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Chapter I


[It was the defense oration of Bung Karno against the Dutch colonial trial in Bandung, August 18th
1930. Bung Karno was accused of being the chairman of PNI which was established in 1927.]
1. Introduction
2. Imperialism and Capitalism
3. The Movement in Indonesia
4. The Indonesian National Party
5. The violation of articles 169 and 153 bis are impossible.


The Political Process

The Honorable Judges,

As we read the speech of the House of Commons, which was written by the Governor General1 in
the newspaper in June 16th 1930, it might state about an understanding that we were going to be
accused against the court of law. Thus, at that exact time, we declared, “This process is creating
As it began, there had been numerous raids and arrests which were conducted in December 29th
19292. In fact, this sudden surprising event, which shattered from the life circumstances of
Indonesia and the Netherlands, was unstoppable to roar. Without interruption, the glare of the
spotlight as well as the uproar might touch upon the political atmosphere of Indonesia and the
Netherlands up to the time of the moment.
The public attention was not even related to us; however, the meaning of this process might be
responsible for it. It was a process against the movement in which the spotlight was born with; the
public attention belonged to the friends as well as the enemies. Both of the public attention and the
uproar were beyond that of in the process of “Afdeling B”3. It happened beyond the public attention
and the uproar of the process eras.

“PKI” 4, which performed beyond the spotlight and the uproar of any other process eras, was stated
to be in the process of the movement. To the fullest degree, Middendorp said that PKI was “the
flesh of flesh as well as the blood of blood” of the nationalist movement in Indonesia.
We have no doubt that this is solely a political process. Thus, during the hearing, it should not be
separated from the political issue which is presented as our signature characteristics and the
underlying support of our movement; also, it empowers our intellectual intensity and our deeds.
Throughout the hearing, the political issues are needed to be implanted in the Supreme Court
Building so as to the Judges are able to perceive the significance of all of the bases as well as the
signature characteristics of our movement. In addition, it is hoped that the Judges are able to
perceive the intended meaning of our line of thinking as well as see the light about the caused and
the meaning of our deeds and statements in which being investigated.
Your Honorable Judges, there can be no question that in fact, we do believe that the Judges may
have certain perceptions of politic that we believe the Judges may take no sides. Therefore, that
makes us spark with excitement as the newspapers which express their hatred might represent their
ultimate moral. Take for instance, the “AID de Preangerbode”5 or some other newspapers which
feel intense dislike for our movement, stir the Judges up that throughout this process it is certain
that we are going to inflicted a penalty.

The Judges within the Political Process

We may not know at all about that political belief of yours. In point of fact, we need not to have
knowledge of that political belief of yours. In reality, we put confidence in the warning of Dr.
Schumann which may not be a part of your concern. The warning states, “To our heart’s delight, we
may mete out punishment to this political agitator as he is also the enemy in political field.”

In like manner, we assert that cautionary advice of Prof. Molengraaff may not serve as your
concern. He affirms,
“The people whom we feel dear to our heart may bring about a good impression of the truth.”
This may be true that the Judges are often associated with the judges whose visions strongly reflect
as the persons who do not always step back from the issues, as what Mr. van Houten stated. In fact,
the persons may either take no stands of the political movement issue or get involved in every step
of the struggle in a deliberate way6. We will never know.
We do reiterate that we give credence to the Judges as the Judges may take no sides. However, we
might reveal every single piece of information about our political beliefs. We may also reveal the
signature characteristics of PNI as well as our visions and ideology. Also, we may present this
“politics” into this Supreme Court Building. It is worth noting that those future deeds do not aim at
creating propaganda of the truth that we believe. In fact, we would like you to perceive the
significance of the bases, signature characteristics as well as the deeds of PNI. Also, it is expected
that the Judges are in a position to ascertain the degree of those we have mentioned. In addition, the
Judges are expected to understand and be able to begrijpen of our political point of view. Therefore,
the Judges may understand the meaning of our utterances as well as our deeds which is currently
being investigated. That is our ultimate aim of delivering this speech. The parts which are linked to
the penalty may belong to our defenders which are led by Mr. Sastromoeljono. 7

The Articles and the Accusations which are common

Mr. Judges, here, we are charged with the offense of executing the things which may have a chance
to reflect subjective point of view of taking sides. We are formally accused of the offence of
disobeying the article of 169. The indictment is issued with the accusations of breaching the law. By
the same token, the indictment makes known of the rising in rebellion against the articles of 161 bis
and 171 of the Criminal Code.8 We have been charged for performing things which may have
something to do with the law. The language written in the law may embrace the subjectiviteit. The
subjectiviteit are made based on numerous queries; they are:
“What is meant by allusion?”, “What is meant by promise?”, “What is meant by
secret?” There are some other subjectiviteit queries like: “What is meant by the law and
order?” and “What is meant by failing to comply with a rule?” “What is meant by
orchestrating the riot?”, “What is meant by hoax?”, “What is meant by the nature of
economic life sphere in relation to the life circle?” also fall into subjectiviteit queries.

It must be remembered that the articles of 161 bis as well as 153 bis are most likely given chances
to make known of those subjective statements. To point out, we, the politicians of Indonesia, has
never stopped critiquing as the articles begin to be issued; we express an objection from time after
time. We take the responsibility that these articles stand for the great obstacle which make us
difficult to claim our legal entitlement to be united and allied. In reality, our legal entitlement was
once threatened by the “haatzaai-artikelen” (the articles which prevent the spread of hate crimes)
and also by the rights of putting someone in jail, and so forth. In particular, “haatzaai-artikelen”
has been known as “the flexible regulations appear to be flexible too far”. On that account, how do
we give the name for the article of 153 bis? There could not be a mistake that Mr. Mendels, as he
performs in Tweede-Kamer Staten-Generaal9, asserts that this article may serve as the article of the
criminal code which brings the frightening experience into existence in the last few years that a
person may not encounter. He adds, “In that case, the people should not affirm that the regulatory
law is applied in this state.” He states, “It means that there are no regulatory laws at all. This could
possibly be the arbitrariness of using the law as the weapon.”

Our Conviction Should be Remembered

Mr. Judges, we do expect and believe that you may not arbitrarily send out this article of law.
It is obvious that the articles which are used to threaten us are flexible. In addition, there is an issue
raised by Prof. Simons. He states, “To what extend does the criminal laws need to recall the belief
of the accused? How could the criminal law recall the belief of the accused?”
Or it may be linked to the things that once have been warned by Dr. Schumann. He stated that the
Judges are required to bear in their mind about various sets of circumstances, whether the citizen
may live in prosperity, and also the number of the causes that force to do something. 10
For that reason, we are here to give the Judges greater knowledge and understanding about the
whole part of the political beliefs of ours as well as the entire part of the significant movement of
PNI. Under those circumstances, the Judges may have better understanding that PNI together with
us are proven to be true against those charges.
Mr. Judges, we would like to apologize that we may ask for your attention for hours throughout this
speech. Also, we would like to express our regret for we may substantiate the argument back and
forth as those arguments are taken from several books. In fact, those arguments are presented to
prove to the Judges that what we have said, especially those bittersweet utterances of ours, may not
be a load of cobblers. Those arguments are constructed accordingly based on the considerable
knowledge of those persons whose wisdom and sincerity are at heart.
In one of the Chairperson’s queries within the hearing, we may take no sides as what the left wing
politic discerns more on the poorness of quality of the fate of the nation and the citizen of
Indonesia. We might be well known for critiquing the fate of that poor nation and citizen. We do
critique pretty much often on it.
However, we may never have sent false critique. We have never left off being fair. Throughout the
quality of our fairness, may it lead to acquire the evidence in the arguments. It may also acquire the
hard proof with the real numbers in it.
As we have sent our formal apology, we may begin to raise a defense of ourselves.

The Governor General which is mentioned refers to Jhr. B. C. de Jonge. He performed
service for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) in 1930 – 1936.
Bung Karno was arrested in December 29th 1929 in Mr. Soejoedi’s house in Yogyakarta.
One night before he was arrested, he delivered the speech about the Pacific War.
Afdeling B is another subdivision of Sarikat Islam. It was led by Semaun. He was the one
who established the labor unions. In 1920, this united labors merged with PKI; then, in 1926, they
rose rebellion against the Dutch.
The Process of PKI is defined as the way of the Dutch Colonial Government treated the
rebellion of PKI both in 1926 in Java and in 1927 in Sumatra. At that time, 150000 people were
arrested. Then, PKI was declared as the forbidden organization.
AID de Preangerbode is the Dutch newspaper in Indonesia. It was written in Dutch
language. This newspaper might have blamed Bung Karno earlier than the litigation.
The book of Pleidooi Indonesische Studenten (The Plea of the Indonesian College Students)
was written by Duys. The book is about the Indonesian college students who were accused in the

Netherlands. They were Hatta, Ali Sastroamidjojo, and et cetera. It was cited from the statements of
the legal advisers; they were: Schumann, Molengraaf, and van Houten.
The defenders of Bung Karno in Landraad of Bandung are named as follows: Mr. Sartono,
Mr. Sastromuljono, Mr. Soejoedi, and R. Idih Prawiradiputra.
The Criminal Code in the colonial era was added by the articles of 135 bis and 161 bis. It
might be used for those who performed as the agitator or the rebel. It was also inserted the
exorbitante rechten (the special rights) from the Governor General.
The Dutch Parliament is introduced in two different Chambers; they are: the Second
Chamber (Tweede Kamer) and the First Chamber (Berste Kamer). The merger of these two
Chambers is Staten-Generaal.
Duys as cited in “Pleidooi Indonesische Studenten”.


The Meaning

Your Honorable Judges,

Throughout courses of action, we were often exposed to hear the terms “capitalism” and
“imperialism”. Throughout this process, these two terms may trigger the investigation. We might
possibly be accused of demanding the Netherlands as well as the other nations if we dare to have
talked about “capitalism” and “imperialism”. We might also be accused of putting the government
at risk if we give a yell of “Shut the imperialism out!” In point of fact, we are accused of affirming
that capitalism is linked to the Netherlands and the other nations; also, the imperialism is linked to
those who are given authority in the government at the moment.
How could this accusation be proven to be true? In fact, this accusation may be proven to be untrue.
We have never asserted that capitalism is linked either to the Netherlands or to the authority of the
government. By the same token, we have never mentioned that imperialism refers to the other
foreign nations; we may never pass a matter of imperialism to the government as well as the law
and order. If the truth be told, we drop a hint about capitalism as we talk about capitalism; we hint
at imperialism only if we talk about imperialism!
Hence, what is the meaning of capitalism? Mr. Judges, as what we have stated earlier in the hearing,
we define capitalism as the systematic circle of life which comes into existence as the result of
forming the boundaries between the labors and the production machineries. In other words, we may
claim that capitalism is the result of the mode of production in which the additional values1 may not
be taken by the labors; it is possibly taken by the employers. For this reason, capitalism is the cause
of the accumulation of capital, concentration of capital, centralization of capital, and industriel
Reserve-armee2. Capitalism may lead to Verelendung3.
Should we have to be so meticulous in this speech in order to clarify that capitalism may not
represent the institution, the people, and the nation? In fact, capitalism refers to the concept view,
the interpretation of understanding, and the system. Do we need to reveal the truth in detail as what
we have briefly enlightened that capitalism is the mode of production? Ah, Mr. Judges, we feel sure
of not doing so as we assure you that every single intellectualist may know the meaning of that
However, what is meant by the word “imperialism”? Imperialism may also serve as the concept
view; it is an interpretation of understanding. It may not serve as what we are accused of.
Imperialism does not refer to ambtenaar binnenlandsch bestuur4, the government, gezag5, and
anything else. In detail, it is a desire; it is a systematic authority or a systematic power of influence
in economics of a nation or the other foreign nations. In other words, imperialism is a system which
takes over the control of economics or the autonomy of the other nations. It is an “occurrence”
within a circle of life which might be triggered by the forces of economics of a certain country. As
long as the economics of the nation as well as the economics of the country are emerged, the world
may perceive the implementation. The inner core of imperialism of ours are acquired from the
mythical bird of an eagle that flies here and there; that is the eagle that conquers both of the
surrounding nations and the outside Middle Sea.
Also, we acquire the spirit of imperialism from the desire of the Spanish that invade the Netherlands
so as to defeat Britain. We gain the desire of the East Sriwijaya Kingdom to bend the country of the
Malacca Peninsula and the Kingdom of Malay; we also have the power to give influence to the
household of the nations of Campuhea and Champa. We attain it from the Kingdom of Majapahit
which takes control as well as has influence on the Indonesian archipelago that may stand from Bali
to Kalimantan as well as from Sumatra to Maluku. We have got the spirit from the Empire of Japan
which occupies the peninsula of Korea, have influence in the country of Manuria, and have
authority in the archipelago of the Pacific Ocean. It is worth noting that imperialism is presented in
each and every era of “The Economics of Nation”. Imperialism lies within every single nation
whose economics implements the imperialism. Imperialism may not only serve for white people
only; those creamy-yellow-skin people, black people, and also tan people like us might also
implement imperialism. As a proof, in the era of Sriwijaya and Majapahit, imperialism was known
as “economische gedtermineerde noodwendigheid”; it was the necessity of deciding the economical
level within the circle of life with zero tolerance.
As what we have stated earlier, imperialism is neither about a system nor a desire to bend the other
nations down; in fact, it is merely about a desire or system that may give influence to the economy
of other nations. Imperialism may not involve the use of the swords, the gun, the cannon, or even
the ship war in the implementation. It has nothing to do with the expansion of the nations and
regions with the weapon as it is said by van Kol6. In reality, imperialism might be put into practice
by simply “promising the moon” or adopting the gentle ways; it is also possibly done by
“penetration pacifique”.
As the signature characteristic of imperialism is having influence on the households of the other
nations, the imperialism in this era is fruitful that it establishes the “mandate nations” or we name it
“mandaatgebieden”. It is also called the influenced regions or “invloedssferen” and et cetera. In
addition, in terms of bending down the other nations, imperialism is fruitful in colonies - koloniaal-

The Old and the Modern Imperialism

In the first place, we may not solely differ imperialism into those two terms. In point of fact,
imperialism might also be differed from old imperialism and modern imperialism. Isn’t the old
imperialism of the Portuguese considerably different from that of the Spanish? Isn’t the imperialism
from the East India Company of Britain or the Oost Indische Compaginie of the Netherlands in the
16th, 17th, and 18th centuries different from that of the modern imperialism which me might
encounter in the 19th or 20th century? Aren’t they greatly different from the modern imperialism
which started to spread right after the modern capitalism was enthroned over the Europe and the
North America?
Modern imperialism, the one which spreads all over the continents and the archipelago of Asia and
also the one that resembles our enemy, is the son of the modern capitalism. In particular, the
modern imperialism may have a library of its own. However, it might not be that familiar in terms
of the meanings and the secrets of capitalism. For this reason, the Judges, we aim to broaden the
substantiated meaning of modern imperialism over the one or two books. We may not give credence
to the book of Stenberg “Der-Imperialismus” which might be attractive at heart and be resourceful
of knowledge; it might be barely meaningful though. We decide to substantiate the works of Mr.
Pieter Jelles Troelstra, the chairman of the Netherland who has just passed away. He wrote:7
“What I intend to convey is that imperialism is an event that the big capital of a nation in which
the majority is authorized by the banks. It mainly uses the foreign policy of that country as the
nation makes great efforts to achieve its own goal.

The rapid development of economics in the 19th century may create a vigorous competition in
both of agricultural field and industry.

As a result, by the end of that century, the reliance on the politics of protection is firmly held at
At that time, great modern industries were born. The production force is exaggerating as well.
However, the prospect of selling is restricted in extend. Thus, there is a sudden need of rooting
around the market which knows no boundaries of one’s own nation.

The great industries decide not to decrease the financial gain as their ways of overcoming this

Most compelling evidence, what they do is raising the price in the national market which is
protected. Also, they are adopting the dumping strategy in other countries. Dumping refers to the
strategy of selling the products with the less expensive price compare to that of in that place. The
politic of aggressive protection may contribute to escalate the tension of the international affairs.
Besides, as the banks develop rapidly, the capital also grows higher. Thereupon, the national
industries and trading might not be able to invest enough capital.

As a result, the capital flows out to other countries, especially to those whose economics might
be underdeveloped; also, it especially flows to the countries which are lack of equities. Take for
instance, there is capital flow from France and Britain to Russia; there is the capital flow from
the Netherlands to the East.

The capital flow might not only spread inform of money. The countries which issue the capital may
also send the machineries, build numerous factories, construct a lot of railways and harbors, and et
cetera. In many ways, in the point of view of an investor, it could be far more beneficial of investing
the money to the onderneming-onderneming of the countries whose economics are underdeveloped.
In particular, the rate of the labor force is relatively reasonable and the profit is not restricted by the
labor laws.
That is the enlightenment of Mr. Pieter Jelles Troelstra. Let us listen to another socialist. He is H.
N. Brailsford, a famous English author.8
“In this era, wealth is the chances to invest the equity followed by an abundance value of profit.
The meaning of conquering in the former era is no longer applicable. Pursuing for the
concessions in foreign countries and also unlocking the hidden treasures which belong to the
lacking-power countries and the half dead kingdoms might appear to be an official occupation. It
might be claimed to be a national event.
In this phase, it is more significant and attractive at heart for the group of authorities to flow the
equity to the foreign countries by exporting the products.
Imperialism is merely the born of politics from the tendency which is getting higher over the
equity; the equity is hoarded by the countries whose industries are far developing. The equity is
going to be given assistance to the less-developed and less-citizen countries.

As we have given the two examples, isn’t it real and clear that the claim of imperialism, which is
proposed by the civil servants or the white people, or the government, or “zega”, in general is
totally wrong? However, let us listen one more time to the insight from the other socialist. He is the

famous Otto Bauer9 who points out that modern imperialism. He perceives modern imperialism as
the politics of expanding the region and also an expansive politics which:
“Strive for guaranteeing for the capital to be invested and to get sold in the selling market.
Within the economical capitalist of a nation, almost every time, half of the financial capital of
the company is drawn from the spreading of the capital from the factory. For this reason, every
time half of the equity of the company is frozen, it becomes “bero” (Javanese term: it is a vacant
land which is not being used).

The reduction in the number of demands for machineries production and the labors may appear
as the results of two things; they are: the freezing of the financial capital; also, the fractions of
free capital which is slow in return to the production companies.
It might further lead to the dropping of the prices and the profits of the production machineries.
Also, it adds the burden to the struggle of the labor force. It may reduce the rate of wage for the
labors as well. However, those two events have influence on the industries; they are the
industries which provide everyday-needs products. To point out, the demand for the everyday-
needs products is declining. In fact, it might happen because of two reasons. The capitalists
obtain money from the production-machinery industries; it may give them small amount of
profit. Also, as the number of unemployed person is high and the rate of wage is declining at the
same time, it may reduce the number of buyers from the labor group. Thereupon, the companies
which provide the life-needs products may also be decreasing in the price, profit, and also the
labor wage. To point out, the drawing of the financial capital from the capital circulation of the
general industries may lead to the reduction of the prices, profits, wages and also increasing the
number of unemployed persons. This enlightenment is significant for us as we now understand
the intended meanings of the politics of capitalism in gaining control of other countries. This
politics strives for finding the field for investing the capital as well as the markets to sell the
products. We do understand that it is not merely about standing alone; in fact, it is related to one

In all respects, those are all of our arguments of the meaning of imperialism which are retrieved
from the socialists. Let us now listen to the explanation from the one who is not a socialist. He is
Dr. J. S. Bartstra. In his book entitled “Geschiedenis van het moderne imperialisme”10, our
statements might appear in the book.
It is written that imperialism is not related to government; also, it is not about the members of the
government. It is not about foreign countries as well. It must be remembered that imperialism is the

thirst, the desire, the system of controlling or having influence on the economics of the other
countries. Dr. Bartstra states:
“The word “imperialism” was firstly used in Britain in around 1880. What was meant by
imperialism was the effort to strengthen the relation of Britain and the colonized regions which
might have their own autonomous government.11 In other words, it helped the colonized regions
to strengthen the relation with the motherland which might be tenuous in the former liberal era.
What was attractive at heart was that the term “imperialism” had lost its worthy meaning long

“....From time to time, the word “imperialism” was embedded with other understandings. As now,
the meaning is related to the struggle of Britain in order to present the gift for the “kingdom”. The
gift is the greater expansion of the colonized regions. It is done by conquering the countries in
which based on the geographical science might be believed to be dangerous if it falls to the
opponent. In addition, it is done by taking forcible possession of the regions which is possibly
targeted as a prospective sales market. It might also be the regions where the people are easy to
obtain the staple supply for the in-country exchange. At that time, in fact, people started to live in a
worse quality as there were numerous foreign opponents.”
“There is a general understanding related to the expansion of the colonized regions extensively.”
Therefore, just then, Dr. J. S. Bartstra elaborates more on the imperialism from the point of view of
the socialists. He elaborates:
“That term of imperialism becomes tremendously popular as the propaganda of the social-
democratic group claims that events happened as the consequence of the capitalist production
system. It might be true that those who elaborate extensively belong to the authors of Marxism;
they are: Rudolf Hilferding12, Karl Renner, and also the famous H. N. Brailsford.
According to them, imperialism is the foreign policy which cannot be separated from the
countries whose capitalism is a step too far. It is related to the capitalism which is implemented
by centralizing the companies and the banks to the furthest. Formerly, protectionism was
implemented to shield the country’s domestic industries from foreign competition; as now it has
changed into “dumping system”.13 As the role of protectionism has changed, imperialism may no
longer be satisfied with the liberal thoughts in a traditional way. It is related to the absent of the
country in interfering the public-related stuff, global competition, and pacifism. The
understanding is flipped into a fail interpretation. It is said to be the effort of using the
governmental institutions, which is related to politics, in order to achieve the economic goal. The
economic goal is best defined as having influence and seizing the market and staple-supply
regions; besides, it is related to the guarantee for the capital-intention payment which invested in
the countries whose economics are undeveloped. In this case, “capital export” is claimed to be
significant by those authors.

In particular, the centralization of banks and the “dumping system” are done with complete
sincerity and commitment. It is no wonder, as what they have said, that they make piles of capital
which can be barely used in this country. Hence, from time to time, it becomes an urgent need to
invest the capital as big as possible in the countries whose economics are underdeveloped; those
countries may provide highly attractive intention. In doing so, there will be a mass demand for the
railways, the machineries, and some other things which are related to our own industries.
Under those circumstances, it may lead on to the sharpening of the international affairs with other
countries, the possibility of the danger of war, the military expeditions, and the influenced regions
across the sea, the controlling of money circulation from and to the foreign countries which is led
by the banker groups of Europe, and hunting for the colony. That is imperialism!
All things considered, Br. Bartstra one more time elaborates meticulously about what the meaning
of modern-imperialism is. He states:
“What is meant by modern-imperialism is an effort to expand the colony which knows no limits;
more importantly, it strives to generate the profit of the industries and the capital of their own
bank. In this case, these goals gave support in 1880 up to know as the foreign policy focus on the
other cultural-developing countries.14

“In this case, imperialism was not the only motor to generate. At that time, imperialism was not
the only way of achieving the goal. However, there was one significant thing which was noted
by the history that imperialism had spread to the entire world once forever.”

The Old-Imperialism may have no difference in essence

That is it; that is the meaning of modern-imperialism.

What is the meaning of the old imperialism?
The old imperialism, as what we have walked through in centuries before the second part of the 19 th
century, is similar to the modern imperialism in essence. It is driven by the desire, the wants, the
goal-directed efforts, the tendency, and the system of controlling or influencing the households of
other countries, selfish desire to establish political control over the neighboring countries. The
characteristics, the bases, and the birth story might appear to be different; in reality, they are similar
in essence.

Both of the early centuries or in the 19th century and in the 16th or 20th centuries were under the
circumstances of imperialism!
Imperialism, as what we have stated before, is in every era. Prof. Jos Schumpeter might state:
“As old as the world, the unstoppable desire of a nation to expand the region in a manner lacking
of gentleness is beyond what is acceptable by nature.”15
It is worth noting that no matter what imperialism we might consider to take, either old imperialism
or modern imperialism, no matter how we go toing and froing, no matter in what point of view we
perceive, imperialism is an understanding, a desire, a tendency, a want, a favorite, a goal-driven
effort, and a system. It is neither the civil servant nor the government. It is not the gezag or the
Netherlands. It does not refer to any other foreign countries. In brief, imperialism is not the body,
the man, the things or the materials.

The Bases of Imperialism is Associated with the Lifehood

The desire of tendency, the wants or this system, begin to create the foreign policy back in old days.
It engages other countries in a battle; also, it gives rise to the collection of the ground and armada
weaponry. It starts the robberies of the foreign countries; also it leads to the colonized regions in
which the staple food is taken. Besides, in modern era, it may result in “Bezuglander”; it refers to
the place to take the supply of the industries. It brings about the sales market regions for those
industrial products. It may cause the field generates the piles of equity. It gives rise to the
“influenced region” and the protectorates. It initiates “the nations” and “the colonized land” and the
other terms of “field of effort”. Thus, imperialism is also a grave danger for the independent
Whether it is “the influenced regions” or “the mandate nations” and also whether it is “the
protectorate” or “the colonized land”, as we may infer from our arguments that in order of fulfilling
the lifehood or protecting the way of securing the necessities of our lives is driven by the economics
The Indonesian National Party fails to agree with all of the theories which state that the root of
colonialism is not essentially earning a livelihood. The Indonesian National Party disagrees with all
of the theories teaching that the reason for the Europeans and the Americans wandering all over the
world and colonializing the lands from place to place is the desire for the glory. Besides, the
theories may state that it is caused by either the strong desire for the foreign things or the desire to
spread the development and the civilization. According to Gustav Klemm, the spread of “the
winning nation” is not only directed by the selfish desire for wealth but it is also directed by the
“selfish desire for glory”, “selfish desire for agreeableness”, “selfish desire of visiting the foreign
country”, and “selfish desire for wandering freely”. Prof. Thomas Moon proposes a theory which
states that imperialism is not only economic based but it is also nationalism based and et cetera; it
has been elaborated in his book entitled “Imperialism and World Politics”.17 We do disagree with
all of those theories! No! For the Indonesian National Party, colonialism, in the most essential
respect, is rooted from the selfish desire of looking for the things and the selfish desire of earning
livelihood only.
“The root of colonialism is firstly because the earning of livelihood in his or her own nation is
getting tougher,” Prof. Dietrich Schafer wrote.18
Dernburg, the Colonial-director of the Germany before the war, openly states:
“Colonialism is the effort of managing the land, managing the wealth in land, managing the
plants, managing the animals and especially the citizens, in order to generate the profit for
economic needs of the colony nation.”19

Truly, Mr. Judges, colonialism may lead to a body of knowledge and a definite improvement; it also
leads to the excellence of good manners. On the other hand, the meaning is solely linked to lifehood
as what Dr. Abraham Kuyper writes in his book entitled “Antirevolutionaire staatkunde”, “a trade-
related arragement”, “enmercantiele betrekking”!
This great writer puts in his writing:
“The colonies, which are not firmly gathered in a family, will give chances to generate the profits
for the native of a country. Moreover, it is going to give them a helping hand to dig the valuable
mining and sell our products there, and vice versa; we look for the target market to sell the
products from that colonized land. Nonetheless, this is solely the economic relations. It is worth
noting that the focal points are the opening new mining, the process of creating deliverable
products, the relations of the market, and the across-the-sea trading. For all of that, in terms of
the languages, the customs and traditions, and especially the religion, the colonialist country
might detach themselves from the colonized citizens. In detail, the relationship is the trading
relationship; the signature characteristics will remain the same. Be that as it may, it will bring
advantages to the earnings for the colonialist country. In other words, it may cause the poverty of
the colonized country.”20 In like manner, Brainsford, in his newest book21, affirms: “Imperialism
has been carving its pleasing history of bravery and its greatness of getting involved in
organization in its own land. It lies from Siberia, which is covered by the ice, to the desserts of
the South Africa.

Nevertheless, the academic gifts may trigger the intellectual. Also, the government with the
promotion of human welfare is just the left-over things from that full-anger activity. In actual
fact, rewarding these prizes, seldom or maybe never, appears to be the reasons for those strong
pioneers. Even if they hold on their reasons, that small degree of reasons might stay out of the
human-related profit. Therefore, that is the reason for obtaining glory and expanding one’s own

In fact, the desire which drives them to go to those tropical places is the desire to monopolize a
market of the raw materials. Even in a worst-case situation, they may visit those places as those
places provide them with the low-wage labors who might not be systematically involved in an

Moreover, those labors are ready to work. If those are not the reasons, then the only reason lies
on the measurement of the source of the influence from the use of the things and the situation of
the Geographical science.

Polite behavior may lead to good quality of life in which it performs service for our own

For this reason, it is true that Prof. Anton Menger writes down
“The ultimate goal of colonialism is set up an intended profit from a less-developed country. In
the era when the people were diligent in prayer, that goal was veiled by the words for the
“Christian Religion”. Also, during the developing era, the goal was concealed by the term of
good manner for the in lander.
Friedrich may also tell jokes
“The nation of Britain will forever tell about Christian religion; however, don’t they intend to
exploit the cotton?”
That was the selfish desire of lifehood, Judges, which moved Columbus to sail the expanse Atlantic
Ocean. That was the selfish desire of lifehood that directed Bartholomeus Diaz and Vasco da Gama
to wrestle with the great Indian Ocean. Earning a livelihood might become “noordster” and the
compass of Admiraal Drake, Magelhaens, Heemskerck or Cornelis de Houtman. It was the selfish
desire that became the soul for the colonialists in 17th and 18th centuries. Also, it was the selfish
desire of earning livelihood which appears as the source of power in seeking the colonies in 19th
century. It happened after the modern capitalism emerged in Europe and America.

The Field of the Old Imperialism

Before that modern capitalism era, English language had spread in parts of America, parts of India,
parts of Australia, and so forth. It had planted the principles of “The British Empire”. France took
control of parts of America and India, so be it. Portuguese rose the flag in South America and some
parts of the entire Asia, so be it. Spain maintained authority over Central America and the
archipelago of the Philippines, so be it. The Netherlands colonized South Africa, some parts of the
Archipelago of Indonesia; they were: Moluccas, Java, South Celebes, and Sumatra, so be it. In those
eras, we perceived that they made great efforts driven by the selfish desire for the lifehood. That
was the effort greater than that of the old imperialism!

The Competition of the Quest for the Colonies in Modern Imperialism Era

As the modern capitalism gives birth to the modern imperialism, we witness the unstoppable
“competition of the quest for the colonies”. At the moment, the Englishman might be able to get rid
of French and Protunese and also get rid of the Netherlands from India. There are no great enemies
who hinder the spreading of imperialism. The flag of Britain is unstoppably dipped from place to
place. The unsatisfied thirst of Britain capitalism seeks for and drinks in the sources of wealth
outside the boundary of “the Empire”. All of the continents might hear the buzzing yell of the
struggle from the Britain imperialist. It is written:
“When Britain first on Heaven’s command
Arose from out the azure main
This was the charter of the land
And angelic voices sang this strain:
Rule, Britannia, rule the waves!
Britons never shall be slaves!”
India is successfully conquered, and so are Singapore and Malacca. The rights of determining the
taxes as well as the rights of exterritorial of China are forcefully taken. China is also claimed to be
the “influenced region” in rough and gentle ways at the same time. Egypt is well-protected.
Mesopotamia is given an official order, and so are Hongkong, the archipelago of Fiji, West India,
the Falkland archipelago22, Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, and Africa. The imperialism of Britain seems
to know no limits of satisfaction. What about the other countries? The other countries might also get
involved in this competition. It is written:
France sets food on the North of Africa, Indochina, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Reunion, Guyana,
Somali, and Niew Caledonia. America takes over Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Hawaii, and et
cetera. Germany opens up the imperialism to the Marshall Archipelago, Western-Eastern Africa,
Togo, Cameroon, Caroline Islands, Kiautsjau, Mariana Islands, Morocco, and so forth. Italy is busy
of striving for expanding the regions to Assab near the Bab El Mandeb straits. Italy also manages its

authority over the North Africa. Besides, Italy takes over Kossala and tries to control Abyssinia.
Italy forages for provisions from Tripoli and et cetera.
That is to clarify that the competition of the quest for the colonies during the modern capitalism is
nothing compare to the whole life story of a man. Those colonialists act like the furious God who
greedily forages for provisions through various places.


In Asia itself, modern imperialism has proven its root of origin. It arises from the thirsts of
economics, which is rooted from capitalism, lacking of the field of work in their own household.
As we have mentioned above, imperialism is not only linked to the signature characteristics of the
white people. In fact, both of old imperialism and modern imperialism are found in every single
country. We should remember the imperialism of the Tatar in 13th and 14th centuries which was
known as the simun wind. This country has taken control of the large parts of Asia. We do
remember the Aryan nations; they were: Machmud Gazni and Barber, who set foot in India. Also,
bear in mind that the imperialism of Sriwijaya had conquer the islands nearby. We might be
mindful of the fact that the imperialism of Majapahit took control over the whole archipelago of
Indonesia and also Malacca. However, nowadays, we barely know that the modern imperialism of
Asia is implemented by Japan. The modern imperialism of Asia is sort of “something new”,
“unicum”, and “nieuwgheid”. It is true that among those Asian countries, Japan is the only country
which actively involves in modern capitalism. The modern capitalism of Japan might need kerosene
and charcoal. Besides, the modern capitalism of Japan contributes to the increasing number of the
birth rate that it drives the people to look for the countries for emigration.23 The modern capitalism
of Japan makes its citizens forget about their bases of knighthood; in contrast, they may start to
spread over the peninsula of Sachlin, Korea, and Manchuria.
Japan is named as “the champion of Asia who is enslaved”. That title is both a hoax and a pack of
lies. That title is a false statement in which the conservative nationalists may assume that Japan is
going to bawl out the western imperialism by yelling: “Stop!” Actually, it is not yelling “Stop” that
matters. In fact, Japan is going to endanger the countries around the Pacific Ocean as Japan has
started to get involved in the circle of the dragons of imperialism of America and Britain. Japan
itself is one of the dragons in which later on get involved in the Pacific War.24 In this context, the
head of the dragon aims in Asia. The head of the dragon is greedily eating up the wealth of the
colonized regions. Meanwhile both of the belly and the tail of the dragon are in the Europe that
those parts of the body are busy of enjoying the wealth of the colonized country.

The Form of the Competition Nowadays

The form of the quest for the colonies in the second part of the 19th century was firstly started by the
competition of the European countries only. To tell the truth, within this competition, Britain
appeared to be the leading nation. It might happen after the capitalism of Britain, which contained
imperialism in it, defeated the enemies. Above and beyond, it happened as John Bull was allowed to
swear an oath “Give orders, Britain! Rule the wave!” After that, two new champions were involved
in imperialism. As a result, it becomes the competition in 20th century which may involve the
Britain, America, and Japan. The competition is aimed for obtaining power over the extremely
wealthy country which might not be widely open. It is China!
The struggle of taking over the power of China might appear as the soul of the competition between
those three dragons of imperialism. Taking control of power over China is now widely accepted as
the foreign policy of Japan, America, and the Britain. Who rule in China, that country might have
power over the entire Pacific. The one who holds the household of China is going to be the one who
holds on the households of the entire eastern world. It may cover the economics as well as the
military army. For this reason, Mr. Judges, China will be snatched to death by those dragons. It will
be eagerly defended by the Pacific War.
In terms of propaganda, it could be dangerous as it is linked to the pacific war; we are going to
elaborate meticulously in the next section.

an additional value (merrwarde): refers to the profit which is received by the employer. The
profit is earned from the productions of the labors.
Industrieel Reserve-armee: refers to the line of the unemployed people.
Verelendung: refers to making the labors experience the life of poverty.
ambtenaar BB (Binnenlandsch Bestuur): refers to the civil servants of the Dutch.
gezag: refers to the authority, the power or the rights to give orders.
van Kol Henri Hubert (1852 – 1925): he is a Dutch socialist who was involved in
establishing Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij (SDAP). Also, he had ever been the Dutch
Minister of the Colonies. These words were delivered during the Tweede Kamer court in November
2nd 1901.
Pieter Jelles Troelstra (1860 – 1930) : he is a Dutch socialist; he established SDAP together
with van Kol. He is the author of the book entitled “Gedenkschriften.”
H. N. Brailsfor is an Englishman whose book was reproduced by van Revestein with the
title “De Oorlog van Staal en Goud”; it means “the war of steel and gold” (page 22, 51, 68).
Otto Bauer (1882 – 1938): he is a man of social-democratic from Austria. It was written in
his book entitled “Die Nationalitat enfrage und die Sozialdemokratie” on page 461 and so forth.
Dr. J. S. Bartstra wrote his book with the title “Geschiedenis van het modern mperialisme”.
In English it might written as “The History of Modern Imperialism”.
Canada and Australia were recognized of having an independent autonomy of controlling
and governing their own countries under the control of Britain. This policy was known as Dominion
Rudolf Hilferding is the author of the book “Das Finanzkapital, eine Studie uber die jeugste
Envolklung der Kapitalismus”
Dumping system refers to the strategy of selling the products with more expensive price in-
home country; the price of the same products will be less expensive in foreign countries. This
policy was firstly issued by Japan as there were competitions among the European capitalist and
American capitalist.
In Europe, the development of industries went progressively in 1880. It encouraged the
other European countries to expand the colonized region. In the end, it might lead to violent
confrontation; also, it was the root of the World War I in 1914 – 1918.
Prof. Jos Schumpeter is the author of “Zur Soziologie der Imperialismus”.
The roots of the global war or also known as the world war or local war lay in the countries
of imperialism. Those countries gave emphasize to controlling the other countries as they adopted
the protectorate of the Britain over the Egypt in 19123 - 1952. Also, the British protectorate had
been established over Mesopotamia to Valkenbond.
As it has always been before, the imperialists may always presents the experts to corroborate
their claims that imperialism strives for bringing betterment and wealth for the colonized citizens.
This statement is quoted from Prof. Dietrich Schafer in the book of “Kolonial Geschicte”
(The tales of Colonialism) page 12.
Dernburg as he cited from the book of “Kolonial Ideal” (the Intentions of the Colonialists)
by Douwes Dekker (Multatuli).
Those statements are cited by Dr. Abraham Kuyper from his book entitled
“Antirevolutionaire staatkunde”. Those statements are also cited by Snouck Hurgronje in his book
“Colijn over Indie”.
This statement is cited from the book written by Brailsford entitled “Hoe ong nog?” (How
long?) on pages 24 and 221 and so forth.
Since April 1982, the tensions between Argentina and the Britain were high as they have
quarrels upon the Archipelago of Falkland. In fact, in 1931, Bung Karno had already claimed that
the Falkland Archipelago was colonized by Britain.
Started in 1834, Japan was involved in the imperial competition. Japan had got the privilege
access to colonialize China, Korea, and Russia (Sachalin).
At that time (in 1930s), there were some of Indonesian leaders who told in advance that
Japan was going to be a modern power over the western imperialism. However, Bung Karno
perceived that the competition among the imperialists might lead into a gigantic crashed. In the end,
in 1929, Bung Karno had predicted that there would be a war of the Pacific Ocean.


The Era of the Netherlands

The Honorable Judges, presented is the explanation for the imperialism in Asia; it happened
outside Indonesia.
How is it in Indonesia? Ah, the honorable Judges, we may have understood it better. We
know how Oos Indische Compagnie (VOC), which was driven by the tough competition among
Britain, Portuguese, and Spain, implanted its monopoly system in the 17th and 18th centuries. We
are acquainted with the fact of how thousands of innocent people were murdered and how the
kingdoms were destroyed out of nowhere in the archipelago of Moluccas. Millions of clove trees
and evergreen trees of nutmeg were also killed (hongitochten). In order to hold the monopoly up in
that Archipelago of Moluccas, the VOC decided to overthrown the Kingdom of Makasar and
forcefully put an end to their trading. As a result, there were hundreds or even thousands local
Makassar citizens who lost their livelihood. They began to pirate and rob ships from place to place.
We might know those presented facts better. In Java, as we might recognize, the strategy of diving
to conquer (divide et impera) had widely implemented as what it was introduced by Prof. Veth or
Clive Day or Raffles.1 The kingdoms were enslaved one after the other. The economics of the
citizens were conducted under the monopoly system.

The possibilities of contingenten2 and leverantien3 were totally narrowed down; in fact, it was
savagely suppressed by the monopoly system. We might have full awareness of it. Hence, the
honorable Judges, we have got enough of this arguing!
For those who were keen on reading might be familiar with the way of the Oost Indische
Compagnie extended, held up as well as strengthened.
Nevertheless, we do apologize, Mr. Judges. We apologize as we would like to tell the story in a way
that relates to the era of Oost Indische Compagnie and also the era of the cultuurstelsel. As we
might see, both of VOC and cultuurstelsel are visibly etched in the circle of life of Indonesia. For
this reason, it may give impacts to the shaping characteristics of the Indonesian National Party.
We must express our regrets for we do agree with Prof. Snouck Hurgronje. He writes:4
“People might claim that it is purposeless to reveal the inheritance of Adam as it might not be
redeemed by the descendants. In fact, it happened within those two centuries of unpleasant
governance over the firm attitudes of the natives of Indonesia against the western countries. The
detailed inspection of these cases should be done meticulously.”

Henceforth, we must be apologetic as we make a connection between the cultuurstelsel and those
facts. We apologize for our citation from one or two well-known intellects from the Europe. It is
“The VOC was gaining control over the kings and the noblemen. Those kings and noblemen
were burdened with duties and responsibilities. Unfortunately, the citizens were the ones who
were given huge burdens of sorrow and misfortune. VOC was beyond evil deeds. It was the
selfish desire for wealth and power. However, those evil deeds and selfish desire might lead to
the same thing, oppression!”
That statement is delivered by Prof. Colenbrander.5 Another key point, Prof. Veth notes down:
That inhumanity may not be the worst part of the characteristic, the selfish desire for wealth and
power is! It is the avaricious desire that could possibly destroy more than the cruelty can do. To
emphasize, even the hideous Nero may only do harm to his closest ones. As during the reign of
Nero, the wealth of the provinces might not be intruded, but even so, if there happened to be a
bad elucidation of government regulation, it could possibly be a total disaster.6

As can be seen, cruelty is not always appears to be the same as “wreed”, but even so it could have
the meaning of both words.
Let us reread the writings of Colenbrander in implanted monopoly in Ambon and Banda. It is
“Throughout this issue, Coen (Jan Pieterszoon Coen) had disgraced himself as he acted on
appalling actions against humanity. Those people who served the Dutch East Indies Company
might also perceive his cruelty which was getting out of bounds. As it happened, the statesmen
of VOC were stunned by the appalling writing of the death penalties written by Coen in his
letter; he wrote it with the absence of violence. It should be true that it was significant to instill a
sense of fear, but even so it might not spark compassion.”

Those utterances are expressed by their own kind that because of the needs of profit, a wealthy
country is exterminated7.
Prof. Kiesltra8 may also add:
“Our people should strive for the trade monopoly. Once we have obtained it, with no doubt, the
trade monopoly must be maintained. The needs of the citizen are not respected. The Islamic
group as well as the heiden9 are not taken into consideration by the Christians. Based on the
understandings of those eras, those people who keen on using the term “gospel” are the false and
misguided descendants. If those people have no fear to fight, they are authorized to be executed.

By the same token, Prof. Dietrich Schafer from Germany states his corroborative arguments. He
“We have given evidence of the story of their piloting scheme; those surrounding Australian
islands are dragged into their schemes. Those piloting schemes should be carried out as this land
serves nothing but hopeless resource for the company. In a point of fact, the way these piloting
schemes conducted is the only reason for claiming that this is the most disastrous circumstances
throughout the storyline of the colonialism.”10

Generally speaking, Prof. Snouck Hurgronje may state his perceptions:

“The VOC might have a hand in the first chapter of the Dutch East Indies laments grieve, as it
happened in the 17th century. Every one of us expressed our respect for those men for their great
effort as shown in that position. Nonetheless, what they aimed and how they achieved their aim
might spark us with disgust. Although we do remember every single principle of theirs, we need
to judge their way of behaving from the perspective of their era. That “piloting schemes” was
firstly brought into practice by introducing the citizens of the Indies to the dirt of the Dutch. The
dirt of the Dutch refers to the mean ways of the Dutch to treat the natives; the natives bear those
disgrace. The natives took responsibility for enriching the statesmen of the Netherlands.
Abtenaar-abtenaar of VOC presented the corrupt officials and citizens which appeared to be
worse than that of accused to the Eastern Countries. The civil servants of VOC might earn small
amount of salary, but even so they strove for profit as what their employer did.11

The Cultuurstelsel Era

We have already seen the broad picture of the Oost-Indische Compagnie. As the Oost-Indische
Compagnie severely ended in 1800s, the monopoly system, which referred to the system of gaining
profit through the enforcement, might still alive. If truth be told, as the era of the commissions and
the British Empire came to an end in 1800 - 1830, it led to the severe enforcement work of
cultuurstelsel; as for the cultuurstelsel, our native citizens bore the pain stoically! In the first place,
cultuurstelsel began as the “transition era” from the old ideology to the new ideology. Also, as what
it had been told earlier by French Revolution, as the “tijdvak van den twiffe”12 came to an ending, a
more severe system of enforcement work appeared. It was more savage as it took the workers
captive; it can at times felt suffocating for the natives. Mr. Judges, we may not need to utter how
miserable this cultuurstelsel could have been. Every single person who walked through it as well as
the intellects who conducted study of it might understand how miserable it was.

It is important to realize that as we come to understand about cultuurstelsel, which the former
footprints were not erased so as to it might have influence on the formation of PNI, we may recited
the arguments of some experts.
“The unstoppable exploration of the citizen might face no obstacle. The only obstacle came from
the natives as they their physical body could no longer bear it.” Those statements are cited from
Prof. Gonggrijp.13

In another occasion, this man of letters, Prof. Gonggrijp, makes a note of:

“This system might not be genuinely generated by force. The force appears to be more
burdensome than the burden for paying the contingenten to the native chiefs. In fact, in the first
twenty years started from this era, it was totally the first-twenty dark years. In general,
culturstelsel could be more burdensome because of the influence of the Abtenaar of Europe. As
the cultuurstelsel was severely more burdensome, it oppressed its own system that it led to the
technical fixation as well as profit supervision.”

“Indigo plants appeared to be the most hated plants.14 As it was introduced in 1830 to be planted
inattentively in Priangan, that indigo plants truly became the worst disaster for the citizens. In
Simpur district, a particular area of Priangan, the men came from different villages as they were
called to work on the indigo plantation by force. They worked for seven months with no days
off. They lived apart from their homes. During that working timeline, they were asked to feed
themselves. As they returned home, their paddy was found sternly destroyed. For the first five
months in 1831, around five thousand men and three thousand buffalos were taken from that
Priangan district. They were forced to work on the land in which a new factory had newly built.
As they had finished working on it, the indigo plants were nowhere to be found. Two months
later, fearful coarse grass started to grow on that land again; once again, the natives were called
to work on that land. It often happened that the women got pregnant and gave birth as they
worked hard on that land.

Another compelling evidence, Stokvis may tell a story:15

Until 1886, there were some regions which might be lack of sufficient money to live at a
considerable standard. In those regions, a person spent around 30 cent a day for living; in fact, if
he worked for a coffee plantation, he would earn 4 up to 5 cents a day. Those who worked on the
indigo plantation frequently got paid f816 in a year. Meanwhile, for those who worked on the
coffee plantation would be paid f4.50 in a year for the whole family. In detail, it would be 90
cents for a person. The writer (Vitalis) also saw that people of Priangan were starving to death;
they were nothing but skin and bones walking all along the way. Some of them were extremely
exhausted that they were unable to feed themselves with the food provided for them as their
wages. Unfortunately, some of them passed away.”

“There was high number of citizens who attempted to find refuge in the plantations. They
believed that it was the best way to break out of the miserable life. Beating the workers with
sticks as well as punishing the workers with the whip were considered to be insignificant
occurrences. In this indigo plantation, it was common to see workers who were beaten with a
stick. As now, we are exposed to see a country which is not enslaved under the laws; this country
is enslaved in reality. The fear of the native citizens of their noblemen had already implanted in
the noblemen’s mind and soul. Those noblemen might also learn to be fearful of the colonialists.
Both of the tremendous bravery and the burning spirit for independence of the Javanese was
alive at heart; they were long gone now because of the painful treatment of VOC. Point often
overlooked, there had been one fatal thing done by Van den Bosch17. He sucked the life of the
native citizens out; he did not realize that he was sucking them dry. Exhausting the natives’
physical, material, and emotional resources seems to be similar to the VOC system. In fact, it
was more evil and morally worse than that of the VOC! VOC should never bear the
responsibility; VOC had never wanted to bear it. VOC implemented rough trading as what the
common merchants do. Van den Bosch stood for his country, the motherland which still needed
considerable improvements. Van den Bosch, who was followed by his successors, had
implemented every single possible way which appeared to grow the intense feeling of dislike
from the natives. Enforcing the Western production system to those whose livelihood depended
on the paddy crop-rotation was already burdensome. In this case, Western production system
was the production system which had numerous requirements to follow. Under those
circumstances, it could be more upsetting to know that the foreign countries took along the
selfish desire of powers with them.

There are still two more arguments, Mr. Judges, before we end the discussion about cultuurstelsel.
Presented are the two arguments from Prof. Kielstra and Prof. Veth. They write:
“In the Netherlands, people do not know or maybe they just act as if they do not know that in
Indies, the amount of money which is allocated for teachings, public works, the police and et
cetera are reduced to the minimum possible amount of money. It is applied in order to make the
net income greater in number. Besides, in a more wicked way, as the natives are burdened by the
enforcement, the government of the Dutch East Indies sets boundaries for them to work on their
fields. Thereupon, some regions experience poverty and misery; they are starving to death and
they seek refuge.18 In reality, those who think that cultuurstelsel is going to bring betterment to
both Java and the Netherlands, they should have thought it to be something disgraceful. 19 In this
case, cultuurstelsel is claimed to bring betterment to Java because it teaches Javanese to work;
for the Netherlands, it could be beneficial as it raises the treasury. It could be true that they
intendeded to deceive people into thinking it was for the natives’ shake that they brought
cultuurstelsel into life.” Those utterances are told by the professor Veth.

