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SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT

ON

“SALES AND PROMOTION OF TIMES OF INDIA


GROUP MAGAZINE”

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT


FOR THE AWARD OF MBA DEGREE FROM

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)


SUBMITTED BY:
AMIT KUMAR
ROLL No. 1866670020
MBA- III Sem.

COMPANY GUIDE: SUBMITTED TO:


Mr. SUBHASH GUPTA NIRAJ DUBEY
The Times of India (Head of Department)
Lucknow SRMBS, Lucknow

(Session 2018-20)
SRM BUSINESS SCHOOL, B.K.T LUCKNOW-227202 (College code: 666)
Affiliated to
DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

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“TIMES HOUSE” 16,RANA PRATAP MARG, LUCKNOW-226001

TO WHOM SO EVEN IT MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that Mr. AMIT KUMAR, S/O. Mr. , MBA


Student of “SRM BUSINESS SCHOOL” LUCKNOW, was associated with
us for an internship program from 10th -june– 2019 to 25th july,2019, in the field
of Marketing with “Times group Brands” in LUCKNOW .

The project report entitled “SALES AND PROMOTION OF TIMES OF


INDIA GROUP MAGAZINE” Embodies the original work done by Mr.
Subhas Gupta during his summer training period.

(Signature senior manager)

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the summer training project report entitle “SALES
AND PROMOTION OF TIMES OF INDIA GROUP
MAGAZINE”Submitted by me in partial fulfillment for the award of the MBA
degree from Dr. A. P. J Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow is an
outcome of my own efforts and is an original piece of research work . It
contains no material previously published or written by any other person , nor
any material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of
any other degree/diploma of any other Institute/University ,except where due
acknowledgement has been made in the text.

Date:
Place: AMIT KUMAR
Roll no: 1866670020
SRMBS Lucknow

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SRM BUSINESS SCHOOL LUCKNOW
TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN

This is to certify that Mr. AMIT KUMAR, a student of MBA , 2019 batch in
this Institute ,has undergone seven week summer training at times of India from
10th – june – 2019 to 25thjuly – 2019 .

During the period of his internship program, he undertook and successfully


completed the project titled “SALES AND PROMOTION OF TIMES OF
INDIA GROUP MAGAZINE,”under my guidance and supervision

Mr. NIRAJ DUBEY


(Head of Department)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the


possibility to complete my project. I would like to thank my college authorities
and my HOD Mr. Niraj Dubey, first for providing me the opportunity to work
with one of the most prestigious organization. I want to thanks the head of
training department, Mr. Kaushal Chandra for giving me permission for my
summer training, to do the necessary research work, and to use the organization
data.

I have furthermore to thank my Mr. Subhash Gupta who supervised and


supported me throughout the period of my training.

I am deeply indebted to my faculty and mentor Mr. Niraj Dubey whose


help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me during the
summer training and in compiling the report.

I would like to give my special thanks to my parents and my brothers and


sisters whose contant love, blessings and emotional support enabled me to
complete this work.

AMIT KUMAR

Roll no. 1866670020

SRMBS, LUCKNOW

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE NO.
1. INTRODUCTION 7
2. ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE 11
i. History 15
ii. Subsidiaries 28
iii. Key Management 32
iv. WWM 35
v. About the magazines 36
vi. Prices and periodicity of magazines 40
vii. Competition 41
viii. Channel Members Of TOI 42
ix. Channel Margin 44
x. Promotion Schemes 78
xi. SWOT Analysis 79
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 86
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 88
5. FINDINGS 95
6. RECOMMENDATION 96
7. CONCLUSION 97
1. REFERENCES 98
2. QUESTIONNAIRE 99
i. Subscription 101

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INTRODUCTION

Print media is one of the most powerful and cost effective medium to
transfer information and knowledge. The print media industry in India is more
than a century old. Also it is a well established industry. This industry mainly
comprises of publishing newspapers and magazines. India has the second largest
population and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Along with
these the increasing level of income of peoples and the robust competition in
this industry help print media in its growth. Producers are increasing day by
day, new entrants from outside India is also a factor of tough competition.
Indian readers prefer Hindi magazines rather than English magazines. In the
case of Times group also the readership of Hindi Femina is higher as compared
to English magazines. Ernst & Young said in their survey report “Indian
magazine segment: Navigating new growth avenues”, it has been said that out
of the 20 most read magazines in India, only three magazines are in English,
while the remaining are in Hindi and other regional languages. This survey also
said that more than 300 million literate individuals do not read any publications.
According to ArcGate, the dramatic effects of internet and globalization in
current scenario are playing high impact on media industry. Even people are
now consuming news and information from internet through computers or
mobiles, the popularity of print media is not decreasing. To avoid declining of
market share in front of other media the producer must able to produce high
quality printed content and magazines. They also need to make the contents
available on mobile and web platforms to provide a choice to its subscribers to
explore the contents anytime anywhere. Dr Saukat Ali, in his paper “A Study of
Consumer Behavior & Loyalty InPrint Media – Challenges & strategic
prescriptions with Special reference to English, Hindi, Marathi News Paper
readers-Mumbai”, says developing customer loyalty & retaining readership can
be a huge challenge for the publishers. There are huge options available to

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readers now. Therefore publishers are busy to create something very special and
innovative in contents or subscription schemes to impress upon the readers.
They should address the needs and demand of consumer to strengthen their
loyalty and readership.

The revenue of magazines consists of subscription sales, trade sales and mainly
from advertising. More than 70% of the total revenue comes from advertising.
The Times of India Group, being the market leader in the industry is also
stepping with the current growth and development of the demography. World
Wide Media, a subsidiary of TOI Group is producing high quality magazines in
India and worldwide. But still they are facing some problems. They are losing
subscribers. By having an opportunity to be a part of the group, by acting as an
summer intern, this research has been done with the objectives, To explore the
customer demand in terms of price, Quality and Services. To find out the
reasons for discontinuing subscriptions. What drives a customer to adopt a
product? His demand and needs. The product must be able to fulfill the needs
and wants of the customer. When a product has less demand in comparison with
other products? Thus what a customer a wants? This study is mainly to explore
the customers’ demand for the magazines of World Wide Media (WWM) in
terms of price, quality and services. We can say, to explore what customer wants
from the publisher and what publisher gives to the customer. It is also being
taken to find out the lacks behind fulfilling the demand.

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RECRUITMENT
According to Edwin B. Flippo. Recruitment is the process of searching the
candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the
organization”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employees and the jobs
seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are:

 Recruitment in simple terms recruitment is understood as a process for


searching and obtaining application for jobs, from among the available
recruits .
 A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment .
the process begins when new recruits are sought and end when their
applications are submitted . the result is a pool of applications from which
new employees are selected .
 It is the process to discover source of manpower to meet the requirement
of staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that
manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an
efficient working force.

Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection , which helps


create a pool of prospective employees for organization so that the management
can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main
objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process.

Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a


pool of qualified applicants for the future human resource needs even though
specific vacancies do not exist .Usually , the recruitment process start when a
manger initiates an employee requisition for a specific vacancy or an
anticipated vacancy.

Recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The
differences between the two are:

1 .the recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment


and stimulation them to apply for jobs in the organization whereas selection
involves the series of steps by which the candidates are screened for
choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts.

2. the basic purpose of recruitment is to create a talent pool candidates to


enable the selection of best candidates for the organization , by attracting

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more and more employees to apply in the organization whereas the basic
purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the
various positions in the organization .

3. Recruitment is a positions process i.e. encouraging more and more


employees to apply whereas selection is a negative process as it involves
rejection of the unsuitable .

1.1.1. The Purpose And Importance Of Recruitment Are Given Below

 Attract and encourage more and candidates to apply in the


organization.
 Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best
candidates for the organization .
 Determine present and future requirement of the organization in
conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
 Recruitment is the process which links the employers with employees.
 Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
 Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing
number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applications.
 Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and
selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time.

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ORGANISATIONS PROFILE

The Times Group (Also referred as Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.) is the largest
company in media and entertainment industry in India and South Asia. It has
completed 175 years of its journey in media industry from 1838, established in
Mumbai. Starting off with The Times of India – which is now the largest
English publication in the world, BCCL and its subsidiaries (called The Times
of India Group), are present in every existing media platform – Newspapers,
Magazines, Books, TV, Radio, Internet, Event Management, Outdoor Display,
Music, Movies and more. Having strength of more than 11,000 employees, its
revenue is exceeding $1.5 Billion, it has the support of more than 25000
advertisers and a vast audience spanning across the world.

SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT

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Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees.
Build positive impression of the recruitment process. Create a talent pool of
candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization. To
attract and engage people it needs to achieve its overall
organizational objectives.

