a light

weighed material and having a good flexibility that is useful for projects etc. Toppher (2014).

Aside from that, the texture of the product makes it different from others, if 75% corn husk is used

in the experiment, therefore it’ll have the highest quality of texture. Initially, the quality of corn

husk paper is a great substitute for other wood- made papers for it produces various physical

characteristics.

Montemayor (2018) stated that their homemade handbooks and notebooks from corn husk

is a good livelihood for the farmers living in their province, Nueva Ejica. He also included that the

experiment about the product can help him encourage the youth about reduce, reuse, and recycle.

The increase of deforestation and loss of other resources brought corn husk paper to spawn, it has

said that this product has the very closest standards as a paper Bryan V. et.al (2017).

A few more researchers named Otitoju et.al (2014), they had concluded that the tensile strength

of the paper out of corn husk is considered a great alternative from other papers. Thus, it concludes

that due to its great characteristics, it turns possible to utilize it in the near future. Aperolola (2015)

she said that the over-all results of paper out of cornhusk has a promising potential not only as

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papers but in other handicrafts as well. Supporting her statement, Wilson (2014) is a female artist

that used corn husk as a medium for papermaking to create amazing works. She already made a

lot of works using cornhusks since it has a nice texture.

According to Igwe (2014), due to continues use of paper, it caused intense competition for

resources between countries around the world which says that non- wood fibers like corn husks

are needed. He also added that these non- wood resources specifically corn husks, has sufficient

cellulose amount which makes it a great source of pulp. Thus, can supply the demands of huge

production of paper.

Based from a fiber morphology, corn husk consists of short fibers that is similar to hardwoods,

stated by Fagbemigun (2014). Moreover, he confirmed that there are some more similarities of the

two raw materials, like almost the same cellulose amount, its flexibility to turn into paper and its

tensile strength. Caulfield and Gunderson (1988), based from their experiments, they concluded

that the tensile strength for ones in the corn husks and in a hardwood, paper was seemingly the

same, which makes corn husks a promising raw material for papermaking applications.

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Input Process Output

Procedure:
Independent
Variable: In a pot, pour 8 glasses of water
with eight pieces of cornhusk. Pre-
The amount of corn
boil it for ten minutes and tear the
husk and starch used
corn husks. After, boil it for
in the experiment.
another 25 minutes and let it cool.

Prepare four containers, then put The physical qualities


equal amount of corn husks in each developed from the corn
Dependent Variable: (2 per container). Then, put one husk paper such as
tablespoon of starch in the first durability and texture.
The quality of the container, two tablespoons of
corn husk paper from starch in the second, three
each treatment. tablespoon in the third while don’t
put any starch in the last container.
Now, put the first set-up in the
blender to be able to crush the corn
husks, do the same thing in the
remaining set- ups.
Controlled Variables:
Put each set up back to its
hemicellulose, cellulose, container. Next, get your molder
lignin, ash, water soluble and mold each set-up then use a
components, Amylase sponge or a foam to remove it from
and amylopectin the molder. Lastly, place each
molded mixture in a wax paper and
let it dry for 5 hours or one day.

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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

The materials used in the experiment were, six pieces of cornhusks with a content of 34-

41% of hemicellulose, 31-39% of cellulose, 2-14% lignin, 3-7% ash, 10-18% of water- soluble

components, 20-25% amylase and 75-80% of amylopectin. The experiment also used 3 glasses of

water and 3 tablespoons of starch. While the tools and equipment used were a pot, 3 plastic

containers, molder, wax paper, sponge, basin blender and a spoon.

First, the researchers washed the raw cornhusks with clean water to remove foreign

materials. Next, the researchers put three glasses of water in pot with six cleansed corn husks. It

was pre- boiled for ten minutes after, it was torn the apart. After, the researchers boiled it for

another 25 minutes. Then, the corn husks were placed in 3 separate containers with equal amount.

Then, one tablespoon of starch was added to the first treatment, 2 tablespoons in the second, 3 in

the third, while there was no starch added in the third. Using a blender, the researchers crush each

mixture until the starch is blended with the corn husks. After, the cornhusks were returned to its

containers and was molded one by one. Using a sponge, it was transferred in a piece of wax paper.

Lastly, the researchers dried it for 5 to 24 hours.

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IMPLICATION

Recycling or making a product form wastes contributes to the protection of the

environment. In this study, the researchers would show the advantages and benefits of corn husk

papers to schools, society and environment. Being part of this project would really help for fast

improvement in the country or even all over the world.

The effect of this project to the environment is that, it conserves natural resources

and energy, reduces pollution, and helps lessen the number of deforestation level. Firstly, it

conserves natural resources by, it lessens the use of timber and chemicals that was gotten from the

environment. Thus, this study will make a great contribution since it’ll really help conserve timber.

Next is it conserves energy, because most of paper companies use lots of energy to produce them,

and it may have a bad effect to the nature, however, if you use this paper from corn husks it may

help save energy. Most of the factories including paper corporations excretes smoke that

contributes to greenhouse gasses. Therefore, corn husk papers will really be helpful since, we could

have a recycling rate of 30% or equal to removing nearly 25 million cars in a road.