Mr. Judges, Oost-Indische Compagnie overthrows the household of Indonesia; cultuurstelsel should
be blamed for overthrowing the household of Indonesia. You might have a particular belief: “It is
proven to be true that both of VOC and cultuurstelsel are evil. Also, it could be true that VOC and
cultuurstelsel lead the natives of Indonesia into misery. However, what is the point of introducing
the past events?”
In fact, Mr. Judges, it is quite true that VOC and the inhumanity of cultuurstelsel were the ancient
cruelty. However, the heart of our people could barely forget it.
“Our memories of walking through the miserable paths are hard to forget; those who willfully
causing suffering to other, they easily forget what they have done.”
Those statements are cited from Sanders. Equally important, as what we together with Prof. Snouck
Hurgronje has stated earlier, both of those two monopoly systems of VOC and cultuurstelsel may
lead into several naweeen20, which are still found in today’s life. In reality, the system of VOC and
cultuurstelsel are obviously reflected in the circle life of Indonesia. Therefore, the politics and the
movement of the Indonesian National Party might also be influenced by them. We are going to
elaborate more later on.
Modern capitalism, which focused on “liberal business” and the “open competition”, started to
emerge in the Netherlands in the mid-19th century. In particular, cultuurstelsel, which gave special
importance to “enforcement work” and ultimately contribute to the profit for the Netherlands, had
not yet brought to an end. Actually, cultuurstelsel provided the profit for the Dutch private
capitalists. In this case, cultuurstelsel was not brought to an end because of some reasons. It was not
because the Netherlands was no longer paying attention to the needs of the private capitalists. It was
not because the Netherlands laid more emphasis on its own intention than the intention of
bourgeois. In truth, at that time, the Dutch bourgeois dependently relied upon cultuurstelsel as it
contributed to pay off debts for supporting the live of capitalism in the Netherlands. Roland Holst 21
in his book entitled “Kapital en Arbeid in Nederland” puts in writing:
“In 50s22, the bourgeois were involving themselves in practical activities. They had shown
awareness of standard stratification as well. Their practical activities might neither be involved
nor be reflected in cultuurstelsel; as now, cultuurstelsel refers to exploiting almost everything. It
could be dangerous that people are getting impatient and striving for progress. They are in a rush
of assigning liberal works as the replacement of cultuurstelsel, the legacy of the autocratic in
taking over field for cultivation in Java. In general, some people utter certain opinions; the
bourgeois might have known it better. As a group of people, they may have thought that they are
significant persons. In the first place, they are considerably involved in paying off the debts.
Secondly, they are significant in free trade and in the company as they demand that the Dutch
East Indies government issues the deduction of duty and taxes. It could be possibly done only by
the government of the Dutch East Indies. Thirdly, they are significant in establishing railways
and waterways that it might not cost the citizen. In fact, this could be a huge fighting
conservatism spirit of those thrifty Dutch.
All of the issues which have been mentioned above are significant. The national debts, the
establishment of railways and harbors in the Netherlands should be the only reason of issuing
that exploitation. We cannot deny that all of this abundance of wealth is earned from the profit of
the East Indies. Thus, this financial advantage of the East Indies should be maintained for the
time being.23

The Modern Imperialism

The requirements of the modern capitalism had been completed. The national debt was pint-
sizably growing; the railways, the waterways, and the harbors had been successfully established.
In brief, as the modern capitalism grew greater, capital surplus started to invest in Indonesia. As
a result, modern capitalism was born! That modern capitalism began unstoppably to bang the
gate of Indonesia which was slowly opened to them. Those winners of the modern capitalism
had never stopped to strike over that gate. The guards of the gate continued to tremble as they
heard the buzzing yell “naar vrijheid!” (strive for the liberalization!), “naar vrijl arbeir” (strive
for the liberal business). That liberal capitalism group really wanted to enter the gate and they
shout that way. In the end, in nearly 1870, the gate was opened! It was a breath of fresh air of the
year. It was like a flowing river which came in a large number. It rumbled like a group of
soldiers massed for parade in the defeated city. Thus, as the Agrarian Law as well as the Sugar-
Act Law de Waal in 1879 were accepted by the Staten-General in the Netherlands,24 the private
industries started to come to Indonesia. Those private industries started to establish the sugar
factories in different places; also, they set up on the tea plantations and onderneming-
onderneming of clove, and et cetera. Equally important, the private industries started to establish

various mining companies, train companies, trem companies, ship companies, or the other
The old imperialism was lacking of power to perform; the modern imperialism emerged to take the
place of that old imperialism. The way of digging for the treasure which brought benefits for the
Netherlands was changing from time to time. It was forcefully suppressed by the new way of
enhancing the value of the equity of the private industries.
The way of digging for the profit had changed. In spite of that, were there any changes of
betterment for the natives of Indonesia? No, there were not, Ye Honorable Judges. The flood of
profusion of wealth coming out from Jakarta became greater in size; the “drought” of Indonesia was
severely getting bigger!
“In the argumentation about the colonialism in 1848 – 1870, the focus was the enforcement work
and the liberal business. We might encounter again that sharp argumentation of the doubtful age
right after the fall of the VOC. It is now obvious that where the conservatives stand and how
doubtful the opposition stands. The conservatives firmly perceive that the colonies are the source
of the profits for the country; in contrast, the oppositions might feel strong indignation of
exploitation the soil and naming it “the source-of-profit region”. It gives the impression of being
sacred and having the quality as human person for they strive for the independence of the East
Indies; the ruler must be good at heart. It also creates grounds for believing that something good
may happen. However, just like the leading pioneers, they might have misunderstood their
sympathy interpretations. It seems to them that the liberal capital is invested in the East Indies;
until then, this country will be detached from being the region of the source for profit. For those
exhausted citizens, isn’t it only about the changing of authorities of digging the profits of their
country that matters? It could be true that the misunderstanding of the capitalism of the country
and the governance system come to an end. In fact, those two key points are related to the
Netherlands, which may not allow the citizens to speak. However, a newer history of colonialism
has been taught. It states that the end of the cultuurstelsel will just lead to the other ways of
digging the profits of the other Masters. The regions of the source of profits will certainly obtain
new rulers.
The private industries may have more influences on the country and of course to its colonies. In
fact, there has never been much of “net income” flooding as it might happen under the rule of
that new profit digger. What makes it different is that it is done in a more smooth way,” that is
how Stokvis elucidates.25
Isn’t it “in accordance” with the idea of cultuurstelsel as Multatuli has compared:
“A group of pipes which has countless branches of each. Each branch is divided into millions of
tissue. Every single tissue may lead to the breast of the Javanese; it is the firth. Each of them is
linked to the main pipe which is generated by a major steam pipe. In fact, in private industries,
every single profit seeker is able to connect to all pipes. They are also capable of using the pipe
machine in order to dig the treasure by themselves.”26

The comparison of the idea of cultuurstelsel and the proposed idea by Multatuli are in accordance,
aren’t they?
Your Honorable Judges, as we have read those two citations, the broad picture of the universal
characteristics of modern imperialism in Indonesia is presented.
It might be true that for the Indonesian, the changing started in 1870 was only the changing of the
way of digging for livelihood. In fact, for the Indonesians, whether it is old imperialism or modern
imperialism, both of them are imperialism after all. Both of them are dealing with bringing out the
wealth of Indonesia to other country; both of them may lead to drainage!27
“Civilization”; protection, the increasing number of citizens, traffic stuff, and et cetera.
Oh, it is true that the era of modern imperialism introduces us to “civilization”; the modern era
might introduce us to the nature of life; they are: peacefulness and tranquility. It gives us protection.
The modern imperialism generates the increasing number of the birth rates. The modern
imperialism presents us with the roads which enable us to go to various places around Indonesia.
It provides us with the railways; it also presents us with the harbors and the perfects ships. In actual
fact, in essence, does it really strive for the life circumstances in the country? Is it really a
development which is equal to the disaster caused by those private industries?
Ah, Mr. Judges, how many of the persons who are temporarily blinded by the glare of the amount
of equity and the results of the western civilization of our country; they may have thought that
imperialism only brings betterment. How many persons who catch a sight of the shadows? They
catch a sight of the law of circumstances which is driven by that modern imperialism. Just then,
they may nod their head and say: “Exactly! This moment is totally different from the VOC era or
In reality, the law is tricky. The shadow makes us stare intensely! According to Kautsky, modern
imperialism is “different from the old politics against its colonies. The old politics lays emphasis on
the goods to be robbed. Also, it focuses on enriching the motherland by earning wealth and bringing
out the valuable things to the motherland as the equity. In contrast, modern capitalism is a politics
which is embedded the equity to the land of the colonies; it also establishes the cultural sites of this
country. As can be seen, it does not dealing with destroying but it deals with promoting culture.”28
Nevertheless, the basis is still the basis! In essence, “culture” or cultuur is rooted from that
J. E. Stokvis presents his closing statements of Oost-Indische Compagnie:
“but protection and tranquility refer to a hopeless struggle. At times, it resembles a struggle of
warriors to claim for independence. The rapid increase of the birth rates means that there will be
multiplication of equatorial citizens who are disorganized and mistreated.”29
In point of fact, every single word of this statement is eligible to be used to address that modern
imperialism era. Besides, the addition of the number of the citizen is not always leading to wealth.
The addition of the number of the citizen is not always leading to universal prosperity. Peter
Maszlow has elaborates this issue in his book “Die Agrarfrage in Ruszland”.
In the group of proletariat in Europe, both of the middle and upper classes tend to have bigger and
rapid chances of adding the number of the birth rates. Does it mean that the proletariat is more
comfortable with his or her life compare to those of the bourgeois? In fact, the increase in the
number of the citizens of Indonesia cannot be separated from “voortplanting van ontwrichte en
misbruikte tropenvolken”. It means “there will be multiplication of equatorial citizens who are
disorganized and mistreated,” as what Stokvis has told earlier.
Pay attention to those roads, railways, ships, and harbors; aren’t they outstanding for the
Well, in fact, we admit that those transportations bring benefits to us. In particular, we admit that
this modern means of transportation is useful; we witness the good influence of the transportation
and the development of the citizens. We acknowledge that even if the citizens of Indonesia loose it
all by now, they will suffer. It is also hard to deny that this modern means of transportation may
enable the private industries move easily. It is undeniable that this means of transportation helps the
equity dance freely upon its company. It is getting bigger and opening branches here and there.
Therefore, the livelihood of the citizens is in a state of complete disorder.
Karl Kautsky in his book “Sozialimus und Kolonial-politik” puts in writing (page 41):
“Actually, the improvement of the transportation and the production machinery enlarges the
number of the production force of the countries whose economics are underdeveloped. In case it
does not work that way, it will add the cost of the duty of military and foreign debt.
For this reasons, the improvement is done for the sake of extorting the wealth of the poor
countries more than what has been done previously. There is much to take that it is the over
production comes from the technical improvements. Also, the wealth which is left in the country
for the producers is also declining. Under those circumstances, the technical improvement is
widely opened for the large-scale farming which is reckless and poor.”

Those are the arguments of the “red group”. In particular, there is Colonial Director namely
Dernburg; he is the leader of imperialism of Germany before the Great War. He might not be
claimed as an agitator. In the earlier page, we have elaborated the arguments of Colonial Director
Dernburg who is open about the basis of the actual colonialism. Colonial Director Dernburg openly
“but all of the nations which have colonized land may have experienced that those vast colonized
regions means nothing without the railways; it becomes the unrevealed treasure which give no
significant economic profit.”30

And what about our country? What about the evidence of our country? The former and famous
Assisten-Residen Schmalhansen writes:
“The land of Java may have railways and trems. There are much of the lands of erfpach opened and
worked on. There are also numerous sugar and indigo factories established. However, do all of this
can guarantee that the wealth is developing gradually? 31

In addition, Prof. Gonggripj notes down:

“The East Indies is equipped with the modern means of transportation; it is considered to be a must
within the development of the private industries whose large-scale production is sold in the world
The modern means of transportation may have major and real influence which is reflected on the
wealth of many natives. There is no more.”

The Other “Essential Needs”

“There is an essential need for the development of the private industries!” Besides, how many
“essential needs” which might not be found? There are more essential needs that can be found than
that of cannot be found.
There is a regulation of erfpacht which is done accordingly to “gewetenstopper”33,
domeinverklaring34 for the onderneming-onderneming in the mountain hill. Besides, there is
regulation on land renting for the onderneming of a flat large area of land which is occupied by
many citizens. The regulation of worker contract is also issued together with the poenale sanctie35
for the onderneming-onderneming who have insufficient number of labourers. Both of the
“orderliness and protection” and also field of business are everywhere as “staatsafronding”36
started to destroy the independence of the nations of Aceh, Jambi, Kurinci, Lombok, Bali, Bone,
and so on. There is a systematic teaching which shapes professional workers. In addition, the article
of 161 bis of the criminal laws is issued by removing the rights to strike. In fact, the laws of
protection for the workers are no longer issued. As a consequence, the workers are allowed to be

treated unfairly. Unfortunately, it is so real that private industries are not insufficient of “essential
needs”; the modern imperialism group is flying to heaven!

Four Characteristics of Modern Imperialism

It is great to know that the imperialism companies appear to be a giant which become greater in
hands and heads! Formerly, the old imperialism merely put emphasis on the system of bringing out
the provisions for life; as now, it performs greater as the giant of modern imperialism which has
four divine power; they are:

First : Indonesia is claimed to be the country where the provision of life will be made
Second : Indonesia is claimed to be the country where the provision of the factories in the
Europe will be made
Third : Indonesia becomes the country market of selling the products from the various
kinds of foreign industries
Forth : Indonesia becomes the fields of business for the hundreds or even thousand-
million in number of currency
The equity does not only belong to the Netherlands. As the “opendeur politiek”37 is issued, the
equity of Britain, America, Japan, and et cetera are also invested in Indonesia. Therefore, the
imperialism of Indonesia is now internationally acknowledged.
Most importantly, the ultimate “divine power” of the modern imperialism is the “principle” which
might claim that Indonesia is the region of exploitation from the foreign capital. Correspondingly,
Indonesia is also claimed to be the field of business for the excess of equity from the foreign
countries. They are outstanding and from time to time are getting greater!
In truth, in 1870, the land erfpacht was 35,000 bouw38; in 1901, the land was expanded into 662,000
bouw. Later, in 1928, it was expanded into 2,707.000 bouw; in fact, it was added by the concessions
of farming. In 1928, it became 4,592,000 bouw! For this reason, more or less 488,000 bouw of the
land was planted with rubber tree; the production was there or thereabouts 73,000 tons. The coffee
trees were planted in near enough 127,000 bouw; it produced around 55,000 tons. Clove plantation
was more or less 79,000 bouw with the total production of abound with 65,000 tons. The land for
the sugar plantation was approximately 275,000; the total production was 2.937.000 tons.
The Honorable Judges, millions, and even billion rupiah of the imperialist capital are now digging
out the treasure of Indonesia!

Dr. F. G. Waller, presents himself in the member meeting of Verbond van nerdelandsche
Wetgevers39 might have delivered his speech. He states:
“The employer assembly might present rough calculation on the net income from the East Indies
companies; they are: sugar, rubber, tobacco, tea, coffee, kina, kerosene, mining products, banks,
and the other minor companies.
In 1924, the results showed that it reached 490 million rupiahs; in 1925, it reached 540 million
rupiahs. Based on the rough calculation, it was allowed to decide that 70% from the final result
belonged to the side of the Netherlands. Therefore, it was approximately 370 million rupiahs for
the Netherlands. If we might calculate this sum with the high intention of 9% or 10%, the rate of
those companies mentioned above would reach the considerable number. It might reach 3700 up
to 4000 million rupiahs. This might not be a meticulously calculated. Conversely, it gave broad
pictures of the rate of price belongs to the Netherlands in the East Indies. To me, it had proven
that any other ways of calculating this numbers would lead to the similar results. The financial
asset in the Netherlands which was affected by the tax was 12 billion in total. For that reason,
our asset in the East Indies was no more than 1/3 of the assets from our whole citizens.”

The Honorable Judges, we may see that in reality, more than 4000 million rupiahs of the capital
belongs to the Netherlands. In fact, the total of all foreign equity which is invested in Indonesia is
much greater in number than that of the Netherlands. In this case, if we calculate by the formula of
Dr. Waller, it leads to more or less 6000 million rupiahs!41
We can infer that it is six million rupiahs followed by one-year profit of approximately ten percent!
In fact, how many of the foreign companies whose profit is no longer multiplied again? How many
of the foreign companies whose dividend is sometimes reaching more than 30 or 40? In fact, the
dividend could possibly reach more than 100%! We do admit that the dividend of the Sumatra
tobacco is 35% in 1924. We know that the dividend of kina is multiplied more. We do know that
those dividends are reaching 170%! Thus, we are no longer impressed by the quotations stated by
Colijn. He perceives, “Foreign equity should encircled Indonesia just like the ants swarm around the
sugar pot. Act like “de mieren den sukerpot”!42

Export, Import, and Exports Exceed

As a point of fact, the profits from the foreign capital companies which is annually brought
out of Indonesia shows that it reaches billion rupiahs. In other words, the cost of exports extended
to billion rupiahs. In general, in 1927, the exports of coffee reached f74,000,000. Besides, the
exports of tea exceeded f90,000,000. The volume of exporting tobacco reached 107,000,000. By the

same token, oil exports exceeded f155,000,000. The export of tea reached f360,000,000; in fact,
before the intense rivalry with Cuba, it could reach more than f4000,000,000. Rubber exports
exceeded f417,000. As has been noted, the total exports from each good was not less than f
In brief, every year, more than f1,500,000 of the Indonesian assets was brought out from Indonesia!
How about the price of import? What about the prices of the goods coming to Indonesia? The
Honorable Judges, Indonesia is the land of colony. In actuality, as what we have elaborated earlier,
this is the land where the principles of imperialism are implanted; the fourth principle is the
strongest of all. All of colonies are aimed to be the business field for the excess of equity from the
foreign countries. Ironically, it is perceived as the motor of generating the capital surplus in foreign
country. For a colonized country, as long as the rate of export exceeds the rate of import, the assets
which are brought out of the country will always be greater than that of the price of goods imported.
This becomes the signature characteristic of our “tilt” household, where the export exceeds more
than the import does. In other words, the number of the assets brought out of Indonesia is greater
than the number of the imported goods. In fact, it may not fall into “les produits se changent contre
les produits”; it refers to “it can’t be true that the number of exported goods is similar to imported
For the most part, the excess of export in Indonesia is getting larger in size. In the 80s, the excess of
export reached f25,000,000. In the 90s, it reached more or less f 36,000. Besides, in late of the 19th
century, it exceeded approximately f45,000. In addition, in 1910, it became f145,000. In these past
few years, it reached f7,00,000.44 It was true that in 1919, it reached its first all-time high in

In essence, from the eyes of the imperialist group, Indonesia is the heaven on earth that it may not
have rivals all around the world. It is the heaven whose luxury is beyond comparison.
“If we may compare with the international numbers, it is proven that the East Indies is claimed to
be the only country whose exceed export percentage is the highest,” Prof. Van Gelderen states.
He is the Chief of Centraal Kantoor voor de statistiek here.

Fate of the Citizens

Also, how about Indonesia? What fate decided for Indonesia?

Mr. Brooshooft, a non-socialist person, in his book “De Ethisce Koers in de koloniale Politiek”
enlighten through his sentences:

“The answer is brief. We push them to the edge!”
“Get them to through the mud of suffering; in western circle of life, it is the same mud which has
drowned million people to their throat. It implies the use of extortion for those who have nothing
left but their physical power to work. It is done by those who hold both of the capital and

Ah, Mr. Judges, Unfortunately, there are many people of the Netherlands who may not be
knowledgeably aware of the suffering of the natives of Indonesia. The Dutch may assume that
the natives of Indonesia live happily.
Nonetheless, there are also more than a few of the intellects from the Netherlands who express
the misery of Indonesians on their books, writings, or speeches. In fact, quite a few of educated
people from the Western might have acknowledged it! The miserable life of the Indonesians
needs to be acknowledged by those who devote themselves to investigate; they have to do it with
pure of heart. The suffering of the citizens is neither playing hoax nor trying to stir up the
problem by the agitator. The miserable life of the Indonesian is a reality or realiteit which could
be easily proven by the statistics.

Equally important, Mr. Judges, there is a fact that the amount of the assets which are brought out of
Indonesia in more than the amount of the assets which are brought in. In particular, the exceeded
exports is not a hoax at all; it is something that without doubt can be confirmed by the number of
statistics. As it happened, it is more than enough for those who understand a little of economics that
it “tilts” towards the reality. This occurrence attests “no balance”. To point out, it is neither “the tilt”
nor “the no-balance” that matters; “the tilt” towards the occurrence will be too much as well as the
“no balance” will surely getting different from the correct proportions.
As we talk over about the exceeded export, D. M. G. Koch may utter:
“Needless to say, as both of the regular and annual taking of the financial assets from the East
Indies grow rapidly, it could lead to the loss of the wealth which is considerably used to support
the economic progress.”47
Furthermore, Mr. Judges, the government themselves have admitted that they are lack in prosperity,
haven’t they? Don’t they acknowledge that “mindere welvaart” exist? It actually happened several
years ago when the government held “mindere welvaartscommissie”; it is the commission for
investigating the lack of prosperity. Wasn’t it true that twenty five years ago, the Minister
Idenburg48 himself had affirmed chronischen nood? It is related to “never-ending misery”; it also
means “now that it is affected for the most part of Java”. In the same way, didn’t he reveal that there

is “severe poverty” or also known as “ingevreten armoede49? It might result in “the economic state
for the most citizens is poor”.
Likewise, did the Minister admit that there happens “sucking out the livelihood”? The drainage
happened, although he might elaborate:
“Pointing out the sickness is much easier than finding the best medicine to cure it.”50
Not a few of people from the Netherlands who acknowledge the circumstances of that era. Mr.
Pruys v.d. Hoeven, the former member of Council of the East Indies, in his book “Veertig Jaren
Indische Dienst”51 puts in writing:
` “In the last forty years, the fate of the Javanese has not changed much into betterment.
Aside from the group of noblemen and some of the civil servants, there is only one class left
whose life is merely about “now we can eat meanwhile tomorrow we might not eat”. An
expected group of wealthy persons is rather hard to form. In fact, in the last few years, the
proletariats appear as the former ones has appeared in the capital cities only.”
H. E. B. Schmalhausen, the former residence assistance, in his book Over Java en de Javanen might
tell a story:
“I have seen with my own eyes how the women are not allowed to plant the paddy as there are
already many workers. In fact, these women might have walked for hours until then they have
arrived to the place and have got that unfortunate experience. Thereupon, they cried out loud and
sit at the edge of the road. Desperation filled them with sorrow. We might perceive the intended
meaning of those circumstances only if we have lived with it for a long time. Moreover, we are
demanded to show awareness to both of the nation and the citizen. We have to widely open our
eyes!” “We are making calculation based on the valid statements; the results show that the
highest price of the paddy that they receive as the wage is only f0.09 for a day.”

Pretty ironic that in order to obtain that 9 cent of this severe wage, they are required to work hard
upon the heat of the sunlight. As what we have stated before, sometimes, the women have to
walk for hours and they end up being rejected. Those realities may help us to critically perceive
the real things ahead of press and speeches which usually focus on the outer layer only” (page
Further, Mr. Brooshooft puts in his writing that famous line: “We push them to the edge” or Wij
duwen hem ini den afrand. Meanwhile, in Staten-Generraal, the issue of inzinking (the fall) is
widely talked over. More importantly, van Kol has felt tired of revealing those events. He has never
stopped talking about “the country that lost its marrow bone” or “uitgemergelde gewesten”. He
persistently gives detailed account in words of the fate of “the miserable colony” or “noodlijdende
kolonie”. Looking through “the deterioration of the human being and the cattle” may spark as a
kind of cry from the heart of van Kol. In Dutch, it is known as “physieke achteruitgang van
menschen en vee”.52
That was the reality happened few years ago, as now, is the situation getting different? Are these
circumstances getting any better?
The Honorable Judges, we have demonstrated by evidence of statistics that drainage of Indonesia is
not gradually diminished. In fact, it is flooding in; it has escalated into the fullest. To repeat, the
exceeded export is beyond what we can control. Hence, the imbalance will be getting lack of
balance. For those who have a heart to grasp reasonableness of this event, they must have thought
that flooding drainage strongly put everyone of them in a greater suffering. It is also related to the
utterances of Mr Brooshoft that “That phrase means the citizens were pushed to the edge!! In the
era of Pruys v.d. Hoeven we have perceived the meaning of “a proletariat class which formerly only
appeared in the capital cities”. In Mr. Brooshooft era, we might have perceived the event of “the
extortion of those who have nothing left but their physical power to work; it is done by those who
hold the capital”.
If we were living in that era, we might have already perceived by the eye the power of
“proletarianizing”; thus, how could we possibly construct ideas of how unbearable that
proletariseeringstendens in our nowadays is. In reality, proletariseeringstendens might have dug
out the assets in a way of an imperialists does. It becomes greater at times. Also, the foreign capital
is getting higher and earning more “divine power”!
Dr. Huender in his book, “Overzicht van den Economischen Toestand der Inheemsche Bevolking
van Java en Madoera”, may have written:
“In 1905, the number of the adults who serve for the farming reaches 72%. Based on the latest
announcement of People’s Council, there is only 52% whose livelihood solely depends on
Moreover, Prof. van Gelderen from Centraal Kantoor Voor de Siatistiek notes down:
“The progress of the foreign companies lately tends to focus on the effort of comparing two
major elements. They may have gradually compared and contrasted these two major things; they
are: the employer and the capital, the profit for the foreign countries and the wage for the native
labors. In accordance with the fact, the greater the demand for the labor, the greater number of
people who receive wages. In spite of that, both of those major elements are contradictory to
each other. The natives come to be the nation whose member is only labors; also, the East Indies
turn to be the only labor for the other nations.”54
It is said to be “the nation whose members are only labors” and “the only labor for other nations”,
Mr Judges. It is distressing! It gives false hope for the days ahead! If it happens over and over
again, it may not grant us with a purposeful perspective for tomorrow. Thereupon, isn’t it true that
every one of the nationalist needs to firmly prevent that occurrence to likely happen? Isn’t it true
that all of these evidences are enough to support our movements?
It is said “The nation whose members are only labors”. Alas! Does anyone have any idea of how
much wages received by Kang Kromo or Kang Marhaen? Take for instance, have you got any idea
of how much the wages given from the most significant companies of the whole East Indies, the
sugar companies. That sugar company is established in the center of the circle of life of the natives;
it stands right in the heart of the natives, how much do the natives get paid? Based on Statistisch
Jaarroverzicht, the average of the wages is only f0.45 for a man in a day and f0.35 for a woman in a
As a matter of fact, Dr. Huender might be true as he writes:
“As the ones who have legal rights upon the land, Indonesians obtain disadvantages; the sugar
company do great harm to the Indonesians. The wages which is paid by the sugar company for
the Indonesians might cause many of Indonesians to starve to death. They should have paid them
with the minimum wage; it is the lowest rate of wage which should be paid to them.”
In fact, the sugar company is not the only company which issues “the lowest rate of wage” or
“minimumloonen”! The minimum wage is obtained everywhere in Indonesia. It happened as the
households of the natives are chaotically disorganized. Furthermore, it happened for the natives
experience “minimumlijdstef”.56 Therefore, as what Prof. van Gelderen has noticeably stated in his
book, those starving people are forcefully accept the wages however low it is. For them, it is still
better to receive the wage rather than starving to death or “om er het leven bij te houden”.57 Prof.
van Gelderen in his book clearly draws the causal connection between our disorganized household
and the low rate of the wage in our circle of life. He argues that the wage in our circle of life should
not be “Etragslohn”.58 In contrast, it should be “Erhaltungslohn”;59 it refers to the wage which is
“given so as to the person is not starving to death”. It is the wage which is “similar to that of the
minimum cost of living”!
And one’s own life, how does the ordinary citizen exist? How does the life find them? As can be
seen, we have stated that Dr. Huender calls the natives as “minimumlijdster” or “the most sufferable
“In terms of economic aspects of Java and Madura, the most difficult and insecure thing is that
those who work to the end of their endurance actually belong to “the minimum sufferer”. In reality,
they accept that there are some regulations of the government which aim to bring betterment to their
lives might fail to do so.”60
That is the elucidation delivered by Dr. Huender.
In particular, Prof. Boeke in his book “Het zakelijke en persoonlijke elemen in de koloniale
welvaartspolitiek” argues:
“The minor farmer, that poor Javanese farmer, is not only poor in life, but he is also hardly able
to strive for prosperity. The rest of his wage might be hardly enough for buying things out of
everyday needs. He can barely afford to buy secondary needs as other people from middle and
upper class might do. The secondary needs is actually needs to be counted as well. The only
thing that he can do within the society is that he needs to be firmly frugal.”61

Being “poor in life” or “een Ellendig bestaan”, the honorable Judges! Those are the opinions of
Prof. Boeke, a man of neither radical revolutionary nor agitator. He is a well-known economist.
Pardon me, Mr. Judges; it is the statistics, isn’t it? As Dr. Huender has calculated, the earnings of a
marhean head family is approximately f161 for a year. In detail, the amount of financial burden
reaches more or less f22.50. Hence, the income which is received for a year is f161 minus f22.50
equals f138.50. It is a hundred thirty-eight rupiahs and fifty cents. Mr. Judges, he earns it in twelve
months! It has exceeded neither f12 for a single month nor f0.40 for single day! It has not even
reached f0.80 for a single person in a day as it might have been divided by five persons with the
same amount!62 As has been noted, Pruys v. d. Hoeven might have said that many of Indonesians
are living in “now we might eat meanwhile tomorrow we might not” circumstances. Also, Mr.
Brooshooft states that the citizens are pushed upon “the edge”. Van Kol might also claim that
Indonesia is “the country who lost its marrow bone” or “the miserable colony” or “the deterioration
of the human being and the cattle.” Since then, our country is still living with “now we might eat
meanwhile tomorrow we might not”. Our country is still living in “the edge”. Our country remains
to be seen as “the miserable colony”!

It is argued that modern imperialism may have major influence on our unstoppable drainage.
Modern imperialism has unleashed its wicked divine power.
A person might innocently utter: “Does modern imperialism do any harm to you?” The sugar
“brings in” the money to the circle of life of Indonesia. It is done in a way of paying for the wages
and the land rent. Moreover, the rubber, the tea, the coffee, the kina are only dealing with forest
land exploitations, which are far from where the citizens live. The oil is drilled through the deepest.
All of them are considered to be the welfare of the citizens as it might also open to the chances of
working as labors.
We cannot deny the fact that sugar may “bring in” the money. In reality, onderneming erfpacht
might not directly “touch” the citizens. It could be true in way that the oil is drilled through the
deepest soil. It is a fact that modern imperialism opens to countless chances of working as the
labors. On the other hand, let us attentively focus on what Prof. Snouck Hurgronje perceives on the

terms “owning rights”. It is also related to the foreign capital which is given to us; besides, it deals
with how those foreign capital groups “look after” our prosperity. It is written:
“The wealth and the goodness from the European capital which is received by the natives might
only be the leftover of the wealth from the employer. The wealth has never been theirs in the first
place. In fact, their only goal is to work for earning money. I employ the analogy from Colijn. As
one or more of the crops are suffering from price crisis, it may lead to the empty of the
“sugarbox”. As a consequence, the ants straightforwardly march in the deep of the soil. The ants
may pay no attention to the fate of those thirty-five or fifty million people who was once
collaboratively fill in that sugarbox. As now, those ants shove through each other and aim for the
sugarbox. We can infer that as long as the European ondrneming-onderneming acquire profit, the
intention of the natives towards their effort of obtaining more profit will remain unprotected. It
will be unsafe unless the authority keeps them within the power of the law. Given these points,
we need not to be an anti-capitalist to understand the extent to which western capitalism
endangers and threatens the natives of colonized land.”

As what Prof. Van Gelderen has argued earlier in his book, let us recall the memory of the truth that
the amount of wage is issued by “the production force” of the general circle of life. It is worth
noting that as the circle of life is chaotic, the wage will be paid in the lowest rate. In other words, if
the circle of life refers to “Ernahrungswirtschaft”63, the wage must be “Erhaltungslohn” only! Let
us call back our past experience about the actual safe working conditions. In fact, the natives are
“minimumlijdster” in general. The wage which is given is normally “minimumloonen” or
“Erhaltungslohn” only! It is worth remembering that imperialism industries set a goal of obtaining
the maximum profit. Thus, they decided to pay the lowest amount of wage for the labors; it means
to have loonen which is “minimumloonen”. They may have significant role in our chaotic circle of
life as it is not getting any better. They are the ones to blame as our household or Wirtschaft may
experience “Ernahrungswirtschaft”!
Prof. Van Gelderen puts in writing:
“If the number of the productive force becomes progressively greater, the rate of land rent gets
higher as well. Hence, in whatever manner the European industrialists overcome the plantation-
related issues, the profit of the companies tends to decline. It appears to a contradiction of the
intention; it could be true at times. There is a huge gap about the profit which is earned by the
native worker and the foreign industrialists; for the most part, the profit falls for the foreign
industrialists. The gap could be slightly contracted as the productive forces of the native labors
are greater in number. In essence, the productive force is related to the farming of the natives. As
a consequence, the other sources of profit for this foreign company also decrease.
Prof. Schrieke is the author of “The effect of Western Influence on native civilizations in the Malay
Archipelago”. In his book, we may find the citation from Mr. Meyer-Ranneft. He is appointed to be
the Chairman of House of Representatives. He reports:
“The amount of profit which is obtained by the capitalist group as well as the industries is
extending in the same direction as the wealth of the natives do. In other words, the more profit
which is gained by the foreign industries, the more suffering which is experienced by the

Besides, Prof. Boeke delivers his speech open:

“They are, the foreign capital group, solely playing significant role in moving the economics
wheels through the colonized lands. The world set of a dream in that. They are definitely tricky
in exploiting the valuable material resources of the East Indies in general; they are undoubtedly
deceitful to unearth the treasure through the heart of the East Indies. It is worth remembering that
this country serves abundance economical profits for the foreign industries. This country
provides the supplies which are broadly needed by the entire global market. The foreign
industries can ask no more than fertile land for farming and low rate wage for the labor. In their
opinions, the natives are only the instruments for them as the natives in Java work for the foreign
industries. At the same time, the natives means nothing but a needed disease for those citizens
who reside outside Java.64 Their attention merely focus on the offer of the labor as well as the
price of the land. To them, the only way to really obtain benefits is to gain the high offer of the
labor and the low rate of the land rent. They understand well what they need to achieve as it
refers to what the Germany has stated “Real-politiker”. In this case, “Real-politiker” should aim
for the reality and the problem. In other words, the reality refers to the fact that the foreign
industries need to obtain profits; the problem refers to the way of obtaining the profit. Since then,
they might not be responsible for the well-being of the natives and the development of the
colonized country.”
It can be implied that the private capital group press down the rate of the forces of production as
well as the quality of wellbeing of ours.
Hence, modern imperialism is putting a block on any future development of our social system. The
progress of our social economics braked to a stop by the modern imperialism!
In true, modern imperialism drives us to be “the nation whose members are only labors”; it drives
the East Indies to be the only labor for the other nations!
Mr. Judges, how do you think you find the labor? He is the labor whose loonen is minimumloonen;
he is the labor whose wirtschaft is minmumswirtschaft! He gets paid with only kokoro wage! The
heart of the nation certainly has to resign in protest! We do protest about the abuses of that modern
In truth, who do you think will give back the profusion of assets of Indonesia which have been
taken by the private mijberdrijven? In this case, the tin, the charcoal, and oil are mined in profusion
by the private mining industries. Who will be in charge to give that profusion of mining back to
They are gone! All of that profusion of wealth has gone forever! The profusion of assets does no
longer exist within the circle of life of Indonesia. It does live in the pockets of the authorities!65
“Apparently, the mining companies are the ones who are in charge of exploiting the profusion of
mining,” Prof. van Geldern notes down.
“In this term, what is left is the production cost only. In fact, the net profit belongs to the owner
of the foreign capital.”
“In general, the net profit not only consists of intention and company profit, but it also consists
of “mining intention”. It is the unchanged payment of the monopoly. It is embedded in the
revenue of every single mining company, whose forces of production exceeds more than the
average number of forces of production. The net profit which is gained by the foreign industries
is implemented by removing and preserving the amount of invested capital. In whatever way
they do, the coal, the kerosene, and tin are no longer present.
“It has gone for a limitless time!” “Onkerroepelijl verloren!” The terms of “the nation of the
labors”, “minimumloonen”, “minimumlijdster”, “the social economics braked to a stop”, “the
profusion of mining are gone forever” make us upset! Thus, what rights are we exposed to now?
What do you expect us do in a way of making a balancing payment to our severe economic
circumstances? What power or privilege are we supposed to have in order to heal the pain of our
nation at heart? A teaching, is it? Oh, in the era of “having the characteristics of advanced culture”
which is mentioned in “eeuw van beschaving”, the statistics of the literate is presented by the
Centraal Kantoor voor dee Sfatistiek. In particular, the number of the men who are literate has not
reached 7%; the number of the literate women is lower than 0.5%. At that time, Hollandsch-
Inlandsch-Onderwijscommissieee66 proposes to stop adding the Hollandsch-Inlandsch-Onderwijs!
Does it refer to the low rate of taxes? Equally important, the report of Meyer Ranneft Huender
showed that Kang Marhaen earned his income in average of f160; he was required to pay more or
less 10% of his income. In fact, in the Europe, those who were required to pay 10% taxes were
those whose earnings were exceeded from f8,000 to f9,000 in a year! In fact, the special tax of
Kang Marhaen in 1919 had reached f86,900,000. Ironically, under the rule of Governor General
Fock67 the tax was raised to f 173,400,000 for a year! Unfortunately, the burden of the citizens is
getting heavier!
What about the health or the hygiene of the citizens? In the entire Indonesia there are only 343
gubernemen hospitals. In general, the death rate of the natives is at approximately more than 20%;
in the big cities, they are: Betawi, Pasuruan, Makasar, it sometimes reaches up to 30%, 40%, or
50%.68 How about the chances of working in the islands outside Java? In terms of the contract and
poenale sanctie, which is related to the slavery in the new era or moderne slavernij, has seemed to
never be considered. They give us false hope that they are going to really consider it.
How about the protection for the needs of the labors? If I may say, the law of protection for the
labors is gone; arbeidsinspectie is totally vanished. Besides, as the article of 161 of the Criminal
Code is issued, the rights to strike has passed completely from existence. If there is a silver lining of
losing the rights, it is that we are now striving for justice. In addition, how about the freedom to
write the news in boldness? What about the legal entitlement to be united and allied?69
Mr. Judges, let us be calm at heart as we may sincerely put a question: As the nation of Indonesia,
are we allowed to give a new name to “the freedom to write the news” into “the legal entitlement to
be united and allied”? Wow! Are we granted with the rights as the Criminal Code consists of the
flexible articles which are dealing with the spreading of hatred (haatzaaiartikelen)? That is
haatzaaiartikelen which is almost zonder in which the changes are taken from gewroch der
duisternis70 as what Thorbecke has stated about the rule of writing the news in boldness. That is
where the horribel starfwetartikel71153 bis, which is flexible, stands to threaten the safety of the
leaders as what it might happen to us these days. Are we granted with the rights of putting someone
in jail that it gives unlimited power for the leaders to monitor every movement and every person
whom they dislike? Are granted with the rights that the critics in public will be easily reproof
politely? Are we granted with the right that every meeting should be guarded by the policemen? Are
we granted with the rights that each leader should be followed by the detectives to keep an eye on
their movements? Are granted with the rights to easily ban the meetings? Are we granted with the
rights to break the agreement secretly as what we witnessed with our own eyes? Are we granted
with the rights to arrest in various places based on the spies and the anonymous letter? Are we
granted with the rights to jail tens of the leaders to exile?
Mr. Judges, let us one more time reflect on our sincere heart. Are we granted with the freedom to
write the news in boldness and the legal entitlement to be united and allied? Are we truly given the
freedom and rights without any obstacles and mines?
No! Our people have no rights. As there are various obstacles and mines, the terms “independence”
and “rights” may have no meaning at all. The rights to write the news in boldness and the legal
entitlement to be united and allied are just ended up to be a load of rubbish. Most of the journalists
must have ever encountered the grip of the heavy hand of law; most of all Indonesian leaders must
have ever experienced to be imprisoned. It is likely to happen that every time the nation of
Indonesia radically fights for the people, it is directly claimed to be something that endanger the
public safety.
In reality, there is no single rights which is given to our citizen. There is no single rights which is
issued to be the counterbalance to the disaster within the circle of life and the lifehood of the people
which is caused by the modern imperialism. In addition, there is no single rights which is given to
ease the pain of our heart as we may see the economic damage as the result of the modern
imperialism. There is no single rights for the people to stand strong; there is no single rights for the
people to stop the imperialism whose work is only to ruin the lifehood and the circle of life of the

Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles had ever been the Lieutenant Governor of Britain when it took
control over Indonesia (1811 - 1816).
Contingenten is the tax which is paid with the crops by the chairman.
Leverantien refers to the chairman who is in charge to make sure to bring together the crops
which are going to be bought by VOC. In this case, the amount and the price of the crops are
determined by VOC.
Prod. Snouck Hurgronje (1857 - 1936) is a bachelor of the Netherlands. He has ever stayed
for two years in Makah together with Abd-Al-Gaffar. As he came back from Makah, he stands as an
opponent against the Dutch government. His perceptions are reflected in his book “Colijn Over

Page 97
Prof. Colenbrander in his book “Kolonial Geschicte” the second volume of page 252.
Prof. J. Pieter Veth (1814 - 1895). He is an expert of ethnology and Indonesian language. He
is famous for his prime writing “Java, geographisch, ethnnologisch, historisch”.
It is cited from the book of “Kolonial Geschichte” II on page 117.
Prof. Kiestra in his book “De vestiging van her Nederlandsch gezag in den Indisctieri
Archtpl” or in English “Building the power of the Dutch over the Indonesian Archipelago”.
Heiden is a person who believes in a less advanced form of religion, especially one with
many gods.
Prof. Dietrich Schafer which is cited from the book “Kolonial Geschichte” I on page 82.
Snouck Hurgonje as cited in the book of “Colijn oer Indie” on page 32.
tidjvak van den twijfei refers to the period of dubiousness.
Prof. Gronggrijp in his book “Economische Nederlandsch Indie” on page 123.
Indigo is a kind of plants which the leaves are used for dying.
H. J. Stokvis in his book “Van Wingewest naar Zelfbestuur In Nederlandsch Indische”
(From the land of bribery to the one’s own government) on page 27.
f refers to the currency; it is Indonesian rupiah during the Dutch era. It is also known as
Van den Bosch, was the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies from 1830 up to 1833.
He was the one who planned cultuurstelsel. He was assigned to be the Minister of the Colonies in
1835 up to 1837.
Prof. Kielstra as cited in “De Vestiging” on page 38.
Prof. Veth as cited in “Java” II on page 410.
naweeen is synonymous to consequence.
Henriette Roland Holst is a Dutch female poet who stands for the socialist.
Fifty refers to the year of 1850.
It refers to the exceeded capital which is gained from the profit invested in Indonesia.
The Agrarian law and the Sugar-Act Law were issued by Staten General who sits in the
Netherlands. It was not issued by Raad van Indie as it emerged early in 1918.
Stokvis in his book “Van Wingewest naar Zelfbestuur” on page 92.
Multatuli alias Dowes Dekker in his well-known book “Max Havelaar” which is cited in
Roland Holst in his book “Kapitaal en Arbeld in Nederland” on page 150.
Drainage refers to the process of draining off until the end.
Karl Kautsky (1854 - 1938) is an Austrian who belongs to social-democratic group. It is
cited from his book “Sozialismus und Kolonial-politik” on page 43.

It is cited from J. E. Stokvis in his book “Van Wingewest naar Zelfbestuur” on page 12 to
It is cited from Parvus in his book “Die Kolonial Politik und der Zusammenbruch” on page
It is cited from H. E. B. Schmalhausen. He is the former assistant residence in Java. It is
written in his book “Over Java en de Javanen” or in English “The tales of Java and Javanese” on
page 169.
Gewetenstopper refers to the act of ignoring verbally those who make a protestation.
Domeinverklaring means the land which is claimed to be the public land controlled by the
Ponale sanctie began in 1881. It was a regulation which enabled the plantation company to
arrest the labor as he or she might have run before the contract expired.
Staatsafronding refers to the process of rounding off the colonized land.
Opendeur politiek refers to the open-door politics which began in 1905. Since then, the
foreign capital began to be invested in Indonesia.
Bouw refers to the measurement of the Dutch colonial era which was used to measure the
dimension of the land cultivated by the coffee, sugar tree, and kina.
Compare to statist, Jaarovers, 1928.
Verbon van Nederlandsche Wetgever refers to The Senate whose main duties is in the
legislative field. F. G. Walker presented his paper in the meeting in September 30 th 1927. It was
cited on page 16.
In that era, 1kg of rice was paid by f0.07 (cent).
It is taken from “Jaaroverzicht”.
The data was gathered by van Gelderen, the chairman of the Central Statistical Office in
Jakarta. It is cited from his book “Voorlezingen”. In fact, during the maliese era (1930), the export
from Indonesia exceeded seven hundred gulden.
The export in 1919 reached its peak right before the malaise era came. This data was cited
from the writing of D. M. G. Koch “Vakbeweging 1927” on page 570. Vakbeweging means the
labor movement.
It was cited from Mr. Brooshoft in his book “De Etische Koers in de koloniale Politiek” on
page 65. In English it means “The ethics guide in colonial politics”.
It was cited from D. M. G. Koch in “Vakbeweging 1927” on page 570.
Alexander W. F. Idenburg (1861 – 1935) is a man of
Alexander W. F. Idenburg (1861 - 1927) was a man of And Revolutioner Party. He was
assigned to be the Governor General of the East Indies in 1909 - 1916. Later on, he became the
Minister of the Colony in 1918.
It was cited from Van Kol in his book “Nederlandsch Indie in de Staten General” on page
Ibid on page 1007.

Veertig Jaren Indische Dienst means forty years officially serves for the East Indies.
What had been stated by Mr. Brooshooft was also written in the book by Van Kol
“Nederlandsch-indie in de Staten General”.
Dr. Huender in his book “Overzicht van den Economischen Toestand der Inheemsche
Bevolking van java en Madoera” or in English is “The Notes of the Economics of Java and
Madoera”. He wrote that in 1905, there were seventy one farmers among the citizens. In 1930, it
declined into 52%. As a consequence, some areas were taken by the foreign plantation. Some
people might also move to the center of the city as they might not find any land to work on.
It was cited from Prof. Van Gelderen, the chairman of the Central Statistical Office in
Jakarta. He was the author of “Voorlezingen”. His statement was cited on page 116.
From the statistical data in 1928, the wage of the male labor was 0.45 for a day; meanwhile
the wage of the female labor was f 0.35 for a day. It was nothing compare to the price of rice at that
time which exceeded f0.07 (7 cents) for a kilogram. Also, it was nothing compare to the regulations
in 1982 of the local government of West Java who issued the lowest rate of wage for the labor was
IDR850.00 for a day.
Minimumlijdster was the most sufferable sufferer.
Let us compare to our society in 1982. As the people had not have various choices to
choose, they managed to work on a factory although the earnings was only IDR200.00 for a day in a
cigarette factory or IDR500.00 for a day in farming in Java.
Ertraslohn means the lowest wage.
Erhaltungslohn refers to the wage so as to the receiver is no starving to death.
Even though the Dutch officials had put efforts to bring betterment to the life of the farmers,
the life of the people did not change much. There should have been a process of reorganizing the
Dutch officials.
Prof. Kees Boekc (1884-19).
Let us compare to the life of the Marhaen group in 1930. Marhaen group might earn eight
cents for a day for each person. In 1982, a person was paid IDR850, 00 for each day as he or she
might also live with a father, a wife, and three children.
Ernahrungswirtschaft means the structure of the chaotic society.
The statement of Prof. Boeke was contradicted to the theory which stated that the coming of
the European to Indonesia was because of the “sacred mission”.
Since 1931, Bung Karno had already reminded the people as the profusion of resources of
Indonesia which was stored deep down in the heart of the earth, they were the mining and the oil,
were gone because of the private mining companies.
Hollandsch Inlandsch Onderwijscommissieee refers to the Dutch Indonesian Education
Comission. At that time, they run some schools; they were: HIS, MULO, and AMS.
Fock was the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies in 1919. He issued a policy to
enrich the treasury of the Dutch officials. He raised the tax which was also taken from the poor.
It was cited from the statistics of “Jaaroverzicht” in 1928.

For the country in which the people were having the characteristic of advanced culture and
having understanding of democracy, those two characteristics would be reflected on its issue of
rights to strike, the legal entitlement to be united and allied, and also the freedom to write the news.
Gewrocht der duisternis means coverable trap.
Horribel starfwetartikel was the article of153 bis. The article was horrible that it may lead
the frightening experience.


The Movement Should be Born

It is worth noting that whether the rights is given or not, each creaturehood may always stands on its
own. It is worth remembering that whether one has a certain bases or not, every mankind should
always have stood on his or her own. Whether one is encouraged or not, each and every nation will
always unleash one’s power as one needs to fight against the desirous of anger. Take for instance,
even a tiny worm shall move as it might experience some discomfort. Thus, you do imagine what a
human being and especially a nation would likely do if they are hurt.
The detailed account of the world belongs to the account of the mankind as well as the nations
which pull out all the stops to avoid further danger. According to Herbert Spencer1, the account of
the world is “reactief verzet van verdrukte elementen!”2 We may have acknowledged that Jesus
Christ and the Christian bring on a movement of the Jewish and the people of Middle Sea against
the mythical bird of Rome. We do remember of the struggle of the Dutch who were striving for
independence from Spain. We may also recall the prior events when the democratic citizenship and
the movement of people, or burgerlijke democretie, which had delivered the Europeans from the
danger of autocracy and absolutism early in 18th and 19th centuries.

We did attest the remarkable socialism movements which would likely overthrow the capitalism.
We did witness the historic events of the Egyptian movements led by Arabi dan Zaglul Pasha 3 and
also the Indian movements led by Tilak4 or Gandhi against the foreign colonists. We took note of
the violent effort of the Chinese in bringing down the manchu absolutism and fighting against the
Western imperialism. For years, we have witnessed the denial of the foreign imperialism from the
entire Asia. The Asians were wildly enthusiastic about fighting against the Western imperialism.
Therefore, it was bound to the nature, wasn’t it? Isn’t it true that it is driven by the power of
defending and protecting oneself, or the desire of selfbehound5, from harm as most of human being
would likely do? It is a total “reactief verzet van verdukte elementen”, isn’t it?
Since 1908, the Indonesian citizens have already risen; the powerful desire of keeping oneself from
being ruined have succeeded to emerge since 1908! As the modern imperialism was showing a
selfish desire of wealth and possessions, it might lead the whole Indonesians to experience the loss.
The modern imperialism had unconsciously destroyed the tranquility of its own enemy; the modern
imperialism had sparked its enemy to rise and fight. In fact, the giant of Indonesia was once
appeared to fall helpless and be unalive, as now, the giant has already energized and been ready to
contend in a battle. The more the giant get hit and he falls down, the more energy the giant acquires
to stand on his own!
As the one who possesses the divine and lively power, Indonesia is hard to be tore down. In fact, the
more it is sentenced to death, the more ardent devotees are coming to strengthen the fight.
Indonesians can be hardly murdered as they might possess aji pancasona6 and aji candrabirawa7!
Alack! Does anyone know where the earthly power which is able to make an end of the fight of the
nation shall be found? Does anyone notice where to find the temporal power which stands against
the villagers who look after their lives? Does anyone know where the truth of the members and the
best fellow friends who state that this is driven by the “agitator” can be found? In particular, what
they mean of agitator is the “opruiers”8, the “raddraaiers”9, the “ophitsers”10, and et cetera.

They might have thought that the only way to tear down this movement is by locking up the agitator
in jail, expelling the agitator from his home, or even executing the agitator by breaking the neck. In
truth, tens or hundreds or even thousands of “agitators”, or also known as “opruiers” and
“ophitsers”, are ironically put in jail or expelled from their homes. However, do you find the
movement stop or step back? In whatever way the movement, which is still twenty years in age, put
to an end, the movement is going to be more significant in size and considerable in intensity.
Freiligrath claims it as “Man totet den Geist nicht” or in English “a person should not tear the spirit
down”! In 1900, there had been “raddraaiers” before “ophitsers” emerged. Ir. van Kol had early
given notice to Tweede Kamer beforehand. He expresses:
“Let it be. Let it be until the time has finally come for the people to unleash their divine power.
No one knows when.”

In reality, “the divine power” has already unleashed! The entire world might have witnessed the rise
and the maneuver of that divine power.
The world which is accidentally deaf blind may have acknowledged that the power does not belong
to the mankind; it belongs to the circle of life of each person who fights to protect their only place
to live, their one and only motherland. The whole world might humbly perceive that this movement
is extremely antithesis of that of the imperialism itself. To be sure, this movement is not set by the
obsessiveness of the “agitators”, “opruisers”, “Raddraaiers”, or “ophitsers”. The national’s
besetting need to create movement is driven by the suffering and poverty. It is worth remembering
that Ir. Albarda had warned earlier in Tweede Kamer; he states11:
“Among those natives, there are some of them who are truly in charge to deliver a speech about
those series of event; some others seem to be in charge. Some of them might be enthusiastic in
elaborating the broad picture of the movement of the natives as it is arisen from the Western
revolutionary thoughts. Some others might have assumed that the movement could possibly be

put to an end as it is confronted impudently against the Dutch official’s policy. The Dutch
officials could have assigned their police officers and judges to fight against the propagandists.

Both of those perceptions and strategies are perceptible upon superficial examination; those ideas
have exposed that they may have insufficient prior knowledge of both history and politics.
Forsooth, it is true that the movement is born; it rises from difficult circumstances of the citizens
as well as the changes that the difficult circumstances bring. Although none of European
revolutionist has ever come to the East Indies, the movement is born; it is going to have an
increasing influence as it grows. It is an undeniable fact that the movement is growing although
each and every single chairman and propagandist is banished.
The historical events had proven those statements. In the 16th century, the movement of
kerkhervorming12 was unstoppable of hunting for the heresy-related people. In like manner, in
the 19th century, the persecution and oppression of politics conducted by Bismarck failed to tear
down the democratic social politics. It also happened here that in the 20th century, the movement
of the natives was leading towards the obstacles; even the policy issued by the reactionary Dutch
officials failed to push it back. To be sure, that movement is growing day by day that it reaches
the major goal. It is striving for the independence of the East Indies from the foreign
Mr. Judges, I assume that you may consider, “That is totally from the perspective of a socialist!”
If you may think that way, let me present the arguments of Dr. Kraemer. He is not a socialist. He
writes in Koloniale Studien13:
“Presented in this writing is the elucidation of why most people misunderstand the ideas of the rise
of the Eastern Earth. People think, especially in their own circle, that the rise of the Eastern world is
dealing with the movement of the natives; it merely bears on the political issues which are absurd
on its face; also, it is dealing with small number of intellectual powers. As a consequence, the
common people throw themselves down on that issue.”