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HISTORY

History:

The first edition appeared on November 3, 1838 known as "The Bombay Times and
Journal of Commerce". In 1961 its name became ““The Times of India” “.
The first edition appeared on November 3, 1838 known as "The Bombay Times and
Journal of Commerce". The issue is published twice a week. Dr. J.E. Brennan was first editor
and he was also Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce. Rs 30/- was the annual subscription
rate.

1850
Company decided to increase shareholders and the share
capital, so the paper converted into a daily

1861

Editor Robert Knight amalgamates The Bombay Times, Bombay


Standard and Bombay

Telegraph & Courier to form “The Times of India” and gave it a national character.

1890: Editor Henry Curwen buys “TOI” in partnership with Charles Kane.
1892
Following the death of Henry Curwen, T. J. Bennett becomes the editor
and enters into a partnership with F.M. Coleman to form a joint stock
company - Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. (BCCL).

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1929
”The Times of India” Illustrated Weekly renamed “The
Illustrated Weekly Of India”

1948
Sahu Jain Group becomes the owners of the company. Shanti
Prasad Jain is the first Chairperson of the group.

1950
Navbharat Times launched. The “TOI” Crest
changed from the lions to elephants Dharjulyug,
Hindi weekly pictorial magazine launched

1952

Filmfare- first film


magazine in English
launched 1959Femina-
firstwomen’s magazine in English launched
Except this Times group has entered into various
other places like-

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Supplements
“The Times of India” comes with several city-specific supplements, such as Lucknow Times,
Delhi Times, Bombay Times, Hyderabad Times, Nagpur Times, Bangalore Times, Pune
Times, Chennai Times and Calcutta Times.
Other Regular Supplements Include:
Times Wellness, Education Times, Times Ascent, ZIGWHEELS, Mumbai Mirror, Bangalore
Mirror, Pune Mirror, Times Life, Rouge, What's Hot, Address, The Times of South Mumbai
(In South Mumbai),Calcutta Times.

BUSINESSES AREAS

Their business areas are Publications, Finance, Music, Retailing, Media, Radio, and Internet

products, Events, Charitable Trusts and Education.

Figure No.1.4.1 showing different areas of business

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Branches :{ Locations}

Lucknow , Bangalore , Bhopal , Calcutta ,

Chandigarh , Chennai , Cochin , Delhi , Hyderabad ,

Jaipur , Lucknow , Mumbai , Kandivali , Patna ,

Pune.

[Figure No. 1.4.2 showing branches of TOI]

LUCKNOW BRANCH

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 The Lucknow Branch was established before 38 years with lunch of “The Times of

India” Edition. Subsequently The Economic Times in English and Hindi were lunched

in UP.

 The Lucknow also has in its feather following brands:

 Hindu

 TIMES NOW

 RADIO MIRCHI and TIMESJOB.com

“Mission of “TIMES OF INDIA”:

““The Times of India” is the aggregator of content in any form in the infotainment

Industry. We collect & sell content to right target audience”

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FUNCTIONS AT LUCKNOW BRANCH

 Production Department

 Editorial

 Pre-Press

 Press

 Marketing Department

 RMD

 Response

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Figure No.1.4.3 Showing Other Departments Of the Time Of India

RMD (RESULT AND MARKET DEVELOPMENT)

DEPARTMENT OF MARKETING:

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Figure No 1.4.4 showing various functions of RMD department
Key Functions
City Sales

Upcountry Sales

Readership

Monetized circulation

Market Development

Logistics

RRE & Subscription Cell

Day break Distribution system

RMD Accounts

Publicity & Promotions

THREE INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT “The Times of India”-

 Sell less than cost of newspaper (10-15 Rs).

 Always not looking to increase no. of copies to sell.

 Attached Profile of Reader.

DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL OF “TOI”:

There are three ways to sell the “TOI”

1. CASH SALES: Take newspaper from pan wala or any shop in cash

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2. SUBSCRIPTION SALES: Pay money in advance and read “TOI”

3. LINE SALES: Maximum % of sales comes from this method. Money collection works in reverse order.

Figure:

Chain of line sales.

In Lucknow branch, RMD Dept. uses both Pull and Push strategy for market development.

 Pull strategy

 Push Strategy

BRANDING:

Branding: An ongoing activity through which you can create an image in the mind of
customer about your product. Now branding of “TOI” -

 THROUGH CAMPAIGN
 Lead India
 Teach India
 Clean India
 Economic Times in college
 OTHER LOCAL PROGRAMMES
Pricing of “TOI”: Price of “TOI” vary according to day called as zigzag pricing or
differential pricing like-

Table no. 1.4.2 Pricing of newspaper for a week

Monday 4 Rs.
Tuesday 4 Rs.
Wednesday 4 Rs.
Thursday 4 Rs.
Friday 4 Rs.
Saturday 4 Rs.
Sunday(Sunday Times) 5 Rs.

“TOI” Is Pioneer In Invitation Pricing:

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Price at which customer automatically attract towards products called as invitation

price. To understand this we take one example hypothetically.

Suppose the price of newspaper is 3 rupees and circulation is 1 lac from Monday to

Saturday. Now suppose on ‘Wednesday” they made 1 rupee of newspaper in which they had

maximum no. of pages.

As result of this, on Wednesday sales get tripled. Because those who could not

purchase it, now they (non-”TOI” readers) got opportunity to purchase and read “TOI”. By

passage of time (After 5-7 Wednesday) they became “TOI” reader. This is called as invitation

prices.

Then same things were done by competitors. After one year both company blooded

with 1000 million rupees. After this “TOI” made 5 rupees per day on same day (called as

reverse pricing). Due to high price, customer reduced from 3 lakh to 2 lakh but company still

benefit because no. of customer is more than 1 lakh with 5 rupees cost of newspaper. And

people going to give 5 rupees because they become habituated with this newspaper.

Competitors cannot go for reverse strategy. Because they do not have good branding when

compare with TOI. By this way competitors will not survive.

By these techniques, they develop their market. Now Market share of “TOI” is≈50%

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FIGURE1.4.5 MARKET SHARE OF “TOI”

PERCENTAGE OF MARKET SHARE

Business line; 2.04% Indian Express; 4.43%


DNA; 6.28%
Times of India; 49.34% The Hindustan Times; 17.95%

The Hindu; 19.95%

COMPETITORS DETAIL OF “TOI” THROUGHOUT THE INDIA:

TABLE:- 1.4.3 Competitors of TOI details throughout India

The Hindu The Hindustan Times


TYPE DAILY NEWSPAPER DAILY NEWSPAPER
FORMAT BROAD SHEET BROAD SHEET
OWNER KASTURI & SONS HT Media LTD
PUBLISHER N.RAM ShobhanaBhartia
EDITOR N.RAM VirSanghvi
FOUNDED September 20,1878 1924
LANGUAGE ENGLISH ENGLISH
Political allegiance --------- Centrist
HEADQUARTERS CHENNAI New Delhi, India
CIRCULATION 12,72,000(Citation needed) 1,143,000 Daily website =
WEBSITE THE HINDU www.hindustantimes.com

The Indian Express DNA


TYPE DAILY NEWSPAPER DAILY NEWSPAPER
FORMAT BERLINER BROAD SHEET
OWNER Indian Express Group Diligent Media cor.
EDITOR Shekhar Gupta R Jagannathan
FOUNDED 1931 July 30,2005
LANGUAGE ENGLISH ENGLISH
HEADQUARTERS Mumbai, Chennai, Mumbai
Madurai, India
CIRCULATION Mumbai, Chennai, 4,00,000
Madurai, India
WEBSITE The Indian Express.com Official site-Paper
Syndication site

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BCCL enters into music market with Times Music.
1999India times web portal launched; BCCL enters music retailing business
with Planet M. Also operates the first-ever private FM broadcast through Times
FM (which later becomes Radio Mirchi).
2000 The Times of India crosses the 2 million mark in circulation.
2001 RadioMirchi - Nationwide private FM broadcasting starts. 360 Degrees -
Event management business also launched. TOI goes all colour and storms
Delhi by being "Number One".

2003 Launch of the Times Private Treaties as a strategic business division.


Launch of the Jobs portal Times Jobs. TOI E-paper launched. Entry into TV
business with the launch of India’s first lifestyle and entertainment channel
Zoom.

2005 Launch of a Matrimonial website TimesMatri – later rebranded as Simply


Marry. Mumbai Mirror, the city-centric daily tabloid launched in Mumbai.

2006 Launch of a television News Channel called Times Now.

Radio Mirchi holding company ENIL (Entertainment Network India Limited)


lists on the Indian stock markets. It is the first Times Group Company to list on
the bourses with IPO being oversubscribed by more than 41 times.