Now you’ve witnessed the benefits of corn husk papers in the environment,

moreover, it contributes to sustain an increasing level of a country’s economy and society. With

the use of this, we could give livelihood to many unworked people. Approximately, its effect to

the economics is that it’ll give 169,000 jobs if we’d continue to pursue this project. Aside from

that, it’ll help save money, since recycled products are way cheaper than the others. A great effect

also follows this, it can reduce expenditure because you use the wastes that should’ve been thrown

in the landfill. Thirdly, it generates revenue, we recycle corn husks and it can make innovations

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and new businesses such as processing and selling the recovered product from the waste which is

corn husk.

More than that, it can contribute to schools and the students as well. Students can

develop creativity and imagination in making or designing their own corn husk paper, and don’t

worry because it’s safe to do since no chemical is added. It’ll also help them to realize that we can

still give importance to wastes, in that way it’ll be easier to persuade more students or schools to

do it. Next, if teachers tolerate the practice of making or recycling corn husks from paper as early

as now, they could make the students conscientious or a mindful adult when they grow up. Lastly,

the schools can inspire the students to learn how to find resources from wastes to be able to sustain

the good state of the surroundings and be resourceful enough.

Therefore, you could clearly see how recycled papers from corn husks can help or

be an advantage to the environment, society or economy and schools. Thus, pursuing this project,

could save mother earth from total devastation and we people can also take advantage from it.

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CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CORNHUSK PAPER
Experimental Set-Up (#1-#3)
Controlled Set-Up (#4)
Qualitative Analysis

Basis of Experimental Set- Experimental Set- Experimental Set- Controlled


Comparison Up One Up Two up Three Set-Up Four
Initial There is greater It has the most
Appearance There is less starch added but amount of starch There is no
starch added to has the same added but has the starch added to
the mixture amount of water same amount of the mixture.
and cornhusk. water and cornhusk.
nd
Color It is the 2 It has lighter Its color is lighter It has the lightest
darkest color out color compared to than the first two color out of all
of all the the first one. experimental set- experimental set-
experimental set- ups. ups.
ups.
Odor/Smell Sour like odor Sour like odor Sour like odor Odorless

Texture Rough Rough Rough Rough

Quantitative Analysis

*All experimental set-ups have the same kind of ingredients, but all set-ups have different out comes.

*All additives were distributed equally. No more, no less.


Proportions

Experimental Set-Up #1 1tbsp. starch, 2pcs. Of cornhusks


Experimental Set-Up#2 2tbsp. starch, 2pcs. Of cornhusks
Experimental Set- Up#3 3tbsp. starch, 2pcs. Of cornhusks
Controlled Set-Up #4 No starch added, 2pcs. Of starch
Additives

Water per set-up 2 glasses


Containers 3 containers were used
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CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY

By all counts, and with proven results, each set- ups were having different characteristics

just like its texture and flexibility. It showed that the first set- up, second, and third has near

similarities to each other, though has huge difference to the controlled set- up. There were also few

differences between the four set- ups such as its color and odor/ smell, thus, causing to close

relationships between the ability to be used as a paper. Aside from that, they had close initial

appearance in each other, particularly, the experimental set- ups. On the other hand, it turns out

that the first experimental set- up worked the best and has the closest characteristic in a real paper

that is being utilized nowadays. Generally, among all the set- ups done, the first has the greatest

potential to be used as a paper soon.

CONCLUSION

From the researches and experiments done, the researchers had concluded that cornhusk

can be used as a paper. Due to its fibrous characteristic and high cellulose content, it was possible

for it to be used as the main raw material in making paper. Also, it proved that it has close

similarities with a real paper and cornhusk paper can be a great alternative for the papers we use

presently.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. the researchers could also use other raw materials other than cornhusks, to make paper.

2. Sodium carbonate as a substitute for starch will give more accurate results.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wilson, Michelle (2014) A Mixture of Papermaking


http://www.paperslurry.com/2014/05/12/artist-michelle-wilsons-paper-watermarks/

Suba, Maria Chloe (2018) Transforming Corn husk into Paper


https://www.platinumessays.com/essays/Transforming-Corn-Husks-into-Paper/19864.html

Fiscal, Rainer and Dandan, Kristoffer Bryan (2017) Development and Evaluation of Paper from
Corn Husks (Zea mays L.) and Snake Plant Fibers (Sansevieria zeylanica)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317954241_Development_and_Evaluation_of_Paper_f
rom_Corn_Husks_Zea_mays_L_and_Snake_Plant_Fibers_Sansevieria_zeylanica

Fagmemigun, Taiwo (2014) Strength Properties of Paper from Pulp Blend of Kenaf Bark and
Corn Husk: A Preliminary Study

https://www.google.com/search?q=Strength+Properties+of+Paper+from+Pulp+Blend+of+Kenaf
+Bark+and+Corn+Husk%3A+A+Preliminary+Study&oq=Strength+Properties+of+Paper+from+
Pulp+Blend+of+Kenaf+Bark+and+Corn+Husk%3A+A+Preliminary+Study&aqs=chrome..69i57
.1044j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

Aremu, M. O. et. al (2015) Suitability of Nigerian Corn husk and Plantain Stalk for Pulp and
Paper Production

https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/download/6359/6110

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