Likewise, Prof. Snouck Hurgronje stated his arguments days ago. He is neither a dogma nor deaf-
blind person. He states:
“Starting from the beginning up to this moment, the source of the movement is not dealing with
the thousands of intellectual powers who have finished studying in the western education; those
intellectual powers are mistakenly assumed to be barely acceptable among the natives. In fact,
the fights and the striving for independence from every other countries of the world spark the
natives to victory.”14

In truth, the sun does not rise as the rooster crows; that is exactly the rooster who crows as the sun
begins to rise on the horizon. With a minor change, we stand here for we would like to clarify
something. Those who still think that the movement is driven by the agitator, Jean Jaures has
delivered his burning speech. He is a famous leading labor of France. He states his arguments in the
meeting of the House of Representative of France against the representative of the capital group. He
“Ah, Mr. Judges, you must have been dazzled as you state that this universal revolution belongs
to small number of intellectual powers! Aren’t you aware that the movement of the nation spread
in the entire world? You may find it everywhere you go. In each and every colonized country,
this movement emerges all at the same time. Bearing this in mind, ten years from now, it is
pretty impossible to convey the series of history of Egypt, India, China, the Philippines, and
Indonesia without retelling the account of the national movement! Within the universal
movement, which drags the Asians in it, we can imply that each and every Asian appears to be
different from one to another. They live in different countries with different seasons. Within that
universal movement of the entire Asian countries, the Judges still believe that the movement is
driven by some agitators who work on their own.
As the Judges blame those people, it is obvious that the Judges have paid more attention to those
who are blamed. In this case, the Judges seem to suspect that they are the dangerously
overpowered agitators. Sparking the movement to victory is something challenging for the
agitator alone to achieve. In fact, a slight breeze from the weak breath of a person can hardly set
afire for the entire Asian countries!
It does not work that way, Judges. It must be remembered that this movement is motivated by the
series of occurrence. It rises from the enumerable misery. In general, each of them may not be
straightforwardly connected to each other; however, each of them is encouraged to shoutly yell
the slogan of independence. In truth, what really happened in Indonesia is the national movement
is actually rooted from imperialism, which the Judges admire the most; also, it is rooted from the
drainage economics which had been conducted throughout the centuries. Hence, imperialism is
the sliest agitator of all; imperialism is the only evil which invites the people to rebel. Therefore,
leave the imperialism to the police officers and the judges!”15
Truly, “Leave the imperialism to the police officers and the judges!”
To tell the truth, it is not the imperialism which is counted. It is neither the members nor the
companion of imperialism that matters. Treub, Trin, Colijn, Bruineman, Fruin, Ali Musa, Wormser
are not counted in the presence against the court of law. This is the four of us; we are: Gatot
Mangkoepradja, Maskoen,Soepridinata, and Soekarno!

Do we have any other choices? That is what leaders are supposed to stand for, isn’t it? It is worth
noting that we may not feel blameworthy. We are wholly free from legal fault; we are innocent. We
attest that we may not conduct any activities which is contrary to justice, as what we have been
accused earlier. We are going to elaborate it later. For this reason, we do wait for the order of the
court granting a motion for a free verdict. We do really expect that the decision by the Judges will
be vrijspraak!16
Equally important, Mr. Judges, let us go deeper to our defense oration.

Ratu Adil 17, Heru Cakra 18, and et cetera

In the first place, the movement of the natives of Indonesia is not a driven need of the agitator who
has an obsession with the war. In fact, in excess of the term “agitator” become known, the term
“agitator” has been widely used in zonder. Most compelling evidence, independence can hardly be
acquired out of thin air. Indonesia has never been so gloomy before, as now, there is a sense of
feeling of little worth in the air as the people are forced to bear tragic lives. For this reason, the
people are unable to endure it any longer; they have got strong desire to stand against those
suffering insults. To point out, Indonesia has been living in an atmosphere of hostility. It has been
years that the citizens let out a long and deep moan from heart. Their hearts are almost hopeless of
waiting for the ones who are going to lit up their only hope for independence. They stay in a place
in expectation of the magical spell which will feed them with a plate of rice and a basket full of
fish. If you may have thought, Mr. Judges, what on earth are they doing in waiting for the Ratu
Adil” to come? Why do they believe in the words of King Jayabaya that it sets off a hope in them?
Why do you think that in this village we often listen to the people as they are talking about the
coming of the Mahdi or Heru Cakra or the son of one of the Wali Songo19. The one and the only
reason is that the crying heart of the citizens. They have not stopped hoping; they have never been
tired of waiting and expecting for the coming of a hand to give help. They resemble the people who
are waiting in the darkness that each and every second they always ask, “When will the sun rise?”
Ah, do the Judges have any idea of the reasons as the Judges have gone beyond these occurrences?
Who really understand about diepere ondergrond of the citizens? In this case, Prof. Snouck
Hurgronje has argued about diepere ondergrond in his brochure Vergeten Jubiles21. He might also
feel the full painful of the citizens as they keep moaning, “When will the Ratu Adil come?”
He must be in a deep sorrow and crying at heart as the people helplessly give themselves over to the
Kiai23or dukun who claim themselves to be Heru Cakra or Ratu Adil.

“As long as the intellectual powers of the natives are lacking the act of objecting and disapproval
against the Dutch officials, those evasive movement is considered to be an ordinary uproar. In
this case, the term evasive movement could be easily understood as the open defiance to the
Dutch officials. It might happen as the citizens have learned to bury their anger from day to day;
also, it might happen as the Dutch officials oppress the minor resistance. The citizens perceive
that this country has long been oppressed by some ruthless officials for the officials do not
recognize the needs of the citizens. As now, the upper-class natives start to take sides on one or
more intellectuals of the natives’ own country. The natives choose those whom they think are
capable of striving for the independence. Even though in some ways those intellectuals have not
been deeply acquainted with the theories of politics, they are chosen. The common people are
really fond of coming after the leaders who promise them the independent which is achieved in a
secret way. These leaders also promote the independence in a way of the soldiers are sent to sabil
war24 to fight against the heathens; they are going to engage in the battle in the right time. Given
these points, their attempt to fight for the independence is going to be unsuccessful as they have
not prepared sufficient tactics and strategies. They might not realize it; they might not be aware
of it. Thereupon, they start to believe that those who spark hopes at their hearts are claimed to be
Ratu Adil or Mahdi or righteous officials; they might name them as the prophet. These people
really have confidence based on the divine power. Based on the natives’ perception,
independence should be born by the nature of a nation; once the natives do not acquire it through
the ordinary ways to take it, they need to unleash the divine power as they strongly believe that
God Almighty is in their side.”

Those statements are elaborated by Prof. Snouck Hurgronje.

As has been noted, either the kiai or the dukun are not creator of the common believes as well as the
common hopes which are related to Ratu Adil or Heru Cakra. Both of kiai or dukun do have
powerful influence on the citizens as they are also coming from the same land whose citizens are
longing for the coming of Ratu Adil or Heru Cakra. Therefore, we would like to clarify that we,
who are claimed to be the agitators, are not the creator of the movement of the citizens. Our slipped
tongue as well as our sharp pen for writing should not be mistakenly claimed to be the reason of
this movement.
The movement of the citizens is finely rooted from the severe life of the people. The only reason of
us standing for the citizens is that because the citizen has long been walking through the misery. We
suppose to lead those citizens toward the right directions. We lead them through the wide and flat
road in the country as the overflowing of the struggle for independence is getting greater day by

day. We show them the right way to present the movement in full flood. Therefore, the flood of
spirit for the movement will be perfectly harmonious with the ocean of salvation.

Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1893) is an Englishman. He was a philosopher. He belonged to
Reactief verzet van verdrukte elementen is the fight against the ruthless dictator.
Arabi and Zaglul Pasha were the founder of Wafd of the Egypt in 1918. It was then
continued by Mustafa Nahas Pasha in 1927.
Tilak, Bal Gangdhar (1956 – 1920) were the Indian politicians who led the Congress Party
together with Gandhi. It was then continued by Nehru.
Zelfbehound refers to the action of helping and protecting ourselves.
Aji pancasona is the traditional black magic originally from Indonesia. It enables the person
who possesses it to be immortal.
Aji candrabirawa is a supernatural power which enables a person, who needs help, to invite
the giants to come.
Opruiers refers to agitators.
Raddraaiers refers to the ringleader.
Ophitsers means the agitators.
Ir. Albarda is a Dutch socialist. He was in Tweede Kamer delivering his speech of warning
to the Dutch officials in December 19th, 1919.
Kerkhervorming is the process of renewing the Protestant church.
Dr. Kraemer (1888 – 19) was the expert of orientalist who lived in Indonesia from 1921 up
to 1937. Then, he wrote a book “Koloniale Studien”. This statement is cited from his book on page
It is cited from “Colijn over Indie” on page 12.
It is cited from the speech of Jean Jaures (1859 – 1914) in the French Parliament on
September 23rd 1903. It is cited from the “Rapport Jean Jaures” on page 25 with a minor revision.
Vrijspraak is free from accusation.
Ratu Adil means a righteous king.
Formerly, there was a prophecy which said that there would be a wise leader of this country.
Based on that prophecy, the name of that leader was “The King of Herucakra”.
Wali Songo was known as the nine people who taught Islam in Java in early 14th century.
Diepere ondergrond refers to the deeper secret.
Vergeten Jubile’s means the birthday celebration which forgotten.
Kiai is a religious leader or teacher in Islamic religion.
Sabil war refers to a war of Islamic people against the enemy. Those who are antagonistic to
Islam might belong to the enemy.


We do have the legal basis for “the Independence of Indonesia”

What places shall we pass by? Where are the places that we should have passed by? The Indonesian
National Party with a firm conviction will answer: they are the places which are structured in a row
which may lead to the independence of Indonesia. In fact, far beyond the independence of
Indonesia, the Indonesian National Party encounters the beauty of the ocean of salvation and ocean
of greatness. Far beyond the independence of Indonesia, it could be seen that the morning sun
reclines on the horizon.
This is the major belief of the Indonesian National Party. The major belief of PNI is written in the
book of the bases. It is written, “The National Party of Indonesia beliefs that the ultimate
prerequisite for restoring the coherent form of the life circle of Indonesia could be possibly obtain
by the national independent. For that reason, the entire Indonesia should be directed to the national
In the Dutch, it is written de nationale vrijhed als zeer belangrijke voorwaarde tot de nationale

PNI appears to be different from other political parties. The other political parties might state,
“Improve your own household first; then independence is coming to you”. In brief, the other
political parties assume that the improvement of one’s household can be a fruitful source of
independence. We do not agree with this statement; we may think it in a different way. PNI states,
“Strive for the national independence; as the national independence is achieved, each and every
person in Indonesia will be able to improve his or her household autonomously.” In the Dutch
language, what we belief is written as De-volkomen nationale reconstructive allen mogelijk na
wederkomst der nationale onafhankelijkkheid.
Mr. Judges, based on what we belief, the basis of PNI appears to be similar to the basis of struggle
from the common labors of Europe and America. Our basis is not different from the basis which
states that in implementing socialism, those common labors should aim for the authority first.
“The proletariat groups hopelessly begin to stop the act of resisting of the capital group. The
proletariats decide that the private industries stuff should be made flexible for the public access.
It is done by overthrowing the political authorities. For this reason, the common labors in the
entire world are inspired and aware of their main responsibility in struggling for betterment; they
do improve themselves.”
Those statements are written in the 11th paragraph of the basis Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders
In particular, for the citizens of a nation who are under control of imperialism, the ultimate goal
should be the same. For those who have ever experienced dehumanization and torture by the
wrought of imperialism, the “political authorities” must be the only aim to fight for. For those
citizens, the above sentence will be more contextual if it is written this way:
“The colonized citizens hopelessly begin to stop the act of resisting of the imperialism. The
colonized citizens decide to restore the coherent form of the circle of life of Indonesia. It is done
by overthrowing the governmental authorities. The people need to take control the political

In particular, how do the colonized citizens find the meaning of “political authorities”? How
do they find the meaning of “governmental authorities”? How could “overthrowing the
governmental authorities” bring betterment for those colonized citizens? First thing to remember,
for those colonized citizens, obtaining political authorities means acquiring the national-
governmental authorities; it leads the people one step closer to the national independence. An
independent country might have the rights of issuing one’s own acts, laws, and regulations. The
country is legal to control over the political or economic life of one’s own country.
As has been noted, the National Party of Indonesia encourages the Indonesian to strive for those
political authorities. The National Party of Indonesia straightforwardly states that we are striving for
the national independence. The National Party of Indonesia acknowledges, or we acknowledge, that
in terms of making great efforts to obtain political authorities, which leads to acquire national
independence, is both of consequence and voorwaaede.2 Those terms belong to the consequence
and prerequisite for those who stand against imperialism.
Striving for the national independence is achieved almost in the same way as every other capitalist
group does. It is done in the similar way as the Western capitalist groups force their political
authorities to have influence on the country, which is beneficial for them. It is conducted in the
same way as the capitalists issue certain regulations for the households of the other countries; the
capitalists are free to issue or remove the regulations based on the benefits from their side. It is
carried out in a way that the imperialists keep their political and imperialism steady. For that reason,
in a colonized country, the imperialism group put an effort to utilize their political authorities in
influencing the household of the country which is beneficial for them. That is the country which is
beneficial accordingly to the imperialism system. Under those circumstances, almost each and
every essential regulation, which is implemented in the colonized country, may give advantages for
the imperialist group. The advantages belong to the system of imperialism. In other words, most of
the significant regulations which are found in the colonized country mainly supports the existence
of the colonials; it undeniably supports the imperialism.
For this reason, as long as a country is colonized that country will still be having limited space to
regulate one’s own household. Also, as long as a country is a protectorate or mandating region,
most of the laws and regulations of the household will surely reflect the stamp of imperialism.
It is implied that as the citizens has not obtained the political authorities in their own motherland,
the regulations on the economic and political lives is going to stand against their own ultimate
necessities. In worst situation, the regulations will only be beneficial to the foreign officials. In
particular, the citizens are powerless as their hands and feet seem to be tied. They are defenseless as
they are hardly able to fight against the imperialism which has destroyed them once. They are
unable to move freely to block and stand against the laws which bring more benefits to the capitalist
group. Regardless how, the citizens are helpless for they are incapable of issuing their own
regulations on economic and cultural aspects. If they are able to do so, the economics will develop
greater. In brief, the citizens are incapable of fighting against the imperialism; the citizens could
hardly stop and block the imperialism. At the same time, it is ironic that they are incompetent of
leading themselves towards the economic and political progress.
The colonized citizens are those who are barely able of finding themselves; they are the citizens
who are barely able of “zichzelf”. They are the citizens who are stamped by the imperialism almost
in every aspect. The stamp is given as the imperialism may have influence on them. In fact, there is
no significant similarity of intention between the imperialism group and the natives of Indonesia;
there is no single belangengetneenschap4 between those two groups of people. There is a conflict of
intention between those two groups; they are aiming for different intention. There are tengenstelling
van belangen5 and conflict van behoeften6. Each and every intention of the imperialism, which are
including: economic, social, politic, and culture, is contradictory to the intention of the natives of
Indonesia; it is certainly tegengesteld. Given these points, the imperialism group is trying their best
to preserve the existence of colonialism; on the other hand, the natives are trying their best to fight
against the colonialism. In particular, the laws which are issued by the imperialism are
contradictory to the intention of the natives.
Nonetheless, do the natives accept those laws and regulations?
Do the natives pay any respect to those laws and regulations? It might be true that the natives accept
those laws and regulations; the natives are respectful to those laws and regulations. To tell the truth,
they do accept and respect them only because the natives have been defeated. They have to be
respectful to the laws and regulations as they are forced to do so.
Isn’t it the loss which has led them to be colonized? Isn’t it the loss which has forced them to be the
part of the colonized citizens? In this case, Jules Harmand, Ambassadeur Honoraire and the expert
of French colonialism, in his famous book Domination et Colonisation notes down:

“It could be possibly happened that the intention of the natives is accidentally similar to the
intention of the colonialists. However, it has never happened before. What it most likely happen
is that the intention of the natives and the colonialists are always contradictory. In detail, the
ideas of colonialism and ruthlessness, or at the minimum level is force, are linked from one to
another; they fit in one to another as well. Those three ideas are generated based on the place, the
situation, and the behavior. The degree of conducting the cruelty can be done whether it is real or
not real; it can also be noticeable or in a secret way. As can be seen, colonialism can hardly be
separated from the cruelty. As the day of forcing the natives to oblige the laws has come to an
end, the colonialism is also ended.7
Is there any open confession? Have you ever encountered the sincerest of the sincere heart? In
reality, we might not stand alone. It is true that there is a conflict that it leads to the obligation to
follow the laws and regulations of the colonialists. In fact, the citizen may accept it and respect it
only because they are forced to do so. They have never liked it. They have never done it whole-
heartedly. It has never been achieved through a consensus. It has never done by any single

Each and Every Person of Colony is Striving for Independence

Mr. Judges, each and every person of colony is striving for Independence. There is no single person
of colony who wish to be tied by the colonials. The Indonesian National Party makes known the
slogan of “we are striving for the political authorities”. Also, the Indonesian National Party acts out
the burning spirit of independence. Those two significant things are solely the declaration of the
universal intention. Independence is the only significant weapon for those who aim to fight against
imperialism; independence is the only weapon to stop imperialism to its root. Equally important,
independence is the essential prerequisite for a former colonized country to make better of one’s
own circle of life. To be sure, independence is required for reestablishing the nation.
In a point of fact, independence serves to be the perfection for the household of each and every
country. Whether they are the eastern or western countries, independence suits for their best
perfection. Likewise, whether they are white people, creamy yellow skin people, black people, or
tan people, independence plays significant role in perfecting one’s household within the country.
On the whole, there is not any country in this world who is striving for the glory of zonder without
being an independent country; an independent country should always stand alone and be
autonomous. Under those circumstances, each and every colonized country devotes serious energy
on independence; each of them is struggling for the glory.

The citizens who are bound by colonialism are not vested with a variety of duties and powers to
organize one’s own household; they are helpless in determining their own intention and happiness.
They dwell severely in a chaotic atmosphere. In detail, as what we have elaborated earlier, they are
living in permanente onrust. They are living in a total chaos as it is the result of the intentional
conflict between the colonialists and the natives. This chaotic situation moves the people to
persistently stop the intentional conflict. The citizens insist to be independent.

Ranging from Morocco to the Philippines and also from South Korea to Indonesia, the yell of
independence is widely heard. The wind throughout the mountain and the ocean is herding the yell
of independence. The citizens who have just experience the influence of imperialism are not the
groundbreakers who shriek the independence with delight. More precisely, echoes of the roar of the
independence are coming from the countries that have never seen the glorious sun beam in the
horizon for centuries.
“Although they have been colonializing for centuries....” James Harmand started his writing. He
puts in writing:
“Although they have been colonializing for centuries, only a fool would think that the colonized
citizens love the colonialists at heart. Those colonialists must be blind as they think that those
colonized citizens are eagerly walked through the miserable life of imperialism. It does not
matter whether those colonized countries are lacking of power and weak, they are striving for
independence. It does not matter how inhuman those countries could be, they are eager to be
independent, no matter what. It does not matter whether the noblemen of those colonized
countries are either wicked or kindhearted, they have almost inhuman desire to be independent.
In whatever way the other people talk about the intelligence of those colonized people, they do
believe that the ending of the foreign imperialism is the new beginning of independence.”8
As now, do the people understand why King Jayabaya, who foresees the independence is going to
come, is alive within the hearts of the people? As now, have the people understood why we, whom
you have claimed to be the agitators, are always conspicuously absent at both of the Indonesian
newspapers and the official national meetings; aren’t the people actually aware of the term
“independence” is far and wide written and heard in both of newspapers and meetings? As now, do
the people realize why the most peaceful parties are aiming for the independence of Indonesia?
Take for instance, Budi Utomo and Pasundan are two of those most peaceful parties; they
undoubtedly belong to “the agitator group”. Those two parties are accepted to be the member of
PPPKI that they are encouraged to strive for the independence of Indonesia.
In fact, the Indonesian National Party appears to be different as this party is going straight to the
point of aiming for independence.
Moreover, the Indonesian National Party is solely making great efforts to obtain the national
independent. The Indonesian National Party highly respect the national independence as it becomes
the prerequisite for reestablishing the circle of life of Indonesia; as now, the circle of life is quiet
disorganized. Being an independent country is the only way to be successful in terminating the
imperialism. As what we have elaborated earlier, the Indonesian National Party perceives that
colonialism can hardly be separated from its major inhuman bases; it is always linked to its major
savage intentions. In addition, we, the Indonesian National Party, deals with the colonialism whose
ultimate philosophy is against that of ours. Let us restate it once more, in each and every systematic
colonialism, there will always be contradiction of intentions between the imperialists and the
natives; in general, in each and every systematic colonialism, the influences and the stamp are given
by the imperialist for the sake of their intentions. As can be seen, in whatever way the colonialism is
carried out, the intention of the natives will never be considered perfectly.

The Arguments of the Chairmen of the other Countries

We may believe that the Indonesian National Party does not stand alone. As we have ideals which
we believe in, the Indonesian National Party is corroborated by great leaders from other countries.
Those great leaders of other countries support our intentions through their legitimate writings. To
begin with, Mustafa Kamil9 from Egypt writes, “A nonindependent country is a country which is
unalive”. Manuel Quezon10 from the Philippines expresses, “It is better for us to go to hell zonder
America rather than go to heaven with America”. Likewise, Patrick Hendry from America formerly
shouted, “Grant us either with independence or death!” As has been noted, those are not merely
dealing with burning spirit of compassion; they are actually aiming only at the national freedom. To
be precise, the chairperson of Ireland, Michael Davitt, has written:
“Salvation, enticement, and beneficial laws and regulations are not going to content us with
excitement. We will be satisfied our conscience only if we are granted authorities to govern our
own country”.11
It is also important to realize that there is also a leader from Ireland, Erskine Childers, who stands
against the Free State. He intends to be independent. He says:
“Independence is firmly unnegotiable. Independence is like death; independence is certainty
whether it is there or not there. When a person starts to negotiate over the terms of independence,
it should not be independence any longer.”12
Those bases actually lend authority to our strong belief, don’t they? Another key point, let us
attentively read the utterances of Jozef Mazzini, the Father of Italian. He utters:

“Establishing one’s native land is a must. The encouragement at heart as well as the ways which
I have barely shown can be achieved only if the people are united and independent. The people
of yours are going to live prosperously only if you are actively involved in the political
authorities among the countries. Be free from the deceitful of thoughts. Do not ever think that
your people are living in prosperity without mending the national issues in the first place. If you
fail to do so, then you will not be succeeded in reestablishing this native land.”13
Let us also pay attention to the statements of Sister Nivedita. She suggests that the national
independence may give ample of fertile opportunities for the life of inwardness as well as arts to
grow. In her book Okakura: “Die Ideale des Ostens”, she states:
“Arts deserves to be magnanimously developed in those independent countries. Arts admittedly
becomes a powerful weapon as well as a fruit of holy-tasted independence; we may also name it
as the awareness of a country.”14
Given these points, they are just the statements. Could we really encounter them in real life?
Let us read meticulously the speech of Dr. Sun Yat Sen about San Min Chu I. This Father of the
Chinese has presented that actually the country has not possessed the truly national independent. In
fact, it does have hypo-colony15. He draws the broad pictures of how his household is interrupted by
saying this:
“As China stand on the strong political bases which appears to be the same as those of the other
countries, China is confidently competing with other countries in economic field; China has
proven that it is able to stand on its own; it creates no mistake on that economic competition.
Unfortunately, the foreign countries have just made use of their political authorities to be the
shield against every economic intention. As a result, China fails to defend itself; China is failed
in competing with those foreign countries”.16
As now, after China has already achieved the independence, the independence is getting more and
more glorious day by day. An Englishman philosopher, H. C. Wells, may give enlightenment:
“In this era, there should be more competence people and compassionate people who are willing
to rebuild and modernize the civilization of China. There should be more people of competence
and compassions in this place that we can barely find those people under the rule of European.”17
How are those statements implemented in Indonesia? Does the implementation show affirmation of
the belief of PNI? PNI beliefs that every bit of or some of the laws and regulations to organize the
circle of life of a nonindependent country will remain under the influence or be stamped for the
imperial intentions; in fact, those imperial intentions are always contradictory to those of the
natives. It turns out that the implementation in Indonesia is legitimated by those popular supports!
As can be seen, the imperialism industries in Indonesia makes the people to be proletariat as they
are striving for perfection. We are claimed to be “the people of common labors”. We do understand
well that the imperialism group intends to utilize the low-rate land rent and the low-waged labor. As
what Prof. Van Gelderen has previously stated, the imperialism group is playing a significant role in
maintaining the low-rate of our productive force upon our circle of life. They purposely drop the
cost of the productive force; they stand against the struggle of the natives who are aiming for
increasing the cost of the productive force.
If we are willing to develop new ways for our two major companies; they are the tea plantation and
the tea factory, the imperialist group will certainly be captured by an unexpected attack of that “elite
movement”. If we aim for establishing the National Bank18 in Surabaya, the imperialism group is
going to consider the serious issues of granting the credit agreement to the National Bank. If we aim
to build a transport company in Indonesia, the imperialism group will surely create uproar by using
abusive language on press conference and among other cruising companies; they seem to dislike our
aim of building this transportation company. Let us see more detail on that group of imperialists. As
what we have elaborated in the examination, the group of imperialists may have strong influence
and invioed on us; they carry out their arbitrary government system as why Prof. Snouck Hurgronje
once gets upset. He states:
“The employers need to respect the highest authorities. It is done in the same way as the native
chairmen do respect them. As what Colijn has once said, the Dutch officials keep an eagle eye on
the natives. Recently, most of the natives stand against the guidance of the Dutch officials; they
deliver their demands that the structure as well as the performance of the government need to be
fit to their criteria. It is a revolution.”19
We may see how the imperialism group has influenced on the Dutch officials that the Dutch
officials issues a political tariff which gives more advantages to the imperialism group. It might
have been written in AID de Preangerbode a few months ago under the rule of Vrijhandelbinnen het
rijk is instrijd met het belong van Nederland en van indie. We may notice how the tax rate is issued
as it is shown by Meyer-Ranneft-Huender Commission; it could be just a piece of cake for the
European and at the same time, it means the whole world for the Indonesians. Also, we may
encounter the rubber tax which is issued for the natives only; it is really putting a block on any
future development for the Indonesians. Furthermore, we may see how the Dutch officials issues the
contract coolie labor which is followed by its poenale sanctie. It brings no benefits to the natives; it
gives advantages only for the capital group! Moreover, we may also see that there is only single law
which protects the labors; it is the article of 161 bis of Criminal Code.
It also bring benefits only for the capitalist group. We do feel sorry for the labors. As we may
perceive, there are a number of rules and regulations which make it difficult for the people to
propose movements, especially those movements which strikes imperialism. We do observe a kind
of political teaching which kills nationalities; the teachings educate our youths to be pennelikkers20.
The youths are the ones whose burning spirits for independence are barely noticeable. We are aware
of this set of circumstances that De Stuw also puts into words:
“The people are getting more dependent on the foreigners. As luck would have it, it makes the
people further separated from the ultimate intention of the Indies which aims for the
independence of the Indies.”
We may come to realize and understand. Nonetheless, it is enough, Mr. Judges. It is more than
enough to prove the truth of what PNI believes. PNI is not a day-dreaming party. It is not a party
which is floating over the clouds of thoughts. PNI is the party which stands on its own feet on
realiteit. PNI perceives that imperialism appears to be contradictory to our belief. PNI is having
perception that the imperialism group makes the political authorities keep and protect his or her
intentions. For that reason, PNI suggests that as we achieve the political authorities in our hands, the
imperialism could be easily defeated and put to an end. We will have the capacity to reestablish and
improve our circle of life only if we are an independent country. Indeed, PNI encourages and
motivates the people of Indonesia to strive for the independence. It is written “as clear as glass” or
zoo helder als glas as what the Dutch say.

Believing in on One’s Own Effort

How to achieve the independence of Indonesia? In order to answer this, PNI stands on its own feet
on realiteit.
PNI may replies with full of conviction, “Our people stand on their own feet”. PNI does not need to
follow the day-dreaming people who accept that the imperialism system which is implemented in
Indonesia is educating the people in a way that it helps us to be mature or rijp. In addition, as we
have been matured enough, or rijp, the system of imperialism is going to stop willingly; it is going
to grant us with independence as the valuable gift; it is given as kostbaar geschenk.
Wow! How kindhearted imperialism is! What has been written in Volkenbond agreement of article
22 must be true that colonialism is endeavoring for mission sacree; it is a sacred mission of white
people for the tan people.
It does not work that way, Mr. Judges. That kind of day dream is merely a nonsense day dreaming!
That daydream is floating above the clouds with no anchor on the ground; it is the daydream which
may not stand on its own feet on reality. We firmly disagree that imperialism teaches us to be
mature; imperialism will never educate us to be rijp. The system of imperialism certainly would
never have granted us with independence. On the other hand, imperialism is very likely
strengthening colonialism; we are bound and trapped with the soft webs of theirs. In point of fact,

imperialism has nothing to do with the sacred mission; it is not striving for mission sacree.
Imperialism seems to be mutually opposed to our intentions. Its ultimate aim is to help us to be
mature or rijp; they have no intentions to grant us with independence. Their solely intention is to
continue the colonialism for a long time.
It is true that imperialism comes from the countries whose people are much more intelligence than
that of our people do. Imperialism is firstly introduced by the countries whose culture is more
modern than that of ours.
Imperialism arises from the country whose people are more skillful in engineering and possessing
higher order thinking than that of our people do. Imperialism is from those who are more skillful in
implementing “struggle for life” than that of we do. We do admit all of these facts. Despite of that,
we will never have admitted that imperialism educates us to be mature. Karl Kautsky, a famous
expert of social- democratic theory, in his book Socialismus und Kolonial-politik of chapter two
“The extortion of capitalism is not merely implemented by force in public. The extortion might
not only deal with rights of those who possess the power or authorities but the extortion is also
dealing with the different kind of classes. In fact, the extortion of capitalism is dealing with the
independence of a person within his circle of life; the extortion of capitalism might be the only
reason of a person losing his independence. It is happened as there is a huge gap between the two
groups of people; one group may possess nothing meanwhile the other group own the whole
means of production for them. Those who are unable to provide means of production for them
are also lacking for the means of civilization at the same time; their civilization is left behind.
Thereupon, we can notice the progress of civilization only from those powerful classes. As it
may happen, it leads to grave consequences. The power to command the proletariats is actually
the authority of civilization over inhuman treatment. It is the authority of the chosen intellectuals
over the uneducated people; for British people, it is also known as the great unwashed. 21 The
perceptions of those authorities are actually inappropriate. Based on their perceptions, they deny
that what they have done is either for bringing benefits or obtaining profits for themselves.
According to them, extorting the proletariat people is nothing more than giving orders to the
people for the sake of the society. In our own country, from the perspectives of the moral value
what have just happened is similar to lend authority of rights to those who are powerful over
those who are lacking the power. In reality, it seems to be similar to its misleading understanding
that capitalism countries are affirmed to take over the whole mankind.”22
Your Honorable Judges, those are the bases for the utterances of “the slogan of trustee” which is
dealing with the system of imperialism upon us, the unintelligent nation in the meantime. Also,
those are the underlying foundation of our utterances which are related to “immature to be mature”.
No, there is actually no trustee. That teaching is nonsense; it is a mere phrase. Indonesia devotes
serious effort for political authorities; Indonesia aims to be independent. Our nation is going to be
the master of one’s own household. Therefore, the people need to educate themselves. They are also
required to stand on their own feet; they are fighting in a way that they are familiar with and put an
effort on their own. They will never be given a helping hand from the system of imperialism; it will
just give them more problems.
It could be understood that the group of imperialists are putting a block on our future maturity. It is
understandable that they put an obstacle as we stand on our own feet. We are verbally abused,
innocently accused, and forced to leave our homes; also, we are sentenced to death as formerly
Nieuws van den dag has ordered us to. For this reason, Judges, almost every weeks and days we are
exposed to read the abusive words from AID de Preangerbode, Java Bode, De Locomotief, or
Soerabajaasch Handelsblad23 which is aimed to us. We look through the agitations which aim to
have an effect on the development of your verdict within this examination.
Mr. Judges, it is undeniably logical; it is vanzelf-sprekend. 24 The Judges should have known that
AID de Preangerbode is the newspaper which is mainly dealing with the people of the rubber
plantation, kina plantation, and tea plantation in the entire Priangan. The Judges should have had the
information concerning both of Soerabajaasch handelsblad and Nieuws van den Dag that they are
the newspapers of the people who work for either sugar factory or sugar tree plantation. The Judges
may know that Nieuws van den Dag is also the newspaper of the merchants of Kali Besar. The
Judges must be familiar with all of those reactionary newspapers; they are the newspapers of that
group of imperialists which we are opposed to. In truth, those who are yelling abusive words to our
people are actually the ones who are afraid of losing their profusion of wealth.
They are afraid as both of their companies and dividend are threatened from providing them with
millions of assets. The Judges have already had knowledge concerning those issues. For this reason,
we may not feel worried about what has been written by Mr. Hitter in his book Drukpersvrijheid
serie pro en contra25; he puts in writing:
“It is possible that the authorities of the judges are influenced by the society judgments. In fact, it
appears to be harmful possibility.”
We do have a firm conviction that the Judges is going to be fair; the Judges is not easily controlled
by the agitations of some of the newspapers which have a great hate of our movement.
Mr. Judges, we are now accustomed to be exposed to those abusive words; they really make perfect
sense. We may no longer be filled with wonder as they behave this way. Their intentions are
threatened by our movement; thus, they create uproar.
Prof. Snouck Hurgronje writes:

“The employees have already built a powerful organization. They are given a helping hand by
those who have the authority to issue the policy as well as those who are able to write an official
decree. The widely implemented propaganda is not only erasing the doubts of the blessing but it
is also fighting against those people who are doubtful. In this case, blessing refers to the favors
from private capitalists. As now, the European newspapers in the Indies stand to support them;
some other newspapers who formerly stood for the natives they have decide to support them as
well. No! Bravery is required to fight against the army who are equipped with those instruments
of war.”26
Furthermore, Mr. Lievegoed, the former male editor of De Locomotief27, is a kindhearted liberal
person. He was axed from De Locomotief in 1925 as he wrote about the uproar of that group of
imperialists; he wrote:
“It is a kind of right-extremism zonder a goal; it is driven blindly by the money politics. The
people who belong to this group may yell their deafening slogans. This yelling group is the only
group of people which is harmful for the Dutch East Indies authorities. They give the impression
of being helpful to the officials. In fact, these people are actually giving any other people a good
beating as they think that others are blocking their intentions” (as cited from De Locomotief,
November 5th 1925).
Indeed! It is true, Mr. Judges, “giving the impression of being helpful to the officials” or in the
Dutch language it is written onder het voorwendsel vangezagsschraging. They want us to be
punished, expelled, or sentenced to death. In fact, they are driven as both of their treasury and
dividend are threatened. In dealing with their treasury and dividend, they fail to comply with the
authorities. Take for instance, AID de Preangerbode pretty often breaks the rule of the authorities.
Besides, Nieuws van den dag had once insulted the Governor General de Graeff28; he insulted:
“Go away! Go from here! The Indies deserves somebody else who are far more resolute!”
The treasury is threatened! Mr. Judges, their treasury is threatened! As they keep their treasury, they
spread the twisted news to the public. Also, they conduct press conference which discusses about
moral money; what they have in mind is only money. “The Netherland is also,” as what Mr.
Vleming started to write. He was the former chairman of Public Tax Accountant Service. He
delivers his speech:
“The Netherlands is also ruled in a capitalistic way. As the great number of capitals is arranged
within that strong organization, each of capitalist is aiming for the wealth from Indonesia. They
do not only lay emphasis on economic authorities, but they also lay emphasis on having
considerable influence within the officials and the means. There are numerous means of the

This significant capital is strongly connected to considerable capitalists from Britain, America,
Belgium, Germany, France, and et cetera. They name it open door policy. Those countries may
also have intentions within Indonesia. Their intentions are actually embedded in the Dutch
greatest capitalists who are known as Board of Employers of the Dutch East Indies, which was
established in 1921. The board of employer may have privilege access, which is directly or
indirectly, to the press and official press abroad. In particular, the members have the access for
two different newspapers which are published in foreign countries; they are: The New World and
Le Monde Nouveau. They primarily spread out malicious hoax news and deception and they rob
the food supply. In striving for their intentions, they may behave in a more harmful way. Those
considerable capitals are arranged in the organization; they are striving for the intention of their
own countries. They are aiming for Indonesia. They may also change their direction when it is
There is no better explanation than that of Mr. Vleming; he explains about the root of moral money
and the value of money from imperialism press in Indonesia. For that reason, we should neither be
impressed nor upset as the uproar emerges in AID de Preangerbode or Soerabajaasch Handelsblad.
Let them yell a deafening slogan. Let them be perplexed. Let they appear to be a dog that runs after
its tail. We would not care about it. We are going to keep working!
Your Honorable Judges, let us restate that political authorities and independence can be achieved
only by the struggle of the Indonesian people. It is understandable as the group of imperialists is
trying to put an obstacle in our way of attempting the independence.
From the system of imperialism, whose life depends on colonialism, we should not have to beg
them to stop the colonialism. Our fate certainly lies in our hands. The security of our nation is
within our own intention; it lies within our thoughts, our customs, and our efforts. Our slogan is
“not to ask”, “not to beg”, and “not mendicancy”. In contrast, our prime slogans should be
“noncooperation”, “self-help”, zelfer-wekelijking, and “self-reliance”! Those slogans are
represented as the bull’s head.
Who are expecting a help from the system of imperialism? Who still believe in the gift of freedom
which is granted by the group of imperialists? Is there anyone who comes after the mission sacree?
Is there anyone who is still facing westerly? He must be blind to the reality; he is blind to realiteit.
In point of fact, the nature of life of the Netherlands depends completely on the colonialism of
Indonesia. We may have written this in the explanation of our bases. The reality inspires Mr.
Dijkstra, as it is written in Indische Gids30 in 1994, to writes:
“During these one hundred and two hundred years, the people should not expect anything from
our culture. They should not expect that the power and the knowledge of ours are utilized to give
them a helping hand in developing the civilization and improving their health.”
This reality encourages Mr. Vleming to deliver his speech; he states:
“The big number of export balance which is flowed annually to the Netherlands would mean world
to the prosperity of the people who are only 7 1/2 from our country. It can be inferred that the cost
of the export is much bigger than the cost of the import from the Indies; the other possible benefits
could be: dividend, interest, tantieme, income, pension, leave salary, and et cetera.”31
Prof. Moon has earlier proposed his writing about the real fact. He writes that the greatness of the
Netherlands is rooted from colonializing Indonesia, a vast country with many citizens to live. This
is the true fact that motivates Dr. Sanderberg to write a controversial yet special book entitled Indie
verloren, rampspoed geboren32 or Indonesia is independent; the Netherlands end up in bankruptcy.
The Dutch East Indies Commission of Defense may respond to it:
“From the economical point of view, the freedom of the Indies will certainly lead to a total
disaster for the Netherlands.”33
The real truth is that in the former era, Minister Baud once has said, “Indie is de kurk waarop
Nederland drift” or in English “the Indies is like a polystyrene floating on the Netherlands”.
Moreover, de kat Angelino in his book Staatkunding beleid en bestuurrszorg in Ned.-Indie34, he
puts in his writing:
“The western world is full of industries that it can hardly survive without the crops from the
farmland of the two-season country. It is the colonialized region. The people are bound for their
economic webs through the regions and the future.”
Doesn’t it mean that the western countries are committed to suicide as they willingly grant the
eastern countries with freedom? Under those circumstances, who dare to expect for a help from the
western country in order to be independent? That person must be blind. PNI would not shut the
eyes. PNI does not want to dream only. PNI is not daydreaming. PNI arises!

Many people state that the politics of PNI, which is based on one’s own self-reliance, is rooted from
the broken promise of the government of “November promise” in 191835; the government promised
to add more rights for the Indonesians. This is a misleading assumption. The basis of PNI, which
being self-reliance, is not the consequence of the failure for fulfilling the “November promise”. As
what we have elaborated earlier, the basis of PNI is the result from analyzing the nature of
colonialism; it is actually from the analysis of imperialism itself. In general, the basis of being self-
reliance is not only implemented in Indonesia. It is also possibly used by other people who are
striving for freedom. It may be implemented in India, Indochina, the Philippines, South Korea, and
Egypt. In brief, the basis of PNI needs to be implemented by those who are struggling for getting rid
of the burden of foreign imperialism. Our basis is not limitedly bound to our nation only. As the
essence of imperialism is supranational and so is our basis. In essence, imperialism appears to be
the same in all places. In all directions, imperialism is dealing with the selfish desire of taking
control and having influence on the other country for their own advantages. In all other places,
imperialism is always contradictory to the intentions of the people who are colonized. From place to
place, imperialism will never have helped the people to be mature; imperialism never grant the
people with the freedom to express their intentions.
The failure to keep the promises in November may not lead us to our desperation. The politics of
Governor General Fock has earlier insulted the great esteem of ours that it is also supported by the
government of van Limburg Stirum. The politics of Governor General Fock appears to be
burdensome to our people as he issues the economizing policy. Economizing policy may deal with
the number of staffs, the abolition of high-rate allowance, and also added taxation. As the article
161 bis is publicly issued, there is also circular letter of speechless and also the prohibition of
meeting. The politic of Governor General Kock is totally disrespectful over the spirit of November
promise. That occurrence is not the root of our movement; that single occurrence merely
strengthens our belief in the bases of PNI. It is also make us believe in the fact of our analysis.
In the analysis, it is stated that after the great war happened, the group of imperialists requires the
abundance of valuable resources from Indonesia. They need to have influence on the authorities.
November promise is not given for we have been mature enough in a limited degree; it is given as
the political atmosphere is getting tense. At that time, the relationship between Indonesia and the
Netherlands is quite uneasy. The people flooded the country with their movements. At the same
time, the situation of the Netherlands was extremely unpleasant. As the critical moments passed by,
the imperialism group has never kept their promises. November promise is primarily dealing with
the given promises of fear or angstbetloften.
“This occurrence has reached the uppermost point among other international occurrences. The
fragments of the broken thrones rustle in the ears of the Dutch. The rumbling revolutions coming
from foreign countries start to rumble on their own lands,” Troelsta stated as the November
promise needed to be restated.
Even though the critical time has passed by, the November promise were revoked. It happened for a
secret reason. It was the secret reason which was presented by Prof. Treub in further detail in the
meeting of Board of Employers in June 21st 1923. He states:
“One of the deep impressions that I have acquired long before I came to the Indies is attested
while I was living in the Indies. As the war begins, the Netherlands needs the indies more than
that country has ever needed before.”
Secret! To be sure, a secret is no longer a secret for the people of PNI. It is the secret which is
tinkling with the Malaysian Ringgit. It is the secret dealing with the sugar; it is the secret of the
rubber. It is the top secret of the oil, the tea, the clove, and et cetera. Meanwhile in the war era,
the exceeded export was approximately f300,000,000 for a year; the percentage only reached the
average of 40% in total. In 1919, it exceeded more than f1,400,000,000; it was more than 70% of
the total export.36
Hence, the secret is no longer the secret which we are impressed with. To repeat, November
promise is broken; November promise is replaced by the reactionary politics.
In the book of fifteen-year anniversary of Indonesische Vereeniging, we may read:
“As the peace is in the air, the economic situation is in riot as the result of that total destruction.
As a consequence, European countries require more of eastly opened regions to be colonialized.
Those are the eastly countries whose motherland of the nature provides the European countries
with profusion of material resources. Therefore, there should be a certain in-country policy
which aims to exploit the land widely. If the authorities fail to do so, they will not be able to
leverage the assets to their advantage. There is an implementation of reactionary politic of
Britain over India after the war ended; it appears to be one of the undeniable consequences of
that matter. Besides, America is still able to stand on its own feet. America has set isolemen
politic free; as now, America turns out to be the authority of the eastern imperialist. If it does not
happen this way, why is the explanation of the Dutch officials is different from one to another?
Take for instance, in the Philippines, this country is actually claimed to be mature; all of a
sudden, they are claimed to be not mature enough to be granted with independence. This promise
is stated in Jones Act in 1916. Eventually, the Netherlands is safe from the destructions of the
belongings for they may take no sides during the war. However, the Netherlands experienced the
crisis which happened in then Europe. The Netherlands put an endless effort to restore the
economic growth together with the Indies although their relation was getting uneasy.”

Just then, as the Governor General Fock was sent here, November promise was gone like midst or
the cloud which existed only in our memory. We hold firmly to our basis of self-help and self-
reliance. We are more aware of the fact that independence is the result of our own struggle.

Forming the force, forming the authority or machtsvorming

It is stated that the common labors of the Netherlands are fighting for the rights of general election
while singing:
“Wathelpen ons gebeden, voor het kiesrecht dient gestreden!”
“It’s a pity to beg for a mercy; suffrage is the only reason for us to fight!”
Thus, we may also have an air of our own slogan:

“It’s a pity to beg for a mercy; independence is the only reason for us to fight!”
“whathelpen ons gebeden, voor de vrijheid dient gestreden!”

Striving for independence! How do we suppose to fight? Do we use the swords or guns? With the
bomb? Do we need to damage the public facility? Are we committed to crime? Alas, we need not to
do that! We might fight without the swords, guns, and bomb. Eventually, we may oblige articles of
153 bis or 169; we fight within the boundaries of the laws. We are fighting by forming the
respectable force; it is the modern version of georganiseerde machtsvorming of our law circle. We
are impressed by the way of the common labors of the Netherlands have fight against the capitalism
as well as overthrown the political leverage; they may not utilize any single violation which is
prohibited by the laws. In actual fact, they are purely forming the respectable force. Mr. Judges, our
ultimate decision is to form respectable force and form political leverage within the boundaries of
the laws. We may not aim for overthrowing the authorities by the secret army.

It is not the forming of nihilism. It is not the forming of authorities which might endanger the public
safety; it should not violate the articles of 153bis and 169 of Criminal Code.
Hence, what is the forming of force for? What is the significance of machtsvorming? We may have
heard people asking. Machtsvorming? Forming force? In particular, colonialism deals with the
power of authorities; it is about macht. The forming of force is done as it is supported by the history
of the world. It says that the greatest changes can only be obtained by the winners. It is driven by
the thought of the gain or loss and also intention to keep the power of authority. “There have not
been any single class who let go of his or her own rights willingly,” Marx states. The entire history
of the world is the history of the movements of authority. In detail, the whole history of the world
has shown the forming of authorities. It happened as the understanding of democracy was born in
early of the 19th century. Every political party, each of labor union, and every community are the
forming of authority; they are the forming power. A single person must be helpless in forming
power. Henceforth, each and every person are gathered; each of them is engaged with others. Then,
community is born. To point out, the Europeans who are living here are gathered in PEB. 37 The
European establish Vaderlandsche Club. Chinese people are gathered in Chun Hwa Hi. Besides, the
natives are gathered in Wargi Bandung or Tulak Bahla Wawil Umoer. They solely establish the
organizations as the forming of authority.
It is true that the forming of authority of PEB, Vaderlandsche Club, Tulak Bahla Tawil Umur is
different from the forming of authority of PNI. For one thing, PEB strives for the intentions which
go hand in hand with imperialism; Vaderlandsche Club aims to promote colonialism in Indonesia to
the end of time.
In reality, those communities are the reactional parties; they are conservative parties. PNI is actually
fighting for the intentions which are contradictory to the intentions of imperialism. PNI appears to
be the resistance party; it is the opposition party. As what we have mentioned earlier, the forming of
authority of PNI is started from our belief. We do believe that colonialism is strongly related to the
power of authority. It is important to realize that the people of Indonesia have not united in a stable
authority. Indonesians may also live separately as they may not encounter harmonious life from one
to another. The people may be incapable of speaking out their intentions within an organized and
structured authority. If those three conditions happen, the people of Indonesia are just like an
obedient lamb in front of the imperialism group. The imperialism group, who are really fond of
enriching themselves, will certainly pay no attention to the demand from the people of Indonesia.
From the point of view of imperialism, every single demand coming from the people means harm
for imperialism. Each and every demand from the people will not be fulfilled. Each victory of the
people upon both of the imperialism group and the government is coming from the pressure of the
movements from the people. Each and every victory of Indonesians is the forced concession.
Cramer, a socialist, in June 10th 1925 elaborated in Tweede Kamer:
“Although it is veiled by the sweetest words, it is real that the intentions of the Netherlands, or
we may say the intentions of the great capital, should always be in the first row to be safely kept.
The intentions of the people of Indies are in the second place.
Mr Chairman!
The people of Indies may draw the true conclusion. They state that from this structured kamer,
there is nothing to expect. They accept that in order to make changes, authority should be fought
back with authority. It has nothing to do with being mature or immature to be the authority. It is
dealing with the power, isn’t it?”
“Authority should be fought back with authority” or mach tegenoer macht as what Cramer has
advised. To be sure, Cramer is not bolsjewik Cramer; he is not the socialist left. Cramer has never
played with either the gun or the bomb. He is not a type of a person who would likely threatens the
public safety. He is not the person who has intention to attack or overthrow the government
authority. Cramer is an innocent socialist; he is a humble person. He is involved in the opposition
party of SDAP; it is a peaceful party.
In point of fact, the forming of authority of an opponent party is not always about forming the
authority out of the limitation of the laws. It is worth noting that SDAP has proven it; it started from
the low class people which normally get abused or insulted. As now, it is born to be the authority
which appears to be fearsome. It has influence on hundred thousand people. Besides, SDAP has
successfully pushed and drove the enemy to make considerable concessions; SDAP conducted some

steps. They are: the movement of tens of thousands common people, establishing the labor unions,
introducing cooperatives, and sending out tens of newspapers.
SDAP or the common labors of Western Europe form the powerful authorities in a respectable way
that they aim for the political leverage to stop capitalism. Therefore, PNI also aims to be a
respectful authority that it may lead the people of Indonesia to the political leverage. It could be
possibly done by forming the authority as well. From our point of view, the power of political
independence is the compulsory prerequisite to stop imperialism to its root.

Does each of independence party aim to rebel?

“Aiming for the political authority! Bring independence for Indonesia! Yes, it is true, bring
independence for Indonesia!

PNI is going to rebel unless the independence is granted to us! Some people might utter that way.
Alas! What a weird logic it is! If that way of thinking is true, people are allowed to bear in their
mind, “PSI, who aims for the Islamic government, is going to rebel!” People may also think, “Budi
Utomo, Pasundan, Betawi people, Sarekat Madura, and all of PPPKI members, who bring the
independence for Indonesia, attempt to create riots!” Indeed, people think this way as well, “SDAP,
ISDP, Albarda c.s., and Stokvis c.s., whose slogan is striving for the political power and stopping
capitalism, are getting mad by bombing and exploding dynamites!
Alas! Don’t you dare to make a joke! They have mentioned that Stokvis parents are upset that they
are bombing and exploding dynamite. In reality, how does ISDP carry out the actions? What about
the actions of SDAP? What Stokvis c.s. and Albarda c.s. are going to do in aiming for the political
“In what way do they take over the political power?” Those are our statements which are written in
the book of theirs in relation to the bases and the goal of SDAP. It is written:
“We attempt to do the same way to each of the organization which we have established and
grown. We might work for it on every election; we might work for it on every struggle of our
suffrage. We work for it on every attempt to the bourgeois group. It should not be a one-day rebel.
It has been becoming our fight for many years. The observable means is fit to the criteria and the
possibilities which are proposed by the capitalist society to us. That is the similar means which are
widely used by the proletariat in their attempt. That is the major reason of why we utilize the
parliament. That is also the major reason of why we utilize the striking strategy. Mr. Judges, in the
Netherlands, the right of striking is widely used as the labor force can hardly be separated from the

production process. However, that is the exact weapon which is utilized by the proletariats to speak
out their universal politic demands and class demands. The proletariats may conduct is only if they
think it would bring benefits for them.
Based on our experience, violence is cursed to be an undesirable weapon. We need no violence as
the power of authority is in our hands. Violence might be harmful for us as long as we do not
possess the power of authority. Despite that, in whatever way we conduct our actions, whatever
weapon we may utilize, there is a single basis which we need to consider. It is an understanding that
states, “The long-life organization will have required a strong basis and structure. It also grows. It is
granted with the rights of moral and authority as it performs as the leader of working class in the
attempt of classes struggle.”38
As a matter of fact, the idea which is thought inside one’s mind could be so entertaining as it states
that PNI is creating riots! However, those who are not laughing over that false logic may have
assumed that our brain is still working properly.
Each and every person who does not see us as either an insane or idiot person may understand better
that it is pretty much impossible for us to be independent without making an effort to create an
organized force and also obtain magnificent power. It is an undeniable truth that it is difficult for us
to state that the independence is coming in ‘30! As we may have encountered that the common
labor of Europe could barely obtain the political leverage within one, two, three, ten, and even
twenty years of attempt. Thus, the independence of Indonesia is impossible to be achieved within
one gasp for breath.39
Independence is coming in ‘30!
Some people might have state that they hear us say. “Independence is coming in ‘30!” In fact, if it is
true, we should have been brought to the psychiatric hospital of Ciikeumeuh. We should have sent
to the department of “the patients who will never be healed”. We should have been brought there
together with Mr. Sartono, who is also claimed to deliver a speech that the independence is coming
this year.
In the Daystar with the Dutch language edition, which is published in January 4th, we may read:

“Mr. Sartono has previously enquires about the evidence of indictment; the police officer may
have answered that the government have heard that PNI is going to conduct a revolution.
Likewise, the spy agents attest that during one of the open meetings, Mr. Sartono affirms that
this country is an Independent country by 1930. Mr. Sartono has argued straightforwardly that
the top leaders have never made arrangements for the independence in that way. If the
misleading news is true, the top leaders should have issued certain policy and manuals to refer
to. In fact, as the top leaders are asserted to have mean motives, they should have kept their
weapon or at least they should have kept a machete at home. As now, there has been a massive
search for weapons, there is nothing to found, not even a single piece of knife. Mr. Sartono
remembers that in one of his general assemblies, he has made an idea clear that in 1930, the
Chinese people have already obtained similar rights as the Europeans do. He might also say that
there is a consequence of granting the rights for the Chinese people; the Indonesian people
should also be granted with the rights, which appear as the result of the law of equal rights. He
affirms that Indonesia deserve to be independent. Almost in every meeting, he keeps stating this
statement; he may face may not have any limitations. Once, he has never mentioned that in
January 1st 1930, Indonesia started to be an independent country; and ahead of that time, there
will be revolution. If he has been proven to state those statements, he should have been
wondering of why he has not caught right away.”
It is true! We certainly do not beat around the bush; we strive for independence. We have never
beaten around the bush that the major goal of PNI is to bring independence for Indonesia. But even
so, he should not be showing a great lack of intelligence to say that the independence is achieved
within a single gasp of breath.
It is true. Let us say that independence falls from heaven this day. Let us say that an angel is coming
to grant us with independence this day. If it is really happened, we, the Indonesian National Party,
will certainly not refuse it; we cherish it. We give thanks to God and alhamdulilah (praise the
Lord). Independence is the only key of unlocking the gates of heaven for us. We view the day of
independence as the magnificent intention. For that reason, we should never say that independence
comes earlier than required.
We are not going to behave in a way of a semi socialists do; a semi socialist tend to keep their bases
on their own and refuse the demand of independence today. They refuse their intention for freedom
today. In fact, independence is not coming instantly by today or tomorrow morning. Independence
is merely the results from those who make great efforts of organizing and gathering the people
together. The work is effortful that they may break out in sweats, toil away, and be taxing
physically. According to Surendra nath Banneryee, the chairman of India, independence is:
“like a jealousy goddess, she sets her up for adulation. For her worshipers, she demands worship
of herself endlessly.”
As what we usually stated during the meetings, independence is not for us. It should be granted for
our grandchildren and great grandchildren who are supposed to live in the future.
No! PNI might not do any harm in fighting for the freedom. We certainly do not make use of any
swords, machetes, or even bombs. We aim neither to hint something bad nor to destroy public
property. We may not violate the government authority. We do not do any single thing as what we
have been accused for. In fact, PNI works on forming the authority in a deliberate way.
PNI forms the authority as it imitates the modern organization. The labors of Europe view that the
rise of political power and the end of capitalism are the only keys for them to find real happiness.
As they attempt to form the power, they try to loosen their tiring fate by obeying the rules and
gaining victories for today. Those European labors pursue their ultimate intention; they may not
think about an instant benefit. Under those circumstances, PNI, who has the goal of pursuing
independence, has already work respectably that it may show a little of progress today. In pursuit of
independence, PNI has already worked regularly on economic, social, and politic fields. We view
that today’s working will be required for our independence someday.
PNI tries to establish schools and hospitals. It fights against usury. It supports the national banks
and opens the cooperatives. It develops the labor union and farmer union. Besides, PNI also revokes
the articles preventing the spread of hatred (haatzaai artikelen) and articles of 153 and 161 bis from
the Criminal Code; PNI omits the rights of exorbitante40 from the Governor General. PNI is the
supporter for the people who barely able to fulfill their daily needs. To tell the truth, PNI might not
yet achieved desirable results from those fields of economic, social, and political. PNI has not yet
built numerous schools, clinics, and cooperatives. PNI has not yet succeeded in eliminating the
mines of politics as we have written earlier. It happened as PNI is only 2 years of living.