Launch of a Property services portal Magic Bricks. Times of Money launch


Remit2Home, to cater to global remittance market.

Acquisition of Karnataka’s leading newspaper company Vijayanand Printers


Limited makes BCCL the dominant force in Karnataka.

2007 Launch of Bangalore Mirror, Ahmedabad Mirror, ET (Gujarati) and Whats


Hot – a premier weekend entertainment supplement. The Times of India

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becomes largest English daily in the world with circulation breaching the 3
million mark and beating Sun (tabloid) of UK.

2008 Launch of ET (Hindi), Pune Mirror and The Times of India editions at
Jaipur, Goa and Chennai. Acquisition of Virgin Radio (now rebranded as
Absolute Radio) in the UK.

2009 TOI Crest edition launched. Launch of ET Now – premier business


channel having integrated newsroom with ET print edition.

2010 Private Treaties re-branded as Brand Capital. The Speaking Tree


newspaper launched. ET Wealth launched. Maharashtra Times launches Pune
edition. Vijay Next (premier weekly newspaper from Vijay Karnataka)
launched. India’s first HD-only premium movie channel – Movies Now (HD)
launched.

2011 Sunday ET re-launched as a tabloid.

Bodhivriksha (spiritual weekend newspaper in Kannada) launched.

Launch of The Times of India, Coimbatore and Madurai/Trichy Editions.

2012 Launch of The Times of India, Kerala, Visakhapatnam and


Raipur(Chhattisgarh) Edition

2013 Launch of the Times of India, Kolhapur Edition.

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SUBSIDIARIES OF TIMES GROUP

TIML & ENIL

Times Innovative Media Limited (TIML) & Entertainment Network India


Limited (ENIL) that together control,

 Radio Mirchi National network of Private FM stations

 360 Degrees Events

 Times Outdoors (TIM Delhi Airport Advertising Private Limited.

 Mirchi Movies Limited Filmed Entertainment. Producers of BEING


CYRUS, VELLITHIRAI, MANJADIKURU.

Times Internet Limited

Times Internet Limited is one of the largest internet companies of India. It


has interests in online news, online business news, Hindi, Marathi, Kannada,
and Bengali news, mobile, e-Commerce, music, video, and communities.
Some of the larger properties of TIL include:

 India times shopping - one of the largest and earliest ecommerce


portals in India

 India

 Times of India

 Economictimes.com

 Navbharattimes.com

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 Maharashtra Times

 Timescity.com

 Gaana.com

 BoxTV.com

 Times Deal

Times of Money

Times of Money operates financial remittance services for Indians abroad to


send money back to India. Their product, remit2India, is a standalone product,
while also powering the remittance services of many banks globally.

Times Global Broadcasting Limited

Television division. It is also called Times Television Network.

 Times Now A general interest news Channel

 Smart Hire A Consulting Division – Recruitments

 ET Now A business news channel

 Zoom A 24x7 Bollywood entertainment and gossip channel

 Movies Now A 24x7 Hollywood Movies channel in High Definition


(India's first)

Times Business Solutions

 TBSL, corporate website of TBSL.

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 TimesJobs, a jobs portal.

 Techgig, a professional networking site for Technology Peoples.

 SimplyMarry, a matrimonial portal.

 Magic Bricks, a real estate portal.

 Yolist, free classifieds portal.

 Ads2Book, online classifieds booking system for print publications.

 PeerPower, a Senior-Level professional networking portal.

WorldWide Media

World Wide Media - started off as a 50:50 magazine joint venture between
BCCL and BBC magazines. In August 2011, it was announced that Bennett,
Coleman & Co. bought out the remaining 50 per cent shares of Worldwide
Media from BBC Worldwide thereby making World Wide Media a fully
owned subsidiary of BCCL.

 Filmfare

 Filmfare Awards

 Femina

 Femina Miss India A Beauty Pageant

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 Top Gear Magazine India

 BBC Good Homes

 Femina Hindi

 Grazia

 What to Wear

TIML Radio Limited

On 30 May 2008, SMG sold The British Virgin Radio to TIML Radio Limited
for £53.2 million with £15 million set aside for rebranding. On 28 September
2008, The British Virgin Radio Station rebranded as Absolute Radio, including
the sister radio stations Absolute Xtreme and Absolute Classic Rock.

Stations

 Absolute Radio

 Absolute Radio 60s

 Absolute Radio 70s

 Absolute 80s

 Absolute Radio 90s

 Absolute Radio 00s

 Absolute Classic Rock

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 Absolute Radio Extra This company is a direct subsidiary of BCCL (not
through TIML or ENIL).

Times Syndication Service

The syndication division of The Times of India Group, grants reprint rights for
text, and other media from the group's publications.

Brand Capital

Brand Capital provides funding to growth oriented enterprises for their long
term brand building needs.

Online shopping

Satvik shop, an online shopping website dedicated to organic and ayurvedic


products.

Key Management

Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.

PROMOTERS & DIRECTORS

1. Chairperson: Indu Jain

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2. Vice-Chairman & MD: Samir Jain

3. Managing Director: Vineet Jain

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

1. Executive Director: Trishla Jain

2. Executive Director & CEO: RavindraDhariwal

3. Executive Director & COO: Shrijeet Mishra

4. Executive Director & President: Arunabh Das Sharma

5. Non Executive Director: A.P. Parigi

6. Non Executive Director: Kalpana J. Morparia

7. Non Executive Director: M. Damodaran

8. Non Executive Director: Leo Puri

Times Television Network (comprising TGBCL and ZEN)

Group CEO (TV business): Sunil Lulla

ZEN CEO: AvinashKaul

Times Internet Limited

CEO: SatyanGajwani

Times of Money

President: Avijit Nanda


Times Business Solutions Ltd.

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CEO: Debashish Ghosh
Times VPL
CEO: Sunil Rajshekhar
Worldwide Media.
CEO: Tarun Rai
Entertainment Network (India) Ltd.
CEO: Prashant Panday
Alternate Brand Solutions (I) Ltd.
CEO: Prashant Panday
Times Innovative Media Ltd
CEO: Sunder Hemrajani
Absolute Radio
CEO: Donnach O' Driscoll
Times Foundation Head:
ShailendraNautiyal

EDITORIALHEADS
The Times of India
Editorial Director: Jaideep Bose
Executive Editor: ArindamSengupta
Economic Times
Editorial Director: Rahul Joshi
Maharashtra Times
Executive Editor: Ashok Panwalkar
Navbharat Times
Executive Editor: Ramkripal Singh
Mumbai Mirror
Editor: MeenalBaghel
Speaking Tree

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Editor: Narayani Ganesh
Vijaya Karnataka
Editor: E. Raghavan
Times Now
Editor: Arnab Goswami
ET Now
Editor: R. Sridharan
ZOOM
Editor: Omar Qureshi

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WORLDWIDE MEDIA

WorldWide Media (WWM) is a joint venture between the BCCL and BBC
WorldWide. It is the India’s largest producer of lifestyle and special interest
magazines. It was formed in 2004 and in 2011 it became a wholly owned
subsidiary of Bennett, Coleman and Company Limited (BCCL). From just four
magazines in 2008, WWM is currently producing 13 magazines in India and
worldwide. The Times of India Group have the selling and distribution right of
these magazines for India. The magazines are:-

 Femina

 Femina (Hindi)

 Femina (Tamil)

 FilmFare

 Filmfare (Hindi)

 BBC TopGear

 Hello!

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 Grazia

 BBC Good Homes

 Lonely Planet

 Home Trends

 BBC Knowledge

 BBC Good Food

ABOUT THE MAGAZINES

FEMINA(English,Hindi,Tamil)

Launched in 1959, Femina is India’s first and to-date India’s largest English
women’s magazine. Femina covers issues on women, fashion, relationships,
home-making, food, beauty, health & fitness, careers, new products, etc. The
fortnightly magazine, owes its success to a level-headed approach to feminism
made rich by writers from all walks of life.

Femina also gives its name to the annual Femina Miss India awards – a beauty
pageant contest which confers the most beautiful Indian title to women in a
nation-wide contest held each year. The awards are a property of Bennett
Coleman with the finalists going on to represent India in the annual Miss World
and Miss Universe beauty pageant.

Femina Girl was launched in February 2002, forging a bond with the teen
waiting in the wings to become a Femina Babe.

Inspired by the success of Femina magazine, the group started Femina Miss
India awards – a celebration of womanhood and beauty – which have acted as a

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catalyst in making a whole new generation of women rediscovering and
redefining themselves.