Action and Deed

A year ago, PNI Congress was held in Jakarta. PNI Congress decides to hold “action and deed”
from 1929 – 1930.
It is worth noting that action and deeds is closely related to the meaning of “making effort
respectably may lead to the progress and improvements of today’s goal”. Before the PNI Congress
in Jakarta was held in May 1929, PNI was still in the zone of propaganda. In this case, every single
meeting, word, and movement are merely for introducing the party to the people of Indonesia. It is
only for creating propaganda of the bases and the goals of the party so that the Indonesians are
attracted to understand the real bases better. Almost in every general assembly hold by PNI in this
first phase, we only deliver the speech about our bases, which have been written in the charter of
PNI. On top of that, the general assembly may aim to build another branch of PNI or to make
known its bases to the branches which are already existed. In this propaganda phase, PNI has not
yet conducted “action”. PNI has not yet put an effort for its organization to bring desirable
betterment from its list. Within this phase, PNI is merely creating propaganda on its bases; it has not
yet put any effort and taken any action to execute the plan.

It is worth remembering that in early 1929, PNI has more followers than before. It begins to gain
more power. At that time, PNI had had enough carried on propaganda. Henceforth, the top leaders
think that they need to execute what has been planned before. The top leaders feel that it is
necessary for them jump right in the field, the field of action. PNI have had enough propagandized
its fundamental bases. As now, the plan of action should be executed; “action and deeds” should be
brought to life. As what the top leaders suggest, Jakarta Congress decides to carry out action and
deed in relation to article I d and II d taken from their listing efforts. They are actually the articles of
“eliminating the obstacles which impede one’s own freedom, freedom for movement, freedom for
press, and legal entitlement to be united and allied”.

Also, it is the article of “promoting the progress of labor union and farmer union”. The propaganda
phase has been ended before Jakarta Congress is started. As now, a new phase rises, it is the phase
of real development. In brief, it is the phase of working and a phase of taking action.
How do we supposed to take an action? How do we suppose to carry out our act and deed? Do we
really utilize bombs, guns, and dynamites? No, we do not. We do not carry out our action and deed
by bombing, shooting with gun, exploding dynamite, or even any other actions which are prohibited
by the law. The only way to carry out our action and deed are by arranging numerous general
assemblies in order to have influence, rise the spirit, and stimulate critical public opinions. We may
also write the essays for the newspapers and conduct some courses which are related to those two
articles for our members. We execute our plan of action in a respectable way. We have the intention
of achieving greater power. In order to expand the forming of authority, we may reflect on how
SDAP and Sarekat Islam Party execute their plan. They generate their spirit and force the spirit of
public opinion in the most significant way. They call for the labor force to work for their
organizations. Take for instance, from both of labor union and farmer union, the labors and the
farmers are called out to push the officials so that their demand is fulfilled. The pressure is not done
by bombing, exploding dynamite, or any other things which are prohibited by the law, the pressure
is done in the most respectable way. It is truly a respectable pressure as what we have elaborated in
the examination. Dr. Ratulangi states that it is actually “highly spirit pressure” or moreel geweld
Mr. Judges, are the terms “action and deed” linked to rebellion, barrikaden41, and rape? Are the
terms linked to harassment or violating the law?
The group of socialists of Europe most likely suggest “action and deed”; they also suggest “direct
action”. They do not mean any violation of law, rape, and bombing by carrying out that “direct

“The great power of capital does not lie on the seat of parliament but it is outside the parliament.
Thus, labors should not confine their struggle for parliament only. In addition to the weaponry
action in parliament, the labors are required to make use of the direct weaponry action within
their attempt; it is the political action from the labor union.”42
That is the example of the opening speech of SDAP. People in general know that the direct action
which is carried out outside the parliament means no harm for the law; it is linked neither to rape
nor rebellion.
No, it is not, Mr. Judges. Let us restate it again. PNI does not intent to break riots or putsch43; PNI
do not violating the law of article 153 bis or any other articles which are charged to us within this
process. In truth, PNI executes the action in order obtain independence. The execution is conducted
by organizing and generating the legal organization of authority; it is a national modern
organization of authority. It is a national mass action which disapproves of every single way which
appears to be non-nationalistic.

Revolutioner, Revolution
It’s the term of revolutioner. PNI is claimed to be a revolutionary party. Does it mean that PNI aim
to rise in rebellion, violate the government law, or disturb the public safety?
Indeed, it is true that we often state that we are the group of revolutioners. We may state that PNI is
a revolutionary party. From the beginning, PNI is actually a revolutionary party. The sentence
which is written in the letter of accusation could be misleading as it states, “PNI then becomes

PNI is not then became a revolutioner; PNI is born to be revolutioner. First thing to remember, the
term revolutioner means neither to rise in a rebel nor to violate the law. Based on our perspectives,
revolutioner is being radical; it demands a sudden change or omvormen in snel tempo. The term of
revolutioner has the opposite meaning from the terms of patience and neutral. We are PNI and we
do not belong to the group of python snake who are slow in moving. “Slow but sure” is not our
slogan. We are radical group who are going to have rapid changes in short of period of time. We are
the group of “bull’s head”.
Mr. Judges, we are not the only one who give the meaning of the word “revolutionary” as “aiming
for a rapid change” or omvormend in snel tempo. People may say that steam engine conducts
revolution within the way of production. Also, people state that Prof. Einstein had already created
the revolution in the science. People might claim that Jesus Christ is the greatest revolutioner in the
entire history of the world. Pasifis Tolstoyanis44 Ds. B. de Light wrote a book of Christen

Revolutionnair. Group of Marxis, who is related to the law of evolution within circle of life (as the
variation of Heraclitus “panta rei”) states, “We live in a continuous revolution; it is the Revolution
im Permanenz. Given these points, all of those statements remind us of the swords, gun, bomb,
dynamite, barrikaden, blood of a human being, and death, doesn’t it?
PNI is a revolutioner as it strives for radical and rapid changes. Prof. Bluntschi affirms that in
general revolution may have the meaning of umgestal-tung van grun aus; it means a radical change
and a deep change. Prof. Bluyntschli is a well-known expert in laws of the kingdom; he does not
belong to the red group. It is worth noting that every party which aims to change radically belongs
to a revolutionary party; therefore, PNI is one of the revolutionary parties. In fact, both of PNI and
ISDP are revolutioners. Mr. Koch has revealed the fact that the struggle of the working class is
considered to be revolutioner.

“Revolutioner does not refer to certain forms of the struggle of a revolutionary class. It is
actually the struggle of the class itself. Some people should not assume that riots and going on
strike is the meaning of revolutioner.”
Those are the statements of Stenhuis.45 Let us also listen how a famous social democrat,
Liebknecht, gives an explanation about revolutioner:
“We experience continuing revolution or Revolution im Permanenz. The history of the world is a
single continuing revolution. History and revolution are the same. A revolutionary process of
changing has never stopped within our people and our country. It happens as both of the country
and the people are living things. By the end of this changing process and renewing process is
death. We are as the social democratic group understands that statement. Thus, we have formed a
revolutionary party; it is a party which has the intention to eliminate the obstacles for the
development of the people and the country.”
Equally important, let us highlight the reason of why Karl Marx claims his people as revolutioners.
He gives the reason as:
“Group of socialists is revolutioners. It is not because they act in a harsh way, but it is more
because their perceptions on the growth of production. They perceive that the growth should be
led to the newest understanding and form of owning and production. As now, people may
perceive in a positive way that the group of socialists is true revolutioners for they have put an
effort to arrange and sharpen the bases of socialist; this group is the one who is going to carry out
the new system of socialist.”46

In reality, we could not agree more with the statement of Karl Kautskty; he states, “Social
democrat is a revolutionary party. It is not a party which is faking the revolution!” 47
As now, isn’t it true that each of SDAP, ISDP, Albarda cs, Stokvis, and de Dreu is revolutioner?
Isn’t it true that PNI is also a revolutioner? Don’t we belong to the group of revolutionists as well?
Don’t you think that PNI and together with us intend to eliminate the obstacles that block the way
of developing our country and people? Don’t you think that we do intent to arrange and organize
the people to be ready for it to come? Henceforth, we may restate that PNI is revolutioner; we are
group of revolutionists. In this case, PNI merely perform duties for bringing radical and rapid
changes or omvormin in snel tempo. PNI serves to Umgestaltung von Grund aus. PNI is
revolutioner; it is not because of it is playing around with either bomb or dynamite. As what
Kautsky has earlier said, PNI is not the party which is faking the revolution. In truth, PNI intend to
eliminate the things which appear to the obstacle to further growth of the circle of life of the
Indonesians. PNI makes great effort on organizing the people to fight against the obstacles.

Spirits’ Power

Alas! There are machete, bomb, and dynamite. We are in charge of making use of the machetes,
bombs, and dynamites. It seems like there is no more powerful weapon rather those tens of war
ships, hundreds of air forces, and thousands, hundred thousands, and even billions of army. It feels
like we are lack of spirit. In fact, as the people are aware of their spirit, they may rise; the burning
spirit lives within their hearts that it is more powerful than every other guns and cannons. It has
greater power than any other naval forces and any other army which is equipped with complete

We are aware of the power of the people’s spirit; the spirit is soaring high. People may have
accused us of making use of creating uproar by playing around with light-up firecracker and fall-out
firecracker. We are respectfully implementing the eastern culture that it is sung in the book of
Bagawad Gita. It teaches us about the power of the spirit’s soaring high.
The soul can never be cut into pieces by any weapon, nor can he be burned by fire, nor
moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.
This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is
everlasting, all-pervading, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.
It is said that the soul is invisible, inconceivable, immutable, and unchangeable. Knowing this,
you should not grieve for the body.

No, it is not. PNI does not seek for the power within the riots, bombing, or exploding dynamites.
PNI may not seek the force to intentionally disobey the laws which is accused in this process. PNI
attempts to find the power of forming force in the social organizations and also the organizations
which is run by the spirit of the people who are already aware and risen. PNI seek for forming the
force in a more lively ways; it burns the spirit of the people who are likely to go out as the
imperialism affects it. The spirit is now soaring high. PNI does understand. PNI does realize. PNI
strongly believe in the burning spirit of the people that nothing else in this world can turn it down.
PNI believes that all of those zonder swords, zonder guns, zonder bombs, zonder cannons, zonder
of intentionally disobey the articles of 153 bis and 169 of Criminal Codes are all wrapped in the
soaring spirit of the people. With this spirit weaponry in our hands, we actually possess the divine
power of candrabirawa and pancasona; nothing can beat the power of spirit of the Indonesian
“if the spirit of the people is not tied by the chains, can we confine those people in chains? If the
spirit of the people is soaring high, can anyone desolate the country?
Those statements belong to Sarojini Naidu, a heroine of India. She delivers her speech as the open
the 40th48 National Congress of India. Besides, Mac Swiney, a well-known fighter from Ireland, in
his book Principes de la Liberte, he puts in writing:
“A person whose weaponry has been robbed must be helpless in fighting dozens of people. A
single soldier is unable to defend himself against the regiment of soldiers. In contrast, if every
single soldier from the entire country is gathered, there is nothing in this world that can beat the
soul of the army, whose ultimate goal is defending their rights.49
To be sure, what is the significance of utilizing the bombs or dynamites? Why should we playing
around with disobeying the articles of 153 bis and 169 that in reality, we may have the certainty of
achieving our goal?

Nationalism is the soul of forming authority

PNI has never stopped to burn the spirit of the people. That is the spirit of the people who have once
walked through the miserable situations. Those people are actually the proletariats within the
industrial countries, the people who live in colonized regions. Their spirit for independence is
soaring high. We aim to cultivate and grow the same spirit of theirs to the people of Indonesia. We

do not encourage them in a way of the labor force is conducting a movement; we move them as we
cultivate with the awareness of nationality or nasionaliteit.
For the people who are colonized and also those who walks through the days of imperialism from
other countries may always a spark of nationalism at hearts and minds. In brief, every person who is
ordered to live in an imperialism way must always have nationalism. As an illustration, the conflict
of class group, which happened in Europe and America, was actually the conflict between the group
of authorities and the group who is controlled by the authority; it is the group who is coming from
one motherland, one race, and one feeling. In short, the conflict which happens in a colonized
country is embedded in the nationalistic conflict. In fact, it not about the conflict of the labor and
the capitalist; it is not about the conflict of the group classes within a colonized country. The
conflict is more about the black and the white, the eastern and the western, and the colonized and
the colonialist.
PNI has acknowledged this fact. PNI does understand that as the awareness of nationalism is risen,
it leads to the delightful days ahead. Nationalism is the core strength. For this reason, PNI has never
been tired of enriching and rear the spirit of nationalism. In detail, PNI has successfully made the
lively nationalism. PNI has changed statistic nationalism into dynamic nationalism. In brief, PNI
has changed a negative nationalism into a positive nationalism. PNI has already built a positive
nationalism, Mr. Judges. In this case, if our nationalism is only dealing with protest and the hatred
of imperialism, we do not think that the spirit of nationalism is strong enough to help us to move.
Our sense of nationalism should be positive; it should be a nationalism which creates, establishes,
and both of creates and adores. Departing from this positive nationalism, the Indonesians are
prepared to live in freedom; the freedom is related to both of living prosperously and living happily
as there is no more colonialism. As now, the positive nationalism has already lived within the
people. Our main duty is to keep the nationalism so that it would not become the fanatic nationalism
which spread hatred to other countries. The nationalism should not be the nationalism of
chauvihistis or the aggressive jingo-nationalism.
As what we may have experienced in the latest cruel war it is a jingo-nationalism. As what C. R.
Das has stated, a jingo-nationalism is aggressive that it has the slogan of “gain or lose”; they also
strike here and there. As we possess the positive nationalism, we could not agree more with the
statements of Arabindo Chose. He elaborates that a positive nationalism is actually the God himself.
Departing from this positive nationalism, the people must be optimistic that the days ahead will be
days in the sun; their hearts will spark with joy and lively hopes. There will be no more days that
become rainy days. There will be no more hearts full of hatred. This positive nationalism will
motivate the people to do whatever it takes to bring the days ahead into reality. In short, nationalism

will make our people alive; our people will always live in a lively life. It should be contrary to this
present life that their lives feel like a ship wreck.
“It is because of the nationalism”, is the first sentence which is delivered by the famous leader of
Egypt, Mustafa Kamil. He elucidates the positive nationalism as:
“It is because of the nationalism that the countries which are once left behind are able to cope
with civilization, the means of power. Nationalism is the flowing blood within the vein of the
strong countries. Nationalism is the only thing which gives the sense of living to each and every
human being.”50
Zonder (without) nationalism, there would not be any progress; zonder (without) nationalism there
would be any country established.
“Nationalism is the valuable possessions which give a country to make an effort to strive for
progress. It encourages the country to defend its existence,”51 Dr. Sun Yat Sen states.

Rising Nationalism: earlier days, present days, days ahead

How do we cultivate this nationalism? How do we rear this nationalism? There are three ways to
cultivate and rear the nationalism; they are:
First : We present to the people that we used to have the earlier days. Those earlier days used to
be the days in the sun.
Second : We intent to make the people aware that they are walking through the present days. Present
days are the rainy days.
Third : We would like to show the people that tomorrow is coming as certain as the sun rising in
the east. We show them how to bring those days in the sun to reality. That is the day of full hopes.
In other words, PNI rises and awaken the awareness of the people that each of them has got
“delicate earlier days”; as now, they are walking through the dark days. In the future, they may see
that hopes and promises of the days in the sun are coming. PNI understand that only these trinities
can give a helping hand for the cactus oxypetalus flower to bloom and spark the nationalism within
the heart of the people.
We might have the earlier days in the sun; our past was bright and magnificent. Mr. Judges, is there
any single Indonesian who is sorry for the loss of the earlier days in the sun? Every single person of
Indonesia should have had nationalism within his or her heart as they have heard the greatness of
Kingdoms of Melayu and Sriwijaya, the greatness of the first Mataram, the greatness of the eras of
Sindok, Erlangga, Kediri, Singasari, Majapahit, and Pajajaran. The people should have been
familiar with the history of the greatness of Bintara, Banten, and the second Mataram under the rule
of Sultan Agung. Every person of Indonesia must be saddened by the fact that formerly the flag of

Indonesia was respected by the people of Madagascar, Persia, and China. In contrast, each and
every person should have had hopes and faith that departing from the past experience, there should
be enough power to bring the days in the sun in the future.
Departing from that experience, they must have excelled beyond what have been achieved in the
earlier days. Each person must have got a new should and spirit as he or she read the history of
those eras. As the histories of the greatness are made known to the people, it must have sparked the
fire of hope and the spirit at the heart of the people; nationalism is burnt within it.
Indeed, it is true that those are the feudal era; present days are modern era. We do not aim to bring
back the feudal era into life; we may neither agree nor into the rules of feudalism. We are fully
aware of the drawbacks of feudalism for the people. We are merely showing them that formerly, our
feudalism was a lively feudalism. It was not a dying feudalism. It is a healthy-looking feudalism; it
is not a toxic feudalism. It was feudalism which was full of every chance of possibility to excel. If
the feudalism had not been interfered by the foreign imperialism, the feudalism should have been
able to excel its system; it should have had finished its evolution. It should have had bear and born a
new circle of modern life.52
As a matter of fact, how is our circle of life at the moment doing? It might not be the healthiest one;
it might not be full of chances of possibilities to excel. It is dying; it is empty. At the beginning, we
present the broad picture of the fate of Indonesians at the moment. We tell the truth of how
imperialism may cause riots in our circle of life. Thus, Judges, you might have viewed about the
situation of present days. As we have limited time, we might need no additional information.
However, we may elaborate that the awareness of the people about the miserable fate of today’s life
is the root of cultivating nationalism.
Nationalism is not only for our people; it is for each and every person and human being. It is for
each living thing.
In other words, the understanding of a certain bad fate can lead a person to struggle for a better fate
in the future. There is no intention; there is not hope. There is no desire if the pleasant feeling is
That is the reason why in each era, each and every newspaper are fond of revealing the situations;
they make efforts to elaborate and exaggerate the situation which they dislike. Take for instance,
AID de Preangerbode were upset about the government political issue at the moment and the
movement of the people. PEB stridently seeking to attract attention as it talks about the danger
which threatens the intention of imperialism. Vaderlandsche Club abuses to all directions. As has
been noted, all of them are rooted from the hatred of the present situation. They broadcast their
hatred and unpleasant feeling that they eager to awaken the intention, hope, and the selfish desire of
their own group; they aim for comfortable life for their own kind. In contrast, it might also happen
to PSI, Budi Utomo, Pasundan, and other communities or newspaper in the entire Indonesia. They
should have spread out their propaganda and protests; they are eager to spread the hatred and
exaggerate their intention and desire to their own kind.
In particular, PNI is eager to awaken the people of Indonesia of its miserable fate at the present
days. PNI intends to exaggerate the intention and the hope of the people to live a better life. PNI
truly understand that both of the intention and hope are the motor of the desire to make an effort.
They are the sources of power of the desire to build and the desire to create. PNI acknowledges that
as the awareness of the people of the miserable fate of present days goes deeper, it becomes the
motive force of the people to be more diligent in putting an effort to achieve the goal of a better
fate. PNI perceives that as the awareness of the people about the miserable life of present days has
gotten into the blood and the bone of the people, the spirit of nationalism is soaring high; the spirit
of nationalism, which was once light up, is burnt.
People may say that this is the spreading of hatred. People may assume that this sparks bitterness
feelings and bears a grudge within the hearts of the people. People may call us agitators, selfish-
desire irritator, ophitser, opruier. Our answers resolutely stand, “what are the significant difference
between what we have done and what AID, VB, and PEB what have done on its bases? How are we
different from that of PNI, BU, Pasundan and et cetera?” In a point of fact, we have never left the
objectivity; we have never spread our hatred for to feed own hatred. We may not make the people
feel bitterness or bear the grudges or any other low-class selfish desires. We do gradually reach for
the hatred in order to revive and burn the spirit and intention of the people of their desire to live a
more comfortable lives. We do empower to put an effort to achieve the goal. We do encourage the
development of the positive nationalism at their hearts.
We do remember the speech of Dr. Sun Yat Sen. he states:
“If the situation which I have elaborated earlier is true, it is worth remembering that we are
required to bear in mind that our current situation is in a grief danger. We should have known
what a dangerous life we are walking through at the moment. As we have knowledge of those
facts, we start to burn the spirit which is most likely to be forgotten.”
“If we put an effort to light up the spirit of nationalism without once understand the fact, we
would likely lose each hope forever and Chinese will be destroyed.”
“In the first place, we have to be well informed about those particular situations. We should be
aware of this threatening consequences. We have to throw the echoes from place to place so that
each person has full awareness of how sorrowful that could be if our nation falls.”

“As we would like to set the spirit to soar high, we have to make those four hundred million
people of our nation to be mindful of the death is coming!”53
As we make the people to be mindful of their miserable lives of present days, we intend to arouse
the nationalism within them; that is the ultimate teaching of this great leader. That is exactly what
we work on.
Hatred is hatred. It is not our hatred at hearts. The hatred is pure that it is rooted from imperialism.
Your Honorable Judges, we have elucidated the first and second parts of the efforts of PNI in
nurturing the spirit of nationalism. PNI intends to arouse the awareness of the people of their earlier
days and their present days. Furthermore, the third part is dealing with the elucidation of the days in
the sun of the future and how to make it comes true. As the time is limited, we should make it brief
and clear that PNI aims to form the authority. PNI works on every direction; it always moves and
rises. The entire body and soul of PNI serves for finding the ways to bring the days in the sun to
live. We may strongly believe that the people of Indonesia will certainly walk through the days in
the sun; it is not a riddle to ask. Even thought at the moment the spirit of nationalism is likely to be
forgotten, the people of Indonesia were used to live in their greatest days. Departing from this
experience, the people of Indonesia should be powerful enough to establish the kingdom of
greatness in the future. They should excel to their level where they belong to be or even they are
capable to excel more than what they have achieved in the earlier days.
How do the future days be like?
How days in the sun will be?
There is no single man who could ever be able to describe of the days ahead meticulously. There is
no single man who has the power to determine the future based on his own will. There will be no
human being who are able to proceed before the history. In actual fact, a person is only able to
predict, he may only be able to study the tendencies. Take for instance, the group of Marxists is
barely able to present the form of circle of life of socialistic meticulously; those people are able to
draw the broad pictures and presents the tendencies only. The future days of Indonesia is viewed as
the days in the sun.

They days in the sun of Indonesia is coming as we may have seen the sun rising in the east. Even
before the sun reclines in the horizon, the orchestra of gongs and xylophones are play in the
moonlight night; it is heard from afar distance. The promise as certain as the tales of the coming of
Dananjaya. We may have viewed the sun beam and heard the birds crippling following after him.
That is how the days in the sun would likely to come; we may have seen the tendencies first before
it is coming. We must have waited for it with heart full of hopes. We may have heard the promises
of the wealth which is not to be taken to foreign countries. Moreover, we may have heard a new
circle of life for the people who live happily and safety. We are going to walk through the days
where the social life is well maintained and the structure of political life is well organized; the life
of arts and culture will be nurtured with no limitations. We must have heard the promise of the
coming of Republic of the United States of Indonesia, who may live with dignity among the circle
of other countries. We may have heard the promise of a country which is desirable inside and

Four Nerves of Forming the Authority

Your Honorable Judges, we have elaborated the brief explanation on the efforts of PNI in forming
the authority. We have earlier presented three major periods of our life; they are the earlier days, the
present days, and the days ahead. As now, the forming of authority of PNI relies on nationalism. It
is the sense of love for the motherland and the national. It is the happy feeling of one’s own
happiness. It is the sense of moaning of one’s own despair. Let us give an explanation of the nerves
of the forming of PNI. In the first place, the nerves of the forming of authority of PNI is
contradictory to that of imperialism. The major nerves of imperialism is categorized into four
things; they are:
First : imperialism system bears the divide et impera politic; it is the politic of gaining and
maintaining power by splitting the power of opposition so that individually has less power.
Second : imperialism has proven that Indonesia is in a state of deteriorations
Third : imperialism system rises the belief within the heart and mind of the people that
the tanned-skin people are less valuable than that of the white people
Fourth : also, imperialism system rises the belief within the heart and mind of the people that the
intentions of the people are similar to the intentions of the group of imperialists. Therefore, there is
no urgent needs of the people to conduct self-help and independent politics. The people should be
embedded in the politic of association!54
As can be seen, nationalism is mutually opposed to politic of divide et impera. It is mutually
inconsistent with the politic which put the people in the state of deterioration. It stands against the
politic issue which aims to make known that tanned-skin people are less valuable than the white
people. It is totally contradictory to the politic of association. They are the nerves of the forming of
authority of PNI.

a. Contra politic of splitting opposition

PNI reply the politic of divide et imperia by throwing the echo of forming the unity of Indonesia.
Furthermore, we get the people in line as the nationalism in nurtured among them; it is the answer
for the politic of divide et impera. Starting from the earlier eras up to the present eras, our people

have long enough exposed to the endless splitting strategies; it happened in both of VOC and
modern eras. We do admit that we are easily split by the enemy; that is our delicacy. The splitting
strategy appears to be the winning point for the enemy. Verdeel en heers55 is the only spell for those
who aim to defeat other country. That is exactly the spell of imperialism throughout the eras and
throughout the countries.

Verdeek en heers is the magical spell of Roma, who is actually the founder of that spell. It is the
spell of the Spain and Portuguese as they raise their flag on foreign countries. That is exactly the
spell of Britain, which establish the kingdom of world namely British Empire.
Let us listen to the point of view from Prof. Seeley in his famous book The Expansion of England.
It tells about the politik divide et impera in India; it is written:
“Britain might not be the country without armed forces. It seeks to take control over a land
whose people are multiple to that of Britain’s own people. In fact, it is almost impossible to
obtain as taking control that land might requires the power of army force. Surprisingly, Britain
successfully defeat India and take control of it. Ironically, the army force of India and financial
supports come from India to Britain. If there is a national movement of India, as the one in Italy
happened, the power of Britain to defend its country would likely to drop. The defense of Britain
against India is less powerful than the defense of Ustria in Italy. Given these points, each and
every person who is not emotionally and intentionally attached would be easily defeated; they
will be easily be split.
“As you may see, Sir, a great rebellion can effortlessly be beaten by splitting the people of India;
each of the people is split to fight their own kind.”56

Ironically, both of old imperialism and modern imperialism also adopt this spell; Indonesia has
walked through days with endless splitting.
“The most threatening opponents are defeated that those opponents have nothing left to fight
against the divide et impera. The victories are gained by making use of the powerless people,
tricky calculation and deceitful strategy.”

That is the elaboration of old imperialism politic in Indonesia; it is elaborated by Prof. Veth. In
addition, Clive Day puts in his writing:
“Divide et imperia is an original proverb which is adopted by the kingdom of the natives. That is
the fundamental basis which is adopted by the Dutch in enriching themselves.”57

Old imperialism has long gone. In spite of that, the legacy is remained in the modern imperialism.
That is the legacy of implementing that powerful magical spell of divide et impera; it is a sorcerer’s
spell. Formerly, the Dutch used to adopt that spell to defeat and take over the colonized lands; as
now, the entire islands are already beaten. The process of rounding off the colonized land
(staatsafronding) has finished. Formerly, there used to a clanging sound of the swords clashing;
there used to be the clanging sound of guns and canons. As now, divide et imperia is implemented
to maintain what haven been achieved before by conducting the action in a more silent way or
stillere wegen, as what has been stated by Stokvis.
Indeed, it is true that the whole islands are defeated; the process of rounding off the colonized land
is finished. As now, Indonesia is united; the born is tied in unity. Nonetheless, there is a socialist
who states something related to “unity”; the states:
“A unity which is conquered unity is merely a unity which is controlled by the conquered group.”58
Alas! The spirit should not be united! The spirit of nationalism should not be nurtured within the
spirit of the nation! The group of imperialists should have known that the people whose nationalism
and spirit for the nations are absent are just like a sheet of loose sand, as what Dr. Sun Yat Sen says.
They will be easily blown here and there; they will be easily tore down.

That is the spirit. That is the spirit in which the modern imperialism system would like to give spell
on. That is the spirit which would be tore down so as to the imperialism will rule forever. That is the
spirit which possess the wedge of splitting that block the nationalism to come nearer. In this case,
nationalism is like the cement which is put in the sand. It may establish a concrete block which can
bear the shooting canon.
The group of modern imperialist has never forgotten of the former legacy. They adopt the spell of
divide et impera every single day; each and every day they spell out that magical words. In
particular, India may have declared as a defeated country, as what Prof. Seeley has already taught: 59
“As India has declared as a defeated country, we may acknowledge that we cannot stand it. In
fact, if there is a certain reason that moves the people to have the sense of belonging in one
nation, I would like to say that we have to question the safety of our government. No; I would
like to say that we have to strive for our hopes directly!”
“Strive for the hopes directly” or Onmiddellijk alle hoop opgeven! Actually, that is a powerful
teaching. No, the striving for hopes should not create an uproar; we should strive for it that we may
have no time for sleeping. In fact, the newspapers of AID de Preangerbode, Java Bode, Nieuws van
den Dag, de Locomotief, Soerabajaasch Hahdelsblad, and et cetera have not had enough desire to
spread the seeds of discord. Each and every day they insult the effort of the people to be united;
they abuse the effort to rise the nationalism from the in lander (natives). Indonesian language is the
language of union; this language is erased from the use of the schools. Isn’t this educational system
killing the sense of nationalism?60 Don’t you think that Colijn is still alive with his book Koloniale
Vraagstukken van Heden en Morgen. He is the one who tries to implement the basis of divide et
impera within a structure of government administration. It is called eilandgouvernementen or the
government of the islands.

Does De Kat Angelino, who spread around the hatred of killing nationalism of Indonesia, still exist?
Does Couvreur also exist? He writes to the government:
“Bali Island is open for mission and Christianizing its people. In effect, Bali Island is going to be
full of Roman-Catholic people. This could be the wedge that drives other islands, Java and eastly
islands, apart. This wedge has once introduced to Batak, which is Christianize61, as the wedge
that drives Aceh and Minangkabau apart.
Couvreur is still living to cultivate that wedge to drive people apart, isn’t it? Therefore, the people
of Indonesia, especially those who are Christians, may protest:
“What a Christian wedge it is! We are Christians and we are Indonesians; we might have
different religion as other Indonesians do. Isn’t it cruel to make use our Christianity as the means
of tearing people apart? Should we let that divine Christianity to be used as the means to block
the forming of unity in Indonesia? Shouldn’t we stand against it as it expels the children of the
motherland of Indonesia from one to another?62
In short, in various places there should be a system which block the spirit of nationalism and nurture
the split of in lander with other in landers, shouldn’t it?
Must be remembered that we aim for the power of authority. We should not sleep to achieve it. We
may have our own magical spell to fight against the spell of divide at impera; ours is having greater
power than that of the divide et impera does. We learn from the hermitage of Sanghyang Merdeka.
We learn to use the magical power of “united we stand, divided we fall”. We put emphasis on the
teaching g of Prof. Seeley previously. However, we may have our own meaning.
A unified Indonesia, Mr. Judges. A unified Indonesia means gathering the entire people of
Indonesia to be one people and one nation. That is the first nerve of forming of authority of PNI.

b. Contra of retrogression, it is the contra of decadence of moral and cultural value

What about the second one? Our second nerve is also dealing with the second nerve of imperialism.
Imperialism system set a deterioration in the condition of the people. We work towards the
progressive life of the people. We understand well that the deterioration of the people becomes the
major advantage of imperialism system. In this case, imperialism in this context has nothing to do
with trade imperialism. As what we have elaborated earlier that among those four bases of

imperialism, the fourth is the most powerful of all. It puts an effort to gain more capitals from
Indonesia. It makes great effort on farming industries, mining industries, common industries, and
any other industries. Any other industries are the industries which require low-wage labor force,
low-rate land rent, and the fulfillment of low-rate goods. For this reason, the people of Indonesia are
situated to live the lowest form of life; Indonesians are also situated to accept the life the way it is.
They are less intelligent; they have experience high fear of humiliation. They do not have any
strong desire; they may not be strong and brave. They are stupid and powerless just like a group of
obedient lambs.
In the earlier part, we have already presented the examination results of Prof. Van Gelderen. It has
proven that the intention of imperialism is to set the people in a constant deterioration. Equally
important, imperialism intents to set constant deterioration within the moral and cultural value of
the people.
In Welvaarsverslag63 deel IX b2 on page 172, we have read:
“The entire villagers, its chairmen, and its region are lowly ones or humble servants that they
should have been claimed to be the lowest class forever. Their loyalty of paying the taxes is
beyond question. At the same time, the noblemen are the ones who give orders. This gap should
be made known widely to the public.
In particular, the circle of life is established based on this basis. Although the Dutch may look after
them, they should always be remained to be those lowly ones!”
They should be remained as the lowly ones, Mr. Judges. Our people should always live a lowly life;
they are situated to accept their life the way it is. They are just like the obedient lamb. It has been
decades as this system is conducted; it has been centuries as this system has its influence in the
circle of life for the Indonesians. Mr. Judges, don’t you wonder what Miss Augusta de Wit in her
book of Natuur en Menschen In Indie writes? She writes:
“Injustice has been here since long time ago. The common sense of the people accepts that injustice
is just part of their everyday lives. Their common senses are twisted and getting smaller. They
neither strong-willed nor brave.”64
Mr. Judges, don’t you wonder why PNI has written down our defense in our ensigns to fight against
the moral decay? We are the member group of PNI is going to eradicate this irritating disease by
educating more people and establishing more schools for common people; we intent to erase the
number of illiterateness of the people. We rise and arouse the will of the people for the days ahead
which is more likely to be the life of a human person. We set the spirit of the people to soar high to
achieve the desire. We do nurture the strong vision of the people of being powerful and brave. We
encourage them to possess their ultimate energy as they previously had in the earlier days. As now,

the people, whose fleas has been all eradicated they are also said to be the group of obedient lambs;
Prof. Veth states:
“The roaring tiger is tamed to be falling asleep even to its fleas. The sleeping pills of the
colonials make it under the rule of a stronger power from colonial country.”65
The power of the people is one of the nerves of forming our authority. It is one of the nerves to
defend against the power of imperialism. Most importantly, that is the nerve to generate the people
to move forward.

c. Contra of cultivating belief that we are like a lamb that is led to slaughter
Mr. Judges, we just have limited time that we are going to present the third nerve of forming the
authority of PNI briefly.
In general, the third nerve is actually related to the second nerve, which the defense against the
metaphor of being a lamb that is led to slaughter. In this case, imperialism system is dealing with
the intention to set the people in deterioration in both of economic life and common sense. By the
same token, imperialism intend to make the people belief that they are just like a lamb that is led to
slaughter. They are just a low class of obedient lamb.
As we have elaborated earlier, the group of imperialists in various places are likely to veil their
motives. They conceal their motives within an impressive theoretical framework. They attest that
imperialism has nothing to do with wealth; imperialism is dealing with neither harassment nor
assault. In particular, imperialism serves to educate the people to develop. They help people to grow
into a more mature society. In brief, they aim to spread the sacred mission or mission sacree.
They may falsely state that they gain nothing but disadvantages. They obtain burden instead of gain
advantages. It is ‘white men’s burden’66 they say for they help us to grow to a more developed
Therefore, this misleading theories of mission sacree and ‘white men’s burden’ are widely spread to
create a certain belief among the people. The belief affirms that the natives are born to be inferior
class; in contrast, white people are meant to be the superior nation. White people are the leading
nation by the nature. Therefore, it is generally accepted that the inferior should be led and guided by
the superior by implementing imperialism.

“That is the Master with the blonde hair,” Karl Kaustsky says. He writes a book about an ethnic
group and the Jewish. He elaborates the point of view of the country, whose people have blond hair
against the Jewish. It is written:

“They are the Masters whose hair is blonde. They are so big-headed that they claim themselves
to be the most excellent group of people on earth. They view themselves as the most kindhearted
people. They are the strongest people. They are the one whom every other person should bent.”67
How this point of view is applicable among the Asian countries? Does it make any different? No, it
is not. What have just elaborated is similar to that on in Indonesia. The Dutch makes an attempt to
make the Indonesians believe that the Dutch is superior by blood and the Indonesians are inferior by
nature. The Dutch are so conceited they belong to white people. Ironically, the Dutch make the
Indonesian belief to the sense of “Iyeu ain uyah kidul”.
Pastor van Lith is a person with a sincere heart. There is a quotation of his famous pocket book 68s
which is written:
“As a matter of fact, the Dutch might not belong to the thieves of clove at that time.
Unfortunately, they just inherit the legacy. They have inherited the famous legacy from the
VOC. They might come to the Indies as they believe that they are the descendants of the Master
of XVII with superior power. They come to the Indies as the son who are ready to rule. They are
excessively proud of themselves that they are going to rule the inferior people. Possibly, they are
not aware of themselves that they are being conceited. As they depart from the Netherlands, they
are not conceited. However, as they arrive in the Indies, their arrogance is undeniable. They
circumstance may give them powerful influence to be conceited. Every Dutch might live in a
different level of arrogance but their signature characteristic is all the same. They are all
conceited. That is the common circle of life of the Dutch which is alive within Indies.
That is actually the legacy from VOC. In particular, each of the Dutch, although he or she is a
Catholic, is living in that spices company that each of them focus on the intention of the
company. Each of them altogether lay emphasis on their own lives and safety. The wealth of
their lives goes hand in hand with the growth of VOC.
It is a misleading statement for it says that the signature of excellence is the root of the great
company of reuzen onderneming. Indeed, it is true that we have heard enough abusive words like
“in landers are just like a stupid buffalo”, “what a stupid in lander”, “you are a stupid in lander; you
will die if we are not here to save you”, and there are many more sarcastic compliments for us.
However, the grave disaster does not rely on the conceit of the European. The disastrous danger
relies on the unstoppable system which teaches our people to accept a set of beliefs uncritically that
say “You are stupid in landers” and also “what are you without us around? You will die for sure”.
They are fed to believe that they are helpless. For centuries, we are claimed to be the stupid in
landers; we are also said to be less valuable people. This system is hereditary. In addition, our
people are claimed to be “low” and “powerless” as the report of the VOC has presented. The power
of us to fight is turn down that it makes the people truly believe that we are actually worthless and
helpless. As now, the belief of our people that they are able to stand on their own feet is gone. The
strength and bravery of our people are no longer in existence. The self-belief and the self-esteem of
our people are dead. Formerly, we used to the nation which upheld the eastern culture and the
greatness of the history of the east. We used to be mindful of our competence and our skill. In fact,
we have lost all of those conscience. As now, we do believe that we are the people of inferior.
As now, the moansome of the people is everywhere to hear. They complain, “It is true that our life
depends on the existence of European nation; if not, how are we supposed to live then?
Mr. Judges, how could we tear out the root of this disastrous way of thinking? How are we
supposed to cultivate the revelation of Cakraningrat which tears apart the bound of imperialism?
Mr. Judges, you should have known that the feeling worthless among the people or even the feeling
of being inferior is a dangerous poison for the progress of a country. It also acts as a brake to
prevent the nurture of evolution among the people.
Don’t you wonder, Mr. Judges, of seeing PNI which is trying hard to eradicate the feeling of
inferior within the people? PNI breaks the sweat in order to erase every saying of “We cannot do
this. We cannot do that.” PNI attempts to uproot the theories of mission sacree and ‘white men’s
burden’. PNI has every intention to cultivate the belief of the people that if we are given a certain
chance, our nation is going to excel in the same level as other foreign nations do. Don’t you
wonder, Mr. Judges, why PNI reveals the truth that the eastern world is going to be civilized
without the coming of the western people? We should not believe that we are born with inferioriteit
or unintelligence. In fact, inferioriteit or unintelligence is actually indoctrinated to us. Hence, we
could not agree more with the statements of Karl Kautsky; he states:
“A person who is lack of everything, he is likely lack of means for civilization as well. It leads
him or her to experience the lack of civilization.”
To be sure, the theory of mission sacree is true only on its surface.
“It seems like the civilization take control upon inhumanity.”69
Mission sacree is true only on its surface, Mr. Judges.

We are born to be worthless; meanwhile the group of imperialists are superior by nature. We do
intend to eradicate this misleading point of view; we aim to erase the feeling of worthless within the
people. Therefore, we make use of our third nerve of forming authority of PNI. As we eradicate the
point of view that states our people are worthless, we attempt to improve people’s mind to be
confident of themselves and work independently. In other words, being self-reliance or self-help are
two major prerequisites of achieving the political aim of PNI.

d. Politic Contra of Unity with other group of people
Let us discuss in detail about our fourth nerve of forming authority. We are going to be brief. It is
worth remembering that each of colonized country has different intention from that of the group of
imperialists. They are possibly the difference intentions within the scope of economic, social,
politic, or other sectors. It gives the wrong ideas as there is one statement that says both of
imperialism and the natives do have similar intentions; thus, it is understandable that the colonized
country should be unified with the motherland. We, as the colonized country, are required to
conduct a unified political system with the colonials; we are required to conduct association politic.
We disagree. We object the statement of having similarities in intentions. We disagree to conduct
the association politic. PNI resolutely hold to the truth that there is a contradiction of intentions.
There is an antithesis between the intentions of the imperialists and the natives, as what group of
Europeans sincerely suggest. PNI firmly believe that departing from having different intentions, a
colonized country will be barely able to organize its own circle of life as long as the conflict of
intention has not stopped. In other words, the natives are able to organize their own circle of life
only if the colonialism has stopped. On that account, PNI declares as the party of independence; it is
a national independent party. In fact, independence is not granted by the imperialism, which in
earlier days aimed to make us more mature. Granting us with independence will surely lead them to
their doom.
It is worth noting that independence is achieved only because we make great effort to achieve it. It
should be born by our own hands. It should be created and magnified by our own kind. Politic of
association is certainly in conflict with the understanding of these characteristics. Politic of
association is only adding the load of burden for the people. In every colonialism, there will always
be an antithesis of intentions. Thus, our politic view should stand on our own feet that it is defended
against the antithesis. Every Indonesian who does not stand on his or her own feet to fight against
the antithesis, he or she must be daydreaming. PNI is not daydreaming. PNI does not want to float
above the clouds of thoughts. PNI stands on reality or realiteit. We disagree with the politic of
association. Henceforth, we propose the politic of antithesis to be our forth nerve of forming
authority. By conducting this politic of antithesis, PNI is able to draw the line to confine between
the two groups; they are the group of the imperialists and the natives. Also, PNI will be able to see
the situation clearly.

Members who form the authority

Mr. Judges, there is only one more thing that we would like to elaborate related to the forming of
our authority. To begin with, we have earlier given explanations about the soul of the forming of
our authority; it is the nationalism. We have already made the ideas clear to everyone that there are
four major nerves of forming the authority; they are: the unity of Indonesia, fighting against the
deterioration of the common sense of the people, eradicating the feeling of worthless, and
conducting politic of antithesis. At this moment, we are going to give an explanation of the
members of forming our authority.
Who are the members who play significant roles in forming the authority of PNI?
The members who form the authority of PNI are the mass.70 The ultimate dream of PNI is that this
party will not only consist of tens or hundreds people only. PNI should not be the place for the
hypocrite politician whose work is only moaning and complaining. PNI deserve the greatness of
mass movement. It deserves to have mass movement for it rises the number of people involved to
be ten thousand, hundred thousand, and even millions. Whether they are old or young, intelligence
or less intelligence, noblemen or common people, all of them are encouraged to engage in the mass

We do believe that the perfection of forming the authority is achieved through conducting the mass
action. This mass action is going to unstoppably flooded in. This is also the mass action which
appears to be the movement of large rolling waves in the entire Indonesia; it starts from Aceh to
Fak-Fak. As shown above, the forming of authority will reach its ultimate goal only if the mass
action is conducted. As an illustration, by still-water of Indonesia PNI aims to flow the water. The
flowing water is started to flow from spring to spring that it gets bigger to reach a river then flow to
other rivers. The flowing rivers end in the ocean that the ocean flows to other oceans. In the end, the
flowing water gets larger in size and more powerful in quality; its one and only tide is rolling high
to one direction. In a point of fact, we are completely confident that the process of forming the
authority of PNI is going to be great and unbeatable for we have four major strengths; they are: the
intellectual giants of PNI, the four robust nerves, and the lively soul of nationalism which live at the
heart of the people. Therefore, the authority of PNI appears to be Krishna Tiwikrama, who is having
great power and not able to be defeated.

Mass action

It appears to be Krishna Tiwikrama! Does it mean that our process of forming the authority is
linked to revolution, hamuk jayabinangun, riots, or at least the violence of the law?
No, it is not.

It is linked to neither violation of the law nor revolution. It is actually a massive mass action yet it is
safe. It is an organized mass action yet it is influential. It is almost similar to the mass action of
SDAP twenty years ago; it strives for gaining the rights of general election. As SDAP conducted a
mass action of tens or even hundred thousands of people were involved, did they explode the bombs
and dynamites? Did they destroy the public facility? Did they violate the government laws? To be
sure, in carrying out the mass action for the rights of general election, did SDAP spill the blood of
the citizens? Were chairmen punished as they violate certain laws?
Mr. Judges, the Dutch must be happy for they have won the democracy. We do feel grateful of it as
well. Besides, we may also exclaim, “May you be happy! May you be happy with your rights of
general election!” Nevertheless, let us recall our memory of how the Dutch has successfully
obtained their rights of general election. We should have wondered how democracy is achieved. It
must be because of the mass action. The waves the mass action flooded the entire Netherlands. It
raises the power of the citizens. It transmits the electricity to the entire body of the Netherlands. The
great mass action is written with the gold ink in the history book of the Netherlands. The mass
action brings a modern government law.
That great mass action is exactly what PNI dreams of. That is a great and all-powerful mass action.
It moves the people and transmits the electricity energy to the body of the nation. The rolling waves
of the mass action aims to win. It has never aimed to play around. We have never played around to
violate the law as what we have been charged of. We have never played around with the bombs,
dynamites, guns, or riots. In fact, our only weapon is the spirit of nationalism which is soaring high
and follows by the four nerves of forming the authority. As the nationalism is sharpening day by
day, it should make us more powerful and unbeatable. In this case, both of the spirit of nationalism
and the four nerves of forming authority are able to arouse the desire from the people, or moreel
geweld, that it makes us able to achieve our goal.
We come back to the writing that the members of forming the authority of PNI come from millions
of common people. They are chosen as they are gathered just like a swarm of ants.
AID often writes about PNI and PKI. Also, the witness of Albreghs ala Coljin states that PNI is the
substitution of PKI. It is the replacement of communist. What an amusing way of thinking it is!
Mr. Judges, it is logical, isn’t it? PNI is established right after PKI comes to an end. PNI has shown
that it stands against the imperialism as PKI does. PNI eager to move the people as PKI does. Thus,
PNI is similar to PKI. In other words, symbol of red and white of the bull’s head is similar to the
red hammer and sickle. It can be implied that nationalism is communist.
Although the logic is logical, PNI is not a communist. It is true that PNI was established in 1927. It
is a fact that PNI stands against imperialism. Furthermore, PNI is a mass party; it is actually a party
of kromoism and marhaenism. Once, dr. Cipto was worried that PNI was claimed and suppressed to
be the replacement of PKI. PNI is not a communist party. It is not heimelijke opvolgster71 from the
Indonesian Communist Party.
PNI is a nationalism revolutionary party. As what we have elaborated earlier, massism, kromoism,
and marhaenism of PNI is not linked to communist. It is rooted from the cricle of life of Indonesia
which requires PNI to live together with kromoism and marhaneism.


Are we asked to embrace kromoism? Mr. Judges, we are asked to embrace kromoism just like the
ways of the circle of life of European ask the group of socialists to embrace proletariarism. In fact,
the arrangement of the circle of life of Indonesia is dealing with the circle of life of Kromo and
Marhaen. It is the circle which belongs to common farmers, common labors, common merchants,
and common sailormen. In short, both of kromo and marhaen are living in a modest way of life.
Indonesia may have no group of national bourgeois72, just like the ones who lead in India, whose
efforts aims to fight against imperialism by conducting politic of self-containing.73 There are some
of nationalists of Indonesia who state that the movement of Indonesia should imitate the movement
in India that it should conduct an economic boycott and also a movement of self-sustainability that
proves and consumes the goods of one’s own nation. We would like to respond by stating that it
could be a good achievement if Indonesia is able to provide its people with its own daily needs;
however, the movement of Indonesia should not be imitating the movement of India. Indonesia
should not follow the self-sustainability. Indonesia should not make use of the effort from the
national bourgeois for Indonesia does not have any single of bourgeois.

Indonesian movement should be the movement whose mass are gathered from group of Kromo and
Marhaen only. It is suggested this way for Indonesia consists of groups of kromo and marhaen
only. The fate of Indonesia lies in the hands of the groups of Kromo and Marhaen. It can be inferred
that the mass should be gathered from the organization of groups of kromo and marhaen. Does
anyone, who is engaged in the movement of Indonesia, keep away from as well as feel unwilling to
unite with his or her people who are claimed to be the low-class and miserable people? Does
anyone play around to be a hypocrite politician or nobleman? In point of fact, even though a person
has been exclaiming the love for his or her nation thousand times, as he or she does not put an effort
to gather both of marhaenism and kromoism, he or she must be conducting a fake politic.
They are both of kromoism and marhaenism! Those are actually the pictures of our current circle of
life. It must be remembered that imperialism in Indonesia had been implemented from the VOC era

to the cultuurstelsel era; it was then continued to be implemented from cultuurstelsel era to modern
era. The root and branches of imperialism eliminate and remove forcefully each company of our
people. Imperialism put an obstacle in the way of the crafts companies, industries, or any other
Indonesian ondermening to grow. As a consequence, the vital aspects of life, they are: trading,
cruising, and craft, are put to an end as both of old imperialism and modern imperialism give strong
influence on it; those two kinds of imperialism are actually monopolistic.
As now, what are left are only minor trading, minor cruising, and minor craft, and minor farming.
Unfortunately, there is also a large number of labors who have no their own kind company to work
on. As now, the circle of life of Indonesia is merely linked to the circle of life from kromo and
marhaen only.
Mr. Judges, as we have a very limited time, we would like to present two arguments from the
intellectuals of the Europe; we should not have left these arguments behind. Those intellectuals are:
Raffles, Prof. Veth, Prof Kielstra, Prof. Gonggrijp, Prof. v. Gelderen. In addition, there are
Schmalhausen, Rouffaer, and other experts which have proven our statement to be true.