FILMFARE (English, Hindi)

Nothing powers popular culture like the Hindi film and nothing more than
Bollywood - the largest film industry in the world –
which is captured in all its glory by Filmfare – India’s
leading film magazine launched in 1952. Filmfare has a
cult status amongst its readers resulting as evident from
the periodicity of the magazine becoming from monthly to a
fortnightly since 2007.Spurred by the popularity and
insatiable demand for Bollywood films, Filmfare Awards were instituted within
a few years of launch of the magazine. Within a short period, the annual
Filmfare Awards became the gold standard for excellence in Hindi and other
Bollywood mainstream films and came to be acknowledged as the Oscars of
India, being the most prestigious and most sought after by every cine-industry
professional

BBC TOPGEAR

BBC Top Gear is the world’s leading automobile magazine since 1993. In
India, it has an image of straightest talking and most entertaining automobile
magazine. It has now 17 international editions. It includes the in-depth buying
information, with the review and buyers guide. It also includes a comprehensive
listing of every single car and bike available in the market to give the readers a
real experience.

HELLO!

38
Hello! Hello! Is a popular celebrity and lifestyle magazine. First it was launched
in Italy in the year of 1930. It has now 13 international editions. In India it was
launched in April 2007. It is published monthly covering A to
Z of Indian and global celebrity lifestyle news.

Now it becomes an easy step to enter into celebrity’s lives. It


also includes celebrity’s views on various subjects and issues
in the world. The interviews in the magazine help readers to
feel that they have met and visited the celebrities.

GRAZIA

Over 70 years since its launch in Italy, Grazia is still


successful in keeping the women’s taste season after season. It
became the most qualified interpreter of
style for millions of women across the
globe today. GRAZIA

India was launched in 2008 as the 10th edition of this hugely


popular title. Grazia covers both designer and high-street
fashion as well as health, beauty, fitness and lifestyle issues.

BBC Good Homes

GoodHomes is one of the most preferred and leading interior and decor
magazine that inspires it's readers with innovative ideas
that fit every space and budget. It offers it's readers an
eclectic mix of decor suggestions and DIY tips.

Lonely Planet

39
Lonely Planet India magazine aims to inspire and enable travelers to connect
with the world. It has been treated as the world’s most trusted source on travel.
Inspiring you to sample different cultures first-hand, discover new people, and
learn fascinating stories.

Home TRENDS

In 1984 TRENDS was launched in New Zealend. With an


aim to fulfill the need of a source of reference on
architecture and design. Now it has become the most loved
and referred to magazine across 11 countries. Probably it is
the most widely read architecture and design magazine in the world. In 2010, it
was launched in India as Home TRENDS to meet the demand of architecture
and design reference due to the real estate boom in India.

BBC Knowledge

It has been created as a premium product for young and


inquisitive minds. BBC Knowledge is a bi-monthly
magazine, aiming at those, who are looking for knowledge
based on science, history and nature. The Indian edition of
BBC Knowledge follows in the footsteps of the first edition

launched in the United States in August 2008, which was an instant success -
being voted among the Top 10 newly-launched magazines of 2008 by Library
Journal, USA. Besides Indian and USA, BBC Knowledge is also available
internationally in the United Kingdom, Brazil, Singapore and Bulgaria.

BBC Good Food

40
It is the India’s first international food magazine. It contains with food and
recipe guides and live experiences from prominent chefs and food experts.

PRICES AND PERIODICITY OF MAGAZINES:-

Name of Price Per Issue Periodicity


Magazines
1.Femina (English) Rs.60/- Fortnightly

2.Femina (Hindi) Rs.40/- Monthly

3.Filmfare (English) Rs.60/- Fortnightly

4.Hello Rs.120/- Monthly

5.Topgear Rs.150/- Monthly

6.Grazia Rs.120/- Monthly

7.BBC Good Homes Rs.100/- Monthly

8.Lonely Planet Rs.120/- Monthly

9.BBC Knowledge Rs.125/- Bi-monthly

10.BBC Good Food Rs.100/- Monthly

41
11.Home Trends Rs.250/- 10 issues per year

12.What’s Up Rs.50/- Weekly

13.The Economists Rs.220/- Monthly

14.Zig Wheels Rs.75/- Monthly

COMPETITION TABLE

CATEGORY TIMES MAGAZINE COMPETITORS

1.Fashion and celebrity Grazia,Hello! Verve, Vogue etc

2.Automobiles BBC Top Gear Overdrive, Auto Car etc.

3.Bollywood And Filmfare Stardust, Cineblitz, The


Movies Masala Fil Street Journal etc.

4.Women lifestyle Femina (Hindi & Wedding affair, Harper’s


English) Bazaar etc.

5.Interiors and BBC Good Homes and Ideal Home, Home


Homes Trends &Gardenb plus,

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Architectural Architecture+Design

6.Travel Lonely Planet Travel plus, Outlook


Traveller, National
Geographic Traveller etc.

7.Science and BBC Knowledge Popular science India,


Knowledge Readers Digest etc

8.Food and Catering BBC Good Food KhanaKhazanaetc

CHANNEL MEMBERS OF THE TIMES OF INDIA

PRINTING PRESS

 It takes the content from the editorial team and prints using high capacity
advanced press machines that deliver the product in packaged condition

 Situated in Lucknow for U.P. region.

 Capacity to print over 10 lac copies.


43
 Printing starts around 1-1:30 am usually

 After Printing, stacking is done before dispatching newspapers to depots

 Labeling done to match stacks with destination

 Usually stocks for depots situated the farthest are dispatched earliest.

Depots

 The distribution centre receives the copies from the transporter and stocks
it for a short duration

 Close to numbers of depots in Lucknow

 Keep publications (newspaper + magazines) for various companies

 Serviced by salespersons who are company employees

 Unorganized – keep newspapers / magazines scattered on pavements or


on steps of some malls etc

 Records are kept at depots in the following format:-

NEWSPAPER 1 NEWSPAPER 2

VENDOR QTY TO BE QTY ACTUALLY QTY TO BE QTY ACTUALLY


CODE DELIVERED DELIVERED DELIVERED DELIVERED

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AGENTS

 Employed where distribution is not organized

 Exclusive agents of TOI

 Work on commission, themselves act as salesmen

 Lucknow Market- Working with depot

 Lucknow- Working with agency system

VENDORS

 Like retailers. Link between depot and end consumer

 Go to nearest depot everyday. Pick out publications they want

 They sell via : door-to-door beat boys/single point newspaper stands

 MDI vendor serve in areas. He collects newspapers from Old Bus


Stand Agents.

BEAT BOYS

The delivery boys have demarcated regions/housing societies, which they serve.
Hawkers are individuals who do not have established customers and sell at road
sides, bus stands etc. They make small quantity purchases

 Deliver required publications to proper destinations.

45
 Have route-wise list of addresses and their required
newspaper/publications .

 3-4 beat boys cover an area via their routes.

INFORMATION FLOW

 New consumer/Existing consumer taking or terminating subscription


 Inform their Vendor( increase/decrease his order by one )

 Vendor Informs the distributor

 Distributor informs the company.

CHANNEL MARGIN

 Margin given by TOI to channel members is around 30%

 More or less uniform rate across the industry

 Agents get 5-10%, salesmen on payroll get fixed salary

46
 Vendor receives 20-25%, to cover the costs incurred due to travel, beat boys
etc. It depends on the type and language of newspaper. (Hindi – 25%;
English – 20%)

Steps in Training Programme:

Training programme is a costly and time-consuming process. The training procedure


is essentially an adoption of the job instruction training course. The following steps are
considered as necessary:

1. Discovering or Identifying Training needs: A training programme should be


established only when it is felt that it would assist I the solution of specific problems.
Identification of training needs must contains three types of analysis:

a) Organizational analysis: Determine the organization’s goals, its resources and


the allocation of the resources as they relate to the organizational goals.

b) Operations analysis: Focuses on the task or job regardless of the employee doing
the job.

c) Man analysis: Reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills a person must acquire
to contribute satisfactorily to the attainment of organizational objectives.

Armed with the knowledge of each trainee’s specific training needs, programmes of
improvement can be developed that is tailored to these needs. The training programme
then follows a general sequence aimed at supplying the trainee with the opportunity to
develop his/her skills and abilities.

2. Preparing the instruction or getting ready for the job: The instructor is the key
figure in the entire programme. He must know both job to be taught and how to teach
it. The job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be taught at a proper
time without the trainee losing perspective of the whole. This becomes a lesson plan.
47
For each part one should have in mind the desired technique of instruction, i.e.,
whether a particular point is best taught by illustration, demonstration or explanation.

3. Preparing the trainee: This step consist of-


 In putting the learner at ease.
 In stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship to
work flow.
 In explaining why he/she is being fought.
 In creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner
already knows about the job.
 In explaining the ‘why’ of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker
already knows.
 In placing the learner as close to his normal position as possible and
 In familiarizing him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.