We have read about the old imperialism which is written in a well-known book of Raffles. It is
“It needs much effort to draw the picture of how vast the trading in Java as the Dutch had already
settled in the eastly seas. It is a heartbreaking fact that the foreign countries were trying to block
the trading. The trading system was changed; the profit for the people of Indonesia was drop to
its minimum level. It might have happened as there were an inadequate monopoly authority, the
selfish desire to gain more profit which was followed by the hunger of the possession of power,
and also the unsatisfactory merchant government.”
“There are crucial articles from thirty one articles about restrictions. They are the articles which
confine each trading movement. They are the articles which soaking everything to extinguish the
blaze of the spirit of the people. Also, they are the articles which are issued to feed the desire of
wrath. They are the articles which are also called as the fanaticism of the selfish desire for
profusion of wealth.”74
Mr. Judges, Raffles is a famous for he hates the Dutch. Therefore, let us investigate the opinions
from the Dutch poets. We are going to listen to the similar opinions as Raffles has. Prof. Veth has
talked about old imperialism. He states:
“Our nation is just like Majapahit era in the 16th century that it was famous for its merchants
group who worked hard. It was also famous for its chivalrous sailormen and courageous
immigrant. In general, they have to experience huge changes that they become the silent and
peaceful farmers,” and also
“It is obvious that the roaring tiger is tamed to be falling asleep. The tiger cannot bear the power of
the sleeping pills of colonialism that they are ruled by the other stronger foreign country.”75

Don’t you know that Prof. Kielstra writes:

“The politics of trade of the Dutch has closed the sources of life of the people; the sources of life
are getting dry. However, who cares? Don’t you know that people teach us that a person should
not turn from his or her own principle? It is a common belief that poor people tend to be the
easiest ones to be given an order.”76
Let us pay attention to the utterances of Prof. Gonggrijp. He says:
“The great attempt to make monopoly last forever has led to the doom of the prosperity of the
Moluccas Islands. It also suppresses the excitement of trading and the desire to make an effort
from the natives.”77
Prof. Van Gelderen has written his opinions in his speech in his book as well. He writes:
“As there is a vast library, it is undeniable that the lively and well-organized trade is started to
emerge. There should be a certain traffic of exchanging activity across the ocean with the
provided means at that time. It is started as the system of contingenten and leverantien78 which is
followed by the cultuurstelsel. As a consequence, the producer of the natives was pushed to the
edge by the world market. The progress of economic life is blocked; the growth of the employer
class and the merchant class of our own nation is blocked.” 79
In particular, people may rebut, “That was the exact condition years ago. Today’s situation has
To be sure, it was exactly in the past time. That was exactly how cruel old imperialism could
have been. As now, modern imperialism has taken over but it is similar to the old imperialism.
Today’s situation is still put a block for the establishment of the big companies in Indonesia. It is
still mengkromokan and makes them into marhaen community that it is carried out in a more
silent way or langs stillere wegen.
Nowadays situation has shown that the circle of life of Indonesia is reflected in the minor farmers,
minor merchants, minor sailor, and any other minor occupations. Also, there are millions people
who has no means of production and industries to work on, not even the smallest industry. The
number of proletariats is increasing. As what Prof. van Gelderen states that it is the result from
modern imperialism that it makes us become “the nation whose members are only labors” and “the
only labor for the other nations”.
How about the arguments? Let us focus on the utterances of the former Resident Assistance
Schmalhausen which has been reported by Mrs. Dus. It is stated:

“It is the similar thing or it is even bigger that it is dealing with the fabric woven. In earlier days,
in Java, people normally collected the soft fabrics from the coastal area. However, the needs of
fabric for everyday life, for the entire Javanese, and for the Indies islands were fabricated by
their own hands. Thousand bolts of fabric were shipped and distributed around Java. As now, the
fabric from the Netherlands starts to reach the Indies islands. As a consequence, the fabric
industries of the natives go bankrupt. At the same time, the fabricated factories of the
Netherlands begin to grow in Indonesia that they replace the fabric industries of the natives in a
short period of time.”
Mrs. Dus writes her opinions on nowadays situation. She writes:
“Mrs. Dus tries to give explanation on the major causes of this unfortunate situation of the natives.
In addition to the blocking of the rice exports, it is an unfortunate situation that the people have lost
some other export goods. Thus, within this era, it is said that there are numerous industries of the
natives which are most likely to end.”80
Those utterances appear to be similar as that of G. P. Rouffaer. He asserts:
“Under this circumstance, every industry of the natives is suppressed by the import of the foreign
In particular, the same fate also comes for every other Indonesian company. Where are our cruises
at the moment? Where are our companies of steel and brass? Where are our merchants now? As a
matter of fact, the writing from Prof. van Gelderen could be true. It is written:
“The progress of the foreign industries in Indonesia may push the home industries which are
likely to grow. The trade of the natives has come to an end. The local industries are also wiped
by the rolling waves of the exported goods with a cheaper price; foreign industries must have
produced it in a large scale.82”
“In earlier days, there were the days of free cultivating right after the era of cultuurstelsel had
ended. That was the exact time when the farmers were forced to say goodbye to Java. As now,
the unfortunate fate happens again that the natives are facing the market world.”83
Mr. Judges, our circle life may have no single big company. In general, our circle of life is full with
the group of Kromo and Marhaen only. We do declare that we are the National Party of Indonesia,
who consistently stand on the realiteit, is required to carry out the politic which has the
characteristics of Kromoistis and Marhaenistis. We need not to defeat the imperialism by pushing it
to the edge by the economic competition. We are helpless to beat it with our self-containing, which
has the characteristic of national economic, as it is conducted in India. Our only way to conquer it is
by carrying out the action of Kang Kromo and Kang Marhaen. We are going to conduct a big mass
action for the nation. We also try to gather the million people into one. We aim to guide the
intellectuals of Indonesia to engage in this mass action. We do try and we are optimistic that we are
able to achieve it! We raise the awareness of those intellectuals of Indonesia that this is the right
time for them to jump in the mass action. They are asked to look for the power of authority. They
should not only become the hypocrite politicians who only content themselves with complaint and

No, it is not supposed to be that way. In fact, the slogan of “Within the mass, together with the
mass, and for the mass!” should be the only slogan for us and for each of Indonesian who are
willing to struggle for the fortunes of the motherland.

The action of forming authority. Courses and action.

Mr. Judges, we have already given explanation about the four major aspects in forming the
authority of PNI; they are: the spirit of nationalism, the four different nerves, the mass and the
common people as the members.
Let us introduce in a brief way how the forming of authority is obtained and how the forming of
authority conducts its action.
The movement for forming authority of PNI is done based on its characteristics. In other words, the
movement is carried out on according to our signature characteristics of movement. The signature
characteristic of movement is nationale bervrijdings-beweging en hervormingsbeweging tegelijk; it
is actually the movement which strives for the independence of Indonesia. It also attempts to bring
betterment and improvement which can be achieved by now.
In particular, Ir. Albarda in Twede Kamer gives an explanation:84
“The movement of the natives has two different signature characteristics, just like what a social
democracy may usually have. As the movement of the natives aims to be an independent county,
the movement starts to bring improvements for the life of the common people in recent days;
they are the common people who are going to play significant roles in achieving the goal of the
movement. In particular, the characteristic appears to be similar to that of social democracy has
that it also strives for the improvements of the life of the people in a short period of time.
Furthermore, it also encourages the people to think beyond the surface; also, it serves to organize
the mass. Departing from this experience, they have the intention of achieving the goals within
short period of time.

We can infer that our movement is the movement which aims to be independent that within the
process of obtaining the goal, we may conduct small steps to bring betterments to the life of the
common people. This is definitely not the movement which only put in writing its own slogan of
being an independent Indonesia on its bases. More importantly, it has included “how to work on the

independence of Indonesia” in its bases. It may also have written the small steps to conduct the
process of bringing betterment to the life of the people in Indonesia. In like manner, Ir. Albarda has
given an explanation that both of the struggle and the action should go hand in hand with the
articles of the smalls step to achieve the main goal. The article of the small steps is provided to be
the place to organize the mass and sharpen the conscience. It is actually a system of schooling or
training that it is going to serve a higher and harder achievement; it is the independence of the
motherland of Indonesia. To point out, the movement conducts the action to build schools and
hospitals with its own funding. Likewise, the movement also eradicates number of usury and
illiterate. The movement carries out an action of establishing cooperation. Besides, the actions aim
to eradicate the elimination of article of 153 bis and also the articles which are related to the spread
of hatred and also the rights of putting someone in jail. The action insists to broaden the legal
entitlement to be united an allied. Equally important, there should be the freedom of the journalists
to write for their newspapers. In a point of fact, it is obvious that everyday actually gives a
tremendous contribution to the advantages of education. Everyday life is rich of the value of
pedagogy for the people. It may help the people in shaping awareness and the power that they
actually possess. Let the people experience to be successful in making use of their true power.
In addition to those everyday actions, we do introduce the theories as well as the teachings of
movements for other countries to the people. To be precise, we encourage the people to sit for the
courses and trainings; they are exposed to read various magazines. It is hoped that the people may
have clear ideas of their struggle for independence. We need to know the reasons why they are
striving for independence. In other words, we help the people to walk in the best ways that they
might not be claimed to be the group of obedient lambs who just follow the orders without thinking
All of the courses and trainings, brochures, and magazines of the party and the community should
not be separated from the mass action. Those means should always be used consciously within the
mass actions which aim for the better future.
It is worth remembering that mass action zonder (without) the theories are going to be useless. Mass
action zonder (without) the courses and training and also brochures and newspapers belong to the
purposeless and unlived mass action. Those are the examples of the hopeless mass action as the
people who are involved have neither strong intention nor resolute will. In fact, intention is the only
key for the people to generate the mass action. Karl Kautsky, a famous theoretician of mass action
of the European labors, in his book Der Weg zur Mach teaches us that:
“The will of a fighter is determined by three major things; they are: the reward which is obtained
by the fighters, the strong feeling, and the real power. In this case, as the reward is getting
higher, the will of the people is getting stronger. Also, as there are more courageous people to
fight, the number of people who fight for the reward is also increasing. In fact, it happens only if
the people are truly aware of what they are fighting for and why they are fighting. In contrast, if
the people do not feel the urgency of the struggle, there will not be any spark of willingness to
fight. It does not matter how impressive the reward is, they are not going to fight. In fact, what
they really have is only a single will or even the strongest intention which is burnt brightly that it
does not lead anywhere. It is helpless. It can be implied that the power of the people is pointless
if it is not followed by sufficient knowledge and awareness of their own power and their enemy’s
power. It will just move toward a hopeless direction. Power without the awareness of being
powerful will not lead the people to feel the spark of strong desire. In contrast, in some cases as
the awareness of being powerful is not followed by the power may create certain surprising
occurrences to the enemy and also may make the enemy lose their bravery; the intentions of the
enemy will be easily bent down. However, the long last result is not achieved with no real

achieved with no real energy. The struggle that leads to victory is not with real energy, but only by
blazing the eyes of the enemy about one's own power, sooner or later it will always perish again and
leave a sense of desperation that is hard, the more brilliant results for the first time.

...Our first and most important obligation is to increase the power of the proletariat. This, of course,
we cannot raise as we please. The power of the proletariat, for a certain situation of life's association
with capitalism, are determined by its economic comparisons, and cannot be added just like that.
But people can enlarge the results of the energy movement that exist there by keeping it free of
wasted. Processes in the unconscious realm mean infinite waste of energy when we look at it from
the point of our intentions and objectives. Nature does not even have a purpose. The conscious will
of man, gives him a purpose, also gives him the means to achieve that goal by not wasting energy
and with a small
use of energy.

This also applies to the struggle of the proletariat. It is true that the proletariat has not always been
unconsciously struggling, but its conscious willingness in this matter is only about their own close

Changes in the society of life arising from this struggle, the first still hidden for the class struggle is
a long time an unconscious event and because full of deficiencies of energy, which is found in all
unconscious events. Only knowledge of the process of the association of life, of its tendencies and
intentions, can end this waste of energy by concentrating the forces of the proletariat, uniting those
forces in large organizations, which are also united by big intentions and which are regularly
distanced all individual actions and small actions against fixed class interests, which class interests
are enslaved to the progress of association together. In other words; theory is a factor which greatly
raises the possibility of the development of the power of the proletariat, while the theory also
teaches people to use it in the most beneficial way the forces provided by economic development
and prevent people from wasting it. But because the theory not only enlarges the active power of the
proletariat, but also its awareness of its energy. And that is no less necessary.58

Gentlemen of Judges, with this postulate the picture of how great the leader gives theory to the
people he guides is drawn. PNI gave that theory. It conducted courses and party newspapers. He
gave theories about the ins and outs of imperialism, theories about the problems of one's own
movement, theories about the teachings of movements in other countries. However, it is not only
theory which adds strength to the people; it was not only courses and brochures and party
newspapers which had encouraged the will of the people. The people must be guided and cultivated
their will and energy in the field of action, in the "train" of progress and energy in the field of
"action by action", ie in the "train" working to bring about improvements today as we mentioned
earlier. This is where people out can be questioned by their will and energy, measured and counted
their strength, maintained and enlarged- the Indonesian national party exaggerated its power,
galvanized by its hardness of heart and energy!
Karl Kautsky, about actions by those deeds taught in his book "Der Weg zur Macht", written almost
30 years ago, honorable judges, as follows:
"What the proletariat does not have, is its awareness of its power ... What can be done by social
democracy. He did, namely to give awareness to the proletariat. Also here with the application of
theory, but not only this. More influential for the formation of awareness of power; of all theories, is
always an act. It was his victories in the struggle against his enemy that the social-democracy put
forward to the proletariat to prove its strength in the most obvious way and it was the victories
which made it grows as strongly as possible. But the victories they gained also because they are led
by a theory, which allows for the parts of the proletariat who are converted and organized in the
organization, to use at any time as much as possible from the existing forces.
The activities of the Anglo-Saxon overseas labor unions, from the beginning and inspired by social-
democratic knowledge. In addition to its successful victories around and within, parliament is the
one who is very encouraging of the sense of energy and strength of the proletariat, not only by the
material benefits which in this case fell to several layers of the proletariat, but was exaggerated also
because of the people at large who do not have and until now made fear and despair, now see a
force that bravely fights against all the people in power, get victory after victory, while the power is
none other from an organization of people who don't have it themselves.
Herein lies the great significance of the May party86 the great meaning of the electoral struggle and
the great meaning of the struggle for suffrage, Tilat always struggles bring material benefits to the
proletariat, often the benefits are not proportional to the victims in the struggle but even so if they
win, always the struggle of the struggle means the increasing number of active forces of the
proletariat, because those struggles are greatly aroused by a strong sense of energy and hence, the
energy of their will in the class struggle. But nothing is more feared by our enemies than the growth
of this strong feeling. They knew that the giant was not dangerous for them, as long as he did not
become aware of its power. Keeping his strong feelings small, that is the biggest problem for them;
instead, material concessions are not hated by them like the inner victories of the proletariat, inner
victories which add to their sense of strength.

Scolding and provocation

Gentlemen of Judges, Indonesia is also a giant that is not feared by imperialism, as long as it is not
yet aware of its strength. But we, from the Indonesian National Party, we are trying to give the giant
the theory and actions with deed, conviction of its enormous power. We tried to inspire and magnify
the giant's strength, revive his awareness and power with letter news, with courses, with meetings,
with demonstrations, with efforts to establish schools, with the action of conducting cooperatives,
with the struggle for the removal of mines in the criminal law books, and by way of another
The power giant, which has the spirit of nationalism, is veined with four forms, has the status of the
murba people, the giant is now increasingly inspired by its power of realization! Do you wonder,
the Judges, that the imperialism is getting more and more angry and excited too? Wonder the
Judges, that the newspapers of the imperialism, such as AID de Preangerbode, Nieuws van den
Dag, Java Bode, de Locomotief, Soerabajaasch Handelsblad and others, are becoming increasingly
louder the cry "Soekarno CS," throw away Soekarno cs! "," Forbid PNI from continuing to live! "?
Wonder, gentlemen, that our people try to influence your court?
We are not surprised. We are not surprised too, if people who hate our movement, so that the
movement is easy and there is a way to oppress it, carry out provocation. Provocation is often tried
on the movement of the workers in Europe, we also often experience provocation in our country.
Provocation, especially before the movement became truly peaceful, that is, so that there is a
legitimate way to suppress the movement, while the movement was not very strong, the 7
provocations we often follow. We are often tried to be provoked into committing bad deeds with
bastards "Sarekat Hejo" or "Pamitran" as often occurs in the Cianjur area or in the south of
Bandung, with a spur of bloodshed as in the Cikeruh village in the Rancaengkek area in Penyairan
village north of Bandung, with or the destruction of the suburbs as in Gadongbangkong. By being
asked to sign or fill up the rebellion lists as at the SS garage in December 1929, with various other
low and cruel roads. But we don't want to be provoked, we don't stop educating members to stay
safe, don't be provoked! Because we know, if we get provoked, we will be the ones who fall down
on the doorstop!

No, Mr. Judges, we do not bother about the curses and incitement of the imperialism papers or
newspapers which have been so inconclusive, we do not give way to provocation. We calmly
continue to work along the way that is lawful and which does not violate the law, exaggerate the
power of the people, arouse and turn on the people's conviction of that power; we stubbornly
continue to strive to halal the people's power and awaken the feeling of people's power. Once
aware, then the awareness of that power will not sleep again. With the movement of people's power
and with a life of conviction of that power, the government and the imperialists are forced to obey
their wishes one by one. Ten years ago Albarda said:

"... the reform politics in the Dutch East Indies is no longer a matter of the policies of the
government who want to be generous or the result of a free and noble heart, that politics is now the
result of growing population power, which expresses its difficulties and advances its demands. That
politics has now become a politics of giving concessions to the growing power of the people's
movement, "88

And now, ten years later the Indonesian giant is more powerful, and more aware of its power! Soon
there will come a time when the government and the imperialists must submit more to their
demands, must give up more concessions, give more rights and make improvements to them. That
is, zonder was having a heated debate with the representatives of imperialism in the people's
council. As for example Fruin cs. or Bruineman, and so on, without bombs or dynamite, without
hilariously intentionally violates article 153 bis and 169 of the Criminal Code, as charged to us in
this process, with important concessionary concessions!
On the contrary, without power and without feeling of power, so we, even with the slippery politics,
however slippery, will not get a big victory!

Isn't it true that Albarda's question which read: "Would such a people's council be held at that time,
if in the Indies there did not arise a strong popular movement, which wished influence over the
government of the nation itself? I want to ask again: Are not the famous November 1918 promises
and the holding of the Carpentier-Alting review commission, "should be seen as proofs of
admiration, perhaps also people's fear, of the young people's movement in the years of

Isn't it also true, if we, although we in the examination said that the PNI had not yet reached large
concessions, said that it held "the most votes for Bumiputra" (inlandsche meerderheid) in the
people's council and
the holding of two Bumiputra members in the Council of the Indies, is it actually a concession also
to our Indonesian national movement which is increasingly getting that power? That with power it
gets big concessions, without power doesn't get those big concessions!

Indonesian free by revolution?

"Good" people now say, "important concessions can be achieved with that lawful way! But
Indonesian independence, Indonesian independence! Shouldn't it be seized by the Indonesian
people with revolt, with blood revolution? "
Gentlemen of the Judges, in our examination we have explained with sincerity: we do not know
how the final step. Yes, we did not "think" about the final step. We did not know of any
comparisons later, as we did not know carefully about what we would look like to be living in a
future life. We, for example, do not know whether the Netherlands at the time of its end does not
necessarily understand, it is better to stop its occupation peacefully. We also do not know whether,
for example, at that time Western capitalism had not collapsed, imperialism was replaced by
European-Asian economic relations by an independent way, that is, by the way of free exchange of
trade. In short, for us, for everyone, for each human being, the day after that is a closed book:
Closed about the matter of how the Indonesian people are finally taking steps, closed about the
matter when the final step will take place.

We only know now, that there is no independence of zondernationalism, therefore, we turn on

nationalism; that there is no independence without national unity, therefore, we strive for national
unity; no independence without power, we therefore arrange power; that there is no freedom of
without conviction of power, therefore, we arouse conviction of that power. We only know that
independence is asking for conditions, therefore, the PNI works for the implementation of those
conditions. And we only know that independence does not fall from heaven tomorrow
Morning or day after tomorrow, but that it is the result of heavy work that goes through dozens of
political, social and economic concessions which are all not from heaven, but we must insist one by
one with the insistence of our "inner violence".
It is this path through dozens of concessions, Judges, what we mean by words, that the final step is
still in the "distant future", not as the clever turning of the tongue of AID de Preangerbode, which
explains that we say that the final step is "through the centuries" again till its happening.

No! If we say that the last step still exists "so far in the future, that people don't know anything
about it," then we don't mean to say anything about tempo, or the chronology of the last step. About
the tempo of the final step happening, about what the final step happened, we could not know what
it was, and we in the examination also had explained "even roughly not know".

Indeed, Judges, I don't know when that final step will occur! Either only another year, or decades,
or hundreds of years! We, with the words "distant future", mean to say, that between today and the
next day, it is a large field, a field of dozens of concessions, all of which one by one, we must
achieve with national mass-action efforts which great but lawful. The long time we go through this
field, the long time we can reach these concessions, - it depends on the strength and perfection we
have in the organization, depends on the strength and weakness
of "inner violence" that we can evoke. The more perfect organization we have, the more energy of
"inner violence" we have the sooner the concessions can be achieved, the sooner the day of
independence is approaching!
Now, the Indonesian National Party wants to be able to add to the magnitude of the "inner violence"
that it has issued, wanting to be able to quickly reach all the concessions within the fastest possible
time therefore. This is why the Indonesian National Party is a revolutionary party, a party that wants
to bring changes, changes quickly, a party that wants to hold it
"omvorming sneltempo".
Gentlemen Judge, we repeat again: about the matter of what the ultimate step would look like, and
about the matter if the final step was, we did not know what. We only know that PNI has no
intention to deviate from the legitimate path. We only know, that we and the PNI, do not want or do
not want to make a rebellion, both now and in the future, that we and the PNI day and night are
hoping and praying that there is no bloodshed, that we and PNI throughout our strength will try to
avoid each bloodshed!

We and the PNI, Mr. Judges, we and the PNI, Whether imperialism itself! To the imperialists, we
will not be satisfied to give a reminder of purity of heart:

Do not be miserable to the people, do not burn people's anger, do not ignore the demands of the
people. Because, revolution is not a creation of human beings, is not a creation of a few instigators,
is not a creation of a few samenzweeders,91 the revolution is a creation of a social life that is almost
obscured by the airway in misery, which is a trapped social system. Humans can not make the
revolution as they want, humans can not prevent the revolution when it is too late, if it is destined.
"We, the Indonesian National Party, we are truly revolutionaries, but we are not the people who
made a rebellion. We will summon the earth and sky to prevent each bloodshed! But, -you the
imperialists, you always spread
the seeds of misery, you are always pinching the promiscuity of life, you are always sowing the
seeds of revolution.
For you it is very suitable writing Dr. Van den Bergh van Eysing which reads.
"The real makers of the revolution ... in the course of history today, are the people who are called"
orderly "citizens, they are the ones who make the sick body of life and culture amazing and they do
that, because they only remember themselves and they have interests and benefits ".
"Before it's too late, hurry up and stop your efforts to bring misery to the people, hurry and pay
attention to people's wishes and demands. Because if by your actions the ghost of the rebellion will
stir up trouble, if by the anger of the revolution the revolution will give birth to oneself, then a
thousand Indonesian National Parties will not be able to prevent it, a thousand kinds of human
effort will not be able to resist it. "We," Karl Kautsky writes:
"We know that we have no power to make this revolution, just as our enemies have no power to
prevent it!"93 Pay attention to Prof.'s warning Bluntschli who said: "The only good way to avoid a
revolution, is to make quick repairs and get to the roots ... Immediately if lost the hope of a strong
nation will get improvement, at that moment began the flaming fire of despair of the revolution. The
most guilty are the powerful, not the wrongly governed nations, who demand a fair and better legal
condition. For this reason, it is imagined, as if the revolutions of our century are the work of hordes
of criminals. "94

Gentlemen of Judges, hopefully imperialism likes to heed this warning. We, Indonesian nationalists,
we will forever uphold peace and safety. We do not have the desire or intention to spill blood; we
will not even be content to try, so that the next day will only bring safety and peace. But we do not
have the power to set the picture later. That power is in the imperialism itself. It was them who
finally grasped the provisions on it, it was they who could set the picture from now on, they were
the ones who could avoid the riots.

Indonesia will be free. Regarding this matter, about Indonesia becoming independent, about how
Indonesia will be separated from the Netherlands in the future, this problem is no longer a problem
for us. There is no riddle to the liberation of our land for every human being who wants to
understand history, for every human being,
both the Indonesian nation and the Dutch nation, who want to be sincere. The entire history of the
world, the entire history of mankind which is decades old, does not show a single people who were
colonized for ever. The whole history of mankind even every time it shows the independence of the
people and countries that had been confined.

Therefore, if the Indonesian people strive to stop the colonialism, the Indonesian National Party
pursues that freedom, then the Indonesian people, the Indonesian National Party, then we will only
fulfill the "historical requirements", carry out the "historical obligations" of every nation and every
country, "historical obligations" that must not be inevitably occur, must be fulfilled.

But the way Indonesia will be independent, the way colonialism will be released, is totally
according to the will of the imperialists themselves, - it is within the grasp of the imperialists

Not to us, not to the people of Indonesia, but to imperialism and imperialism itself is the last word!

Note (typography)
Paragraph 11 is the leidsch program (basic program) of Sociaal Democratisrhe
Partij Arbeiders
Voorwaarde = conditions
According to our belief, the loss of foreign and Indonesian governments is not necessarily accompanied by the
complete loss of foreign imperialism. Overheersen imperialism (rule) is gone, but imperialism that beheersen
(dominates), disappears only later. (see China).
Belangengetneenschap = equality of interest. tegenstelling van belangen - conflict of interest
conflict van Behoeften = conflict of needs.
Jules Harmand, honorary ambassador and expert of the French colony in his famous book "Domination et
Colonisation" p. 122, (published by E. Flammarion, Paris 1910).
Ibid p. 154
Mustafa Kamil (1857-1908) was an Egyptian nationalist leader who greatly contributed to the struggle for
10 Manuel Quezon (1878-1944), one of the Filipino independence fighters, and author of "The Good Fight".

Michael davit, an Irish leader, is quoted from Yann Morvran Gob-let's book "L'irlande dans la Crise Universalle"
p. 45 (published by F.Alcan, Paris 1918), p.45
Erskine Childers, another Irish leader, is quoted from Simon Tery's book "En Irlande de la guerre" p.101
Guiseppe Mazani (1805-1872)) unifying leader of Italy with Cavour and
Garibaldi. The book quoted "De Plichten Van den Mensch" p. 171-179.
Sister Nivedita, a Japanese female poet. He wrote the book "Kaka-su Okakura" "Die Ideale des Osten" p.8 hypa-
colony- a country that is more colony than colonialism. 1 Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925) Father of Chinese
Independence, founder of the Kuo Min Party
Tang and originator of "Trisila" (San Min Chu 1) which was posted with the title "San
Min Chu I. This book has been translated into Indonesian.
1H.G. Wells in his book "The Outline of History" p. 464
National Bank, one of the acts of self-help, which became the founding of Dr. Sutorno has been established in
Surabaya under the banner of Parindra (Partai Indonesia Raya)
Colijn over Indie "Hal. 41
Pennelikkers = lickers through writing
Karl Kautsky in "Sozialismus und Colonial politics" chapter Il p.19.
Nieuws van den Dag, A ID de Preangerbode, are Dutch-language newspapers in the Netherlands in the thirties,
Vanzelfspreken = makes sense
Ahead of the Bung Karno judicial process at Landraad Bandung, there were many press comments about pros and
cons, then the comment by Mr. Ritter was posted with the title "Drukpersvrijheid" (freedom of persi)
Colijn over Indie "page. 39
It turned out that the policy of dismissing journalists who were considered disturbing order, had also prevailed at
that time, even against the Dutch themselves.
Jhr Andries CD de Graeff, Governor General of the Dutch East Indies from 1926-1931, foreign minister in the
Colijn cabinet 1933-1937. Vieming in his book "Intern. Soc. Dem, Col. Pol ", p.82 "indische gids" a Dutch
publication which prioritizes the loading of scientific research. The book cited in 1914, No.36 11, p. 1240.
Vleming, Ibid p.72
Dr. Sandberg, in his book, "Indie verloren, rampspoed geboren" published by DA Daamen, 's-Gravenhage, 1914
Pledoi Sneevliet in a Dutch court (1917) which resulted in Sneevliet (1883-1942) interned. Sneevliet was a
Dutchman who founded the Indische Sociaal Democratische Partij (ISDP) in 1914 in Indonesia.
De Kat Angelino in "Staatkunding beleid en bestuurzorg in Ned Indie" p.89 constitutional policy and employee
coaching in the Dutch East Indies).
The November 1918 promises, or more famously "November Belofte", were promises made by Governor General
Limburg Stirum in the Volksraad (Council of the Indies) in November 1918, that the Regerings (regulations of the
government) would soon be changed, so that a transfer was needed government rights from the Netherlands to
Indonesia. This promise was never kept, so Fock was sent to replace Limburg Stirum (starting in 1919).
Compare Koch "Vakbeweging", 1927 p.570, and van Gelderen, "Voorlezingen", p. 98 and so on.
PE.B. [Politiek Economische Bond) is an association of Dutch businessmen in Indonesia, who always try to put
forward their interests to be made the policy of the Dutch East Indies government.
Toelstra, datam SDAP treatise "Wat zij is en Wat zij Will" Prints VIII p. 54
Around 1930 there was an issue that said "Indonesia will be independent in 1930. As a source of issues directed
by the colonial government, as if from Bung Karno
Exorbitante rights, are the privileges of the Governor General to alienate movement figures who are considered
dangerous to public order.
In Europe, if the rebels make a rebellion in the cities, then they set up barricades in the streets in the city, namely
obstacles from tables, chairs, cabinets, sacks containing land, and others.
Troelstra in his book, "DeSoc. For na den oorlog "1921 p. 17
Putsch = small rebellion.
Fasifis Tolstoyanis - a person who loves peace, as reflected in Tolstoy's romance "War and Peace"
Stenhuis in a speech on 3 October 1928 before the Development Assocation in Amsterdam (see AID de
Preangerbode 4-8-1930)
Fenderik Peter Godfriend Quack in "De Socialisten" Volume V, p. 327.
Karl Kautsky in "Der WEg zur Macht" p. 57
Sarojini Naidu (1879-1949) Indian female warrior and poet, follower of M, K Gandhi, in the book "Asia".
Mac Swiney in the book. "Principes de la liberte" quoted from "Intery, en Irlande", p. 40.
Mustafa Kamil in "The New World of Islam" published by Lothrop Stoddard, p.151
Sun Yat Sen in his book "San Min Chu I (there is an Indonesian translation).
To understand these sentences, one must remember that life is "not silent". But always alive, always advancing,
always evolving.
In the book San Min Chu I "
Compare with our thoughts with the thoughts of Moh.Hatta in his book "Indonesia Vrij" (towards Indonesia
Merdeka) and also the thoughts of Dr. Sun Yat Sen.
Verdeel en heers solve it, and master it
Sir lchn Robert Seeley in his book "The Expansion of England" Steinmetz translation, p.175, 204.
Clive Day, in his book translated into Dutch by Bosboom under the title "Nederlandsch Beheer", p.29.
Daan van der Zee in the book "De SDAP en Indonesiee" hi. 29.
John R Seely, ibid, p. 204, 209. 261
Through education, the imperialists also tried to kill a sense of nationality, like their efforts in the thirties, after the
1928 Youth Congress. So the Dutch government tried to ban the use of Indonesian, including in private schools.
To break the Indonesian nation, the imperialists justified all means to achieve their goals, even religion was used.
Suluh Indonesia Muda, published September-October 1929 p. 274/275
"Welvaartsverslag" Report on Prosperity. Chapter II ba, p. 172. Lendgedrukrij's publication 1905-1914, Batavia
August de Wit (Ny) in the book Natuur en Menschen in Indie p. 90, published by Goede en Goedkoope Lectuur,
Amsterdam 1914
Veth in "ava" I, p. 209
5 White man's burden on white people
Karl Kautsky during the Sneevliet trial in 1917
& F Van Lith in his book "De Politiek Van Nederland ten opzichte van
Nederlandsch-Indie "Ibid p. 11.
Karl Kautsky in "Sozialismus und Colonial politics" chapter Il p. 19
What is meant by the masses is the millions of ordinary people.
The Dutch government has always accused the PNI of being a continuation of the PKI, such as the indictment
against Bung Karno there that PNI was the "helmeyke opvolgster" of the PKI, meaning that the PNI was instead
the PKI in secret.
The national bourgeoisie is the nation's own capital
The politics of self-training is the politics of making people's own needs, so they do not buy goods made by the
imperialists, but rather all those needs are made by the nation's own companies.
Sir Thomas S. Raffies, in the book "Geschiedenis van Java, translation of van de
Stuler1836. p. 116, 140
Veth in "Java" I p. 299
EB Kielstra in "De vestiging .... Page 19
doge Gonggrijp in "Schets ener economische gescftiedenis" p. 122.
please remember the meaning, footnote no. 36, 37 ..........................................................................................
Prof. van Gelderen, in "Voorlezingen ..." p. 122
& Schmalhausen, in the book "Over Java" p. 139
Gerret Piete Rouffaer, in the book "De Voornaamste Industrieen" p. 2
Dr, Schrieke in "Western Influence etc" p. 99

van Gelderen "Voorlezingen" p. 123

Ir. Albarda at the Dutch Lower House on 19 December 1919
Karl Kautsky in "Der WEg zur Macht" p. 49-51.
May party is a celebration of labor ban which falls on May 1, as was once also celebrated in Indonesia.
The way of provocation, that is, the way the colonial government was provoked so that the movement was trapped
doing criminal work, like what was done by the "Sarekat Hejo" gang, who at that time were well-known
perpetrators of criminal acts. If the movement is provoked, then the national movement will be oppressed like
oppressing ordinary criminals.
Ir. Albarda in his speech at the Dutch Lower House, 19 May 1919.
AS Carpentier-Alting. A Dutch woman, a political figure, who founded the private university "Melsjes HBS" for 3
years. This effort was later instituted as "Carpentier-Alting Stichting" (stichting foundation).
.it Albarda in a speech at the Dutch Lower House, 21 December
Samenzweerders = criminal conspiracy (criminal syndicate)
Dr.HWPh.E. van den Bergh van Eysinga, in his book "Revolutionnaire Cultuur",
Leiden 1919, p. 17.
Karl Kautsky in "Der WEg zur Macht" p. 57
Prof. Johann Casper Bluntschi (1808-1881) a Swiss citizen who is a legal expert
state administration

169 AND 153 BUS

Honorable Judges!
The first part of our speech is gone. You now know all the principles and nature of PNI's actions
and our beliefs in its broad outlines.

At the beginning of our speech, we explained to you that our intention to briefly explain the PNI
and our beliefs was not to propagate these things to you, but only to show you the principles and
nature of PNI so that you can understand the origins and causes of our words or actions that are
investigating this process.

So with what we have just explained, it is clearly evident that the PNI is a lawful party, - the party
does not have the intention of being accused. The intention of rebellion is not meant to order people
to rebel, is not meant strikes, is not meant violations.
Violation according to article 171 of the Criminal Code, as we will describe later. Therefore, the
first part of the indictment, completely lost its power. In addition; Article 169 of the Criminal Code,
according to Hooge Raad's decision December 3, 1984, W R 6586 and also according to the book
Prof. Simons II, p. 217 and Noyon, note 3 ad chapter 140, only concerning associations which were
established with the specific purpose of having their members commit crimes. And the Indonesian
National Party was not established with the intentions contained in the accusation.

The Indonesian National Party is far from this intention when it was born, and indeed, it is also far
from it as long as it lives and moves in the world of two or three years. The Indonesian National
Party is a party that has been born up to the present day, only lawful.

But that is not all that turns out from the first part of our speech. From our speech the first part is
also evident, that it is impossible for us to be guilty of carrying out these alleged things; it is
impossible for us, who knows that the formation of national power alone, to be able to create vast
possibilities, who knows that we must avoid everything that can cause the collapse of the doorstop
on our shoulders, who knows that independence is not achieved with one breath, it is impossible for
us, who knows all of these things, to be able to "joke" or "fad" all violate article 153 bis and 169!

No, Mr. Judges, we do not have to joke like that, so that our purposes can be achieved. We only
have to work as diligently as possible for a modern and firm establishment of power, a blatant
formation of power, for example, the formation of the power of the proletariat in Europe.
Because with the formation of such power, with a power that is real and great and is realized by its
members, with a force that has the spirit of nationalism, entrenched the four nerve principles, the
bodily born of a mass of harmony, with such power, we can already become omnipotent.- indeed,
without bombs or
dynamites, without hilarious intentionally harming public security or violating government
authority or participating in associations that mean evil, without running something that is
prohibited by law!

"Unrest" and the forecast of '30

You can now refute: "The mass of the people is not incited according to article 153 bis, the mass of
your innocent according to article 169, yet everyone knows that the people a year ago turned out to
be insecure and unsafe! Your masses are innocent, yet people everywhere, whispering, that this year
there will be nothing! That's all there must be a cause anyway! "

O, indeed, Judges, if the people are surely not at peace, if there is a whisper in '30 there will be
nothing, it should and must have a cause! There is no situation without cause, there is no event
without cause and effect with another event! But, in terms of what is currently being investigated,
are we the cause? Still we answer: no! We are not the reason! Many witnesses explained that we
were forever educating security. A person who has always been educating in security must not
deliberately violate Article 153 bis and 169 of the Criminal Code, this must be why the people are
not at peace or the people's whispers earlier.

So what's the reason? The reasons are many; the reason lies in part in the beliefs of the general
public, also before We move!, - that in this year there will indeed be "nothing"; the reason is that
part of it lies in the business of people who hate the movement and want to harm the movement
with various threats to the villagers, that after all the movement in this year will be fussed; the
reason is that it lies in the misery of the people, which, as we explained before, makes it easy for the
people to believe in empty predictions; why it could also partly lie in the threat of the Communists,
whose organization was destroyed several years ago, while threatening "Beware later '30"! The
reason ... but enough, Judges.
Suffice it to say, that even before we move, without our movement, the unrest is already there!

Haji Agus Salim, according to the Sin Po newspaper on January 13, explained that: "In Kudus there
is a Kiyai (Moslem priest) and he has 50 students who sell amulets and predicts that in 1930 there
will be an important event." The famous Javanese poet, Kiyai Ronggowarsito had also made a
prediction, that in 1930 there would be an extraordinary event, as also commemorated by the
Darmokondo newspaper on 8 January.
Yes, a command newspaper itself, namely Poesaka Soenda, published by the Bureau Voor de
Volkslectuur, a few months ago contained an advert that read:


Ti tahun pungkur keneh jalma-jalma satanah Pasundan guyur ibur, pada mereunang beja yendina
tahun 1930 bakal aya kejadian anu aneh Sarerea pada samar kama pijadieunana sarta taya nu terang.
Ayeuna nembe kahartos, sihoreng nu matak ngageunjleung-keun teh buku kaluaran Bale Pustaka,
carios: Pangeran Kornel, nya eta menak Sunda anu linuhung, luhung elmuna, gede wawanenna,
saincak-incakna tuladeun wungkul.
Ku mangi eta sadaya urang Sunda perlu karagungan iyeu buku, komo ari urang Sumedang mah,
wantu Pangeran Kornel teh beunang disebutkeun pupunjunganana. Dalah sanes urang Sumedang
oge sami. Bae perluna mah, sugan dadi pitulung ngaluhungkeun budina. lyeu buku sanes mung sae
rupina bae, nanging basane ge teu kinten maherna, perlu diaraos ku sugri and keur ngarulik basa.
Pangaosna sahiji mung f 0.70
Which means,
Since the earlier time / long-long time ago people in Pasundan were very busy, there was news that
there will be a strange event in 1930. Nobody knew what will happen.
Now it is understood, that the cause of the issue was the book by Bale Pustaka entitled Pangeran
Kornel, a nobel sundanese, having high knowledge, massive courage and everything he does is an
example for others.
Therefore, sundanese especially people from Sumedang must understand / own this book, because
Pangeran Kornel is mentioned to be their respected person. This could be applied also for people
from outside Sumedang.
His noble attitude is a major help. This book is good not only in its cover, but also in its language,
hence, it is necessary to read the book to study language.
Pangaosna sahiji mung f 0.70

The government newspaper itself, ladies and gentlemen, the governing newspaper itself contains
such words, giving food to the people's beliefs!
You can argue: "O, that's just an advertence!"
"Fine, but is it not about your attention that the advertence is contained in the government
newspaper, and is it not about your attention to the words in the advertence that read:" No years of
silence, jalma satanah Pasundan guyur ibur ibur , in reverting the Yendina in 1930 there would be a
strange event, namely that "from the very beginning, Pasundan people were just as busy, having
received news, that in 1930 there would be strange events"?
Isn't this currently a proof, that the predictions and beliefs about 1930 among the people are no
longer strange, and indeed as mere "ordinary circumstances"? Are we surprised that "unrest" is
becoming more widespread?
But us, what do we say to the people? What do we teach about people's beliefs about '30? Not
giving food, not adding to or exaggerating that belief, but denying, believing, lying to the prophecy!
Because we understand: It's not good for the people to have empty hopes, and we know: people
who hate the movement, deliberately use the people's trust to support the movement, all exploit the
people's trust to try provocation-
low provocation. And if the provocation is successful, - we will be later on the hoop! We're the dog
striped! We're the ones who got the doorstop!!
In fact, Your Honors, the "unrest" of the people and "whispers about '30 were not caused by us, it
was not we who instigated:" unrest "and" whispers "were only a condition that was already
embedded in the minds of the people since before we moved; we had a movement that just
happened to fall in line with the people's trust! And not just falling together: we have a movement is
even enough to refute and lie to him, give warnings and educate the people, that the predictions
about the year '30, is simply empty! The suspicion that we are the ones who instigated it, we must
reject it as strongly and as hard as we can!

About the Pacific War

However, about the Pacific War, about the coming of the Pacific War, isn't that proof that we, by
spreading lies, deliberately make people uneasy, proof, that we really committed the crime intended
by article 171 of the Criminal Code?
Indeed, Your Honors, indeed: we are indeed talking about the Ocean of Shadyness, we say that the
Pacific War is coming. We do not deny it, we do not deny it. We only deny people who say that the
news of the Pacific War is "false news", we only deny, that our intention by spreading the news of
the Pacific War is to deliberately damage the peace of the people. The news of the Pacific War was
the initial release of the pens of highly educated and wise Europeans as we later explained, - the
news we spread was not to intentionally damage order, but was so that the people would soon be at
peace, soon to become a nation!

In the beginning, we have a speech, we have already told, that the race looking for a colony in this
day and age is an all-out race between the shrouds of British, American and Japanese imperialism,
we there tell, that the life of competition between these three belts, is the struggle for China. We tell
that who can rule in China, it is he who can rule in the entire Pacific region, that who holds the
Chinese ladder rash, it is he who can hold households throughout the East, economically and
militarily. We recount, that in order to win such high wages, those three kinds of belts, were a battle
for the "to be or not to be" problem, - a battle for the "on or under" problem, a matter of "life" or die
". For this reason, the Pacific War will not be a petty war, but it will be a war that shakes up the
entire human world, depleting the entire Ocean.
We as people whose country is very close to the Pacific Ocean, who live on the edge of the Pacific
Ocean, we must understand, that the greatness of the Pacific War will certainly also feel its
influence in our country, that the fire that will burn in the Pacific Ocean is certainly it will also feel
the heat in our own country. We must understand, that if the Indonesian people do not immediately
become a strong and peaceful nation, if the arrangement of Indonesian social life is not strengthened
in a bit, we can also not stand or not have enough strength to share the effects of the detonation, can
also not stand up if for example one of the tails snatch about us. Therefore, we often warn the
Indonesian people of the dangers that threaten them from the direction of the Pacific Ocean, not
with the intention of destroying the peace of the people, not with the evil intention of stirring up the
people, but is to arouse the Indonesian people's confidence in the need for immediate- quickly
become a nation!
We never said, yes, we didn't know when the Shady Sea War would explode; we also don't know,
aka where the blasting center is; we only know that if the signs that are visible now do not violate
man calculations, the Pacific War was one when it would certainly explode! Just as every human
being with far-sighted eyes could already feel the coming of the great war of 1914-1918 before this
war took place, as for example the writer HN Brailsford with his book "The War of Steel and Gold"
could first show the coming of the great war Before this war thunders its cannons, then every
human who pays attention to the course of American, British and Japanese imperialism in the latter
days, surely has the conviction that the Pacific collision is someday, who knows when, it will
happen. As the great war of 1914-1918 had some oracles who had already indicated that it would
happen, for example the author of the book "The War of Steel and Gold" earlier, - then the Shady
Ocean War also has his oracles now, for example, as we explained in the examination, Ernst
Reinhard with his book "Die Imperialistische Political im fernen Osten", Karl Haushofer with his
book "Geopolitics des Pazifischen Ozeans", Hector C. Bywter with his books "Seapower in the
Pacific "and" The Great Pacific War ".

Yes, one can say -, the Pacific War has its oracles, the Pacific War has its prophets, it's all
Bolsheviks who are forever spreading false news!
Sorry! Ernst Reinhard is not Bolshevik, Karl Haushofer is not a communist, Hector Bywater is not a
member of the 3rd Internationale or the Soviet Executive Committee!
Ernst Reinhard is a "righteous citizen" of Switzerland, who sits in the Nationalrat, Karl Haushofer is
a professor of Geopolitics at the famous Munich University, Hector Bywater is a member of the
British marines! The estimation that the prophecy of the occurrence of the Pacific War was only the
thought of the Bolshevik which was having a fever, it was totally wrong. It was not the Bolsheviks
who were said to have had brain fever, it was not the "Gombinists" or the bombers who carried out
valuable Pacific libraries, but the objective neutral, the neutral basing all his words on evidence or
material events that are real and large in number.
Indeed, who reads the material of the incident in Reinhard's book "Imperialistische Politics im
fernen Osten", in the book Houshofer "Geopolitics ddes Pazifischen Ozeans", or in the Bywter book
"Seapower in the Pacific", who read it in the books how America, Britain and Japan are ready to
complete their weapons; who reads in those books the descriptions of writers that is hard to deny
because based on concrete evidence; ... who is ready to pay attention to the writings of the writers,
he certainly gets the belief that one day, who knows when the Pacific War must happen!
We read there how Japan seized oil concessions in Sakhalin for the needs of its fleet; we read that
the so-called "disarmament conference" in Washington was just an American thought to bind the
increasingly frightening Japanese feet with peace, that its fleet could not exceed 315,000 tons of
warships and 81,000 tons of backup ships, while the vessels of each party must not be greater than
40,000 tons only, the cannons of each party may not be greater than 406 mm in caliber. We read
there how cleverly deceptive of each party, who after exaggerating his power by making lots of
small warships but faster, as well as making a lot of dive-ships, - small warships and submarines
which in World War 1914-1918 proved to be more "efficient" than warships that were too large.
We read that in just a few years after the conference skits, Japan, as if it was possessed by devil,
worked to make 30 new small warships, 77 new destroyers, 73 new British submarines busy
working hard to make 13 new small warships, 4 new destroyers, 6 new submarines, America as a
conqueror. His bloody tumult has completed 19 new small warships, 106 new destroyers and 48
new submarines.4

We read there, why did the British want to move their naval base from Malta to the east, to
Singapore on the edge of the Pacific region, - and why did America not stop persuading France to
sell the Oceania Islands to him, so that he could add more fortresses -the fortified sea which is now
so many. We read there, how America intermittently tried its strength with some wars, especially in
the area of Wilbur's marine secretary, the battles tested the strength of the Panama base in '23, tried
the strength of the Antilles and Virginia bases in '24, tried the base strength Pearl Harbor and
Hawaii in '25; and how after that, America then held a general Pacific cruise witnessed by
representatives of the 40 largest American newspapers, namely that the American public's
enthusiasm could be influenced by the spirit of imperialism. In short: We read there, how do these
three mad dog-infected countries complete their weapons! And who likes to value the material of
events and the contents of the books as we appreciate them, he certainly, inevitably, also gets the
belief that one day must come when the Pacific Ocean's water becomes the inimitable crater of hell
in the entire history of the world, become the crater of boiling hell as if tomorrow morning world
will end!
As three kings of lions faced each other willing to pounce on each other by grinning their teeth and
stretching out their nails, as three snakes who have put their mouths up to swallow each other, as
three octopuses or giant squid which has waved-
its tentacles to destroy his enemy, so now the British are preparing in Singapore, Japan to provide
weapons in Japan itself along with the Mariana Islands, Marshall, and Bonin, America fortified in
the Dutch Harbor, in Hawaii, in Tutuila, in Guam, and in Manila!
Judges, who does not believe that the Pacific War will come if it sees evidence of equipment; This
weapon? Who can justify, the calculation of the outbreak of this war, with evidence of events as
shown by Reinhard, by Prof. Haushofer, by the Bywater? Who can say that the coming of the Shady
Ocean War is "hoax", - "hoax" as intended by Article 171 of the Criminal Code -, if he sees that the
learned men named Reinhard and Professor Haushofer, Marine experts who are well-known as
Hector Bywater, are the same after a careful investigation?
And not just to say that it will come, Judges! Hector Bywater in his book "The Great Pacific War"
can even mention the way of the war one by one, the movement of the rise of the struggle of
imperialism is almost carefully. He said that the outbreak of the Pacific War was because the
Japanese wanted to deflect public opinion in Japan which was affected by the revolutionary
movement. He pointed out, that at the beginning of the war, America could be beaten because a
Japanese ship could destroy the Panama Canal by blasting great dynamite, - that Manila and the
Philippine Islands could be reigned by the enemy, that an American fleet could be completely
destroyed. He then predicted, that after the beatings, the American people would rise up in anger,
that all the remaining American fleets would go on a rampage to eradicate the Japanese fleet in a
desperate battle near Guam, and that only then would peace occur. To illustrate the collision made
by Hector Bywater. Ernst Reinhard commented:

"He underestimates it if he thought that this collision is only a fight between two countries. This is
certainly not the case ". Certainly, "this is certainly not so"!
The Pacific War, according to Reinhard, will be even greater than Bywater's prophecy! O
is it not compulsory for the Indonesian people to quickly become strong, to quickly strengthen their
social relationships, to quickly become a nation, so that enough to resist the influence of this great
war, influence that we cannot inevitably suffer, we who live on the shores of the Shady Ocean!1
Dear Sirs, unfortunately we don't have enough time to reveal here all the contents of the three
author's book, but here we provide one of them, - if you weigh it necessary, may you prove it by
Nevertheless, let us here take one or two quotes from it, let us listen to Reinhard's story which
"Japan wants to solve the Far East problem, according to its will. But what is desired "the power of
attorneys, what the trusts want, not Morgan. The struggle to please the American heart for the prey
remains. When will it explode? This is the question that America must answer ". (P.215America is
arming itself ... It has not only completed its navy, but also its bases in the Pacific Ocean. From
Dutch Harbor in the Aleoeten Islands via Hawaii to Tutuila and Guam to the Philippines, a vast arch
stretches from American strongholds, an arch that bites Japan in the north and south like pliers.
Japan knows the bite of these steel pliers. Even the British know it. "(P.224

"The pressure is getting harder. There are no open nipples. Now although the kettle is too hot, still
able to withstand the hard pressure. But the competition of American and Japanese trusts in China
continues to add new fuel, throwing oil every day in the fire. One day the time would surely come,
the steam pressure would blow up the kettle with great power! "
"If because of China, a war arises, then surely it will be the real world war ... We all have to dance
when the ghost of death trades Chinese dead songs, "(p.227).
Judges, so was the sound of the wise man's prophecy. We, the Indonesian National Party, we
understand the dangers that threaten the people from this great war. We feel obliged to warn the
people about the danger, we feel obliged to praise the people so that they can quickly become
strong, quickly become a nation. For we, once again we say we are converted, we are sure, that our
people and our country, who live on the edge of the ocean of war, will undoubtedly get the
influence that endanger the economy and relationships.
We are not saying that this year's Pacific War will break out. We also do not say that he will soon
explode. We only warn, that with American, Japanese and British competition, war will occur.

1 Pacific Ocean
Ah, Judges, in Indonesia, it's not just us who say that the war is coming, it's not just us who
announce the news, which is not a lie. Dr. Ratulangi at the People's Council meeting on June 14,
1928, so, before us, talked about the coming of the Pacific War as well, and lately AID de
Preangerbode and Java Bode also shared it! Do they broadcast "false news"? Do they intend to
damage the peace of the people?

"In the meantime", so Dr. Ratulangi said, "In the meantime, in the struggle for power between
groups here and there, by Western groups it is too forgotten, that the political situation of Indonesia
in the future, is also, and for the most part, will be controlled by the subsequent evolution of
international situation in the area called Far East.... Psychologically it can be said, that people
simply suppress reality, that the Indonesian colony is a part of the great Pacific problem and that
this country cannot escape its fate, perhaps actively, but surely passively, will be involved in the
dispute in Pacific, in which great powers will collide. Let us try to realize this situation; throughout
East Asia, economic, political, and strategic activities have intertwined: Angry reasons and
economic reasons in advance, as usual, and behind them are ships of humanitarian and moral
slogans about bringing civilization and so on.