4. Presenting the operation: This is the most important step in a training programme.
The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the
new knowledge and operations. There are various alternatives ways of presenting the
operation namely, explanation, demonstration etc. an instructor mostly uses the
method of explanation. In addition one may illustrate various points through the use
of pictures, charts, diagrams and other training aids. Demonstration is an excellent
device when the job is essentially physical in nature. The following sequence is
followed:
 Explain in the sequence of the entire job.
 Do the job step by step according to the procedure.
 Explain each step that he/she is performing.
 Have the trainee explain the entire job.
Instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently; there should be an
emphasis on key points and one point should be explained at a time. The trainee
should also be encouraged to ask question in order to indicate that he/she really knows
and understands the job.
5. Try out the trainees’ performance: Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the
job several items slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected, and if

48
necessary, some complicated steps are done for the trainee the first time. Then the
trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skills and speed. As soon as the
trainee demonstrates that he can do the job in the right way, he is put on his own. The
trainee, through repetitive practice, will acquire more skills.

6. Follow-up or Rewards and feedback: The final step in most training procedure is that
of follow up. This step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of
training efforts. The follow up system should provide feedback on training
effectiveness and on total valve of training system. It is worth remembering that if the
learner hasn’t learnt, the teacher hasn’t taught.

Selection of a Training Method:


The selection of an appropriate method depends upon the following six factors:

1. Nature of Problem area: The choice of training method depends upon the task to be
done or the manner in which people interact with each other i.e., the problem may be
either an operational problem or a human relations problem.

2. Level of Trainees in the organization’s hierarchy: The choice of a training method


also depends upon the level of the participants.
3. Method’s ability to hold and arouse the interest of trainees during the training
period: A trainer has to consider alternative methods of presenting training material to
participants also from the point of view of their ability to stimulate interest and
facilitate retention of the matter.
4. Availability of Competent Trainers: A training method is as effective as the ability of
the trainer. He is most important figure in the entire training programme. Therefore
before venturing into a training programme we have to first find a good trainer.

5. Availability of Finance: Availability of finance is crucial for any training programme.


To make a training programme effective adequate finance is necessary.
6. Availability of Time: Training can not be done in a hurry. Adequate time is necessary
to make a training programme a success.
Topics under Training and Development:

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 Coaching:
Coaching is a method of directing, instructing and training a person or group of people,
with the aim to achieve some goal or develop specific skills. There are many ways to coach,
types of coaching and methods to coaching. Direction may include motivational speaking.
Training may include seminars, workshops, and supervised practice.

Coaching Types:
Life Coaching
Life coaching is a practice with the aim of helping clients determine and achieve
personal goals. Life coaches use multiple methods that will help clients with the process of
setting and reaching goals. Coaching is not targeted at psychological illness, and coaches are
neither therapists nor consultants.

Personal Coaching
Personal Coaching is a relationship which is designed and defined in a relationship
agreement between a client and a coach. It is based on the client's expressed interests, goals,
and objectives.

Personal Coaching is a learning process. A Personal Coach may use inquiry, reflection,
requests and discussion to help clients identify personal and/or business and/or relationship
goals, develop strategies, relationships and action plans intended to achieve those goals. A
coach provides a place for clients to be held accountable to themselves by monitoring the
clients' progress towards implementation of their action plans. Together they evolve and
modify the plan to best suit the client's needs and environmental relationships. A Personal
Coach acts as a human mirror for clients by sharing an outside and unbiased perspective on
what they are observing about their clients. A Personal Coach may teach specific insights and
skills to empower the client toward their goals. Finally, a Personal Coach encourages the
client to celebrate the achievement of milestones and goals.

Business Coaching
Business coaching is the practice of providing support and occasional advice to an
individual or group in order to help them recognize ways in which they can improve the
effectiveness of their business. It can be provided in a number of ways, including one-on-one

50
tuition, group coaching sessions and large scale seminars. Business coaches are often called
in when a business is perceived to be performing badly, however many businesses recognize
the benefits of business coaching even when the organization is successful. Business coaches
often specialize in different practice areas such as Executive Coaching, Corporate Coaching,
and Leadership Coaching.

Conflict Coaching
Conflict coaching is a specialized niche in both the fields of coaching and conflict
management. Conflict coaching may be used in an organizational context, for matrimonial
and other relationship matters and is one of many conflict management tools for helping
people improve their conflict management skills and abilities. Like many other techniques of
this nature, it is premised on the view that conflict provides an opportunity to improve
relationships, to create mutually satisfactory solutions and attain other positive outcomes
when differences arise between and among people.

 Continuing Professional Development:


CPD is the means by which members of professional associations maintain, improve
and broaden their knowledge and skills and develop the personal qualities required in their
professional lives.

CPD is defined as the holistic commitment to structured skills enhancement and


personal or professional competence.
CPD can also be defined as the conscious updating of professional knowledge and the
improvement of professional competence throughout a person's working life. It is a
commitment to being professional, keeping up to date and continuously seeking to improve.
It is the key to optimizing a person's career opportunities, both today and for the future (The
Chartered Institute of Professional Development (2000)).

 E-Learning, On-line Learning, Distance Learning, Web-based Learning:


Electronic learning (or e-Learning or learning) is a type of education where the
medium of instruction is computer technology. No in-person interaction may take place in
some instances. E-learning is used interchangeably in a wide variety of contexts. In
companies it is referred to the strategies that use the company network to deliver training

51
courses to employees. In the USA, it is defined as a planned teaching/learning experience that
uses a wide spectrum of technologies mainly Internet to reach learners at a distance. Lately in
most Universities, e-learning is used to define a specific mode to attend a course or
programmes of study where the students rarely, if ever, attend face-to-face or for on-campus
access to educational facilities, because they study on-line.
 Executive Education:

Executive Education is the term used for programs at graduate-level business


schools that aim to give classes for Chief Executives and other top managers or
entrepreneurs.

 Executive Development:

Executive development is the whole of activities aimed at developing the skills and
competencies of those that (will) have executive positions in organizations. While
"executive" and "manager" and "leader" are often used interchangeably, "executive" is
commonly used to signify the top 5% to 10% of the organization. Similarly, "development"
and "training" and "education" are often used as synonyms, however "development" is
generally seen as the most encompassing of the three in terms of activities that build skills
and competencies.

In contrast to other corporate training & development activities, which have as their
core purpose to build tactical skills for employees, executive development plays a different
role for the organization. In the best of cases, executive development not only helps an
organization execute its key strategies, it can also help provide input to the strategy creation
process. In this way, executive development is much more strategic than typical corporate
training & development which is used for most employees of an organization.

 Leadership Development:
Leadership development refers to any activity that enhances the quality of leadership
within an individual or organization
 Instructional Animation:

52
Instructional Animations are animations that are used either to provide instructions
for immediate performance of a task or to support more permanent learning of subject matter.
While both of these uses can be described as instructional animations, when the goal is to
support learning, the term educational animation may be preferred.
 Instructional Design:
Instructional Design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology)
and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process
consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end
goal of instruction, and creating some media-based "intervention" to assist in the transition.
Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically tested theories of learning and may take
place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this
instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and
assumed.
Perhaps the most common model used for creating instructional materials is the
ADDIE Model. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model:
Analyze - analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc.
Design - develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach.
Develop - create instructional or training materials.
Implement - deliver or distribute the instructional materials.
Evaluate - make sure the materials achieved the desired goals.

 Knowledge Management:

Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives such


as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, developmental processes,
lessons learnt transfer (for example between projects) and the general development of
collaborative practices. Knowledge Management is frequently linked and related to what has
become known as the learning organization, lifelong learning and continuous improvement.
Knowledge Management may be distinguished from Organizational Learning by a greater
focus on the management of knowledge as an asset and the development and cultivation of
the channels through which knowledge, information and signal flow.

53
There is a broad range of thought on Knowledge Management with no unanimous
definition. The approaches vary by author and school. Knowledge Management may be
viewed from each of the following perspectives:

Techno-centric: A focus on technology, ideally those that enhance knowledge


sharing/growth.
Organizational: How does the organization need to be designed to facilitate
knowledge processes? Which organizations work best with what processes?
Ecological: Seeing the interaction of people, identity, knowledge and environmental
factors as a complex adaptive system.

 Mentoring:
Mentorship refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced
mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a protégé—a person guided and
protected by a more prominent person.

 Organizational Learning:
Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that
studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts.

In Organizational development (OD), learning is a characteristic of an adaptive


organization, i.e., an organization that is able to sense changes in signals from its
environment (both internal and external) and adapt accordingly. (See adaptive system). OD
specialists endeavor to assist their clients to learn from experience and incorporate the
learning as feedback into the planning process.