"Three things," said Max Reinhard (actually Ernst Reinhard, Judges), "sought by foreign capital in
China: markets for goods, raw materials for basic necessities and cheap labor for its factories" , ...
what is said about China, mutatis mutandis also applies to many other Pacific regions. Only, the
center of the Pacific problem is China, because the questions there are big problems and because of
that, it is as if we see for ourselves the grievances of an independent country becoming victims of
the merciless food of the various mercy of various combinations power.

But it is clear that all of these, rented areas, areas of influence and interests or open door politics ...
cannot inevitably cause a heated state in the meaning given by Van den Bergh van Eysinga.

These one-sided moral relations, which people say can only be sustained as long as the foreign
nations are strong enough to maintain them, all the ways of interfering, are nests upon which will
disputes grew, which would flare far beyond the borders of China. Because in the competition for
economic benefits today the Western world is crashed by the resistance, from the renewal forces of
the East itself and is active from an Eastern rival ... Japan. Under these circumstances, opposition
and enmity will grow and taper, so that one day there certainly will be a solution that can be found
in disputes that bring disaster, in which diplomacy and intelligence of state experts must withdraw
behind the mouth of the cannon and the submachine. Preliminary resolution that reads this disaster
is already visible and the signs can not be mistakenly interpreted, as long as people want to see and
not allow themselves to be tricked by nonsense speeches and happy speeches that do not contain a
little too ..

East Asia has become a political chessboard of international economic and military penetration; we
see chess pieces for chess pieces put forward and then pulled back; The Germans withdrew from
Kiauchau, Japan put one of them there
the chess pieces. America releases Yap, the center of the meeting of telegraph wires, Japan also puts
there another chess piece. Japan has strengthened its army since the 1918 weapons base with 19
small warships, 54 destroyers and 45 submarines, while the British have established a naval rank in
Singapore and the US has increased its naval strength with a larger number of warships, and
strengthened bases of Hawaii, Tutuila and Guam. And under all this, not being watched by public
scrutiny, working in the rear view mirrors, lowly chess pieces, they are the ones who weave the net,
on which a big fight will be played later
...But in the meantime, tomorrow or the day after tomorrow the conflicting efforts on Earth East
Asia can explode and boil their craters, also over these countries also with our will. And how will it
be? What is Indonesia's position in the dispute that brought disaster, which will inevitably happen ".

Judges, Dr. Ratulangi is not a communist, not a socialist, not a left nationalist as us. Dr. Ratulangi is
a person who is now known to be very patient, a person who is known to be very "soft" and very
"cotton". From Dr. Ratulangi therefore people are not easy to say, that he "bullshit", as is often
accused of the radicals. Nonetheless, Dr. Ratulangi also made a speech, that the Pacific War will
explode, that the "crater of hell" and "the dispute that brings disasters" will "definitely happen", will
burn the East "tomorrow or the day after tomorrow"! Indeed, is there any news of the Pacific War,
if we were to preach it to the people, it would suddenly become "hoax"? is there any news that, if
we are preaching, it suddenly means that we deliberately want to damage public order? Is there any
news that, if we say it, it suddenly becomes an excuse to accuse article 171 of the Criminal Code?
Not yet, Judges!
But even so ...... we stood before the Judges ... accused of violating article 171!
O, fate! While we are in the Landraad2 regarding the Pacific issue, we are being convicted before
the court of gentlemen dealing with the Pacific issue, so in the middle of last October there was a
war by the great Japanese navy, and AlD de Preangerbode at the time it contained an Associated
Press report that read:

2 Land Council
"Supplies have started on the 7th of the month

this ... when the blue fleet units departed for their headquarters in Kure and the enemy ships secretly
moved in southern waters, to the point of being near Formosa. A little far from Formosa ... is the
Philippine Islands, but no one is so diplomatic to insinuate, though, that the attack came from there!

While we were in the Landraad regarding the Pacific issue, the AID de Preangerbode October 6,
1930 discussed the breakdown of the Pacific problem as an actual and practical problem in the
editorial, which was headed: De Vlootwet (Navy Law), which advocated so that the Dutch East
Indies fleet enlargement budget would be accepted in order to maintain neutrality in the Pacific War
which was certain it would explode! While we at Landraad are dealing with the Pacific issue, Java
Bode announces a series of articles from the "Ob-the server "who said that the situation in the
Pacific world" was so hot that even the smallest cause was enough to blow up the Pacific War.

And we ask again: Do we have to be punished, if we join in discussing the issue of politics, are we
suddenly becoming spreaders of false news in order to undermine public peace, if we join in
predicting the Pacific War, - the Pacific War, which in Indonesia was also predicted by Dr.
Ratulangi, also predicted by AID de Preangerbode, also predicted by the Java Bode?
But incitement must revolt or strike when the war has come! We have never instigated such things.
We also never insinuated or praised with closed actions such acts, or any actions that are prohibited
by law. We, as we explained earlier, only praise that the people quickly become a nation, so that
they strongly resist the influence of the Pacific war (especially economic influences), - influences
that we certainly suffer from because we live along the Pacific Ocean! More than 10 witnesses
prove these things, Judge. And again, - how could we instigate a strike, how could we order or
praise staking,10 where we do not stand before a union of workers or do not stand before workers
organized in a union; how could we praise the strikes, where our stand on the strike turned out to be
as bright as possible in the manifestations of the PNI management contained in "Banteng
Periangan" No. 9-10, what do we surrender to the Judges? How could we say that the Pacific War
would occur in 1930 or sooner, and that at the time of the splinting we would seize independence,
where apparently there was not a single PNI member there who had any weapons worthy of
rebellion, which is where there was not a gun or a gun or a sword when there was a search

Intention to overthrow imperialism, government power, and so on
But the words "bring down imperialism to blackmail us", "capitalism oppresses us", isn't that the
evidence that we are guilty of violating article 153 bis or 169? We answered: we cannot deliberately
violate these articles. We do not as many witnesses explain to the Judges, forever educating towards
security, forever educating to patience. We do not forever punish members who jeopardize public
security. Is it possible that people who always educate towards security, then deliberately violate
article 153 bus or 169? Can it be, is it possible for the Judges, that one who incessantly requires
"must obey all that is compliant", ie "must obey all that indecent ", threatening every member who
violates security with royeman (sacking), lying whispers there will be nothing in '30 -is it possible
for gentlemen, that such a person then has an intention, endangering public security or violate the
government's authority to carry out other things alleged in this process?
Oh yes, we did say "knock down imperialism!", "Knock down capitalism!", - we did say "evil
imperialism, fierce capitalism wrath, imperialism harms us, capitalism damages the people", and so
on, but can it really be possible? so, that we mean by the words of imperialism that is the current
government or public security, is it possible that we mean that capitalism is the Dutch or other
foreign nations? "
Capitalism and imperialism, Judges, capitalism and imperialism, as we explained at the beginning
of our speech supported by the arguments of famous people, not the Dutch, not other foreigners, not
the Binnenlandsch Bestuur, not the authority of the government, it is not a body or matter,
capitalism and imperialism, as every word that ends in "ism", is a understanding, an understanding,
a system!
This system is harmful, this system is destructive, this system is evil, this system must be "broken
down", - not a foreign nation, not a government, not a government power! Ah, are we so stupid, are
we dry-brained or maybe brain tilted, thinking that imperialism = government power, foreign
capitalism. We, who should at least be called educated people anyway? Are we in vain, more than
20 years sitting on school benches more than 10 years reading social books, studying social science,
- for which we do not know the difference between imperialism-capitalism and governmental power
with foreign nations?
Ah, Judges, in one of the results submitted by Albreghs witnesses, was it not in the most frank
written way, that what we were enemies of was a system, and that "we do not blame the
Netherlands", and that "not all Dutch are bad!" In the course notes the leader is not written in all the
light, that imperialism is a ideology or character, and in the testimony of many witnesses it also
turns out, that what we four defendants mean by the word imperialism is an understanding or a
passion, while in the statements of witnesses Doelhadi, Entjo, Soemarta, H. Mansoer,2 the same
thing explains, that the word imperialism occurs is from the word imperium, it turns out also with
the fact that we were four defendants before talking about imperialism, first is to give a clear
explanation of understanding and its meanings!
Besides, do we not have a political vision to say that with the cessation of government power here,
imperialism does not necessarily cease altogether, namely that with the cessation of government
power, Indonesia temporarily remains a field of imperialism, still not being avoided from the
dredging of foreign surplus capital, there are still people of sugar, people of oil, people of tobacco,
and others, for example now the country of China or the independent Persia, both of them hunched
over the dredging of foreign imperialism! Do not we have a political vision that says, that the
national government, so, if the power of foreign governments here is not there! - in addition to
national reconstruction, it is a prerequisite to fight imperialism freely and stop it altogether, for
example, socialists see political power as a condition for stopping capitalism! Do not we have a
political vision, it turns out that as brightly as possible, that in us have a vision of imperialism and
government power is not one, not identical!
After all, do we not often explain in courses or general meetings, that imperialism in Indonesia is
international, namely that we, the Indonesian people since the open door politics, have also been
seized with American imperialism, British imperialism, Japanese imperialism, and others, - Dutch
imperialism with a capital of approximately f 4,000,000,000, - other foreign imperialism with
capital of approximately 2,000,000,000.-, while the power of the government in Indonesia is merely
Dutch power! Is it not in the statement of the principle of PNI written as clearly as possible what is
called imperialism, and that imperialism here is international, - the explanation of the PNI principle
that we have written! Do we not, if we talk about imperialism in the course or at the general
meeting, it is usual to make an analysis thereof, analysis in the four characteristics that we
mentioned at the beginning of this speech and which are also written in the PNI principle statement,
namely the first nature of stock making - life, second nature of taking basic provisions for industry
in a foreign country, three characteristics of making Indonesia a market for the sale of goods from
foreign countries, fourth nature of making Indonesia an area of dredging in foreign surplus capital,
while always mentioning the yield figures " sugar approximately 400,000,000.- a year "," rubber is
approximately f 400,000,000.- a year "," oil approximately f 150,000,000 - a year "and so on, so
that it turns out that what we call imperialism is not government power!
Actually, Judges, if it is said that government power! The difference between imperialism and
governmental power, that is something that does not make sense, something that is out of place,
something that is impossible!
But you might argue: "Yes, you know that imperialism is not a governmental authority, you know
that capitalism is not a foreign nation, but when you cry out" overthrow Imperialism and capitalism!
" You mean government power; and foreign nation!
This is also impossible, Judges!
We do not, to all new members, if we explain the principle of PNI at length, it always explains at
length the meaning of the two words of imperialism and capitalism, their characteristics and the
internationality of imperialism, as we have explained earlier. We are not specifically conducting a
series of successive courses on how capitalism in Europe or America have their own "stamp" of
imperialism in Asia, from the imperialism of the ancient way to Spain to the Dutch monopoly
imperialism in Indonesia, from half imperialism British monopoly in India to American liberal
imperialism in the Philippines! We are not specialized in holding courses on capitalism, courses to
explain the meaning and its factors, namely courses on the theory of surplus value about capital
about the concentration of capital, about the centralization of capital, about the army of unemployed
industries and others!
In short, Mr. Judges, the words of imperialism and capitalism we often explain the meaning, those
words, if we say them, it is impossible that we must then actually mean the authority of the
government or a foreign nation. Especially ... if it is alleged that we once said that imperialism
government power, that we once said that imperialism, regents, wedana, sub-district leader,
corporals, that we once said that foreign capitalism was even more impossible, moreover there was
absolutely nothing like it!
My word, for example, with the word imperialism, we mean BB people or the government, maybe
it is better for us to say: imperialism, governor general, imperialism = resident, police commissioner
imperialism, and so on.
No! If we say imperialism, then we mean imperialism, if we say capitalism, then we mean
capitalism. Indeed imperialism and capitalism are evil, this imperialism and capitalism must be
broken down, it is imperialism and capitalism that we are fighting against. We want to break down
a passion or system, not the power of a government or a nation!

Radical Languages
But those sharp words! - Why use those sharp words, why use the words 'knock down', 'destroy',
'harm', 'destroy' and so on, if not to incite and to disturb public security - to damage the peace of the
O. Indeed Judges, we have a language that is a radical language. Our language is not the language
of grandmothers who have collapsed when we hear the word "freedom", our speeches are more than
a speech of the preacher in the church or the preacher's speech in the mosque. We are revolutionary
nationalists, radical nationalists, bull head nationalists! Our language is language that comes out of
a heart that is burning with national enthusiasm, burning with disappointment at the woe and misery
of the people. Who is not painful and revengeful, who is not disappointed if he knows the woe and
misery of the people as we described earlier, if indeed he wants to be sincere! As speeches of
almost all wretched leaders and miserable people everywhere, as the language of all the leaders, the
hearts are filled with pain and disappointment, as the language of all radicals and revolutionaries
whose spirits are burning, the speeches our speech and our language are full of radical and barren
words, full of pictures of imagery, expression which contain a blazing passion as well. But neither
are our speeches and our language contains intentions to violate article 153
This, does not mean that it contains the intention to carry out the crimes alleged under article 169!
If Mr. Pieter Jelles Troelstra in the fire of his speech said: "smash us we have a sledgehammer on
the throne of the people capitalism! ", if Jean Jaures trembles the hearts and spirits of his listeners
with the words:" this misery has now risen and demanded by holding a dagger he has a place under
the sun "; if the proletarian leaders hum" the advance of war destroys capitalism, go to war against
those in power "; if in parliament or any party meeting we intermittently hear the call" close ranks,
"" bury the enemy fortress "," hone your sharpest weapon to melt our betrayals as little as his
brother "; if Father van Lith called out to the Indonesian people:

"Let them in the wrong way use their power, if they want, you will grow even though oppressed
like steel to be hard in fire, increase energy by defending yourself, learn to know the fighting power
of your enemies, and almighty by your total power, galvanized by cooperation and fight with the
brave, eventually of course you will come out of the arena as a winner ",13

% if we hear these words, do we have to remember the real sledgehammer, the real throne, the real
dagger, the real war, the sword, the bomb, the dynamite, the cannon, soldiers, blood, etc? Do they
want to damage public security or violating government authority or carrying out a crime that is
prohibited by law in their respective countries?
If Prof. Boeke14 said, "the Javanese peasant is living beyond misery," if Dr. Huender1s writes, that
the situation here has made the people a "minimum sufferer" if van Kol hears his protest about the
existence of "drainage" which is destroying our country to become a "Country” that has been
sucked out his marrow "; if Mr. Brooshooft said:

"We put the people of Bumiputra into the abyss, into the valley of misery which also drowned
billions of people in the Western world down to their necks," and said, that here is:

"exploitation of people who have nothing but labor, by the owner of capital, namely the owner of
power" % do they mean to incite or deliberately break the law?
No, Judges, they have no such intention: they only write or make speeches that are full of fiery
words, they only write or expose the oratory talents, speech intelligibility, full of speaking
conviction and full with awesome pictures, expressions, and verses. Likewise we, where we with a
fervent enthusiasm exclaiming "bring down imperialism" where from our mouths come the fire of
the words "destroy the lust of fury of wrath", "oppose capitalism-imperialism which sucks us all our
energy", then we have no one blink on purpose to jeopardize public security, deliberately run
anything that is prohibited by law here! We, as witnessed by many spectators, are always educating
about security and upholding that security, we are instead threatening the royement18 and dropping
the royement on anyone who damages that security!
Ah, Judges, how could we intentionally carry out the deeds or intentionally have the intentions
alleged to us, how could we possibly be guilty according to Article 153 bis or 169, where we are in
a closed leader course and the secret was to carry out anti-revolutionary and anti-putsch theories
and educate the leaders forever uphold security, which may be where we are in the course of the
secret leader, - without being afraid of a tweet or cockroach alias rearview mirror, without being
afraid of the police ear!, - Always educating the young leaders to step on the halal road so that we
have the formation of power has not been interfered with which could give birth to a power which is
as powerful as, as evidenced by the testimony of some of the leaders you heard about?
If we really like the destruction of public security, if we really want violations of government
power, if we really mean the things that are alleged in article 169, then here is the place, in the
leader course, this is where we teach the leaders section, so that the leaders of that section, if
propaganda to the village and the village, can spread our "poison seeds" everywhere, so that perfect
"public security is broken", perfect "government power is violated", perfect "crime- the crime of
article 169 happened! " But even so, what is a reality! The fact is showing the opposite, the reality
proves that we in us have a "nest" course for the leader, not laying poison, but laying eggs, which
although bitter for imperialism, as far as the law, is lawful!
Oh, indeed, we are very straightforward, the eggs we dropped in the course of leaders and ordinary
courses, it is very bitter for the people concerned about the continuity of the current conditions. We
are not too direct in advance, that the intention of the PNI is to try as diligently as possible to form
an organization of national power, a giant of power that is aware of its power, a giant of magic is
like the devotion of Krishna Tiwikrama! We have no idea that the PNI only believes in such power,
to bring concessions and improvements in us to have a social life that is confined by conflicts of

But we have also explained, that the formation of power and power did not embrace the ideology of
bombs or dynamite, not at all embracing the ideals that are prohibited by article 153 bis or which
are charged with article 169 of the Criminal Code.
Once again indeed: PNI eggs are very bitter eggs for imperialism; and the imperialism did not
forget to abused and vilified us to their heart's content in the newspapers and its associations,
demanded punishment or banishment from us, demanded a ban on PNI action, - but could anyone
deny that anyone PNI eggs are lawful eggs.
Judges, therefore, we ask again: is it possible, is it possible, that we have the intention intended by
article 153 bis or that we violate article 169, - we who according to the testimonies of many
witnesses always educate about security, we who often warn not to be provoked, we who lie about
the 30-year prediction, we who threaten and drop the loyalty to each member who violates security,
we who according to the testimony of the six section leaders in the course of leaders often educate
to uphold security, so that the formation of forces is not disrupted, and teaches anti-revolutionary,
anti-putsch, anti-violence, anti-machete theories?

What's special about educating security

Are all of these things not enough to convince the Judges of our innocence, people? Are there any
questions that may arise to you, why do we specifically educate that security, why should we
specifically educate the anti-machete? That is, if security is not in danger and we are not afraid of
the fruits of our own propaganda?
Judges, such a thought is not true.
Know that PNI is living in an era where the air of Indonesia is indeed full of people's beliefs about
"there will be nothing" in the year '30, where people's memories of the ways of the PKI and SR19
that haven't died long ago it has still not disappeared altogether, where the reactionaries are
endlessly trying to bring down the PNI with various low and small provocations. In such a time, the
PNI which is actually a security party and upholds security, at such a time the PNI must be more
than necessary to instill that security understanding in the brain, heart, bone marrow and flesh and
blood of the people. Because, in addition to the PNI, it did not want to damage security, as we had
said several times, PNI also said that he was the one who got the doorstop if there was anything!
Because the PNI in the eyes of the reactionaries had indeed been branded by black sheep or striped
dogs since they were born, branded zondebok20 from the moment they were born, which could
only carry out mere crime! Ask this to Mr. Wormser, Judges, he certainly will correct it ...

General meetings in Pekalongan, Solo, and others
Is it not enough to prove our innocence, Judges? Now, please ask Mr. Datoek Toemenggoeng from
Kantoorvoor Inlandsche Zaken, is it not true that we at a PNI general meeting in Pekalongan have
explained, that PNI will not step on unsafe roads. Please read the press of the PPPKI general
meeting in Solo shortly before we were arrested, which meeting was also attended by gentlemen
Gobee and Van der Plas from the office, - please read the press in "de Locomotief" on December
28, 1929, where it is written that we denounce rebellions with the words:

"Previous attempts to bring about a" revolution "in Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi and others were all
signs of the misery of the peasants, who were trying to find an improvement in their destinies.

Now we must look for other ways to achieve eternal improvement ",
please read the press in the "Bintang Timoer" newspaper, 30 December 1929, where it is written
that we made a speech:
"It was a rebellion from days ago in Sumatra, Java, Selebes, Borneo and others, it was all because
the people were very disrespectful and because of the people there was a movement to correct and
ask for a bad fate ...
We don't take this way now. We are now holding a legitimate action to bring the common good of
the people. "
Please if the Judges do not believe in the press of the newspaper, please ask the truth of the press
with the Gobees and Van der Plas, or any government representative
who attended the PPPKI meeting!
In fact, in fact, it is evident, that it cannot be, there is no resemblance, no waarschijnlijk23, yes, no
mogelijk, impossible, it is impossible for us to be guilty of anything alleged in this process, - we
have so much evidence or hints, that we are forever educating that security!

Mr. Ir. Kiewiet de Jonge

Even so ... perhaps the Judges are still not sure? Right! But are you still suspicious of the Judges, if
you remember our case in December last year, we met with the representative of the government
Mr. Ir. Kiewiet de Jonge with a request that the Master like asking for permission for us
to the Central Priangan Resident to hold general meetings,

how we in the face of the whole world want to deceive predictions about the year '30, and want to
educate all the people, especially those who have not entered PNI, so that they remain at peace and
uphold security.
Permission for public meetings? Yes, Mr. Judges, permission for a general meeting, but not
permission for an ordinary general meeting, but permission for a general meeting where we will
dispute the whispers, and where we will expose the theory of the actions that PNI intended!
Because, as we explained in the examination, one day before December, the Central Priangan
Resident was disappointed at the fact that Mr. Gatot Mangkoepradja in an open meeting said that
the PNI sought independence with no blood flowing. One day, Mr. Kuneman had also warned us,
that every speech that had the words "inner blood, even though it forbids the flow of blood, would
be reprimanded by the police or stopped altogether!
Yes, gentlemen, we, to this day we do not understand what is bad about forbidding to shed even one
drop, until today it is still a riddle to us, the evil of propaganda loving human blood!
But, nevertheless, we in December saw that it was necessary to argue at the nonsense rally about '30
and that it was necessary to educate security and peace with the people. Not especially to the people
in the PNI circles, Judges, the people within the PNI have had enough of such education in closed
courses! But to the people outside the PNI, the people outside the organization that are still in
darkness, to the people who are still ignorant, who are easily fooled by provocateur eyes, who are
easily deceived by Kaunm Sarekat Hejo or Pamitran, who are fooled by evil-hearted people others,
- to the people outside PNI we want to direct the word. For people outside PNI, we need this
general meeting - only in the general meeting will we be able to
meet and educate him!
And that, the upbringing at that time was very necessary, because with the approaching in '30, the
prediction was more effective, the provocateur became more diligent in deceiving the eyes of
people who had not yet entered PNI, the Pamitran increasingly rampant, the number of village
policemen increasingly participating getting infected with the disease "there will be something", in
short with the approaching of '30 the air outside the PNI circle is increasingly shaken and not
peaceful. PNI deemed it necessary to join in trying to restore order. PNI did not like the uneasy
situation of the people. PNI also knows as we have said several times earlier, that: if there is
anything outside of his mistakes and beyond his responsibility, he is the one who gets the suspicion
first, and yet he is the one to blame, after all, he was the first to be dropped by a doorstop!
Well, we ask for the mediation of Mr. Ir. Kiewiet de Jonge for what we said earlier. Mr. Ir. Kiewiet
de Jonge went to Mr. Kuneman; Mr. Ir. Then Kiewiet de Jonge then told us with a letter, that we
must meet Mr. Kuneman, that is, if we had returned from the PPPKI Congress in Solo and from a
tour to Central Java.
However, Judges, but ... the tour has not been exhausted, we have not returned to Bandung in
Mataram on December 29, we have been arrested, detained at the police station, put in jail, locked
behind metal doors and iron bars, until the day now! ... ah, that is the fate of the leader, we bear that
fate by always remembering
about Mother Indonesia, but we ask the court officials and justice upholders: Can it be, is it
reasonable, our if we have such a request from Mr. Ir. Kewiet de Jonge, can you be guilty of the
things that were accused of us in this process? Can it be, is there waarschijnlijkad does it make
sense that those of us who want to hold rallies everywhere to educate to that security, can have the
intention of violating the security protected by article 153 and 169?

Press are the spies. Ask for intellectual mirrors

O, indeed, the police now often accept funny reports from their spies, police often get reports that
are "full of sensation from their spies, the police themselves often send filtering spies news to the"
awesome "lawyer general25 parquet. However, the spy is spy, the mind is left of the mind of the
spy, the moral of the moral is the moral of the spy! They always have the desire to "shake" the
press, add to the report, and how much is the knowledge or education?
We are aware of political overviews which call us to incite strikes at postal companies, while in
fact, we are only discussing the right to strike in each civilized country and praising the revocation
of article 161 of the Indonesian Penal Code. We are aware of political summaries that say that we
show help from
Japan, while every nose knows, maybe there is not one Indonesian who is as anti-Japanese as we
are.26 We are also aware of political-political summary, which by "stolen gezicht" aka "wooden
face" reports that Mr. Iskaq has spoken at a PNI meeting in Malang, while Mr. Iskaq has never
stepped on Malang for political matters, yes, maybe in his whole life, I have never stepped on
Malang at all!!!
Indeed, Judges, these are all "funny", these are all very "goosebumps", - but also these are tragic,
Tragic, very tragic, as tragic as it could be, as proven last year, when the spies’ news that were
"great" said with a lot of humor that the PNI on January 1, 1930 would be a revolution that finally
led to revolution, becoming a case in the process this!
Wonder Mr. Judges, that for example Mr. Van Helsdingen inside People's Council to ask for:

"tougher control of the mirrors, which bring false and shocking news, if necessary by firing people
with no
mercy "?
Do you wonder, Judges, that we, who are aware of the dangers that come from the evil mirror of the
evil-heart or foolish brain, have already asked: Mr. Ir. Kiewiet de Jonge continued our hope to the
government, so that more intellectual spies would be held that could understand the meaning of our
speeches, so that reports to and from the police would not be as chaotic as they are now? But on the
contrary, don't you have another clue to be outrageous and it is impossible for us to be intentionally
guilty of the things that are alleged to us in this process, perfect can be observed, - our courses and
our actions, which indeed it never contained anything we had to hide!
Half the people may be surprised to see a leader of a revolutionary party and a non-cooperator
discussing with government representatives. Just the birth of this thing is surprising, just the birth of
this thing is contrary to our principles. But in its essence, in its true case, our principle was not
violated at all: our meeting with government representatives did not arise from the desire to work
together, but only arose from PNI's and non-cooperative PNI's actions, were not clandestine actions
and non-cooperatives, it is not a simple action and non-cooperation, it is not an action and non-
cooperation of nihilism, - but it is an open action and non-cooperation! We fought with
straightforwardly opened and showed we have breasts, we fought with the sincerity of the knights,
we fought with open vi-zier, 28 and because of our struggle with open vizier, because of action that
is not a matter that must be we hide that. Then we are not afraid of spies or mirrors, as long as the
spies are intellectual spies, who understand everything they hear!
And once again we ask: is it possible, is there waarschijnlijk (probably), we are guilty of the things
that are accused of us, we who ask to be watched by as many intellectual mirrors?
Hopefully now, Judges, after hearing all the things that we have revealed, we are convinced of our
innocence that person is there!

Summary, resume
Dear Judges, we are now repeating, we are making a resume; we have been asking too for your
attention for too long.
Imperialism that become our enemy is an ideology, an understanding, a passion, a business, a
system, a politics of conquering or influencing other countries or economies of other nations.
Imperialism, and also capitalism is not a government, it is not a foreign nation, it is not an
ambtenaar (officer), it is not any body or material matter, imperialism and capitalism are mere
desires and systems. Indonesia has been more than 300 years of imperialism, more than 300 years
of influence, occupation, exploitation by imperialism, formerly old-imperialism, now modern-

Both old-imperialism, and modern-imperialism, both for the country of Indonesia and for the people
of Indonesia is to make a miscarriage and the chaos of the arrangement of life, both of which are the
making of sustenance, exploitation, very drainage. Therefore, the life of the people of Indonesia is
now the life of a "minimum sufferer", the association of Indonesian life is the association of life of
"the people of the workers", the people of Indonesia become wretched people. So this people's
accident, this people's misery, this people's tears, and not our incitement to people, not the
incitement of "agitator", not any human incitement

it is a popular movement, which runs into the PNI movement, in a movement which believes that,
due to a conflict of interest between here and there, a very important condition for the improvement
of all social arrangements and for ending imperialism, is political power, national independence.
This conflict of interest also gives him confidence, that generally all important improvements can
only come, if we try ourselves with our own abilities, with our own power. Because the colony is
not about rights, not recht, - colony is about power, macht. The Indonesian National Party (PNI),
therefore, wants to organize this power: it wants to organize the Indonesian people with righteous
way and is made into a peaceful organization of power, it diligently strives for the establishment of
that righteous power. He got his life in a vibrant and raging nationalism, he got his nerves in the
four forms of power that we just explained, he found his body in the masses, in the thousands of
murmurs, ketian, and billions of them. With such a life, with such nerve, with such a body as such,
the people's organization will become a mighty power, become a mighty giant.
The PNI gave this power giant an awareness of its power, gave it a feeling of power and awareness
of power by means of theory and action, by means of courses and party papers and actions by
various acts, actions by acts that also to work on the article list of his business. With power and
awareness of that power, the Indonesian giant must not be indeterminate, surely it can bring
significant and valuable improvements or concessions, which in the future will eventually bring
Indonesia to independence!
With all of this, it is clear that the PNI action was an action that did not violate the law, it was
evident that we did not violate the thing alleged under article 169.
O, indeed, the PNI's actions were very detrimental to imperialism and imperialist, jeopardizing their
pockets and their dividends, but there were no matters in them that were contrary to law. No, we are
not the people who have intentionally done something that is prohibited by the law, no, we are not
the people who have been guilty of anything alleged in this process.
The uneasiness of the latter days is not our creation or because of us, it is not the growth of the
seeds that we sow, it is not the operation of the "poisonous breath" that comes out of our mouths, -
the tranquility of that lately has indeed happened by the people's trust in the forecasts of '30 was
absurd, by the actions of the haters of the evil-heart and humble movement, by reasons which were
all beyond the PNI's responsibility. We, all our PNI leaders, are always educating on security and
educating anti violence, as witnessed by many ordinary witnesses and by the six lead witnesses who
attended the leadership course. We, in fact, always educate not to be provoked, threaten and punish
each member who violates security. We even lied about predictions about '30, fighting against
beliefs that disturbed security, we even gave speeches at rallies everywhere, in Pekalongan, in Solo
and other places, saying that the road being trodden must be a legitimate one. We instead made a
request to Mr. Ir. Kiewiet and educating people outside PNI to love peace, asking for more
intellectual mirrors so that our actions and courses can be watched and blamed on and by the police
are well-tackled. We are in short, we always uphold peace and uphold all legal restrictions!
O, indeed, we did not face upfront and we admit:
the formation of the PNL force is the formation of a force which scares the imperialists, our
language is a radical language which blazes with the fire of disappointment over people's misery
and is burning with a national spirit that sounds - we are non-cooperators and revolutionaries, - but
even so can it be, is probably, it makes sense, that we are guilty, of the things alleged in this
process, we are so much evidence and many instructions will be the opposite, we who intend and
act as we said earlier, we, lover of security and lover of order? Can it be, judges, can it be plausible
that we could suddenly have the intention of jeopardizing public security, violating government
authority or carrying out the matters stipulated in article 169; We who act and act as we tell?
With as if there is no justice anymore, we, who always educate the security, who have such pure
intentions as we told Mr. Ir. Kiewiet de Jonge was thrown into prison, locked and rolled in only 1
cell %x2% meters, three hundred thirty days, 29 initially allowed to see the sun only twice two
hours a day, put on the edge of economy destruction and destruction of life search! ...Even so ...
how long has time passed, which us, also via Mr. Ir. Kiewiet de Jonge, at the beginning of 1929
delivered a word to the government that said: "Give us the opportunity to organize the power of the
people, if there is anything, we are able to be exiled to the jungle and bog disposal! "
How long ago, with these words, we also show that we really only intend to organize the people, to
become an omnipotent and omnipotent force, without intent to break the law! And for the number
of times we ask whether it could be, is there waarschijnlijk (probability), that people who surrender
themselves to be put into misery disposal if there is anything that deviates from the law - could it be
that such a person could have the intention of carrying out the things alleged in this process?

Judges, now it is you who will appoint us, now you will produce opinions. Now the court and
justice uphold, who will take the decision. We are waiting for you to have that verdict, which
certainly does not forget to consider everything we have just described. We do not feel guilty. We
do not propose things that alleviate, we do not advance the reasons for easing mistakes, we only
prove that we are innocent, showing that it is impossible for us to intentionally carry out the things
that are alleged. Therefore, indeed expect and wait for a free decision. All the people of Priangan,
all the people of Indonesia, the whole world of people who are sincere and love of justice expect
and wait for that free decision.
I hope so. However, if the Judges still see us guilty, if the Judges punish us anyway, if we have to
suffer again the misery of the prison, what can we do, hopefully the movement seems to have a new
revelation and therefore, hopefully, Mother Indonesia would like to accept our offerings as the
sacrifice we offer on her days, hopefully Mother Indonesia like to accept them as fragrant and
beautiful flowers that can be used to decorate the sweetness of her hair bun. Indeed, our spirituality
is not feeling sad, our spiritual is to say, that everything we do is only our obligation, we have a
The great Indian leader Bl Gangadhar Tilak, before the court said:
"Perhaps the Blessed One has the will, that the movement we lead will be more advanced with our
misery and independence"
These Tilak Words we made our own words. Also we surrender all our bodies voluntarily to the
motherland and the nation, also we surrender all our souls to the Mother Indonesia with a sincere
heart. Also we are serving a sacred and noble ideals, also we are trying to participate in returning
the rights of the motherland and the nation to the free life. Three hundred years, yes even a thousand
years, could not eliminate the right of the Indonesian state and the Indonesian people to
independence. For the implementation of this right, we are willing to tell all the bitterness that is
demanded by the motherland, are willing to tell the misery requested by Mrs. Indonesia every day.
Indeed, the homeland of Indonesia, the nation of Indonesia, the Mother of Indonesia, is to expect
from all its sons and daughters such devotion, the surrender of boundless bodies and souls, self-
sacrifice even if it is as bitter as possible if necessary, with a pure heart and sincere heart. The sons
and daughters of Indonesia must feel sorry, that for this service, each can only give up one body,
only one spirit, only one life, and no more.
Because, no victims are lost wasted, no victims are in vain, "no sacrifice is wasted," said Sir Oliver
Lodge. With his sacrifice now, then the day will become more radiant, more radiant, more sparkling
than all the previous day's magnitude. The new dawn of greatness, the dawn of the glory days
then for us it has now been realized, the dawn is getting brighter and brighter, and though it is being
intercepted by any human force, even though it is prevented by activities from anywhere, although
it is prevented by all worldly forces from all

the land on all the face of the earth, it must not be necessary, of course, to be followed by the rising
of the sun that brings life to everything that should live and kills everything that must die. All its
powers of darkness will be destroyed seek as snow before this sunshine. All the dark clouds that
blur the sky will be destroyed by the warm wind coming out of it.
The Indonesian people are ready with a heart that beats and respects the rising sun. With the people
of Indonesia we suffer misery, with the people of Indonesia we are waiting for the verdict of the
Indeed, we stand before the Court not as Sukarno, not as Gatot Mangkoepradja, not as Maskoen or
Soepradinata, we stand here as parts of the Indonesian people who are complaining, as sons and
daughters of Indonesia who are faithful and devoted
to her. The voice that we make in the court building today, does not stay between the walls and the
walls alone, our voice is also heard by the people we serve, echoing everywhere, crossing, flat land
and mountains and oceans , to Kota Raja to Fak-fak, to Ulu Siau near Manado to Timor. The
Indonesian people who listen to our voices, feel they are listening to their own voice.
Decisions of the Judges for our efforts, are those for the efforts of the Indonesian people
themselves, for the efforts of the Indonesian mother herself.
We praise you for considering these things. And now in unity with the people of Indonesia, in
devotion and prostration to our beloved Indonesian Mother, in the belief that the people of
Indonesia and the Indonesian Mother will continue to be glorious, what fate will be to us, then we
are ready to listen Judges' verdicts!
Our spirit is to say, that everything, what we do, is our obligation, our plight.

Note (typography)
1 Mocal impossible
1 Hooge Read = Supreme Court
, Bureau Voor de Volkslectuur = Bureau of the People's Library
Compare with Reinhard's book "He is Imperlalistisohe Osten Imfernen Politics".
Reinhard ibid, p. 224
One of the 3 books, Bung Karno was invited to be read by the judges' Reinhard, Ibid, p.215
Dr. Sam Ratulangi was a member of the Volksraad (People's Council) at that time, as were M. Husni Thamrin,
Sukardjo Wirjopranoto, etc.
The Java Bode newspaper which broadcast the article, dated December 3, 1930
Staking = Strike
We started school in the village
The names in the trial process of Bung Karno, there were more than 10 witnesses, including incriminating
witnesses from the PID, such as Albreghs.
van Lith, ibid, p. 32
Prot K. Boeke in his book "Net Zakelijkeen persoonlijke element in de koloniale welvaartspolitiek".
15 Dr. Huender in his book "Overzicht van den Economischen Toes- (and der Inheemsche Bevolking van Java en
Van Kol in his book "Nederlandsch-Indie in Stolen General".
Mr. Brooshooft in his book "DeEtische Koers in de Koloniale Polities
dismissal arrangement
SR is the People's Association, part of the PKI which participated in the rebellion in 1926
20 Zondebok = ringleader
21 Kantoor voor Inlandsche Zaken = Office of internal affairs
22 Van der Plas, a Dutch expert on Indonesian customs, was a resident during the colonial period in East Java.
waarschijnlijki = makes sense
mogelijk = may be
pakrol general e attorney general
Anti-Japanese attitude, more assertive can be read in his writings "Import from Japan a blessing for Marhaen?" in
"People's Mind" 1933
Mr. Van Heldingen, one of the People's Councils or Volksraad, the Dutch also criticized the absurdity of the PI.D.
open vizier open face
Bung Karno counted his length of time in detention, before being put on trial, which was almost 1 year.

Chronology of arrests and trials of Ir. Sukarno

December 29, 1929

Together Gatot Mangkoepradja, Maskoen Sumadiredja, and Spepriadinata, Ir. Sukarno was arrested
by the Dutch East Indies Government.

August 18, 1930

Ir. Sukarno was judged before the Dutch Colonial Court. It was during this trial that Bung Karno
made his famous defense in Indonesia suing which is a historic document.

December 22, 1930

Verdict was dropped; Ir. Sukarno was punished to four years in prison violating articles 169 and
153 according to the Criminal Code (Wetboek van Strafrecht).

December 31, 1931

Ir. Sukarno was released from prison right at the end of Governor General de Graeff's

Handout II
Taken from a book
Di Bawah Bendera Revolusi (Under the banner of Revolution) (p.257-323)
This document is
Minutes of Struggle
compiled by Bung Karno in 1933


Only people who want independence can be independent


South of Bandung is a mountainous place called Pangalengan. At that place I, upon my return from
my travel to Central Java, which raised 89,000 people, having vacations for a few days releasing
body fatigue. In the vacations I wrote this treatise, this was vlugschrift.
For the old politician, the content might not new but for those who have just set foot on the path of
struggle it is beneficial.
It is this giant imperialism that we must fight with the courage of the knight who protects his rights!
To prevent this treatise from becoming too thick, thus not to be too expensive, then only the
outlines I could draw. For example the chapter "Across the golden bridge" is less clear. But God
Willing I will talk about it later in another treatise, which will also be named "Across the Golden
I hope that this treatise will be read by Marhaen.

March 1933

1. The Causes of Indonesia Not Independent
Professor Veth once said that actually Indonesia was never independent. From ancient times until
now, from thousands of years to now, from Hindu times to now, according to the professor,
Indonesia has always been a colony: first a Hindu colony, then a Dutch colony. With full
agreement, then in one book he listed his poet as a poet who reads:

"Aan Java's strand verdrongen zich de volken;

Steeds daagden nieuwe meesters over't meer;
Zij volgden op elkaar, amused 't zwerk de wolken
De telg des lands allen was nooit zijn heer. "
Which poem means:
"He kept the people of Java in jostle;
His masters always come every time:
They are in a row as a cloud;
But the natives themselves never have power. "

Our opinion about this stance? Our opinion is that the clever professor, who is indeed one of the
"progenitors" of our historical inquiry, this time misses the point. He forgot, that there is a profound
difference between the essence of the Hindu era and the essence of the present. He forgot, that the
Hindu era does not in particular mean a confinement by Hindu rule, that is, it does not in particular
mean a machtsusurpatie (power surprise) from the Hindu side above the peak of the Indonesian
side. He forgot, that in the Hindu era, Indonesia was actually independent of Hindustan, while in the
present era Indonesia was not independent of the Netherlands.
Independent of Hindustan? After all, the ancient kings were originally Hindus? After all, the ancient
first the Hindus? After all, the power of ancient times was in the hands of the Hindus? After all, the
ancient people were ruled by Hindus? Yes! Independent from Hindustan, because the people in
power in Hindu times were not particularly "usurper", not particularly "power grabbers", - not
particularly the colonizers. They
are not the people who seize the kingdom, but they themselves founded the kingdom in Indonesia!
They compiled Indonesian state, previously there was no Indonesian state. They "discovered"
Indonesian society not as a society that was already in the form of a "country", but a society that
was not yet regarding structures. They founded here a culture, a culture, not a culture "from above",
not an "imperialistische cultuur," but a culture that lived and flourished with Indonesian society.
Their relationship with Hindustan is not a relationship of power, not a relationship of government,
not a relationship of power, but is a relationship of civilization, cultural relations. The kings of that
age of communication in the beginning were only the Hindus, - the kings were then Hindus-
Indonesians, and then again Indonesian Hindus, whose customs, ways of life, religion, its culture,
nationality, blood, and race are more than double Indonesia than Hindu. Yes, in the end, it was
totally Indonesian and just have a “scent” of Hindu. In short, in ancient times the country of
Indonesia was not a colony "of the Hindu land, not a" possession "of a Hindu country, not a colony
of a Hindu country. The land of Indonesia at that time was independent of the Hindu land!
The country of Indonesia was independent at the time, but the population of Indonesia, Indonesian
citizens, Marhaen Indonesia, were they also independent? Marhaen Indonesia has never been
independent. Marhaen Indonesia, as a Marhaen people throughout Indonesia, has never been
independent until now! Marhaen Indonesia was in the era of "Hindu", when the country of
was named independent from Hindustan, was ruled by its kings in feudalism: They are just tools of
the kings with all their strengths, they have no right to determine their own whites and blacks, they
are always oppressed by the "superiors" rather than the Indonesian people, as Marhaens everywhere
in the country on earth the days of feudalism also suffered the fate of the oppressed and imprisoned.
They must live forever remembering that their possessions and lives "nek awan duweke sang nata,
nek wengi duweke dursila", that is, forever remembering the fate of the tool, which has many
obligations but no rights at all. O, Marhaen Indonesia, who was wretched in the era of feudalism,
the kingdom and the nation's own nobility, which is now
wretched in the modern times of capitalism and imperialism, - strive to bring about a true fate -
truly independent!
But let us return to the subject: the country of Indonesia, as opposed to the opinion of Professor
Veth, was once an independent country. The Indonesian state then lost its independence, later
became a colony, later became bezitting (possession), then became a colony. And not just
Indonesia! Rest of asia
now, except for one or two parts, - is not independent. Egypt is not independent, Hindustan is not
independent, Indo-China is not independent, the Philippines is not independent, Korea is not
independent, yes, China is not independent. The causes?
The causes, the source of the causes, we must look for in the order of the world a few centuries ago.
Three or four hundred years ago, in the sixteenth-seventeenth century, in the western world was a
change of society-composition: European feudalism began to recede gradually, an arising of
carpentry and trade, arose a carpentry cluster and trade, which is vigorously engaged in trade
throughout the European-Western continent. And when this class becomes as strong as possible,
when they have a position to become a position of worry, when all European-Western societies are
vroeg-capitalism, then the European continent soon becomes too narrow for its trade. European
continent is too narrow for its business to grow the body and its members, too narrow for vroeg-
capitalism playing field . So there arose a lust, a system, looking for game fields in other continents,
-especially in the Eastern continent, in the Asia continent
Still small was imperialism at this time, smaller than modern-imperialism today! Yet the East at that
time there was not even the slightest power to reject the small imperialism? Where was the power
of Hindustan? Where was the power of Philippines, where was the power of Indonesia, where was
the power of the Indonesian people, who used to say that they have royal kingdoms like Sriwidjaya,
the first Mataram, Majapahit, Pajajaran, Bintara, like the second Mataram?
Ah, Indonesian people in particular, Asian people in general, at that time happened to be sick.
Indonesian society at that time was a society "in transformatie", namely a society that was cool
"changing its hair": ancient feudalism, especially the feudalism of Brahmanism, which did not give
way at all to taste-personality, which considered the king and his reinforcements his resignation is
the incarnation of the god and regards the people as mere instruments rather than the "incarnation of
that god, ancient-feudalism being slowly pushed aside by the new feudalism, its feudalism of Islam
which is a little more democratic and gives way to personality despair. The battle between ancient
feudalism and new feudalism, which at its birth for example took the form of a battle between
Demak and Majapahit, or Banten and Pajajaran the battle between
ancient feudalism and feudalism as if it made the body of society become "fever" and become "lack
of energy." Indeed, every society "in transformatie" is as if having a fever. And indeed each of
these societies is "abnormal", soft, lacking energy. Look at for example the "fever" and softening of
European society in medieval times when European society was "in transformatie" of feudalism
vroeg-capitalism, look at the "fever" of European society also a century and a half ago when
“shedding” from modern-capitalism to vroeg-capitalism, look at the "fever" of Chinese society-now
which is also currently " changing feathers "into the level of capitalism. The body of society is no
different from the human body, no different from a living body, which also changes with pain and
lack of energy every time!
Do we wonder, if the Indonesian people, who at the time of imperialism came from the West,
happened to be in a state of transformation, was there not enough strength to reject them? Should
western imperialism soon get a position in a society which is suffering from a fever? If western
imperialism can immediately become a horizon in that soft society? One by one the countries in
Indonesia were subject to the new horizon. One by one of these countries then lost their
independence. One by one, these countries then belonged to Oost Indische Compagnie. Previously
Indonesia, Professor Veth addressed, was an independent Indonesia, slowly becoming an Indonesia
in which all regions were not independent. Indonesian people who once complained about carrying
the feudalism of the kingdom and the nation's own nobility, will now even more complaining about
carrying "blessings" stelse! imperialism from the western world. Marhaen people, as presented by
his best friend prof. Veth, may continue to promise:

But the natives themselves never have power. "

This is the origin of the misfortune of Indonesia's fate! This is the reason why of the Indonesia
became a dependent country: a sick society where the arrival of its envoys is a mighty society, -
missions that carry the tenacity of a mighty society, - emissaries who carry the tenacity of a brave
society- the mighty, the tools of a mighty society, the intelligence of a mighty society. The sick
community no longer has the chance to be healed, the sick community in fact became more and
more sick, the more all their "bugs" were used up, the more all their energy and energy ran out. But
the imperialism that came upon it, on the other hand, became more and more rooted and rooted,
smoothed its arms to the right — and left and backward and forward, widened, deep, covered and
absorbed every part of the ailing society. The new imperialism that is coming is imperialism which
is still small, which is increasingly becoming great and big, becoming an all-powerful giant that
seems to have unlimited strength and energy. It is this giant imperialism which is now shaking the
Indonesian earth with its footsteps that are as heavy as an earthquake, shaking the air of Indonesia
with thunderous voices that as a thunder, roared in the eccentricity of Indonesia and the people of
It is this giant imperialism that we must fight with the courage of the knight who protects his

2. From Old-Imperialism to Modern-Imperialism

Do you know how imperialism blossom? How did it go from small imperialism to giant
imperialism, from imperialism in the past to imperialism today, from old imperialism to modern
imperialism? How does old imperialism change its feather altogether into modern imperialism, that
is, it not only changes in magnitude, but also changes its form, changes its nature, changes its way,
changes its behavior, changes its character, changes its system, changes its system, and only
changes everything- and one that does not change him, namely his thirst for fortune?
You don't know this yet, do you? Readers, imperialism was born of capitalism. Imperialism is a
child of capitalism. Old imperialism was born by old capitalism, modern imperialism was born by
modern capitalism. The character of old capitalism is very different from the character of modern
capitalism. While old capitalism did not know the places of work as now, did not know the factories
as now, did not know the industries as now, did not know the banks as now, did not know the labor
as now, did not know the mode of production as now, Old capitalism is only a small-scale
production method and in everything ancient character, then modern capitalism is to show a great
modernity: places where jobs are crowded with deafening energy, factories that smoke fumes
darken the sky, banks whose height is clawing at the sky, labor that uses thousands of Proletarian
sticks, fabrication of chromo-hit items to the storehouses. So the old imperialism that was born by
the old capitalism, the imperialism of the Oost Indische Compagnie and the imperialism of
Cultuurstelsel, the old imperialism must have the character of "its mother", that is, the old character,
the old-fashioned character, the old-fashioned character. Old imperialism
did not know "modern" methods, it will not know "polite" methods. He struck right and left, planted
and guarded the monopoly system (violence, ed.) with violence and cruelty. He instituted a forced
system everywhere, he destroyed thousands of human souls, destroyed kingdoms with violent
weapons, eradicated the millions of clove and nutmeg plants that jeopardized his profits. He gave
birth to contingenten rules (similar to taxes, paid for goods produced by the Heads) and leverantien
(heads were confirmed to deposit agricultural goods purchased by Compagnie. But the quantity and
price of the goods were the Compagnie which decides very heavily on the People, they openly give
birth to rules that extinguish Indonesian trade, they openly carry out fragmented politics. He carried
out acts of violence, which according to Professor Snouck Hurgronje, "it is very difficult for us to
keep us from being bored and disgusted". He in the last days gave birth to a new system (system,
ed.) forced labor, which was even more cruel, more profitable, more severed the breath again,
namely cultuurstelsel which as a whip falls on the shoulders and behind it the People. Yes, in short,
it is very "old-fashioned" in its behavior and behavior: outright coercion and insistence is that it has
a life!
But gradually in modern Europe capitalism replaced the old capitalism vroeg. Factories, workshops,
banks, ports, industrial cities arose as if they were fungus in winter, and when modern capitalism
was already mature, the excess capital, aka surplus capital, would then be included in Indonesia. , -
modern imperialism is plainly incarnated on earth, wanting to replace old imperialism which is also
Not stopping, that's how I wrote the other day, I have a pleidooi, unrelenting modern imperialism is
banging on the gates of Indonesia which is not opening fast, not stopping the modern champions of
imperialism that can't wait anymore pounding over the gate, unceasingly the gatekeepers were eager
to tremble at the sound of the cry "naar vrij arbeid!", "towards independent work!" than the modern
capitalists who do not want to use the old system that is too forced, but want to create a new system
that uses "free workers", "renting free land", "free competition", and so forth. And finally, in about
1870, the gate was opened! As the winds flooded more and more, as the roar of the victorious army
entered the defeated city, then after Agrarische wet and Suikerwet-godal in 1870 were received well
by Staten-Generaal in the Netherlands, enter private capital (private, ed.) In the Netherlands.
Indonesia, holding sugar factories everywhere, tea plantations everywhere, onderneming tobacco
(plantations, ed.) Everywhere, and so on; additional private capital that opens up various mining
companies, various railroad, tram, ship, or other factories. Old imperialism withers more and more,
more and more dead, modern imperialism replacing places the way to take a fortune by means of
monopoly and force is increasingly being replaced by the way of taking a fortune by independent
competition and independent labor, the method of taking a fortune that digs profit for the Dutch
"country" is increasingly shrinking, pressured by the taking of a new fortune that is new enrich
private capital.
Old imperialism was born by old capitalism, modern imperialism was born by modern capitalism.
The character of old capitalism is very different from the character of modern capitalism.
The method of taking has changed, the system has changed, the character has changed, but has there
been much change for the Indonesian people? The flood of wealth that came out of Indonesia is not
less receding, but instead it is getting bigger, Indonesia's drainage is even more eating up! "Never
has that net profit flowed so swiftly as it was under the leadership of the new exploitant (exploiter,
ed.); That flow was only through quieter streets", as a politician once wrote ...
Indeed, for the Indonesian people, the change since 1870 was only a change in the means of taking
fortune; for the Indonesian people, both old imperialism and modern imperialism are only a matter
of imperialism, both of them are living in transporting Indonesia's fortune out of the fence, both of
them are left with drainage. And even this drainage in the modern era is increasingly flooding
imperialism! The modern giant of imperialism does not remain just a giant, the giant of modern
imperialism will later become a giant that has more heads and more hands: Since the opendeur-
politiek (open-door politics, ed.) In 1905, capital that can enter Indonesia and seeking fortune in
Indonesia, is no longer just Dutch capital, but also British capital, also American capital, also
Japanese capital, also German capital, also French capital, also Italian capital, as well as other
capital, so that imperialism in Indonesia is now imperialism international because of it. The
"ordinary" giant that used to be wrangled over the Indonesian desert fields, has now become the
giant Rahwana Dasamuka with a mouth and not just ten mouths! Also the way to look for fortune is
now not just one road, but a road that has three or four branches. Indonesia is no longer just a place
to take ordinary goods as in the era of old imperialism, Indonesia is no longer just a place to take
nutmeg or cloves or pepper or cinnamon or tilapia, but now it is also a market for the sale of goods
produced by foreign countries, also becoming a place for foreign investment, which in a foreign
country itself has run out of space, in short: it also becomes afzetgebied (market area) and exploited
its surplus capital.