 Teaching Method:

Learning by teaching is a widespread method in Germany (Jean-Pol Martin). The


students take the teacher's role and teach their peers.
For effective teaching to take place a good method must be adopted by a teacher. A
teacher has many options when choosing a style to teach by. The teacher may write lesson
plans of their own, borrow plans from other teachers, or search online or within books for

54
lesson plans. When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher will need to consider
students' background knowledge, environment, and learning goals. Teachers know that
students learn in different ways but almost all children will respond well to praise. Students
have different ways of absorbing information and of demonstrating their knowledge. Teachers
often use techniques which cater to multiple learning styles to help students retain
information and strengthen understanding. A variety of strategies and methods are used to
ensure that all students have equal opportunities to learn. A lesson plan may be carried out in
several ways: Questioning, Explaining, Modeling, Collaborating, and Demonstrating.
Questioning
A teaching method that includes questioning is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a
series of questions to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be
taught. Testing is another method of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was
previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned the material. Standardized
testing is in about every Middle School and High School. (I.e. Ohio Graduation Test (OGT),
Proficiency Test, College entrance Tests (ACT and SAT)).Before that we have to teach how
to make questioner. If the question perfect then this method will effective.

Explaining
Another teaching method is explanation. This form is similar to lecturing. Lecturing is
teaching, giving a speech, by giving a discourse on a specific subject that is open to the
public, usually given in the classroom. This can also be associated with demonstrating and
modeling. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate in a science class. A
demonstration is the circumstance of proving conclusively, as by reasoning or showing
evidence. Modeling is used as a visual aid to learning. Students can visualize an object or
problem, then use reasoning and hypothesizing to determine an answer.

Demonstrating
Demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity in learning new exploration and
visual learning tasks from a different perspective. Demonstrations can be exercised in several
ways.

Collaborating:

55
Students' working in groups is another way a teacher can enforce a lesson plan.
Collaborating allows students to talk among each other and listen to all view points of
discussion or assignment. It helps students think in an unbiased way. When this lesson plan is
carried out, the teacher may be trying to assess the lesson of working as a team, leadership
skills, or presenting with roles

 Teletraining:
Teletraining is training that-
(a) In which usually live instruction is conveyed in real time via telecommunications
facilities,

(b) That may be accomplished on a point-to-point basis or on a point-to-multipoint basis, and


(c) May assume many forms, such as teleseminars, a teleconference, or an electronic
classroom, usually including both audio and video.
 Training within Industry:

The four training programs developed by TWI were developed in an emergency


situation by experts on loan from private industry. Because of the intensity of the situation, a
large number of experimental methods were tried and discarded. This resulted in a distilled,
concentrated set of programs.

The TWI trainers had to be invited to a factory in order to present their material. In
order to market the service, they developed the Five Needs of the Supervisor: every
supervisor needs to have Knowledge of the Work, Knowledge of Responsibility, Skill in
Instructing, Skill in Improving Methods, and Skill in Leading. Each program was based on
Charles Allen's 4-point method of Preparation, Presentation, Application, and Testing.

The four programs were:

Job Instruction (JI)-A course that taught trainers (supervisors and experienced
workers) to train inexperienced workers and get them "up to speed" faster. The instructors
were taught to break down jobs into closely defined steps, show the procedures while
explaining the Key Points and the reasons for the Key Points, then watch the student attempt

56
under close coaching, and finally to gradually wean the student from the coaching. The
course emphasized the credo, "If the worker hasn't learned, the instructor hasn't taught".

Job Methods (JM) - A course that taught workers to objectively evaluate the
efficiency of their jobs and to methodically evaluate and suggest improvements. The course
also worked with a job breakdown, but students were taught to analyze each step and
determine if there were sufficient reasons to continue to do it in that way by asking a series of
pointed questions. If they determined some step could be done better by Eliminating,
Combining, Rearranging, or Simplifying, they were to develop and apply the new method by
selling it to the "boss" and co-workers, obtaining approval based on Safety, Quality, Quantity,
and Cost, standardizing the new method, and giving "credit where credit is due."

Job Relations (JR) - A course that taught supervisors to deal with workers effectively
and fairly. It emphasized the lesson, "People Must Be Treated as Individuals".

Program Development (PD) - The meta-course that taught management how to


develop a training and improvement programme.

There was also a short-lived course that taught union personnel to work effectively with
management.

 Outbound Management Development Programmes:

Outbound Management Programmes are a training method for enhancing


organizational performance through experiential learning. Such programs are often also
referred to as corporate adventure training and outdoor management development.

 Blended Learning:

Blended Learning is the combination of multiple approaches to learning. Blended


learning can be accomplished through the use of 'blended' virtual and physical resources. A
typical example of this would be a combination of technology-based materials and face-to-
face sessions used together to deliver instruction.

57
 Performance Management:

Performance management is the process of assessing progress toward achieving


predetermined goals. Performance management is building on that process, adding the
relevant communication and action on the progress achieved against these predetermined
goals.
In Organizational Development (OD), performance can be thought of as Actual
Results vs. Desired Results. Any discrepancy, where Actual is less than Desired, could
constitute the performance improvement zone. Performance management and improvement
can be thought of as a cycle:

1. Performance Planning where goals and objectives are established.

2. Performance Coaching where a manager intervenes to give feedback and adjust


performance.

3. Performance Appraisalwhere individual performance is formally documented and


feedback delivered.

4. A Performance Problem is any gap between Desired Results and Actual Results.

5. Performance Improvement is any effort targeted at closing the gap between Actual
Results and Desired Results.

6. Application Performance Management (APM) refers to the discipline within systems


management that focuses on monitoring and managing the performance and
availability of software applications. APM can be defined as workflow and related IT
tools deployed to detect, diagnose, remedy and report on application performance
issues to ensure that application performance meets or exceeds end-users’ and
businesses’ expectations.

58
7. Business performance management (BPM) is a set of processes that help businesses
discover efficient use of their business units, financial, human and material resources.

8. Operational Performance Management (OPM) focus is on creating methodical and


predictable ways to improve business results, or performance, across organizations.

9. Integrated Business Planning (IBP) refers to the technologies, applications and


processes of connecting the planning function across the enterprise to improve
organizational alignment and financial performa
TRAINING

Training is process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It is application


of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of rules and procedures to guide their behaviour.

The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to
enable them to do their jobs better. In order to achieve this objective, any training programme
should try to bring positive changes in:

 Knowledge- It helps a trainee to know facts, policies, procedures and rules pertaining
to his job.

 Skills- It helps him to increase his technical and manual efficiency necessary to do the
job and

 Attitude- It moulds his behaviour towards his co-workers and supervisors and creates
a sense of responsibility in the trainee.

Importance of Training:

The importance of training are-

 Training enables the management to face the pressure of changing environments.

59
 Training results in the increase of quantity and quality of output.

 Training leads to job satisfaction and higher morale of employee.

 Trained workers need lesser supervision.

 Trained workers enable the enterprise to face competition from rival organization.

 Training enables employees to develop and rise within the organization and increase
their learning capacity.

 Training moulds the employee’s attitudes and helps them to achieve better co-
operation with the organization.

 Trained employees make better economic use of materials and equipment resulting in
the reduction of wastage and spoilage.

 Training instructs the workers toward better job adjustment and reduces the rate of
labour turnover and absentism.

Benefits to Organization:

A programme of training becomes essential for the purpose of meeting the specific
problems of a particular organization arising out of the introduction of new lines of
production, changes in design, the demands of competition etc. The major benefits to an
organization are-

 Higher Productivity

 Better Organizational Climate

60
 Less Supervision

 Prevents Manpower Obsolescence

 Economical Operations

 Prevents Industrial Accidents

 Improves Quality

 Greater Loyalty

 To fulfill Organizations future Personnel Needs

 Standardization of Procedures

Benefits to Employees:

 Personal Growth

 Development of new Skills

 Higher Earning Capacity


 Helps adjust with changing Technology

 Increased Safety

 Confidence

Types of Training Programmes:

61
1-Induction or Orientation Training:

It is the method of introducing a new employee into the organization with a view to
gaining his confidence and developing in him a sense of co-operation. It is a training
programme used to induct a new employee into the new social setting of his/her work. The
new employee is introduced to his/her job situation and to his co-employees. He/she is also
informed about rules, working conditions, privileges and activities of the company. The
induction training not only helps personal adjustment of the new employee to his job and
work group but also promotes good morale in the organization.