Especially this recent "road", the "road" of foreign investment here, is the most powerful and
increasingly intense: sugar factories are not tens but hundreds, tea company is open everywhere,
rubber company is scattered in all directions. coffee company, quinine company, tobacco company,
lemongrass company, tin sites, gold mines, oil drilling sites, iron companies, confineries, ships and
trams, all of which are the incarnations of investment right here, all of which illustrates how great it
is The giant is striving for Indonesia to become its surplus-capitalized surplus capital. Thousands,
no, millions of wealthy people who have patiently left Indonesia, enriched modern-capitalism in the
Western world. Look at the numbers below, look at the numbers rather than the size of imports and
exports for 1924-1930.
For South Africa is 118.7 / 100
For the Philippines 123.1 / 100
For India 123.3 / 100
For Egypt 129.9 / 100
Create Ceylon (Srilanka, ed.) 132.8 / 100

What turns out with these numbers? With these numbers, it turns out that what I said above: that
Indonesia is especially the place for foreign investment, which would inevitably take out the goods;
that Indonesia has been seized by imperialism which is mainly export-oriented, imperialism which
in "normal" times averaged twice the amount of fortune which he had taken out rather than what he
put in; that Indonesia has suffered terribly.
Surely, on average it doubles the exports than imports! that's how I wrote the other day in "Suluh
Indonesia Muda" -, on average twice as much as exports rather than imports, that is, it is a very
damning comparison, a comparison that holds the record of all drainage in the entire earth!
Wretched Indonesia! While export/import comparisons in other colonial countries were "better off",
while they were in 1924.

For South Africa is 118.7 / 100

For the Philippines 123.1 / 100
For India 123.3 / 100
For Egypt 129.9 / 100
For Ceylon (Srilanka, ed.) 132.8 / 100

So for Indonesia, he is the most wretched, namely 220.4 / 100! Two hundred and twenty point four
percent of exports compared to imports, - do we wonder, if an economist as Professor van Gelderen
tries in vain to find a higher number, and says that "when compared with the figures in the Indies
with the country figures otherwise, it turns out that there is no country on earth that has such a high
percentage as the Dutch East Indies "? We wonder, if a Communist C. Stantin, who is used to
seeing "cruel" numbers, says imperialism in Indonesia is imperialism that creates “goosebumps”.
Two hundred and twenty point four percent of exports, and what is exported out of it? What is
exported out is mainly "onderneming results" and oil. The exported goods are sugar, rubber,
tobacco, tea, kerosene, gasoline, etc., according to the figures above, the total generals (all of them,
ed.) in the "normal" era at the most "apes" f 1,500,000,000-zegge: one thousand five hundred
million rupiahs a year over the years, as for the example I presented below (figures for 1937):

Total kerosene yields 149,916,000

Arachides 4,335,000
Natural rubber 417,055,000
Resin 9,911,000
Copra 73,083,000
Uncaria 1,194,000
Perca sap 1,895,000
Dyera costulata 2,073,000
Hat 2,405,000
Wood 9,106,000
Skin 16,067,000
Babakan quinine 5,454,000
Quinine pill 1,821,000
Coffee 74,376,000
Maize 4,033,000
Fabrics 5,425,000
Total oils (from plants) 14,766,000
Areca catechu 7,307,000
Rattan 8,521,000
Rice 2,373,000
Total spices 33,409,000
Rubbing alcohol 3,125,000
Charcoal 5,019,000
Total Sugar 365,310,000
Tobacco total 113,926,000
Sweet potato flour 21,423,000
Tea 90,220,000
Total Tin 93,864,000
Cake 4,132,000
Kapok, pineapple fiber, etc. 38,250,000
Etc 42,484,000
Total (whole, ed.) 1,622,278,000

Here is a list of "eating your way" at a party to celebrate the "beschaving-en-order-en-rust" which
became the cornerstone of modern imperialism in Indonesia! Consider the names and numbers
printed in bold letters: Except for kerosene and tin, the names are all the names of the results "on
land landing", and all of them are the fattest numbers. Rubber is so many millions, copra is so
many, Coffee is so many millions, oils of plants are so many millions, sugar is so many millions, ...
tobacco, tea, kapok pineapple fiber is so many, -from eight kinds of the results of this landbouw
onderneming alone the number of exports is already f 1.186 .986,000, or approximately 75% of the
total exports of f 1,622,278,000! Conclusion? The conclusion is that the modern imperialism that
engages in the economic landscape of Indonesia is primarily agricultural imperialism, or more
explicitly: landbouw-industrieel-imperialism. The conclusion is, that for our struggle it is very
important that we, among others, hold peasant unions, as we will later be anchored in section 8 of
this treatise.
Exports “expense “annually averages 1,500,000,000 rupiah! But how much profit he got from the
millions sale of goods? Ondernemersraad, that is, the union of the capitalists themselves, gave their
own frank answer to this question: for a year they made a profit of 9%
up to 10% of its parent capital, in 1924 amounting to f 490,000,000, in 1925 a total of f
540,000,000, in the years the average box was f 515,000,000. net profit of five hundred and fifteen
billion rupiahs a year, and this is 9% to 10% of them have a parent capital! As a result, they have a
parent capital, that is, the sum of all capital invested in Indonesia, is 100/9 xf 515,000,000 f
5,722,000,000, or almost f 6,000,000,000! All the numbers are only billions, there are not
thousands, yes, there is no stick or stick! Total capital: six thousand billion, total price of goods that
are carried out every year on the world market: one thousand five hundred million, total net profit
per year: five hundred and fifteen

As for Marhaen, who drains and complains of sweat showering to make such a profit, on average in
"normal" times, it is no more than eight cents a day ...

3. "Indonesia, Glorious Land, Our Rich Land: That's where we are forever!"
Yes, in "normal" times, before misses, no more than eight cents a day. And even this is not the
figment of the liar, not the agitation of the instigator, not the agitation of the leader-agitator. This is
a real fact and has been proven by Dutch knowledge experts themselves. Indeed
those who are sincere and not hypocrites and ungodly must acknowledge the situation. Indeed, only
hypocrites and seditious ones do not stop flapping: "Indonesia is prosperous, its people are full."
But the numbers cannot be denied anymore. Dr. Huender has collected the numbers. He made a
calculation of all the inconsistencies and benefits of Kang Marhaen, from all the windfalls and the
exit of Kang Marhaen's fortune. He collected the figures not from "artificial news", but from the
official verses themselves. He stood as objective as possible, he was neutral, not siding towards
anyone. He must be trusted by everyone who wants to be sincere.
He divided Kang Marhaen's income into three parts: income from his rice, income from his crops,
income from his lectures when Marhaen was "vrij". And what according to Dr. Huender apparently
Kang Marhaen has a "meal"? What are the income of each? Look at the "list" below:

He got rice for the price 103

He got Palawija for the price 30
He got a result of labor as much as 25-
He got the total general results 158

Zegge: one hundred and fifty eight Rupiahs of the Dutch East Indies, in the pre-misses era! And
even this is gross income. Because of the "wealth" f18, Marhaen still has to pay for expenses: he
has land ownership, pays he has a head tax, pays he has Inlandse Verponding, pays he has other
taxes. From the "wealth" f 158, Kang Marhaen according to Dr. Huendermasih must re-issue the
total generals f 22.50.2 Twenty-two and a half rupiahs out of one hundred and fifty eight rupiahs,
net income is the total-general box:

F 158-f 22.50 f 135.50!

F 135.50 for twelve months, and for children as long as possible!
Not yet until f 12.the months!
Not until f 0.40 everyday!
Not even eight cents a day!
So also in this case, Indonesia is a record; in all the faces of the earth from west to east to north to
the south there are no numbers so low; in Bulgaria, the country which is known to be the most
destitute, people still live thirteen cents a day. We are not surprised, that Dr. Huender said, that
Marhaen was a "minimum-lijdster" people, that is, people who had become so impoverished, that if
they were reduced to just a little life provision. Undoubtedly he fell completely, want to completely,
completely destroyed!
And Dr. Huender does not stand alone; dozens of other Dutch people who also thought so; dozens
of other Dutch people who also recognized that Marhaen was a miserable father. But there is no
point in mentioning the names one by one in the minutes to be read by the Marhaens. The Marhaens
themselves felt that poverty and misery every day, every hour, every minute. The Marhaens
themselves feel every day, how they lack everything, lack of life supplies, lack of clothing, lack of
household items, lack of education for their children, lack of every basic human needs.

And yet, perhaps this treatise was read by the "twijfelaars" aka the "hesitant" party among us who
have intellectuelen who, because they are too full "colonial influence" do not believe that Marhaen
is miserable? For the "twijfelaars", they only know one effective medicine that will eliminate all
their doubts; for those "twiffelaars" (doubters) My recipe is just: "Go away, among the Marhaens
themselves, declare that among the Marhaens themselves!" then you will see with your own eyes,
hear with your own ears, the truth is the words of Professor Boeke that says, that the life of the
farmer is his life "ellending", a life that is "miserable", - or the truth is the words of Schmalhausen,
that our society is a society " almost no one has anything ".
And maybe there are also benefits to this group just making some more numbers? Come, if that is
so, we present a few statistics. Let us take statistics from the Government's own accounts.4 So we
find figures there that are not much different from the figures Dr.Huender tahadi. We see there, that
throughout Indonesia the number of Marhaens (all figures are "normal" era numbers) which have a
trade that results more than f 120 a year is only 1,172,168 people, yet not 2 every 100; that
Marhaen's cattle in the form of cattle were only 145 per thousand people.
We see that if, for example, Kang Marhaen becomes a labor in a sugar factory, the average wage is
only f 0.45 a day, and that if mbok Marhaen becomes a labor, this wage then becomes an average of
only 0.37 a day, meaning, if eaten by the whole house member: no more than fo.08 or f0.09 a day.
We see that the land belong to each Marhaen was on average only about one shoulder, while
thousands of shoulders were given erfpacht (fee farm), while in the Netherlands the peasants in
whose possession of 5 shoulders had already been mentioned "keuterboer", "smaller farmers than
small farmers". We see that the agricultural land planted by Marhaen is only an average of 0.29
shoulder, so that Marhaen is not a keurterbroer, still ... a small farmer. We see, and now we take for
granted the volksraad, that where twenty-five years ago 71% of the Marhaens were still able to
farm, now only 52% can farm. We see, let's just stop, let's just end this "list" right here, but oh, it's
We better read the newspapers, and we can every day collect some "poetry of the megatruth" that
"appeals", who doubted how his life Kang Marhaen, who in "normal" times had "today we eat
tomorrow we do not", at in the current age of misses more and more horrified, moreover
decide lives again, even more gasping for breath.

"Darmokondo", July 11, 1932:

"In Sukabumi, there is a husband and wife named Musa and Unah, with whom he has a 5-year-old
son, the second is 3 years and the third is only 1 year. That family was very destitute, and after a
few months he only lived alone with leaves in the forest, which he ate for rice instead. Eventually
the husband and wife felt that he could not live forever by only eating that kind of food. To keep on
living he has a soul and his children, that husband and wife have got one thought, that is ... just sell
their children to anyone who wants to buy. "

"South Pertja", May 7, 1932:

"pawnshop is full because no one redeemed, all pawned. Now less hock. This is weird stuff! For it
should go up! For me not strange. This is a sign that the goods that there is nothing left to pawn! It
is a sign of poverty and nothing is left! In the village people eat rice every 2 days, for other days
they eat sweet potatoes, tarp, Cassava, Banana Heart. Already as a cow "

"Action" November 14, 1931:

"In Banaran village near Tulung Agung sometime ago, people were noisy because someone is
hanging himself . The case is like this: For a long time, he has been very miserable since his son,
even his very young child is often begged for rice by the villager. Every day he was looking for
work, leaving early in the morning to go home late, but in vain, no one needs a labor. Yesterday he
did not travel, just sat pensive at home, apparently already disheartened and confused listening to
his son cry for food. Suddenly he was dead (hanged himself). "

"Siang Po", January 23, 1933:

"near the city of Krawang, things have happened that really make me feel heartbroken. There is a
widow named Upi, who has a little child. His man just died, because he was seriously ill for one
week. Upi’s man was very poor, but after he became a widow, poverty seems to have no more
limits. Gradually Upi had become desperate, and she so loved his child that he had offered to Mr.
LKB in Karawang. Asked why he wanted to sell his son, she did not want to answer anything, just
dropped tears in her eyes. The old LKB was very sorry for her, and gave a modest amount of money
to that poor widow

"Deliverers Deli", 7 December 1932:

"In the city, there are often people who come to prison gate, asking just be treated in prison, because
cannot bear the misery. In prison is still full of food, outside is not necessarily once a day "...

"sin Po", March 27, 1993:

"Stealing chickens because of hunger. Also punished to 9 months.
Great malaise raging everywhere has made the Trogong Kebajuran villagers miserable and hungry.
The average population there can't get money and many are starving because they don't have money
to buy food.

One of the people named Pungut also experienced a great difficulty. He has a wife and two
children, while his income has been tight due to the difficult times. Meanwhile his rice and food are

What about it, because he could not stand the misery, because it has been 2 days without rice, one
night he unloaded the chicken coop from his neighbor's name Djaja and from he stole 2 chickens.

He sold the animal to the market for three pitjis and from that he bought 15 cent of rice.

Later Pungut was captured and imprisoned. On March 25 he had to face the landraad at Mr.
Cornelis and Pungut admitted to steal two chickens because he hadn't eaten in 2 days.

Landraap thinks he is clearly guilty of taking other people's chickens and collecting 9 months. His
wife and child were crying outside the landraap room! (Rep.) "

Enz., Enz., Enz.! ...

Wow, - and in this age of tears, where Marhaen is forced to live with a day's huff, where the
burdens Marhaen has to carry are increasingly heavy, which according to voorzitter Kleine
welvaartcommissie verses income from small companies in villages and in villages - the village has
gone down by 40 to 70%, where misery often makes Marhaen despair and dark eyes, as it turns out
from the news above, Java still has to maintain the lives of thousands of contracted labor, who were
sent home from Deli and others zonder allowance in this tear age Marhaen landed even a penny,
yan as if to prove the contents of the proverb: "leaving after having fun" Yes, just as poor as
Marhaen is, Marhaen is forever willing to share his poverty with someone who is more destitute
than he is", - Schmalhausen writes. Yes, imperialism knows the height of Marhaen's mind: the labor
he frees do not need to be bothered, - after all, they can also eat from their friends in the villages
and villages! While the "werkloos" of foreign nations here receive benefits. As for the "werkloos"
in almost every country that is polite gets life support. While the "werkloos" in the Netherlands
received f 2 orders.-a day. He was ... he was Kang Marhaen, although for example he was not

"werkloos". Even though he drains his bones and sweats on his fields from dawn to dusk, he must
endure his life with a nudge a day ...
Oh dear, how could Marhaen have to save her life full of shade? Who is full of lamentation and full
of tears, full of misfortune and full of sadness, full of pain and full of hunger? In "normal" times
when imperialists partied and rejoiced in exporting goods with more than f1. 500,000,000 a year, he
only gets a living-living f 0.08 a day; in its beginnings the age of miscarriage, according to
"economisch weekblad", it only eats f 0.04 a day; and in the midst of missed times, when according
to the export statistics of the imperialists a year, it is still not less than f 1. 159,000,000, he was
forced to defend his life with a nudge a day! The line of life is indeed full of misfortunes; his
livelihood line never goes up, his livelihood line is always going down. More than a quarter of a
century ago voorzitter "Mindere welvaartcomissie" had said, that he had a fairy of life was in the
"tuitelig evenwicht", a fairy-life that easily bounced; a quarter of a century later people say that he
is "minimumlidjer"; and now three or four years later, Marhaen can live with a nudge a day and ...
feed thousands of contract-labor releases. In a period of less than thirty years, modern-imperialism,
which always promotes its "politeness" and "public tranquility", has seen the chance to "improve"
Marhaen's fate from half-life to half-gasping!
But is it really true that imperialism has absolutely no "blessings" for us, the Indonesian people?
Doesn't it bring some progress, bring knowledge, bring "beschaving"? Isn't the modern box of
imperialism "good" too? O, indeed, modern-day imperialism brings "beshaving", modern-day
imperialism brings beautiful roadways and great railroad roads, modern-day imperialism brings
perfect ship transportation, brings "peace", brings telephone, brings telegraph, to bring an electric
lamp, bring in a radio, bring in medicine, bring in engineering, yes, bring in the intelligence of any
item that comes close to the genie-fairy-chopper, but, are all of these things brought to Kang
Marhaen's needs? Is there a "peace" of all these things, even if for example brought to the needs of
Kang Marhaen, can be balanced with the disasters of life spread by modern imperialism among
Kang Marhaen? There is no more similar to the truth, Brailsfrod said that: "the gifts of advancement
education and the good rules that he brought were just shattered than he had the pleasure of looking
for the fierce fortune"?
After all, is there a face to face with the catastrophic life that is spread by modern imperialism this
Marhaen gets enough rights from the government that can only be considered as a "cure" for his
broken heart. His mind is also confused, his stomach is hungry? Onderwijs? Oh, in this "courtesy
century" -that is the other day to answer-, in this "courtesy century", according to figures from the
statistical office of men who can read and write there aren't 7% of women yet there is . 0.5%. Light
tax? According to his investigation of the Institute of Financial Investigation in China, Indonesia in
tax matters ... also holds the record! People's Health or hygiene? Throughout Indonesia there are
only 343 gupermen hospitals, Bumiputera deaths no less than 20/1000, in large cities sometimes up
to 50/1000. Protection of the interests of the workers? The arbeidswetgeving sociale rules that
protect workers against the capital are nonexistent, the arbeidsinspectie is just a name, the right to
strike, which in polite countries is no longer a problem, with the existence of article 161 bis from
the torture law book completely extinguished altogether rather than reality, being completely
confused by dreams! Perfect Justice? Just read his opinion Mr. Sastro Muljono on this matter when
defending the case alone, or comparing how the Landraad and Raad van Justitie work. The
independence of the press and the right to participate in assembly and assembly? Oh dear, is here
the right of independence of press and the right of association and assembly? Are there rights here,
where the torture law book is still classy with articles as 153 bis, 154, 155, 156, 157, 161 bis dIs,
where the right of "arrest" is still present, where the words "dangerous to public security" is heard
everyday, where there is persbreidel-ordonnantie, where a closed meeting "If necessary" may also
be attended by zeroisi where spy systems can be said to be completely perfect, where recently
dozens of public meeting were dismissed?
No! There are no such rights here! " with all kinds of obstacles and all kinds of mines like that, then
the independence is merely a name, the rights are merely names; with all these kinds of obstacles,
the independence of press and the right of association and assembly became a mere shadow, a
dream! Almost every journalist has ever felt the hand of the law, almost every Indonesian leader has
been imprisoned, almost every Indonesian people who carried out a radical resistance and then
regarded "dangerous to public security",
O, Marhaen, your daily life is such a mess, your burdens are getting heavier, your rights are
virtually nonexistent!

For that matter, you may promise:

"Indonesia, the glorious land,
Our rich land
That's where we are,
forever! ".

4. "In the east the Sun Starts to Light, Gest Up and Stands Up, Everyone, Friend! ..."
But the things I told above are just birth defects. Inner damage is everywhere. Stelsel imperialism,
which needs workers, has turned our enthusiasm into a spirit of labor at all, a spirit of labor that is
only happy if it can serve. The people of Indonesia who were once famous as the brave people, who
were not easily submissive, whose boats crossed the seas and oceans to India, China, Madagascar
and Persia, - the Indonesian people are now the people who are known as "het zachtste volk der
aarde", "The weakest people in all the earth", now the Indonesian are the people who have lost their
faith in themselves, lost their personality, lost their courage, completely lost their patient, "The
spirit of the tiger" according to professor Veth is the spirit of the Indonesian people in ancient times,
that spirit has become the spirit of a soft and cowardly goat.

And that's not even the greatest inner disaster! The biggest inner disaster was that the Indonesian
people believed that it was indeed a "People-goat" who should be forever led and guided. As with
every system of imperialism everywhere, the existing system of imperialism in Indonesia is forever
heralded in our ears, that its purpose is not the purpose of seeking sustenance, but rather the "sacred
intent" of educating us from ignorance to progress and intelligence. As well as each system
imperialism, he is never tired of shouting he has a "mission-sacree". On its flag, imperialism is
forever the written slogans and the "beschaving" and "order en rust" - "politeness" and "public
security" elements. "Politeness" and "public security"! Don't we say that people are still stupid and
barbaric, who need to get teachers and need to get fathers? God, as if we were right at the time
when imperialism arrived was still stupid, as if it were true, we were savage people! It is as if our
people have never had a culture that astonished the world! If it is true that the system of imperialism
is not for seeking fortune, it is not for "financial affairs", it is not for fulfilling the craving for
materialism, if it is true that the system of imperialism will be very thirsty work promotes ", what is
cause that the system of imperialism comes first to culturally high people, such as Indonesia, India,
Egypt, and do not only go to the country of the Eskimo in the North Pole!

No, it really isn't! That "holy mission" is just nonsense, that "mission-sacree" is to maintain his

Of imperialism only. Because no imperialism on earth can continuously take sustenance from the
people so that the people know and realize that their fortune is stolen and taken; no imperialism is
"long-lasting", if the people are aware that their body is a tree that has a living empire than it has
living substances. Therefore, the people are constantly being injected, that imperialism comes is the
thing of fulfilling a "sacred mission" to educate the people from ignorance to intelligence, to
educate the people from decline to progress. And the people then believe in the "holy mission": he
no longer sees imperialism as an enemy that must be removed as quickly as possible, not as an
empire that descends on his body, he then sees imperialism as a friend who must be requested thank
you ..

Movement is not depending on the existence of a leader, not the creation of a leader. The movement
is the creation of our miserable fate. It is essentially the effort of a sick community to self-medicate.

Jawaharlal Nehru, the famous Hindustan leader, once said: "The greatness of our country and
people is so deep in the fog of archeology, and the magnitude of imperialism is so often seen every
day, that we forget that we can be great, and think that only the imperialists can be smart." These
Jawaharlal Nehru words, which describe the inner destruction of the Hindustani People, may only
be used for the people of Indonesia today. Also we forget that we can become significant, also we
forget that our retrogression is because we have been subjected to the influence of imperialism for
too long, also we forget that our retrogression is not a retrogression that is due to nature, but is a
retrogression that is due to imperialism, a retrogression artificial, a "bend" retrogression, a
centuries-old retrogression of injection. We also think that only imperialism can be clever, that only
them who can be knowledgeable, and can make a way, can make ships, can produce electricity, can
build trains and auto and cinema and airplanes and radios, and never one blink of our eyes ask
ourselves, whether we now also cannot hold all of these things, for example, we are not three
hundred years was blessed with "imperialism? Yes, we also believe that we cannot be independent
and stand-alone now ...

That, indeed, has "eaten" once the influence of imperialism. We are now very easy to fold,
"plooibaar" en "gedwee" - "aftermath of centuries of pressure", as Schmalhausen mentioned it. We
have become 100% goat people. We are now desperate, we are zonder personalities, we are
cowards, and we are cowards. We people who have a slave spirit, many of us are sellers of the
nation. We totally lost our masculinity, and we completely lost our humanity. Therefore, if it
continues to be so, we will be completely wiped from this earth, and deserve to die in the mud of
humiliation and the hell of darkness.

But... Praise the Lord; in the East, the sun is shining, dawn is dawning!

The sleeping pills of imperialism that we drink for centuries, which have absorbed in our flesh and
bone, yes, which have absorbed in our spirits and our lives, the sleeping pills slowly began to
deplete. The resistance that had been put to sleep soundly at all, now began to wake up and awaken.
The spirit of slavery began to fall and embossed into a new spirit that was getting bigger and bigger.
It is not the spirit that complains because it knows the damage to birth and inner destiny; but the
spirit that arouses the knowledge, becomes the will to fight and the struggle. Not the spirit that cries,
but the spirit that continues to grow will become the deed. Indeed it is no longer the time for us to
complain: it is no longer the time for us to complain, even though the damage to our destiny seems

to break us with lives. We cannot escape the present situation by complaining and crying, and we
can only get out of it by cancut-tali-wanda

fighting, fighting, and once again fighting. We must fight to the utmost energy, to fight although the
breath is almost depleted from our chest. We must imitate the teachings of those Hindus who say:
"We cannot have another chance to cry, we are full of tears. Now, it is not the time for us to make
soft, soft-hearted. For centuries we have become soggy so that it becomes like cottonwood and
gelatin. What our homeland needs now are muscles that are hard as steel, nerve fibers that are
strong as iron, hard wills as black stones with nothing to hold, and, if necessary, dare to plunge into
the bottom of the ocean! "

Praise the Lord, now the dawn is dawning! Movement is definitely born, definitely alive, it will be
inevitably flooded, even though sleeping pills are also effective, or even if the enemy openly blocks
them with many obstacles, as long as our fate is still a miserable fate. Movement is not dependent
on the existence of a leader, not the creation of a leader; the movement is the creation of our
miserable fate. It is essentially an attempt by the sick community to self-medicate. He is there when
the pain is still there, and he is gone if the pain is gone. He, as said by a German leader "in this
unfair world always follows his enemy as a shadow, which eventually covers his enemy to death"

"Every creature, every people, every nation must not help, must finally arise, must finally wake up,
must finally move its energy, if it is too soon to feel the self-harm that is persecuted by something
power that is fierce - wrath, so I once wrote. "No more human beings, no more nationalities, even
worms certainly move around when they feel pain!"

That’s true! The movement was born because in essence was born by the forces of association alone
life. Leaders also move because of the nature of social life’s power forces

Make he moves. It's not dawn because the roosters crow, but the roosters crow because of the dawn

But moving and moving are two. Indeed, the movement is essentially a creation of our destiny, a
creation of our society, a creation of nature, but nature itself is often too slow to run, because the
events or processes in that nature are often instinctive instances of unconsciously, namely events the
"recognized". Then our movement will be too slow, our movements will be as people who on a
pitch-black night without torch goes on a small road that has many rocks and many bends, our
movements will also be "instinctual movements", if our movements are only unaware or
"unrecognized", which is a movement that "well ... moves out of misery," but not sharply aware of

what is intended and how to go. Only when we walk with a torch, know precisely what we are
going to, know precisely where the fast road is, know exactly what we will encounter; only if we
are not as if again in the pitch-black night, but as if in a bright daylight, -then if we have achieved
this we can make what we mean as fast as possible, as quickly as possible, as rewarding as possible.
That is why we should have a sure movement formation, careful movement construction, movement
formation, or construction that must be compatible and following the laws of society and continue
towards the direction of society, that is, a safe and perfect society.

With the formation or construction of a careful movement, then our movement is no longer an
unconscious movement, but a conscious movement, repentance. With such awareness and
conviction, our movement then means accelerating the course of the process of nature, a movement
which bears nature and bears nature. With such awareness and conviction, our movement also
becomes incapacitated, cannot be extinguished, victorious, -as nature!

He could be briefly demolished, he could briefly be dissolved, he could briefly appear to be

destroyed, but every time he would also stand up again and stand up again, and move on in his
direction. He occasionally seemed to perish completely because he was struck with all the earthly
forces that the enemy had, but then after that, he would appear again and walk again. As having a
secret power, as having a life force, as having "aji-panca-sona" and "aji-candabirawa", then the
movements which bear the nature and shouldered of that nature cannot be killed, and instead they
are increasingly flooding. As her own nature, she must not inevitably come to the point!

Therefore, Marhaens, raise your heart, build your resolve, increase your confidence in achieving
your goals. It's not just a proverb if I say dawn has come. Our movement has begun to take shape,
not to mention a course that is only "ideals" only. Our movement has started to become a
movement, as I meant above. The outline of the formation or construction now lies before you,
engraved in this small treatise. Read this treatise carefully and carefully, keep all the teachings in
your mind and your mind, work on all the teachings with determination and determination. Build
your movement into an awareness and repentance movement, which will, therefore, be great as the
strength of the earthquake.

The dawn is breaking. Welcome the dawn with awareness, and you will soon see the sunrise.

5. Party Usability

We move because of our misery; we move because we want to live more worthy and perfect lives.
We move not because of "ideal" only; we move because we want enough food, we want enough

clothes, we want enough land, want enough housing, want enough education, want enough
minimum arts and culture, in short, we are moving because we want to improve our destiny in all
parts and branches.

The improvement of this fate can only come one hundred percent when the people already have no
capitalism and imperialism. Because it is the system that as an empire grows over our bodies, lives
and is fertile from us, lives and is fertile from our energy, our sustenance, the substances belonging
to our society.

Therefore, our movements should not be small movements; our movement must be in essence a
movement that wants to completely change the nature of society, a movement that wants to break
down the pains of society to its tendrils and roots, a movement that at all wants to abort the system
of imperialism and capitalism. Our movement is not just a movement that wants lower taxes. Don't
only want to increase wages, don't only want small improvements that can be achieved today, but it
must lead to a transformation that completely overturns the nature of that society, from the
imperialistic-capitalistic nature to the average. Our movement must be a movement which in
essence leads to an "ommekeer" (reversal_ by a copyist) social structure.

How can "ommekeer" social order occur? First of all, by the will and energy of the people
themselves, by the "immenente krachten" of the people themselves, by the "secret forces" of the
people themselves. But the appearance, the birth, the physical, by a radical movement of the
common people, that is, by the mass of action. There is no significant change in the history of the
world lately, whose birth was not due to mass action. There has been no transformation in recent
times, without mass action. The mass of action is always a conduit when the old community steps
into the new society. The mass-action is always a paraji when the pregnant elderly community
gives birth to a new society. Changes in the era of Chartism in England in the past, changes in the
collapse of feudalism in France were replaced by bourgeois democratic systems, changes in the
death of feudalism in other European countries, changes in the collapse of the capitalist system part
by part after the proletarian movement incarnated in the world. These changes are all "paraded" by
the mass of action that arouses the food from the people. These changes have been accompanied by
the thunderous flood of the people's movement..

So we too, if we want to bring about such a huge change in society as the collapse of the system of
imperialism and capitalism, we must take action. We also have to move ordinary people in a radical
movement that is as volatile as a flood, embodies the mass movement that was previously
unconscious, and only gropes it into a mass movement that is conscious and radical, namely mass-

actions that are aware of the road and its purposes. Therefore, mass-action is not forbidden mass
movement, is not forbidden movement of thousands or millions of people. Mass action is a radical
mass movement. And the mass of action that is useful for one hundred percent is only a mass of
action that is aware and repentance; therefore, the benefit-mass-action is thus: a conscious and
radical movement of the common people.

Yes, how can we embody the unconscious and hesitant and touch movements into conscious and
radical movements? With a party! With a party that educates ordinary people into society and
radicalism. With a party, which guides the commoners on their way to victory, cultivates the power
of the commoners in their daily struggle, becoming a vanguard of the commoners in the direction of
the ideals. It's the party that holds the torch, the party that goes in front, the party that lights the
dark, full of mines, so it becomes a bright road. It was the party that led the masses in their struggle
to take down the enemy, the party which held command rather than the marching masses. It is the
party who must give consciousness to the mass movement, give awareness, give radicalism.

Therefore, the party itself must first be an aware party, a conscious party, a radical party. Only
parties that are aware and conscious and radical can make the masses aware and conscious and
radical. Only such a party can become a true vanguard in the movement of the masses, and bring the
masses as quickly as possible to victory and excellence. Only such a party can create an aware mass
of action, a mass of actions that can quickly withdraw a system, which is the element of its

People often think: we can only win if the 60,000,000 Indonesian people have all joined a party!
Such estimation is an empty experience, an impossible experience, an unnecessary experience. If
the victory can only come when the 60,000,000 people of Indonesia have all entered a party, then
we will not be able to win until the end of the time. Because the 60,000,000 people cannot all
become party members, it is impossible for all of them to become party members.

No! Victory does not need to wait until all the commoners as soon as their brothers enter a party!
Victory can come if there is a party that is valiant and aware of being the true pioneer of the masses,
who can lead and can move the masses, who can fight and order to fight against the masses, whose
words become the law for the masses and the orders become command for the masses. Victory can
already come, whenever there is a party that bravely leads and raises awareness of the masses of

Look for example the struggle of China first, look at the movement in Egypt ten-fifteen years ago,
look at the movement of the proletariat in Europe. In all those countries, the movement was
intangible "every nose became a member", but it was a vanguard party running in front of the flag:
in the former Wafd Party, in China, it was the Kuo Min Tang party, in the proletarian De
Internationale movement. These pioneer parties became the machine of the masses, the processors
of the masses, the champions of the masses, the commander of the masses. It was these vanguard
parties that drove mass action.

Therefore, throw away that wrong estimate, that first, "everyone must be a member"! No, not first, "
everyone must be a member", not before all the common people as soon as possible must enter the
party, but the most deliberate and conscious and radical Marhaens must join themselves in a brave
vanguard party! The most enthusiastic Marhaen, the most willing, the most conscious, the most
courageous, the most hard-hearted, Marhaen-Marhaen are enough to move the masses of great and
vibrant action and come to victory, as long as I joined in a pioneer party that knew how to wave all
the power of the masses.

A vanguard party? Yes, one pioneer party, and not two, not three! One party alone can be the best
and most perfect, the others certainly are less good and less perfect. One party can be a pioneer!

Indeed: more than one pioneer, confusing the masses, more than one commander screwed the army.
The history of the world shows that in each great mass of action, only one party was the pioneer
who went ahead while carrying the flag. There could be other parties, there could be other
associations, but the other parties at the critical moment only demanded the vanguard parties, -
joined in the struggle, took the lead, but not as the commander of the entire army, but only as
sergeants and corporals. At the time of "historche momenten" then according to world history is a
party that is considered by the masses "that's the man of the world, let's follow the man of the

But which party can be the vanguard parties in our mass action? A party whose will is compatible
with Marhaen's will, a party whose everything is in accordance with the will of nature, a party
which bears the nature and is borne by nature. Such a party can be the commander of our mass
action. Not a bourgeois party, not a noble party, not a reformist "Marhaen" party, not even a
"radical party" that is just violent, but a radical Marhaen party that knows when it drops its blows.
The leader of the workers once said: "The party must not be left behind mass; the mass is always
radical; the party must be radical too. But the party must not also think that it is with anarcho-
syndicalism and then becomes the leader of the masses. The party must fight two directions: fight
against the reforical course and fight the anarcho-syndicalist course."

Yes, the party described by this leader, who was not soft, but also not just violent, but a disciplined
consequence of radicalism, this party could become a pioneer party. The people themselves will
impose punishments on parties that are not so: they will be pushed back by them to become the
luckiest "sergeant party", or will be swept away by them altogether from the earth. Therefore,
Marhaen, watch out! Beware of choosing parties. Choose only that party, which fulfills the
conditions I mentioned earlier!

Such a party is what guides the movements of the common people, changes the movement of the
common people from unconsciousness to consciousness, gives the common people the alias
construction rather than its movements, makes it clear to the commoners what they are aiming for
and how to go, incarnate the movements of the common people who were only doubt and groping it
into a mass of action that is conscious and penance, the mass of action, which is why immediately
reap the victory.

Such a party is the party needed by the Marhaens!

6. Independent Indonesia is a Bridge

The form alias construction! The first formation is, as I have pointed out, that the purpose of our
movement must be: a ‘fair and perfect society, without oppression and exploitation, without
capitalism and imperialism. We are moving, as I have said earlier, not because of the "ideal"
experienced, but because we want to improve our destiny. We move because we are not willing to
the system of capitalism and imperialism, which makes us destitute and makes a mound of people
immersed in abundance and wealth, and because we want to taste the delicious fruits of our own
society equally. We, therefore, must move to end the system of capitalism and imperialism, that
makes us poor and makes a handful of people drown in wealth, and because we want to taste the
delicious fruits of our own society. Therefore, we have to move to take down capitalism and

And the first condition to end the system of capitalism and imperialism? The first condition is: we
must be independent. We have to be independent so that we can freely work together to take down
capitalism and imperialism. We must be independent, so that we can freely establish a new society
without capitalism and imperialism. As long as we are not independent, as long as we cannot freely
move we have a body, we have hands, we have legs, as long as we are still blocked in everything
we have movements, cannot "gait" as great as possible, as long as it is, then we cannot go all out to
power to continue the system of capitalism and imperialism. During this time, capitalism and
imperialism will remain as supremely powerful giants enthroned on the throne of Indonesian
eclecticism, and cannot be ended than the throne until it dies to bite the dust. Can Ramawidjaya
defeat Rahwana Dasamuka, if Ramawijaya, for example, his legs and hands are tied, can't he stretch
his network and let go his weapon?

People who are not independent are truly people who are not independent. All its movements are
not independent. All his will, all his thoughts, yes, all his spirit and life are not independent. They
are not free to do this and that. There is a landmine for this, ravine for that. Willing to issue
criticism. There are articles 154 to 157 of the torture law book: want to propose independence, there
are articles 153 bis; want to move the workers, threatened by the article 161 bis; willing to take
radical action, easily labeled "dangerous to public security"; want to advance trade, there are
customs barriers, want to advance social, there are various "conditions", in short-words: there are
thorns, there are spikes.

Therefore, independence is an important condition to eliminate capitalism and imperialism, an

important condition for establishing a perfect society. Indonesia Perfect Building, where all the
common people can take shelter and store and eat all the fruits of the eccentricity and culture itself,
where there is no misery on one side and kingdoms on the other, the Indonesia Perfect Building can
only be established in the free land of Indonesia. The Indonesia Perfect Building can only be
erected if its pandemen are embedded in the land of an independent Indonesia.

However, the Indonesia Perfect Building also can only be erected by Marhaen Indonesia, when
Marhaen is free to build it, not bound by this, not bound by that, that is, if Marhaen, and not other
parties, have unobstructed independence movement. Therefore, Marhaen must not only seek for an
independent Indonesia, not only must he seek national independence, but also have to protect the
national independence of the Marhaen who holds power, and not the Indonesian bourgeoisie, not
the Indonesian aristocracy, not the enemy-Marhaen of other Indonesians.

It is the Marhaen who in Independence Indonesian must hold firmly the politieke macht, not to be
taken by other Indonesian groups who are enemies of the Marhaen.

Look at the Netherlands, look at France. Look at Germany, Britain, America, Italy and others. All
of these countries are independent countries; all these countries are national independence. All of
these countries are free from foreign governments. But do not the Marhaens in those countries
struggle to get rid of capitalism, are not the Marhaens in those countries are difficult to end the roots
of capitalism, -didn't the Marhaens there for almost a century be said in vain drenched in sweat, yes,
sometimes bathed in blood, wanting to break down the capitalism that afflicts them? Are not the

Marhaens there still crooked, their backs occupied by capitalism that tinkers them, entreogates
them, enslaves them, enslaves them to the basics of hell of misery and starvation-hell?

Why is that? The reason is that the Marhaens in these countries have not yet held a political polity,
have not held governmental power. Politieke macht until now is in the hands of the capitalists
themselves, in the hands of the bourgeoisie themselves. In his hands, it is precisely the people who
are the backbone of the system; they are fighting to hit the action of the Marhaens, who want to
undermine capitalism. The flooding of the movement of the Marhaens has become a complete
change because of the heat of the wind coming out of bourgeois politics. So, therefore, the motto of
the radical movements of the Marhaens in these countries now: "naar de politieke macht!",
"Towards the rule of government!" Those powers which are now the country first, have not yet held
the power, they are chasing, that governmental power is what they now want to take from the hands
of the bourgeoisie. With the power of government in one's own hands, with the ultimate weapon in
its own hands, the European Marhaen would easily destroy the system of capitalism, tossing
capitalism from its shoulders for centuries of enslavement. The bourgeoisie whose hands are empty,
whose politieke is taken over by the European Marhaens, such bourgeoisie will become like a lion
whose teeth are lost and whose nails are lost, its thunder is lost and its stature is lost, its strength is
lost and its power is weak, weak and weak, dead all the fleas, not even the slightest power to protect
and defend stelse! The capitalism they adore and worship.

Now, even the Indonesians Marhaen, therefore, must be aware that they have a struggle they will
not need to extend if, at the time of the independence of Indonesia, the politieke macht fell into the
hands of the bourgeoisie or the Indonesian nobility. The Indonesian Marhaen must also be aware
that they can immediately bring down the system of capitalism and imperialism, only if at the time
of the flag raising of national independence, it is them who received a legacy of politieke macht
from foreign overheersing. The Indonesian Marhaen must also guard, kept the politieke macht, so it
didn’t fall into the hands of the Indonesian bourgeoisie and noble.

Being: they must work hard to bring national independence, work hard to incarnate the
independence of the Indonesian country, but in working hard to bring independence to the
Indonesian country, they must be aware and once again watch out, do not let the bourgeoisie or the
nobility enter the building they have founded. In the all-out struggle to bring Indonesia
Independence, the Marhaens must protect. Do not wait until those who are "affected by the sap",
but the bourgeoisie or noble who "eat the jackpot".

O, indeed, it is a heavy work to bring independence for Indonesia boasted that it was mostly only
the Marhaens who could carry it out, the heavy work for most of the poor people could solve it. The
hard work is indeed they have a history of work, they have a "history of obligations", they have a
"part history": The heavy work they do have a "historica taak". Indeed, I have said previously, that
all the major changes in the world history which lately is delivered by the mass of action, paraded
by the mass of action, -means: is paraded by the action of the common people who are blazing in
the spirit of heading in the sky. But world history has also given examples, in France, the common
people, because of their lack of awareness, lack of trust, lack of leadership of a true common party,
eventually became a mere "peeler of jackfruit", "who got the sap, but did not feel the jack". I hope
that ordinary people of Indonesian should not add examples of the world history with one more
recent example. Hopefully, ordinary people of Indonesia will be on guard forever and again aware!

Klassenstrijd? Is my box now prioritizing klassenstrijd? I have not prioritized the classification
among the Indonesian people, although each of my own lusts of capital has now become enemies. I
am a nationalist who has always been able to achieve an independent Indonesia to center our
struggle in the national struggle. I forever recommend that all national forces that can be used to hit
the enemy to bring about national independence must also be hit. "De sociale tegenstellingen
worden in onvrije landen in nationale vormen uitgevochten", "social conflict in countries that are
not independent are fought for nationally", so Henriette Roland Holst said. But national
independence is only a bridge, a condition, a statistic. Behind Independence Indonesia, we,
Marhaens, still have to establish our safety building, free from every kind of capitalism. Therefore,
what I wrote above is to suggest that Marhaen should always be aware. I recommend that Marhaen
will not become a "jackfruit peeler", which only gets the sap. I suggested that the politieke macht,
which later Marhaen would hold and eat. I am a nationalist, but a Marhaen nationalist, living with
Marhaens, died with Marhaen.

Now, I can close part 6 of this paper by repeating what the essence is. Repeat:

That the first objective of the Marhaen movement must be a society without capitalism and

That the second, bridges towards the community are the independence of the Indonesian country.

That the third, Marhaens must guard, that in Independence Indonesia it was Marhaen who held the
politieke macht, held the power of government.

These are the formations of our movement, which needs full attention.

7. Go There, Go Here.

But now the question arises: how do we carry out, manifest, realize the three formations? How do
we bring about a society that is free of capitalism-imperialism, how do we inherit politieke macht,
how, first, can we reach an independent Indonesia?

To be able to achieve an independent Indonesia, we must first know the nature of the position
between imperialism and us, the nature of the position between there and here. It is the nature of
position here and there that later determines our principles of strategy and our principles of tactics.
It is the nature of the position that must determine our "attitude" to the people there.

What is the nature of the position? The nature of that position can be described with one word:
conflict. Conflict in everything. Conflict of origin, conflict of purpose, conflict of needs, conflict of
character, and conflict of nature. There is no comparison; there is not the slightest similarity
between there and here. There is no correspondence between here and there. Between there and
here, there is opposition as fire and water, as wolves and deer, all evil and truth.

Indeed, world history forever shows the contradiction between the two groups. It is true that the
history of the world forever indicates that there is an "upper" group and a "lower" group, which
contradicts each other. In feudal times, the nobility class with the “servant” class; in the capitalism
era, the capital class with the proletarian class; in the colonial era, the colonialist class and the
victim class. Then, the contradiction that is lately dominating all the characteristics is connecting
each other, all being connected each other, so both of them will always crash each other. This anti-
thesis by the Marxism is mentioned as part of a condition, part of a history, and part of the rising

It is the nature of position here and there that later determines our principles of strategy, our
principles of tactics.

Therefore, blind and lie is anyone who wants to deny or cover up the antithesis, whoever wants to
dilute the conflict between the two parties. Blind and lie is anyone who wants to "exalted" effort
here, and there cannot be denied or diluted the antithesis -there and here, even though the end of the
world will always face each other as each other as a lion and its prey. There and here will forever
collide with each other, antithesis with each other, so that eventually there completely disappears
from here. Isn't there happy about the continued occupation of Indonesia until the end of nature, is
is not happy there will continue to be over-the-top over all parts of Indonesian society, isn't there
more to life than here? Isn't this the opposite here, as soon as it is free, doesn't it want to here as
quickly as possible mean the people themselves?

Blind, once again, blind anyone who wants to deny the existence of this conflict, this collision, this
antithesis, which is already due to the dialectics of nature. But we, who form a movement that
carries nature and bears the nature, bears the nature and born by nature, we who do not want to be
blind must instead take this antithesis as the standard of our principle of struggle and all our tactics.
We have to base everything on this dialectic, our "attitude" on this dialectic. We have to understand
with a glance that this dialectic is ordering us forever to think of the people there, not to work
together with the people there, instead to hold a peaceful without resistance against the people there,
until the moment of excellence and victory. We must, with a glance understand, that by the
existence of this antithesis, victory can only be achieved by our habits, our energy, our effort, our
intelligence, our sweat, and our courage.

This is what we usually call politics "believe in one's power", politics of "self-help and non-
cooperation": politics compose us to have a positive society with our efforts and energy, politics do
not want to work together with the people there above all the field of political struggle, politics
boycotted the councils of the people, both those here and those in their own country. About this
politics, I've written:

"Non-cooperation is one of the principles of our (strijd-beginsel) struggle to achieve independent

Indonesia. In the struggle to pursue an independent Indonesia, we must always remember that there
is a conflict of needs between here and here, between the colonizing and the colonized, between
dominants and dominated.

Indeed this needs conflict is the reason we have non-cooperation. It is, indeed, this needs conflict
that gives us confidence that an independent Indonesia cannot be achieved if we don't practice non-
cooperative politics. It is indeed this conflict of needs which for the most part, determines our other
principles of struggle, such as machining, mass action, and so on.

For this reason, non-cooperation is not only a principle of struggle "not sitting in the domains of
defense". Non-cooperation is an activity begins, does not want to work together on all political
fields with the warriors, but rather a peaceful struggle, an inexorable fight with the warriors. Non-
cooperation does not stop outside its walls only, but non-cooperation is covering all parts of it rather
than having a political struggle. That is the reason, then non-cooperation is containing radicalism,
imply radicalism, heart-radicalism, the radicalism of the mind, radicalism-lunge, radicalism in all
inner and appearance attitude. Non-cooperatives ask for activities, ask for radical activities.

One part of our non-cooperation is rejecting to sit on the councils of the warriors. Now is Tweede
Kamer also included in the councils of the warriors? Tweede Kamer is included in the councils of
the warrior. For precisely, Tweede Kamer is for us an "embodiment", a "body", an "incarnation" of
the colonizers of Holland, an "incarnation" rather than power or macht which imprisons us to
become an independent People. Precisely, Tweede Kamer is a "symbol" rather than a colonist of
Holland, a "symbol" rather than a condition that pressures us to become a conquered and miserable
People. For this reason, our non-cooperation, in principle, must also be directed to Tweede Kamer
in particular and Staten Generaal in general, -yes, it must also be addressed to all other
"embodiment" than one system which is confining us and Asian nations, for example, League of
Nations and others.

Anarchism? Yet Tweede Camera is a Parliament? Indeed Tweede Kamer is a Parliament; but
Tweede Kamer is a Dutch Parliament. Indeed, we are anarchists, if we reject all kind of parliaments.
Indeed we are anarchists, if for example later we refuse to sit in the Indonesian parliament, which
incidentally can only be in an independent Indonesia, and which will give way to political
democracy and economic democracy. Indeed, if an English boycott British Parliament, if a German
does not want to sit in Parliament. Germany, if a Frenchman refuses a seat in French parliament, he
may be an anarchist. But if they refuse to sit in a parliament rather than a country that confines their
country, if we Indonesians already in principle refuse to sit in the Dutch parliament, then it is not
anarchism, but a normal nationalist-non-cooperator struggle that is right!

Look at the history of the non-cooperative struggle in other countries. For example, the history of
non-cooperation in Ireland, one of the sources of the non-cooperative struggle. Look at where the
exploits of the Sinn Fein. "Sinn Fein" is their motto, sinn fein, which means " Ourselves ".

"Ourselves!", that's the picture of their politics; politics that does not want to work together with the
British, does not want cooperation with the British, does not want to sit in the British parliament.
"Don't enter Westminster, leave Westminster, establish Westminster by yourself!", is the

propaganda and action carried out by Sinn Fein. Are they anarchists? They are not anarchists, but
principal non-cooperating nationalists. Now, our non-cooperation must be the principle non-
cooperation as well.

People advise sitting on Tweede Kamer to run politiek-oppositie and politiek-obstructie, and make
the Tweede Kamer a pulpit of struggle. Such politics is permissible to be carried out, and indeed
often also carried out by the left, as the O.SP., the communists, or the CR Das cs. In Hindustan
which is also not anti-British. But such politics cannot be carried out by a nationalist-non-
cooperator. When a nationalist-non-cooperator enters a council of warriors, yes, at a time when he
in his principles likes to enter a council of warriors, even if the council is in the form of Dutch
Tweede Kamer or Volkenbond, at that time it violates the principle, which is based on the belief that
there is a conflict between the needs of the warriors and their own people. At that time he was
running politics that are no longer principle, running politics that in essence violates the principle of

We must carry out the non-cooperative politics that is principled, rejecting the principle of seats in
Volkstraad, in Staten Generaal, in Vokenbond. And as I explained earlier, the case of these councils
is only one part of our non-cooperation. The most important part of our non-cooperation is: by
educating the People to believe in "our own", - to borrow the words of the Irish non-cooperatives, to
compile and mobilize an action-mass, a great Marhaen machtsvorming and power!

The reader has remembered: this is part of my writing in exchanging ideas with Brother
Mohammad Hatta. The establishment of Brother Mohammad Hatta, who still likes to enter the
Dutch parliament, is indeed incorrect, indeed violating the principle. The Indonesian Sarekat Islam
Party in its congress has recently rejected a seat in the Dutch parliament!

But how clear is the "loneliness" that I mentioned above? How is it that the politics of "everything
itself", that is, the politics of "own ability, own power, own effort, own intelligence, own
perspiration, features of self-courage"?

How clear? The obvious is that "solitude" must be a personality, and not a self. The obvious is that
we must politicize our personalities, and not politics of self. Riddles? Indeed, it sounds like a
puzzle. It sounds like a child play. Let me explain what is rather clear: About the politics of
"solitude" in recent times which makes a lot of people misunderstand. Those who misunderstand, of
course, people who are still beginners on the political field, people who are old fart but do not eat
the salt of politics, people who are not "right" calm at political affairs. They say, that we, because
we have the principle of "solitude", we must not connect at all with other nations. They once
criticized me, because I was on in the trial session of the magazine "Suluh Indonesia Muda" has
included two Chinese people, namely Brother Kwee Kek Beng and brother Dr. Kwa Tjoan Siu.

They accused me of violating the principle of "solitude"! Those with this accusation have proven
that they are "totally wrong", totally misunderstood, completely lost. God, may not seek contact at
all with other nations! This is the "loneliness" which is actually a genuine self. Such "solitude",
which releases all relations with the external world, who wants to "nest" in his own world, who
wants to close himself with the satisfaction of all the influence of the world around him, "such"
solitude "is very smelly dirty k is like the smell of warehouse which is always closed.

Such "solitude" is the solitude of the narrow-minded person.

Such "solitude" is like the solitude of frogs under the shell! Such "solitude" is also the loneliness of
people who are not completely at all about radical tactics, nor they are at all about radical

Because radicale bevrijdingspolitiek is precisely telling us to look for relations with the external
world. The rampant imperialism in Indonesia can only be defeated by us as quickly as possible, if
we shake hands with Asian nations outside the fence.

Held eenheidsfront, a united front, with Asian nations outside the fence. The imperialism that now
exists in Indonesia is no longer the Dutch imperialism as before, the imperialism which is now here
has become a colorful international imperialism. In part two of this treatise I have explained: The
modern giant-imperialism which is here, is no longer an ordinary giant, but has been transformed
into a giant Rahwana Dasamuka who has ten heads and mouths, - the body of Dutch imperialism,
but this body bears the head of imperialism Britain, head of American imperialism, head of Japan,
France, Germany, Italy and others: in East Sumatra, the amount of plantation capital that is not
Dutch capital is f 281,497,000, in Java f 214,325,000, in South Sumatra f 33,144 .000, in the oil
company namely Shell and Koninklijke are names that are no longer Dutch. Such giant Rahwana
Dasamuka cannot be confused with "solitude" which is like a frog under a shell. Eliminate the frog's
enthusiasm, eliminate that selfishness, but look at how the Hindi people are now struggling with
British imperialism, see how the Philippine’s people are totally powering against American
imperialism, how Egypt hits Britain's imperialism, how Indo-China hits French imperialism, how
Chinese is fighting imperialism lamented against international imperialism and Japanese
imperialism. Look, how the imperialism that the neighboring nations are trying to kill, one by one
also sitting on our society, be the heads of Rahwana Dasamuka that we are fighting! Throw the
frog's spirits away, and realize how useful to shake hands with the neighboring nations, which are
actually have the same enemy, one against us, one enemy, one rival! Throw your shell away, and
seek contact with all the enemies of Rahwana Dasamuka that we against for!