An induction programme is aimed at achieving the following objectives:

1. To build up the new employee’s confidence in the organization so that he/she nay
become an efficient employee.

2. To ensure that the new employee may not form false impressions regarding their place
of work.

3. To promote a feeling of belonging and loyalty.

4. To give information to the new employee about canteen, leave rules and other
facilities etc.

2-Job Training:
The object of job training is to increase the knowledge of workers about the job with
which they are concerned, so that their efficiency and skill of performance are improved. In
job training, workers are enabled to learn correct methods of handling machines and
equipment avoiding accidents, minimizing wastages etc.

In job training technique, an employee is placed in a new job and is told how it may
be performed. It is primarily concerned with developing in an employee the skills and habits
consistent with the existing practices of an organization and with orienting him to his/her
immediate problems. The employees learn the job by personal observation and practice as

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well as occasionally handling it. It is learning by doing, and it is most useful for jobs that are
either difficult to stimulate or can be learned quickly by watching and doing.

The training follows four step process:

1. Preparation of the trainee for instruction.

2. Presentation of instructions in a clear manner.

3. Having the trainee try out the job to show that he/she has understood the instructions.

4. Encouraging the question and allowing the trainee to work along and trainer follow up
regularly.

3-Promotional Training:

This policy increases the morale of the workers. When the existing employees are
promoted to the superior positions in the organization, they are required to shoulder new
responsibilities. For this, training has to be given.
4-Refresher Training:

“Refresher training programmes are designed to avoid personnel obsolescence.”

With the passage of time, employees may forget some of methods, which were taught
them, or they may have become outdated because of technological development and
improved techniques of management and production. Hence, refresher training is arranged
for existing employees in order to provide them an opportunity to revive and also improve
their knowledge.
Thus refreshment training is essential because:
1. Employees require training to bring them up-to-date with the knowledge and skills
and to relearn what they have forgotten.

2. Rapid technological changes make even the most qualified workers obsolete in course
of time.

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3. Refresher training becomes necessary because many new jobs are created and are to
be manned by the existing employees.

5-Apprenticeship Training:
Apprenticeship training system is widely in vogue today in many industries. It is a
good source of providing the required personnel for the industry. Under this method, both
knowledge and skills in doing a job or a series of related jobs are involved. The
apprenticeship programmes combines on-the-job training and experience with classroom
instructions in particular subjects. Apprenticeship training is desirable in industries which
require a constant flow of new employees expected to become all-round craftsmen.

6-Internship Training:
Internship training is usually meant for such vocations where advance theoretical
knowledge is to be backed up by practical experience on the job. Under this method, the
professional institutes enter into arrangement with a big business enterprise for providing
practical knowledge.
Training and Development Methods:

Broadly the training and development methods can be classified into the following
two broad categories:

1. On-the-job Method
2. Off-the-job Method

1) On-the-job Method:
The most common method used by industry to train individuals is on-the-job training.
Under this method, the employee is given training at his workplace by his immediate superior
who knows exactly what the trainee should learn to do. To be effective, training instructions
should be helpful, friendly and personal. The management should also keep a close watch and
check up the training from time to time. On-the-job training may take any one of the
following forms:

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A. Coaching: Under Coaching or Understudy method, the employee is trained on the
job by his immediate superior. The trainee is placed under particular supervisor
functions as a coach in training the individual.

B. Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one
job to another. The purpose of position rotation is to broaden the background of
the employee in various positions. The employee is made to move from one job to
job at certain intervals.

C. Job Instruction: Under this method, trainer explains the trainee the way of doing
jobs, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises
the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the
trainee.

D. Committee Assignment: Under this Committee Assignment group of trainees are


given and asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees solve the
problem jointly. It develops the feeling of team work.
E. Special Assignment: Special Assignments are used to provide the employees with
first hand experience in working on the actual problems.

2) Off-the-job Method:
Off-the-job method simply means that training is not a part of everyday job activities.
Classroom or off-the-job instructions are useful when concepts, attitudes, theories and
problem solving abilities are to be taught. It is more associated with knowledge than skills.
Under this method of training, trainee is separated from the job situation and his/her attention
is focused upon learning the material related to his/her future job performance. Off-the-job
methods are as follows:

A. Vestibule Training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated in a


classroom. Material files and equipment those are used in actual job performance
are also used in training. This technique enables the trainee to concentrate on
learning the new skills rather than on performing an actual job. Vestibule training
is suitable where it is not advisable to put the burden of training on line

65
supervisors and where a special coaching is required. The duration of this training
ranges from days to a few weeks.

B. Role Playing: This is a method of human interaction that involves realistic


behaviour in imaginary situations. This method of training involves action, doing
and practice. Role-playing technique is used for human relations and leadership
training. Its purpose is to give trainees an opportunity to learn human relations
skills through practice and to develop insight into one’s own behaviour and its
effect upon others.

Under this method, a conflict situation is artificially constructed and two or


more trainees are assigned different parts to play. The trainees cut out a given role
as they would in a stage play. The role players are provided with a description of a
situation and the role they are to play.

Role playing primarily involves employee-employer relationships- hiring,


firing and discussing a grievance procedure, conducting a post appraisal interview
or representation to a customer. Role playing is especially useful in providing new
insights and in presenting the trainee with opportunities to develop interfactional
skills.

C. Management Games: A management game is a classroom exercise in which


teams of students compete against each other to achieve common objectives. The
game is designed to be a close representation of real-life conditions.

D. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training or T group training means the


development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioural patterns of oneself and
others. In sensitivity training, the trainees are enabled to see themselves as other
see them and develop an understanding of other’ views and behaviour. It aims at
increasing tolerance power of the individual and his ability to understand others.
The sensitivity training programmes are generally conducted under controlled
laboratory conditions.

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E. Case Study Method: Under the case study method, the trainees may give a
problem to discuss which is more or less related to the principles already taught.
This method gives the trainee an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the
solution of realistic problems. The case study places heavy demands upon the
trainees and requires that they should have a good deal of maturity and
background in the subject-matter concerned.

Case studies are extensively used in teaching law, personnel management,


human relations and management etc. the trainees learn that there is no single
answer to a particular problem. The answer to each trainee may differ. Case
discussion helps to appreciate each other’s thinking.
In case study method, the trainee is expected to-
a) Master the facts and content of the case.
b) Define the objectives and issues in the case.
c) Identify the problems in the case.
d) Develop alternative courses of action.
e) Screen the alternatives using the objectives and issues as the criteria.
f) Suggest the controls needed to make the action effective.

F. Seminar or Team Discussion: Seminar is based on a paper prepared by one or


more trainees on a subject selected in consultation with the person in charge of the
seminar. The trainees read their papers and this are followed by a critical
discussion. The chairman of the seminar summarizes the contents of the papers
and the discussion which follow their reading.

G. The Conference Method: In this method, the participating individuals ‘confer’ to


discuss points of common interest to each other. It is an effective training device
for persons in the positions of both conference number and conference leader. As a
member a person can learn from others by comparing his opinions with those of
others. As a conference leader, a person can develop this skill to motivate people
through his direction of discussion.

There are three types of conferences:

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a) Direct Discussion: The trainer guides the discussion in such a way that the
facts, principles or concepts are explained.

b) Training Conference: The instructor gets the group to pool its knowledge
and past experience and brings different points of view on the problem.
c) Seminar Conference: The instructor defines the problem, encourages and
ensures full participation in the discussion.

The conference is ideally suited to learning problems and issues and


examining them from different angels. It is considered to be the best method for
reducing dogmatism employed in supervisory and executive development
programmes.

H. Lecture Method: This most commonly used to speak to large groups about general
topics, the lecturer posses a considerable depth ok knowledge of the subject at
hand. He seeks to communicate his thoughts in such a manner to interest the class
and cause them to retain what he has said. The trainees generally take notes as an
aid to learning.

I. Programmed Instruction: The subject matter to be learned is presented is series of


carefully planned sequential units. These units are arranged from simple to more
complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering
or filling the blanks.

J. Managerial Grid: It is a six phase programme. It starts with upgrading managerial


skills, continues to group improvement; improves inter-group relations, goes into
corporate planning, develops implementation method and ends with an evaluation
phase. The grid represents several possible leadership styles. Each style represents
a different combination of the basic orientations- concern for people and concern
for production.

K. Simulation: Under this technique the situation is duplicated in such a way that it
carries a closer resemblance to the actual job situation. The trainee experiences a
feeling that he is actually encountering all those conditions. Then he is asked to

68
assume a particular role in the circumstances and solve the problems by making a
decision. (S)he is immediately given a feedback of his performance.
Executive or Management Development:

Executive or management development is a long term educational process utilizing a


systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and
theoretical knowledge. Development is a related process. It covers not only these activities,
which improve the job performance, but also those which bring about growth of the
personality; help individuals in the progress towards maturity and actualization of their
potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but also better human
beings. Training for a bigger and higher job is Development.