This is the "solitude" that differs from earth to sky with a narrow mind. Solitude does not prohibit
relations with others-another nation, does not forbid work-together with other nations, solitude is
only a sense of skill, a sense of ability, a sense of energy, a sense of personality, which commands
as much and as possible to try, but not forbid joint work with outside the fence when it is useful and
necessary. It is imperialism, and the bondage of imperialism is what we must deny, but the enemies
of imperialism are our friends! throw the narrow-minded "solitude" and take this broad-minded
solitude, throw the selfishness and take this personality!

O, awake, that the "guard" who guarded the "order en rust" Indonesia is no longer a Dutch "guard"!
The guardians of the "order en rust", since the existence of politicians who included various types
of imperialism through the gates of the Indonesian economy, were international guards, consisting
of Dutch guards, British guards, American guards, French guards, and others. Indeed, for this
reason, politics and political parties are held here, precisely for the sake of maintaining that here is
held "open-door" politics. International-imperialism, each of which now in Indonesia has an interest
that must be "safe", the international-imperialism now each guard with the utmost care not to
"safety" of its interests disturbed. International-imperialism each said: "In Indonesia I have a saving
of kings, let me join in guarding, lest those kings be destroyed." Therefore, is it not a virtue, not a
benefit, is it not a necessity, that in the face of the international-imperialism alliance we face the
alliance of nations which also against the international imperialism? Is not the box inside essentially
a betrayal to our Grote Zaak, if we in the front of this alliance of imperialism want to politicize the
word under the shell?

Twelve years ago the international leaders of Imperialism had a joint conference in the city of
Washington to discuss "the situation in the Asia continent ", twelve months ago, less, Albert Sarraut
in front of an imperialistisch congress in Paris strengthened this "talk": "Colonized countries must
get along well with each other ..Now they cannot fight again, but must work together. "And twelve
months ago too, Colijn issued the same song. Therefore, if the giants of imperialism work together,
let us, their victims the giants-imperialism, also work together. Let us also hold eenheidsfront rather
than Asian independence soldiers. If the Indonesian Bull has worked together with the Sphinx from
Egypt, with Ox Nandi from India, with Liong-Lion Dance from China, with independence camps
from other countries, if Indonesian Bull can work together with all the enemies of capitalism and
international-imperialism throughout the world, oh, of course the days of international-imperialism
are soon spelled out!
Now, this is true solitude, true personality: believing in one's strength, believing in one's abilities, as
much as possible and working as much as possible alone, -but the eye looks out of the fence, hands
are launched outside the fence if it is useful and necessary. It is this personality that must replace
the zealous frogs!

8. Power Formation, Radicalism, Mass Action

Ones want to go there, ones want to be here, that's the picture of the conflict in one colony. This
contradiction is what brought us to the top of the depths of self-help and non-cooperation politics.
But that opposition also brings us into the crater of openness power formation politics, radicalism
and mass-action.

What does machtsvorming mean? Machtsvorming means the machining vorming, energy creation,
power fabrication. Machtsvorming is the only way to force the people there bow to us. This
coercion is necessary, because " Ones want to go there, ones want to be here ", Listen to what I said
the other day in my plead:

"Machtsvorming, power maker, -because of the colonial problem is a matter of power, a matter of
macht. Machtsvorming, because all the rest of the world shows, that great changes are only made by
the victors, if the consideration of profit and loss tells him to, or if something macht demands it.

"It never happens a class likes to release its rights of its own volition," - "nooit heefteen klasse
vrijwillig van haar bevoorrechte positie afstand gedaan so Karl Marx said. As long as the
Indonesian people have not yet held an all-pervasive macht, as long as the people are still scattered
with no harmony with each other, as long as the people have not been able to encourage all their
wishes with a regulated and organized power, so long as it is the imperialist who seek profit itself it
will continue to look at him as a submissive goat, and will continue to ignore all its demands.
Because, every demand of the Indonesian people is detrimental to imperialism; each of the demands
of the Indonesian people will not be obeyed if they were not compelled by imperialist. Every
victory of the Indonesian people is the result of the insistence of the people, every victory of the
Indonesian people is an affgedwongen concessie!10

Thus, mchtsvorminga is necessary because, due to the antithesis between there and here, the people
do not want to voluntarily bow to us, if there is no compulsion with insistence that they cannot hold.
And because of the pressure that we can only carry out when we have energy, that is, if we have

strength, have power, have macht, then we must arrange the macht, do the machtsvorming with the
utmost zeal and diligence!

We must be far from the politics of the soft people, which is forever to think that it is enough to
convince the people there about the justice of our demands: they think that the people there, as long
as they have "turned their minds" will of course obey our will. Amboi, if that is true, perhaps
Indonesia has long been independent! If the people there really are, then we can all sleep, and only
one or two of us can "talk" to the people there, "turn their minds"! But the actual situation is not so.
The real situation is that the people here do not listen to justice, our demands, not even according to
our demands when "it turns out to be fair", but it is none other than for our own business, for our
own interests, for profit alone, fair or unfair. The real situation is that " ones want to go there, ones
want to be here."

So that's why the Indonesian Marhaens, who in their politics must forever be very far from
experiences that contradicting with real conditions, which must forever stand on a real earth and
should not float above the cloud of ideas, must reject the politics of the brain-wind rather than the
soft people, and run raw politics as raw as possible, namely: compiling in front of the power of
imperialism, the macht of the Marhaens as well. Indeed what politics actually says, it is not the skill
of turning one's tongue, not the grumbling of grudging hearts towards the people there, not the
bargaining cleverness, but politics for the Marhaens is only compiling power formation and
working on power formation, power formation which is shouldered by the radical principle.
Jawaharlal Nehru, the leader of the Indian People, once said: "And if we are moving, then we must
forever remember, that our purposes can be fulfilled, as long as we do not yet have the power to
push for the fulfillment of those purposes. Because we are facing the enemy, who is not willing to
obey our demands, even in the smallest detail. Each of our victories, from big to small, is the result
of our energy. Therefore, "theory" and principle "alone are not enough. Each person can shut
himself in a room, and grumble "this is not according to theory" "it is not according to principle". I
don't value that person very much. But the most difficult thing is, in the front of this strong and
blind deaf enemy, compile a powerwhich is shouldered by the principle. Principle and radicalism
without machtsvorming that can keep down the enemy in a great struggle, we may throw it into the
Gangga River. Principality and radicalism that embodies power is mother’s will! "

These words of Jawaharlal Nehru are words that are well suited for Marhaen's struggle in Indonesia
against the enemy who is also strong and deaf. Also, Indonesian Marhaens are not enough to
grumble. Moreover, we must embody our foundations or principles into an omnipotent
machtsvorming. We must also be aware of the reality, that imperialism cannot be defeated by
foundation or principle alone, but by machtsvorming which is shouldered by that foundation or

It is shouldered by the foundation or principle! Because " machtsvorming " which is not carried by
foundations or principles is actually not machtsvorming, not the creation of power! "
machtsvorming " without foundation or principle, is " machtsvorming " which is opportunist or
bargaining, whose attitude is like this for a moment according to the winds of the people there, who
are not women not men, - " machtsvorming " is not such a thing macht who want to keep down the
people there, but a ball played by the people there only. But our machtsvorming must be
machtsvorming which is shouldered by an antithetical principle between here and there, the
principle of national independence, the principle of Marhaens, the principle of not bargaining but
wanting to end the system of capitalism-imperialism at all, the principle of wanting to establish a
new society above the ruins of capitalism-imperialism which is borne by equality-average. This
principle may be covered by one word only, namely the words of radicalism.

Radicalism, come the words of radix, which means roots, radicalism must be the machtsvorming
principle of Marhaen: fighting not half-heartedly but plunging to the root of the antithesis, not only
looking for "today’s profit" but want to break down the system of capitalism-imperialism to its
roots, not half-hearted to make small changes but want to establish a new society altogether on new
roots, - striving to the utmost effort to dismantle the present life relationship to the roots - its roots
to establish a new association of life above new roots. This radicalism must be Marhaen's
machtsvorming life. Marhaen must reject with contempt all the half attitude that does not struggle
but only bargaining, Marhaen must expel from Marhaen all opportunism, reformism, and possibility
that forever calculate the profit and loss as a shopkeeper who is afraid of losing money. Marhaen
must kick out all politics that want to cover up or dilute the antithesis between this and that,
Marhaen must instead sharpen the antithesis between this and that, not wanting to make peace with
the people there, but fight it out with the peopl there even though the gates open hell too. Marhaen
must understand with his own eyes that his struggle, which intends to dismantle capitalism-
imperialism to its roots, will not be able to succeed with political reformism that wants to "trade"
with the capitalists, whose ism is willing to be ended. Marhaen must take the words of Karl
Leibknecht, that "peace between commoners and superiors is to sacrifice the common people", -
destroy those commoners. Marhaen, to repeat again, must fight without peace to the roots of
antithesis, the struggle without peace to break through the roots of the capitalism-imperialism
system, fighting the peaceful without plant the roots of a new social life, fighting without peace
with zealous radicalism and - The track record of radicalism!

But how do the Marhaen embody machtsvorming based on radicalism? There is no second way ,
there is no third way, but there is only one way: the way of action-mass, with the mass-action of the
Marhaen can stir their spirits to the sky, with mass-action they can intensify their progress into as
great as the waves of the ocean, with their mass-action can process their energy to be the
earthquake. With mass-action they can arrange the spirit, their will, their acts, -with mass action
they can compile their machtsvorming to their full power. Machtsvorming is not just a constituent of
energy, machtsvorming is also a compiler of enthusiasm, willpower, soul power, life force.
Spiritually and physically of the mass arise as if drenched with Kahuripan water in the action-mass.
What cannot be created by Marhaens, what Marhaen can "cheer up" and "wish", can be created by
the dozens of Marhaen who have become the masses. The enthusiasm of the masses, the will of the
masses, the courage of the masses, the fire of the "masses, is not the same as the spirit or will of
Marhaen one by one, not the same amount of enthusiasm or the will of the Marhaens at all, -but the
masses seem to have their own" mass-spirit ", "mass-will" "courage of the mass itself," mass-fire
"itself, which is greater than the amount of enthusiasm or volition. This "mass fire" creates "great
acts of mass" to the point of destroying the joints of the community, he, to abort society with all its
joints and bases.

Because what does mass mean? The masses are not just "Millions of People", the masses are
oblivious People who have the spirit of one, the will of one, spirit and the soul of one. The mass is
dough, djeladren, tens. He was not just a mound of ordinary people who differed in spirit and will,
he was not for example the common people mound at Ied day, - some want to go to the cemetery,
some want to go out and show off their new clothes, some want to meet the family to gather with all
the families, - it is a tithe of one passion, one will, one determination, one determination one
spiritual and physical one. He is in the history of the world forever a mound of commoners, who,
because they suffer the same oppression from their superiors and suffer the same miserable fate that
seems unbearable, equally arises their feelings of anger, both of them will arise against the
conditions that afflict them, both of them struggling to dismantle the situation, -as together melt into
a radical turret that the surging movements as the waves slam on the shore.

This is what is called the mass action of the common people who have been transformed into new
souls, against something that they are not willing to bear anymore. Indeed mass action is always
radical. Indeed mass action is forever opening up and breaking down the roots of a situation. Indeed
mass action is forever willing to plant the roots of a new state. Major changes in world history are
forever presumed by action-masses, that's all the above said. Indeed mass-action cannot be great if
half-heartedly done, mass-action cannot be successful if ones want to pursue "small-profit-today-
day" alone. It is only the mass-action that actually continues to become the action-mass, if the
common people have intended to completely dismantle the old condition completely replaced with
a new state. "Een nieuw levensideaal moet de mass aanvuren", "an ideal of new life must be lighted
in the heart of the masses", according to a great leader the conditions for mass action. So that's why
for the Marhaen, the time will come, when our mass-action will also live and rise to its full
potential: Our purposes, our idealism, not just political idealism, our idealism is not only
"Indonesia-Merdeka ", our idealism is idealism of new society, a resplendent social idealism. This
social idealism that will be the first machine for our action!

The soft people here also often echo the words of mass-action ", The soft people here also want to
hold" mass-action ". As if mass action can be separated from radicalism. As if the common people
can become a mass because of ideals that are not the ideals of the common people, namely the
ideals of "banking", "hospital", "stalls". As if the flames of the common people can be set up and
turned into a mass-fire with the fire sluggish "slowly" politics that does not mean to ended
capitalism-imperialism to its roots. As if the mass of action can be "made up" with their politics that
comes to an end "thinking" and "calculating". As if world history is impatiently pointing out that
"nimmer kan de mass langs den weg der zuiver verstandelijke has tot heroische daden bezield
worden", namely that "the masses can never be told to give birth to great deeds by the politics of
calculating ! "

O, now we understand: they really don't know what mass action is! They think that mass-action is a
concurrent public meeting! They think they have "held mass action", if they have held public
meetings everywhere! Haha, they think that the "mass action" can start at nine in the morning and
stop at one in the afternoon! If so it's easy to make mass-action, then it's easy to make mass-action
may be ordered "according to" the Avraham" leader, perhaps mass-action in Indonesia as great as
possible, and ..Indonesia is independent! but no! -The action mass is not "concurrent vergadering-
vergadering-openbaar" which should start at nine in the morning! The mass of action cannot be
"ordered" or "made" by people, it cannot be created by the leader, it cannot "have to start at nine
o'clock", the mass of action is in essence a creation of society that wants to make a new society, and
therefore needs " a leader". Mass action is the action of the commoners who, because of misery, has
dissolved into a radical new soul. And intends to "promote" the birth of a new society!

No! The softness with its softness cannot indeed "hold" action-mass; they indeed cannot be the
motor of action-mass. Indeed it cannot be called by history to be the motor-action, even if for
example the association consists of thousands, millions! Because, as I have already explained, mass
action requires radicalism, containing radicalism, assume radicalism. The luckiest of the soft ones
with their softness, if they can move thousands of commoners, only give birth to mere mass actions.
What is massale actie? Massale actie is a "movement" of the people, which is true of thousands or
millions, a great number of people, but who is not radical, not social revolutionary, does not intend
to dismantle the roots of the old society, to establish a new society with roots new root. Massale
actie is not the mass of the blazing people, the mass is not a mass in the sense of djeladren or dough
whose one soul and one life, but only a mob of people who do not have one life. Massale actie
cannot create a new society, and indeed, it is not the adjudicator of a new society. Look, for
example, the movement of the Indonesian people first, when Sarekat Islam was born in the world.
See also the People's movement in Ngajodya now, namely in Matarram. Thousands and millions of
people move together; millions of people are the same "in action", - but the action is just a
massacale actie. The action is not a mass-action, because it is not tainted but is a bunch, not social-
radical but social-conservative, does not intend to throw away all the old society but only intends to
patch up the community's rip.

Mass action and mass actie, let the leaders of the Marhaens always pay attention to the difference
between these two words. Let the leaders not be blinding, if you see "many people" are the same as
"moving", and then thought: "ha, Indonesia is soon free". Because there are many people ", for
example in the new era of the emergence of Sarekat Islam in the world, when all directions there
were hordes together, when there were Marhaens, there were noble person, there were merchant,
there were bourgeois, when Sarekat Islam became the direction of Islamism, nationalism and
"socialism", when the Sarekat Islam movement was not a movement of the dozens but only a mob
movement, not a mass-action but a massive action, whether there were many people in the Sarekat
Islam movement that could promote a new society, even: was there a Sarekat Islam movement that
could bring rather big changes? Is there, that's how I even asked, the Sarekat Islam can stir up mass
action? No, the former Sarekat Islam movement could not generate mass action, it could not be the
motor of mass action, because it did not stand on a radical stand. He doesn't stand on antithesis here
and there, he does not have an Indonesian Independence program, it is not a program that straight-
out to break down all the roots of the capitalism-imperialism system, it is not politiek-radicaal, not

Therefore, the Marhaen party which intends to be the pioneer party of mass action must always
have 100% radical principles of struggle and program: antithesis, peaceful without resistance,
marhaenism, destroyed the way of the present structure of society, reaching the way of the
composition of the new society, - that all must be written in fiery letters above the party flag and
above the party's banner. But the principles, the principles of struggle and programs written on the
flag and banner will not mean much, it will be as if it is nonsense, only the characters will die, if we
do not work with our energy, slam our bones, squeeze our sweat, stall our energy to manifest
everything that is contained in it and all what is promised to the masses. The principle, the principle
of struggle and the program will remain dead, if we do not struggle with all the tenacity and courage
of the hero party who is more capable to work to death than to be told to stop, struggling to do all
the obligations of a vanguard party, that is to fight to raise mass-action and command the mass of
action toward heaven and victory.

And how should the vanguard party struggle? The vanguard party must first perfect itself. It cannot
be a perfect vanguard party before it is perfect in its faith, in its discipline, in its organization, in its
spirit and body. Therefore he must first, strengthen his own spiritual and physical body first, make
and maintain all his essence, all existences, is firm and sturdy as steel.

Spiritually strengthened by the extension of the theory to its members, the bonding with courses and
magazines and so on about all the intricacies of their destiny, their enemies, their struggle, so that
all party members become one belief, one spirit, one great will. Willing to fight it out to subdue the
enemy who is now clearly insulting, through a path that is now clearly visible and beneficial. Only
by grasping such a theory, radical theory, then the vanguard party can strengthen its spirit of steel,
and can guide the masses into a radical struggle. "Ohne radikale Theorie keine radikale Bewegung",
"without a radical-theory is impossible to have radical movements", is a saying of Marx that is
telling and contains the truth. All the intricacies of the movement, the intricacies of the principles,
the principles of struggle and the program, all the ins and outs, strategies and tactics must be a clear
belief for all parties, a substance of struggle that absorbs the flesh and blood of all party members,
so that the party becomes a party a soul that is sure and does not know prejudice. Every party
member who deviates towards reformism, every thought that deviates towards reformism, every
thought that deviates towards reformism must be "tested" as thoroughly as possible, and if it cannot
be "clean" be kicked from the circles of party without pardon and without mercy!

The reader denies that there is no democracy in the heart of the party! Indeed! The party in the heart
itself must not be democratic in the meaning of "all independent thoughts", must not be democratic
in the meaning of all "isms" may be free, the party only knows one thought and one ism of thought
and radicalism that is 100% responsible for defeating the enemy. Democracy which may be in the
vanguard of non-democratic parties is normal democracy, the democracy of the vanguard party is a
democracy in foreign language called democratic centralism, a democracy, which gives power to
the leaders to punish each diversion, kick each individual member or party that endangers mass
battle position. "Within the party, there cannot be any freedom of thought as they wish; the unity of
the party is that it lies within the unity of belief", this is the teaching of a great leader about the
party that must be heeded. No perversion must be forgiven; each diversion must be fined with a
sharp spicy scorn or kick as soon as possible. Because the vanguard parties in their own heart are
still twisted, the vanguard parties who in their own circles are still in doubt, such vanguard parties
cannot possibly lead the masses!

And not only punishes deviations towards reformism! Misdirection towards anarcho-syndicalism,
deviation towards the rage without mind, deviation towards deeds or dark eye-stamp thoughts, must
also be corrected and received damages. It is this deviation that often issues accusations of
"betrayal" or "verraad" if the party according to its Beliefs cannot know the difference between
radical leftism and de-social leftism, between the shoulders who endures and endured by nature and
left that endured and endured by the negative desire. A healthy party must forever fight two kinds of
misappropriation strijden naar twee froten, so that it can become a radical and firm guide to the
flood of mass action that surges in waves towards an independent ocean.

For this reason, one of the conditions for the pioneer parties is discipline. Discipline, strict
discipline as steel, disciplined without forgiveness and mercilessly punishing each member who
dared to violate it, is one of the lives of the vanguard parties! It is not only disciplined about its
ideology of radicalism; it is not just discipline with the "theoretical part" rather than radicalism. But
also discipline in all parties: theoretical discipline, theoretical discipline, organizational discipline,
tactics discipline, propaganda discipline, in short, the parties in all their veins and nerves must be a
mechanism that each screw and each wheel is disciplined until careful.

In the meantime the party must not be a lifeless and unchanging machine. Such a party is a non-
living party, and the days will soon sweep it from the earth. The party which shoulders and
shouldered by nature must live as nature, evolve as nature itself. What must be prevented and
fought is not the life of the party, it is not the evolution of the party, it is not the life process of the
party. What must be prevented and fought is the party's disease, a disease that endangers the health
of the body of radicalism. Also, nature itself never stranded, also nature itself forever fighting each
disease! Every new thing that nourishes and nurtures the body-radicalism must be received with
delight, but each disease of the body must be treated quickly with "cruel" and without mercy.
Centralism that must exist in the heart of the party is not the centralism of a dictator, it must be
democratic centralism which the party itself becomes the horizon of. But on the contrary the
democracy that must be in the heart of the party is not also a democracy that gives freedom to
everything, democracy must be centralist democracy that beats all diseases of radicalism!

Democratic centralism and centralist democracy, these are the characteristics of inward part of the
pioneer party. But how do the vanguard parties lead the masses? How does his attitude come out?

The attitude of the party must always in accordance with the will-which is unconsciously rather
than the masses, in accordance with the instincts of the masses. He must not deviate at all from this
instinct, he must not even betray this instinct. Because the instincts of the masses are called "secret
forces" rather than society. Those who explore these secrets, betray these secret forces, will soon
experience what they have crushed by the wheels of society, smashed to dust, What must be done
by the pioneers party instead of betraying or changing the conscious will rather than the masses,
what must be done by it is to make the unconscious will become the conscious will, giving
"conviction" to the instinct to become the unconscious will that is sure and bright, strength of the
mass that had been calm as if asleep, must be built with the submission water and become the
strength of the awakened and unobstructed masses, yes, even if they are fully ripe, they become
masses whose awakening greatness can shake the world.

This is the work of the pioneer parties who first cultivated the will of the masses that had been
unconscious to become the will of the conscious masses. The form and contradiction of the struggle
must be taught to the masses in a way that is easy to understand and which enters into caution and
reason. He must open the masses, arouse the confidence of the masses, and inflame the enthusiasm
of the masses about all the intricacies of the fate and struggle of the masses. He must give
conviction about why the masses are miserable, why capitalism-imperialism can run rampant, why
should it lead to the Indonesian Independence bridge, how the bridge must be reached, how to
dismantle the roots of capitalism. In short, he must provide education and awareness to the masses
for what he is fighting for, and how he should fight. With a lot of propaganda, the masses must be
opened their eyes, torn apart the unconsciousness to become consciousness and see all the secrets of
the world public meetings must buzz the party's call to the top of the sky, magazine and letters must
fly here and there as true leaves in the wind in the dry season, demonstrations must be successive
the waves as the ocean waves. In this way, by being compatible with the instincts of the masses and
dismissing the instincts of the masses, in this way, the mass must not ignore the call of the party, of
course directly looking at the party as a vanguard which it fully trust likes to follow. Among the
torches of various parties, each claiming to embrace the journey of the people, the masses then saw
only one of the largest and brightest torches, one torch leading the way, namely we had a party, the
torch we had radicalism!

But giving conviction only is not enough, giving pleasure is not enough. Conviction extremely
affects the will of the masses, conviction truly burn the spirit of the masses, conviction pirates the
mass courage, - expel any will of reformism from the flesh of the mass, but conviction as far as
theory only is not enough. The people then become radical in everything, if the conviction has been
accompanied by their own experiences, namely its own experience. These experiences which have
greatly opened the eyes of the masses about the emptiness and lies of reformism tactics, radicalizing
the spirit of the masses, radicalizing the will of the masses, radicalizing the courage of the masses,
radicalizing the ideology and activities of the masses. "it is not only the people who cannot write
and read, but also the educated people must experience on their own skin, how empty, lying,
hypocritical, and weak bargaining politics, and vice versa, how the bourgeoisie can be shaken
whenever faced with a radical situation, which only knows one law, - the law of resistance that does
not want to know peace."

This is the teaching of the great leader whose words had been borrowed once. Therefore, the
pioneer parties must not only open the eyes of the masses, but the pioneers also should bring the
masses to the top of their fields of experience, to the fields of struggle. Even on the ground of this
struggle, the pioneers also cultivated the power of the masses, preserved and exaggerated their
strength, measured and measured the tenacity of the masses, galvanized the violence. The heart and
energy of the masses, "train" all of their intelligence and bravery of the masses to fight. "More
conviction than all theory is action, struggle. With the victories of the struggle against the enemy,
the party showed the masses how great the strength of the masses was, and therefore also, enlarged
the masses of the masses as much as possible. But on the contrary also, then these victories can only
occur because of a theory, which gives information to the masses, how to take the maximum results
from its strengths every time ", - said the words of one of the other leaders, with little change.

That is the only attitude that deserves to be a radical party that is confident to be the pioneer-party
of the masses: to treat the masses and fight it out with the masses, reaching for a time while
struggling with the masses, fighting with the masses while dealing with the masses. In this struggle,
the vanguard party must forever direct the eyes of the masses and the attention of the masses to the
intention that the sole dream of the masses must be: the fall of the capitalist-imperialism system via
the Independence Indonesian bridge. The vanguard party must forever concentrate the spirit of the
masses, the will of the masses, the energy of the masses on that only other purpose. He must
unmask any deviations in the face of the future, but every betrayal of radicalism must be punished
by the masses before the masses, every desire to "bummer" by chance, small days today he must
burn above the kitchen of the masses, every stream that just wants to patch this community it must
be destroyed with the insult of mass radicalism. One goal, one direction of resistance, one
determination to struggle, and not two or three, that is, a radical goal, - without look a lot and see
the results of small-today-day!

Thus the masses must not act for small-day-results! Not so, absolutely not! The masses must not
only engage in actions for these small results, so they forget the big intentions that they were in the
past or subordinate the big intentions that were previously. The masses while walking must keep
going and directing their eyes towards the top of the Independence Indonesian mountain, viewing
the small results only as flowers which he picks alongside the road. Because, forever, the system of
capitalism-imperialism has not yet died, so the masses cannot get a 100% perfect improvement of
fate. But, as long as it is not "crushed", as long as it is not numbered, then the struggle for daily
results is even better for maintaining the militancy of the masses. The struggle for daily results must
instead be used as a place to cultivate energy and hone the heart, - a scholing, a training, a power
training in a greater struggle. "ohne den Kampf fur Reformen gibt es keinen erfolgreichen Kampf fur
die vollkommene Befreiung, onhe den Kampf fur die vollkommene keinen erfolgreiche Kampf fur
Reformen" - "without struggle for independence, no victory for struggle for daily change." That is
why the vanguard party must turn the mass movement into "nationale bevrijdingsbeweging en
hervormingsbeweging tegelijk", a movement for independence and for today’s repairs. Yes, the
vanguard party must also understand that "die Reform ist ein Nebenprodukt des radicalen
Massenkampfes" that is "those little improvements are a breakdown rather than a radical mass

Many people call themselves "100% radicals", who do not want the daily "small struggle". They
disgustedly sneered at the sight of the party inviting the masses to fight for the decline of the
casting, for the disappearance of man’s service, for the added labor costs, for the decreases in rates,
for the disappearance of costs, for small-daily repairs, and forever haughtily said: "One hundred
percent of independence and only action for one hundred percent of independence!" Ach, they do
not know, that in radical politics is not a conflict between the struggle for daily change and the
struggle for independence, but rather in a very tight relationship, a very tight "marriage", a very
tight interaction. "without struggles for daily change, no victory for struggle for independence;
without struggles for independence, no victory for struggle for daily change"! This is the a-b-c of
radical act, this is the policy of radical resistance: small resistance as a moment "rather than a large
resistance, small resistance as a link in a large chain of resistance, - a difference at all as high as the
sky with the "resistance" of the reformists who went blind bury everyday struggles for everyday
struggles. The motto "100%" reads: "One hundred percent of independence, and only action for one
hundred percent of independence", we must correct that motto to "one hundred percent of
independence, and what actions accelerate one hundred percent independence! ", and we must
remove political reformism into the haze of circumstances, we expel into the grave of death, the
body of comedy laughter of the People. Thus, and only like that, the vanguard party must work!

But still there is one more thing from the "100% people" that should be corrected: they are used to
pray for the people to be more miserable, he said so that the people would like to move it out! They
liked it very much, if tax was increased, if labor costs were lowered, if duties were increased, if
rates were raised, if Marhaen was miserable, all "so Marhaen was more diligent in moving". O, a
wicked stance, a wicked one. People who have this attitude deserve to be closed in prison for life!
These "leaders" are what I have been calling A depraved leader whose head is full of the despair of
people who are desperate, depraved leaders whose minds are blazing and full of
"wanhoopstheorie", Wanhoopstheorie, despair, because they are with the misery of the people who
are currently unable to make People aware, and then hope that People are more miserable, more
destitute. Wanhoopstheorie, because of they will desperate if you experience that the people are not
easily dismissed with one-two-three, and then hope that the people get closer to death, he said so
that the people will be easily aware and difficult to move radically! O, depraved leader! Cruel
leader! Move not to lighten the fate of the people, but move to move! Such "leaders" may
themselves feel what does it mean to eat only one meal a day hoping for more people's misery! Are
the people now not miserable enough? Not gasping enough? Not close enough to death? It's not
enough to drop tears every day?

Increasing misery is expected to increase radicalism? Unclean leaders, just make it, throw it if
necessary all radicalism into the ocean, as long as the people's misery is gone! Stupid leader,
thinking that only misery can produce mass radicalism! Radicalism of the masses cannot flourish
with just poverty. Radicalism of the masses is born from the marriage of the mass misery by the
training of the masses, the marriage of the misery of the masses by the training of the masses, the
marriage of the destitution of the masses with the struggle of the masses! If misery alone is enough
to give birth to mass radicalism, Oh, perhaps all the people of Indonesia are now radicalized, "even
more radical, perhaps Indonesia has become independent! but not Misery is not enough! "Misery
does indeed give birth to mass radicalism, but only if the masses do not bear the misery secretly
receive, but fight it out against the misery every day", - so Liebknecht once said12, only if misery is

accompanied by the education of the masses, coupled with the struggle of the masses, with the
resistance of the masses, with the actions of the masses against that misery, then misery can give
birth to and foster radicalism among the masses. Therefore, therefore, with the present misery,
without must hope for more, as whohoopstheorie, the vanguard party can turn the entire mass into a
sea of undulating radicalism, as long as he is good at opening the eyes of the masses and smart
enough to cultivate mass power against that misery!

And the wenhoopstheorie give proof they can't do the last thing. God damn them, then pray for the
added misery of the people! Audzhubillah himinasj sjaitonirrodzjim!

But true party-vanguards, you must be able to work on those conditions! Hold propaganda
everywhere, hold courses everywhere, hold resistance everywhere, organize children, hold trade-
union and farmer-community, hold magazines and pamphlets and pamphlets and treatises, short-
word inventions actions everywhere, and the masses who had slept as if they were submerged by
the imprints of imperialism, will inevitably be awakened by the winds of your action. You are able
to work, - work according to your agreement. Work with all your talent-organizations, work at the
peak of your tenacity, work to squeeze your energy, compile and revive the party along with the
trade-union and farmer-community, - once again especially the trade-union and farmer-community -
, yes, in the mass of action, there is a lot of merit and also a lot of fanfare. ! Also, bring your spear
up until your voice fills nature, move your pen as well until the tip lights up. Reformers make fun of
you that you have too much fanfare? Haha, those are dreamers! Not knowing that each mass-action
at each time of the upheaval is in the form of a lot of organizing and a lot of shaking, lots of
composing, lots of building, a lot of force-construction-and-formation and -combination, but also a
lot of fanfare with mouth and pen, Let them mock, so that they keep daydreaming, they have
politics anyway it will soon be cold in the fog-experience. And they call us "destructives", that is,
people who "can only damage" they say are not "constructive" like them, whose "politics" have
"proof" in the form of hospitals or cooperative stalls or banks or orphanages?

O, incantations, o, complainer words, o, incantations, o, "counterrucive" and "destructive", to the

contrary, I was once angry at SIM13 and F.R14. Most of the Indonesian movements are now as if
hit by the magic spells! Most of the Indonesian movement thinks that people are "contructief" only
when people hold goods that can be touched, that is, only if people set up stalls, set up cooperatives,
set up weaving schools, set up orphanage houses, set up banks etcetera, in short - only if people are
setting up social bodies!- while the political propagandists who daily "just talk only" on the podium
or in the newspapers, who perhaps very much evoke political conviction than the commoners, with
no more mercilessly given the stamp "destructief" or people "destroy" and "don't set up anything"!

Not a blink of an eye entered into the brains of the people, that the motto "do not talk much" work!
" must be interpreted in a broad sense. Not a blink of an eye enters the brains of the people, that
"work" does not only mean establishing goods that can be seen and touched, namely goods that are
tastbaar and material. Not a blink of an eye the people understood that the words "to establish" it
could also be used for abstract goods, which could mean to establish enthusiasm, establish
conviction, establish hope, establish ideology or geestelijk gebouw or geestelijke artillerie which
according to world history was ultimately one of great artilleries to breakdown one system. Not a
blink of an eye the people understood that especially in Indonesia with people who


small-scale and with imperialism industry, it's good for us to boast, in the sense of meaning working
hard, sweat, squeeze our energy to open our eyes of the poor. about the compilation of all its
energies in organizations that are technically perfect and disciplined, such as trade union and
farmers-community, the word-short turns on and exaggerates the mass of action rather than the
common people!

We can set up stalls, we can set up cooperatives, we can set up orphanage houses, we can set up
economic and social bodies, yes, we should set up economic and social bodies, as long as we work
on economic bodies and social as places of education for radical unity and radical football. It is
better for us to establish these economic and social bodies, provided we do not "bind" the economic
and social work to be the first work, while forgetting that an independent Indonesia can only be
achieved with a mass-actie politics of the great Marhaen People and radical. In short, it's good to
establish these economic and social bodies, as long as we work on those economic and social bodies
as instruments of the great and radical mass-actie politics! We, the action-masses, we must not be
exposed to "constructivism" which tells us to ask for stalls and shops. We must realize, that our
constructivism is not the constructivism of the reformists of the stalls and stalls, but is the
constructivism of radicalism: the constructivism in which everything which it establishes, whether
in nature or subtle, both objects and enthusiasm, is certain radicaal-dynamisch dismantled each of
the original stones of the building of imperialism and capitalism.

Contructivism builds!

But it is also contructivism unravels!

And the reformers may continue to mock or grumble!

9. Across from the Golden Bridge

Yes, the reformists may continue to mock and grumble, as Indian reformers and grumble, but then
freeze in their fogs, when Jawaharlal Nehru in the 44th National Congress passed a heavy sentence
on their shoulders with the words: "I am a nationalist. But I am also a socialist and republican. I do
not believe in kings and queens, nor in the composition of societies which hold industrial kings in

greater power than kings in the past! ...I am a nationalist, but my nationalism is radical nationalism
rather than the poor and hunger, who swear to dismantle the fabric of society which rejects it for a
bite of rice! " Indeed everyone, in this twentieth century still has the courage to rationalize
rationalism and fear of raw nationalism-radicalism, finally the cold will be left behind by the
warmth of the twentieth century process is not sweet descent as the era of puppets, the nature
century the twentieth is the struggle for life that is raw. Indeed Marhaen moves, that is what I have
stated above, not because of "ideal ideals", not because of "ideals", Marhaen moves is none other
than to seek life and establish life. A religious life, a social life, a political life, a cultural life, a
religious life, a short and perfect life for humanity, a human life that is human and human-like.

Is Indonesian Independence for Marhaen to determine such a human life? Independence Indonesian
as I said above is a promise but it is not certain to determine for Marhaen to live like that humanity.
The agreement will only become a stipulation, if Marhaen has been alerted from now on alert,
aware and prioritize, guarding, keeping its movements and netting the motives of that movement
not to conquer substances that are actually poisonous to Marhaen and damage to Marhaen. The
agreement then becomes a stipulation, if Marhaen is aware of the fact that Indonesia-Marhaen is
only a bridge, even though it is a golden bridge! -that must be passed with all insight and concern,
do not get over the bridge. The Victory Train is driven by someone other than Marhaen. Now the
bridge broke in two ways: one to the Marhaen World of Salvation, one to the world of Marhaen's
misery; one world in the same-same-sense, one world in the same-wailing-same-cry. If Marhaen,
when the train goes up the second road, leads into the depths of Indonesian capital and Indonesia's
bourgeoisness! Therefore, Marhaen, watch out! Keep the Victory Train later in your control, keep
the politieke macht falling in your hands, in your iron hands, your steel hands!

You now hear from the right and left of the people watchword. Radicals are populist slogan,
reformists are populist slogan, banji is populist slogan, yes even the bourgeoisie and nobles use
populist slogan. You often hear the slogan of democracy, what is the only democracy for Marhaen
and from Marhaen? Is it the only democracy that the vanguard party must write with the letters of
fire on its flag, so that light can be read in the light, and even brighter when the obstacles are pitch
dark? Even in the French revolution people shouted democracy, shouted and marched on
democracy, shouted and swore democracy, but was there a French Marhaen who joined in shouting
democracy and buying with the blood of the arrival of democracy, finally getting the real
democracy, Did not the French Marhaen itself be completely swallowed up by democracy until
every moment it hit its grandchildren and swallowed it down!

Yes, let us remember the lessons of the French revolution. Come and remember how fake is slogan
of democracy, which did not help the common people even instead sacrificed the common people,
destroyed the common people as had happened in the French revolution. Let us be aware, lest the
Indonesian people be deceived by the slogan of "democracy" as the French commoners, who in the
end turned out to be mere horse-riding by the bourgeoisie who was ranting "democracy",
independence, equality and brotherhood, but actually only seeking his own power, his own
conveniences, his own benefits! History of this French fraud?

I am a nationalist, but my nationalism is radical nationalism for the poor and hunger, who swear to
dismantle the fabric of society which rejects it for a bite of rice! " (Soekarno)

Before the passing of the eighteenth century, France was a feudal country by means of autocratic
rule. The power of government was in the hands of a king, whose words were wet, every opinion
became law, every decree became the fate of the whole country. He sees himself as the
representative of God in the world, sees power instead of God's power on earth, he says that
actually "staat" does not exist, status is himself. And this lone power, which the Peasants did not
receive at the same end, was fortified by the loyalty of the nobility and the prince of religion, he
was fortified by the lordship of the nobility and the clergyman. Standing firm, it seems that
feudalism in the midst of the seas of European society, stands as if the rocks in the middle of the
ocean are more than ten centuries old, until ... until the eighth century the sea was suddenly rushing
and the waves have rippled and slammed upon the rock and split all parts of the reef.

What happened? From there the basics of the sea of feudal society gradually arose a new group of
people, a new class, a new element whose livelihood is from the labor of others: a new class or new
element from the bourgeoisie. They have companies, they have trade, they have carpentry, they
have economic significance. But these companies and commerce cannot flourish and this carpentry,
as long as the way of governance is still the feudal way, for all government-power is still in the
hands of the king's autocrat, not only the bourgeoisie himself driving the government boat. Because
they, only they, and not other classes, not the noble class, not the chief-religion class, not even the
king himself, only they, who know better the laws, which are the rules, which are the most
governmental methods good for fertility they have companies and they have commerce. Therefore
they were then ready to seize power from the hands of the king, aborting the system of feudalism
that prevented the fertility of the company and the business from the throne he occupied for more
than ten centuries!

But, ah, the bourgeoisie has no power. The bourgeoisie did not have enough power to destroy the
autocracy that was fortified by the power of the nobility and the prince-religion. Ha, they have eyes
on the millions of commoners. For decades, the bourgeoisie had indeed been listening every now
and then slowly to the thunder that came out from among the commoners, the shaking of the teeth
of the People who were angry because of the miserable fate. Indeed, in the era of feudalism, it was
commoners oppressed completely, squeezed all his possessions, deprived of all his rights so that
only the rights-according to and the right-goat. Indeed, the common people have been upset for a
fate worse than the animal's fate for a long time. Isn't it easy if the bourgeoisie in its attempt to seize
the political power over the king and nobles, uses the power of the commoners? After all, the
common people were not aware, yet the common people were not conscious, yet the common
people would not know that he was only told to "peel jackfruit" and "hit by the sap" only,

-Bourgeois later the "eat the jackfruit"!

And the bourgeoisie then runs this ingenuity! "Long live democracy!", "Long live independence,
equality and brotherhood!", "Long live liberte, egalite and fraternite!", - this slogan he hummed so
that it filled the sky, these slogans he waged among the People. As the common people then move,
the fire-greatness of its movements to lick the sky, the earth and the French sky trembled and broke
as if Krisna change his exist. The calm sea of French society for centuries has now become
undulating, boiling, collapsing seas whose collisions have crushed the rocks of feudalism: The king
collapses, the nobility collapses, the prince-religion collapses, the boiling ocean collapses, replaced
by means of breaking the rocks of feudalism. The new government called democracy. In a
parliamentary country, the people "may send their envoys to the parliament", - followed by the
countries of Western Europe and America, all of which are now also imitating a "democratic"

Yes, Britain now has a parliament, Germany now has a parliament, the Netherlands now has a
parliament, America, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Switzerland - all "polite countries"
now have a parliament, all "polite countries" now have a system "democracy".

But all these "polite countries" are now alive and fertile and rampant in the ghosts of capitalism! In
all these "polite countries" are now the oppressed peoples of his life, the fate of the commoners of
the fate of heart, the number of unemployed people who are starving exceeds human numbers. In all
the "polite countries" the common people did not survive, even miserable-miserable! Is this the
result of the "democracy" they saved? Is this the "people" of France they bought with thousands
they had lives, thousands they had carcasses, thousands of heads of kings and nobles too?

Ah, the bourgeoisie! The bourgeoisie has deceived them, enslaved them, fooled their eyes. The
democracy they won with the price of life that is so expensive, that democracy, it is not true people
democracy, but a mere bourgeois democracy, a civil democracy which is for the bourgeoisie and
benefits the mere bourgeoisie, Ah, parliament! Each proletariat can now choose to elect a
representative and be elected to be a representative in the parliament, each proletarian can now "co-
govern". Yes, each proletariat now has the name of being able to drive out ministers, dropping
ministers from their seats. But at the time that his name could become the "king" in the parliament,
at that time - also he himself could be expelled from work where he worked as a laborer with a
kokoro-wage, cast out on the streets of unemployment which was wet from tears of tears and
starving children! At the time that he could become the "king" in parliament, at that time, he also
did not have the slightest authority and demanded a decent salary, did not have the slightest power
to obstruct, the system of capitalism swallowed all his body and all his life!

That, the ordinary people who had been used by the bourgeoisie to seize "democracy", but who later
turned out to be ignorant has brought about the democracy of capitalism, the common people now
deserve to turn around rejecting false democracy with the words of Jean Jaures, leader the French
workers, who read: "You, the bourgeoisie, you founded the republic, and that is a great honor. You
made the republic firm and strong, not by the slightest change, but precisely because of that you
have held a conflict between the political and economic structures. Because

universal suffrage, because of the general election, you have swallowed all the inhabitants to
convene a meeting that is as if the meeting were of kings. They have the will, the source is every
wet, every law, every government; they flatten, they release the legislator and the minister. But at
the same time as being master in political affairs, at that moment he was a slave on the economic
field. At the moment that he overthrows ministers, then he himself can be evicted from the work of
without provisions, the slightest bit of what will be eaten tomorrow. The labor force is only a
purchase item, which can be bought or denied at will of the employer. He can be expelled from
bingikil, because he has no right to participate in determining the rules of cake, who are patient,
without him but to oppress him, determined by the employers according to all they want wants itself

Once again: is this the "democracy" that people save? Can democracy be our dream? No, and
absolutely not! This must not be a democracy that we must emulate, it must not be a democracy
with a fire character that must be written on the flags of the party-pioneers of the Indonesian mass
of action. Because such "democracy" is only parliamentary "democracy", only political

"democracy". Democracy-economy, democracy-economy, economic-equality-economics does not
exist, not even a slight odor.

Yes, even political democracy smells only! No? In modern countries there is parliament, really
there is a "place of people's representation", it is true that the name of the people "may come to
govern" but, oh, the bourgeoisie is richer than the commoners, they with their wealth, with their
papers, with his books, with his madrassas, with his propagandists, with his cinema-cinema, with all
the instruments of his power can affect all the minds of the voters, affect all the ways of politics.
For example, they made "press freedom" for the common people mere bullshit, they juggled
"freedom of thought" for commoners became a bond of thought, they raped "freedom of
association" into public lying. They have the will to be wet, they have politics to become politics
when they have war to be the war of the "country". Therefore, it is very true of what Caillaux said,
that now Europe and America are under the control of a new feudalism: "But now the feudal power
is not held by the land as it used to be, now it is held by industrial unions which can forever insist
on their will against states" . So very true.

also de Brouckere's words, that "democracy" now is actually an instrument of capitalism, a

capitalisticche instelling, a guise for dictatuur van het capitalism! Such "democracy" must be cast
by the ocean, far from the delusions and desires of the masses

What and democracy must be written on our flag, - what should we organize across the golden
bridge? Our democracy must be a new democracy, a true democracy, a democracy that is truly a
people's government. Not a European and American style "democracy" which is only a "portrait
from the bottom" of political democracy, not even a democracy that gives people 100% power in
political affairs, but a political and economic democracy that is

gives 100% concern to commoners in political and economic affairs. This political and economic
democracy is the only democracy that can be written on the party's flag, written in letters as above,
just to say, so that it can be seen from the fields and fields and cakes and factories where Marhaen
complains of bathing in sweat looking for a bite of rice.

With that political-democracy and economic-democracy, then the golden bridge crossing of
Indonesian society can be managed by the people themselves until they are safe, made into a society
without capitalism and imperialism. With these political and economic democracies, then Marhaen
can establish a staat Indonesia that is truly a People's Staat, a state whose political and economic
affairs are by the People, with the People, for the People. Not a system of feudalism, not a system of
glorifying the king, not a constitutional system of monarchies who even though using parliament
still use the king, not even the republican system as in France now or in America-now which is
actually a republican system rather than the "democracy" of capitalism, -but the system republic's
politico-economics, all of which are subject to the concerns of the people. Political affairs,
diplomacy affairs, education affairs, work affairs, art affairs, cultural affairs, any affairs and
especially the economy must be under the people's concern that all large companies belong to the
state, the state, not the bourgeoisie or noble state, all the results of the company's companies are for
the people's needs, all the distribution of the results is under the supervision of the people. There
should not be one more company that capitalists fatten the pockets of a bourgeoisie or fatten the
pockets of civil state, but the society of the economy politics of the Republic of Indonesia is a
picture of a harmony of the people, a collective work rather than the people, a commonality more
than the people

This is the true democracy that we aspire to, and what I call the new name socio-democracy, this is
genuine democracy which can only arise from Marhaen nationalism, from nationalism which
inwardly contains genuine people, which is anti-every kind capitalism and imperialism, even from
the nation itself, which is full of justice-sense and humanity which soars every character of
bourgeoisism and nobility, populist nationalism which is also mentioned by the new name socio-
nationalism, only socio-nationalism can give birth to socio-democracy , other nationalisms cannot
and will not give birth to sociodemocracy. Who is the one who squeaks "socio-democracy" but his
chest still contains the characteristics of bourgeois or even the most noble, he is a hypocrite with
two faces!

The vanguard party nationalism may only be one socio-nationalism, and nothing else! Throw away
the nationalism of bourgeois nationalism and nationalism, turn it into the dust of nationalism and
nationalism above the situation of the mass of the people of mass. Readers do not know bourgeois
nationalism, do not understand the nationalism of the nation? Oh, there are still many people among
our nationalists, who every day aspire to "nationalize" our country to become a "big country" like
Japan or America or Britain, amazed to see its world-feared fleet, its great cities, banks the biggest
banks throughout the world, the flags are flying everywhere, amazed that hopefully Indonesia will
also become a "big country" like that. Ah, these bourgeois-nationalists!-They are not struck by the
hearts of the so-called great things that are the result of capitalism, the tools of capitalism, and that
the common people in the country mentioned by the "thumb country" are oppressed and miserable,
indeed they have nationalism not human nationalism, not nationalism that wants the salvation of the
masses, they have nationalism is bourgeois nationalism which most far only wants Indonesia to be
Independent, and does not want to change the composition of society after Independence

Indonesian. They can also be revolutionary, but the revolutionary bourgeoisie, not Marhaenistic-
revolutionary, not socio-revolutionary.

And nationalism? Haha, that's also a lot of followers. The followers of nationalism are usually
nobles, whose blood is noble, the customs are nobles, their hearts are nobles, all physical and
spiritual bodies are nobles. They are still alive in a state of feudalism, anglers in the tradition of
feudalism, for which they are the "heads" of the people, and they become the "banyan tree" that
protects the people. They are usually very loyal to the warriors, very loyal to the people above, oh,
also in the era of feudalism they were loyal - to the Nata -, but there were among those who were
dazing about Independence Indonesia. But according to his ideals, in an independent Indonesia, it is
they who must be the "heads", they are the ones who have remained the rulers, they have been,
since ancient times, since feudalism-Hinduism and since feudalism in Islam. has become a "banyan
tree" which protects the "kawulo".

Watch out, Marhaens, watch out for bourgeois nationalism and nationalism! Follow only that party
whose flag is blazing with the slogans of socio-nationalism and socio-democracy, shouting slogans
of socio-nationalism and socio-democracy with a buzzing sound shaking the sky, rumbling as
thunder. Listen until it crosses the flat ground and mountains and oceans, that Marhaen is opposite
the golden bridge will establish a society that is not in the heart and without bourgeoisie, no class,
and no capitalism.

And not only buzzing sounds! The vanguard parties from now on educating the masses into the
"practice" of socio-democracy and socio-nationalism, "provide" the masses to carry out the
promises of socio-democracy and socio-nationalism. The vanguard party must from now on spread
the seeds of equality-feeling-within the heart of the masses, scatter the seeds of "mutual
cooperation" in the hearts of the masses, so that the mass which has been plagued by
individualism16, from now on it began to become a "new human being" who felt himself a "human
being" who was always concerned with public safety. The vanguard parties must educate their
theory and practice of "society" by never-failing to show the crime of individualism, dismantle the
crime of capitalism, advocate and refine collective work, establish and run radical cooperatives,
fight for trade union, and radical farmers community - especially cooperative-radical, trade union,
and radical farmers community!- in short from now on radically incarnating Man-society in every
struggle, in each of his actions, in each of his politics.

The battle program and the program of the pioneering party must s fight program and state program
Man-society, strijdprogram and program staatprogram must be an war declaration or formation and

war against all kinds of individualism. All the principles of the party, all the principles of the
struggle of the party, all the tactics of the party, all the struggles of the party, the struggle to bring
Indonesia-Free, the struggle to eradicate the bad rules, the struggle for improvements-this-day-
improvements etc., all physical movements and spiritually the party must be a blow to
individualism, a catastrophe to individualism, - for the sabotage of the Human Man - society.

Happy party for such a pioneer

Happily for the masses spearheaded by such a party!

Long live socio-nationalism and socio-democracy!

10, Reaching Free Indonesia

Now, champions of independence, go ahead, arrange your movements according to the lines that I
have drawn in this treatise, Remark on Marhaen's party, so that in order to become the party of the
vanguard of the masses. Live all the spirit that is in your chest, intensify all the organizing skills in
your body, exert all the courage of the bull that is in your life, spill the spirit and the skill of
organizing and the bulls into the body of the party, spill the maleness into your life the body is a
mass, so that the mass seems to be reborn by all its males from the past, also by the new maleness
of the new mass-action. You are the champions of the pens, move your pen as sharp as the tips of
the fingers Rama, you are the champions of the organizers, arrange the fortresses of People’s hopes
of becoming a fortress that holds the earthquake, you campers of the pulpit, listen your voices to
vibrate the air.

Spill all your souls into the party of the masses, spill all your body and spirit into the struggle of the
masses, spill your life into the fire-consciousness and fire-will of the masses.

Turn on mass action, to reach Indonesia-Merdeka!

Note (typography)

1 This is Marhaen Tani's income. If all Marhaens are taken, the average is f 161.-

2 "village-work", village-diensten, for example patrolling, making village roads, building

village bridge, etc. by Dr. Huender, "is money," then put it here.

3 Marhaen, her husband and her child are an average of 3 people.

4 Statistich jaaroverzicht in 1928.

5 Mission-sacree Sacred mission.

6 Sundanese paraji. It means dukyn has a child.

7 The "tantrum" bow

8 Not all people who do not sit in the raad or do not work for the gupermen (for example, a soto),
there are "non" people

9 Another consideration for holding the political-opendeur is to hold an "evenwicht" policy, namely
that Indonesia should not be "taken" by another imperialism.

10 What it means concessie: If it is a riot, because of our insistence, then obey some

or all our demands, then simusuh it is running con-


11 August Bebel

12 Die Verelendung.wird zu einer Ursache Radikalisierung der Massen, aber nur

deshalb, weil die Massen die wachsende Verelendung nicht passiv ertragen,

sondern einen taglichen Kampf gegen die Verelendung fuhren.

13 Young Indonesian Suluh "

14 Thoughts of Ra jat

15 Make the meaning of "revolution" see I have pledoi

16 Individualism = self