Management Development should produce change in behaviour which is more in


keeping with the organization goals than the previous behaviour. The change frequently
consists of a number of small steps resulting from training but the cumulative effect is
considerable. It is also basic that a terminal behaviour is identified before the development
effort starts.

Management Development is a systematic process of growth and development by


which the managers develop these abilities to manage. It is concerned with improving the
performance of the manager by giving them opportunities for growth and development.

Need and Importance of Management Development:


Executive talent is most important asset of an organization. An institution that can not
produce its own managers will die. From an overall point of view the ability of an institution
to produce managers is more important than its ability to produce good efficiently and
cheaply. The need for executive or management development is felt because:

1. There is a shortage of trained managers. The organization has to develop the talented
employees and maintain an inventory of executive skills to meet the future demands.

2. The performance of a company depends upon the quality of its managers. Executive
development, therefore, is of paramount importance to have effective and desired
managerial talents to meet the organization’s demand.

69
3. Obsolescence of managerial skill is another factor which calls for continuous
executive development. A manager must continuously update himself to successfully
meet new cHDFCBANKlenges as they occur.

Objectives of Executive Development:

1. To ensure a steady source of competent people at all levels to meet organizational


needs at all times.

2. To prevent managerial obsolescence by exposing the mangers to new concepts and


techniques in their respective fields of specialization.

3. To overhaul the management machinery.

4. To improve the performance of managers.

5. To develop a second line of competent managers for future replacements.

6. To prepare the present employees for higher assignments so that they may be
promoted from within.

7. To promote a high morale and good organizational climate.

8. To give the specializes on overall view of the functions of an organization and equip
them to co-ordinate each other’s efforts effectively.

9. To broaden the outlook of executive regarding his role position and responsibilities.

10. To understand the conceptual issues relating to economic, social and technical areas.

Methods of Executive or Management Development:

Methods of executive development can be classified into two broad categories:

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1. On-the-job Methods and

2. Off-the-job Methods

Employee productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a
given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure.
Employee productivity can be measured for a firm, a process, an industry, or a country. It is
often referred to as Employee productivity.

The OECD defines it as "the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of
input".[1] Volume measures of output are normally gross domestic product (GDP) or gross
value added (GVA), expressed at constant prices i.e. adjusted for inflation. The three most
commonly used measures of input are:

1. hours worked;

2. Employee jobs; and

3. number of people in employment.

Measurement

Employee productivity can be measured in 2 ways, in physical terms or in price terms.

 the intensity of Employee-effort, and the quality of Employee effort generally.

 the creative activity involved in producing technical innovations.

 the relative efficiency gains resulting from different systems of management,


organization, co-ordination or engineering.

 the productive effects of some forms of Employee on other forms of Employee.

These aspects of productivity refer to the qualitative dimensions of Employee input. If an


organization is using Employee much more intensely, one can assume it's due to greater
Employee productivity, since the output per Employee-effort may be the same. This insight
becomes particularly important when a large part of what is produced in an economy consists
of services. Management may be very preoccupied with the productivity of employees, but
the productivity gains of management itself is very difficult to prove. While Employee

71
productivity growth has been seen as a useful barometer of the U.S. economy’s performance,
recent research has examined why U.S. Employee productivity rose during the recent
downturn of 2008–2009, when U.S. gross domestic product plummeted.[2]

The validity of international comparisons of Employee productivity can be limited by a


number of measurement issues. The comparability of output measures can be negatively
affected by the use of different valuations, which define the inclusion of taxes, margins, and
costs, or different deflation indexes, which turn current output into constant output.
[3]
Employee input can be biased by different methods used to estimate average hours [4] or
different methodologies used to estimate employed persons.[5] In addition, for level
comparisons of Employee productivity, output needs to be converted into a common
currency. The preferred conversion factors are Purchasing Power Parities, but their accuracy
can be negatively influenced by the limited representativeness of the goods and services
compared and different aggregation methods.[6] To facilitate international comparisons of
Employee productivity, a number of organizations, such as the OECD, the Groningen Growth
Centre, International Employee Comparisons Program, and The Conference Board, prepare
productivity data adjusted specifically to enhance the data’s international comparability.

Factors affecting Employee productivity

U.S. productivity and average real earnings, 1947–2014

In a survey of manufacturing growth and performance in Britain, it was found that:

“The factors affecting Employee productivity or the performance of individual work roles are
of broadly the same type as those that affect the performance of manufacturing firms as a
whole. They include:

(1) physical-organic, location, and technological factors;

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(2) cultural belief-value and individual attitudinal, motivational and behavioural factors;

(3) international influences – e.g. levels of innovativeness and efficiency on the part of the
owners and managers of inward investing foreign companies;

(4) managerial-organizational and wider economic and political-legal environments;

(5) levels of flexibility in internal Employee markets and the organization of work activities –
e.g. the presence or absence of traditional craft demarcation lines and barriers to occupational
entry; and

(6) individual rewards and payment systems, and the effectiveness of personnel managers and
others in recruiting, training, communicating with, and performance-motivating employees
on the basis of pay and other incentives.

The 6th factor of motivating performance can further be explored under Psychological
Aspects of Work Productivity.

The emergence of computers has been noted as a significant factor in increasing Employee
productivity in the late 1990s, by some, and as an insignificant factor by others, such as R.J.
Gordon. Although computers have existed for most of the 20th century, some economic
researchers have noted a lag in productivity growth caused by computers that didn't come
until the late 1990s.”[7]

Psychological factors of feedback on performance

Feedback in the workplace can be received in two different types of ways. Positive feedback
is when an employee is praised and told what he or she is doing right and negative feedback
[8]
is when an employee is corrected and told what he or she is doing wrong. Positive and
negative feedback in terms of work productivity are very important in the field of Industrial-
organizational psychology. Feedback in the work place can be both formal and informal.

Positive feedback

Positive feedback has the most impact on creating higher quality work and more work
productivity overall. Positive feedback will also lead to a higher Job satisfaction level. When
receiving positive feedback an employee may be told that his or her work is being done
correctly and that he or she should keep up the good work. Positive feedback is used to
reinforce good behavior and encourage the worked to keep working hard and creating high
quality work.

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Negative feedback

Negative feedback has the ability to slow work production and create less quality
work. [10]However, when negative feedback is given in terms of corrective criticism then high
quality work can be produced because it allows for errors to be known and made available to
correct. This type of feedback is calledCorrective feedback.

General Feedback

Both formal and informal feedback is used in the workplace. When formal feedback is given
in the workplace it is usually called a Performance appraisal. This type of feedback can be
very useful when informing an employee what they do well and what they need to improve
on. [11] Informal feedback does not have specific name but may be demonstrated in terms of a
pat on the back or suggestion that comes from another employee or supervisor.

Employee morale

Employee morale, in human resources, is defined as the job satisfaction, outlook, and
feelings of well-being an employee has within a workplace setting.[1] Proven to have a direct
effect on productivity, it is one of the corner stones of business.

History

The happier the employee or worker, the higher the productivity. One of the corner stones of
business and recognized by employers to be as important as the business itself, employee
morale plays a decisive part in any business. [2] Business owners have always been aware of a
direct correlation between the attitude, job satisfaction and overall feeling of their employees
and the productivity of the business.[3]

Importance and effects

Recognized as one of the major factors affecting productivity and overall financial stability of
any business, low morale may lead to reduced concentration, which in turn can cause
mistakes, poorcustomer service and missed deadlines. It also can contribute to a
high turnover rate and absenteeism. Employee morale proves to be detrimental to the
business in these respects. Morale can drive anorganization forward or can lead to employee
discontent, poor job performance, and absenteeism (Ewton, 2007). With low morale comes a
high price tag. The Gallup Organization estimates that there are 22 million actively

74
disengaged employees costing the American economy as much as $350 billion dollars per
year in lost productivity including absenteeism, illness, and other problems that result when
employees are unhappy at work. Failing to address this issue lead to decreased productivity,
increased rates of absenteeism and associated costs, increased conflicts in the work
environment, increased customer or consumer complaints, and increased employee turnover
rates and costs associated withselection and training replacement staff.[4]

Advantages and disadvantages

The relationship between employee morale and organizational performance is


straightforward. Here are a list of advantages and disadvantages:

 When employees are satisfied with their jobs, they are motivated to work harder and
contribute the best of their abilities toward the achievement of organizational goals.

 They feel appreciated, important and significant members of the organizational chain
and as such, they are ready to maintain a positive action with their colleagues, clients and
anyone they come in contact with.

 By putting their best face forward, not only they are more attractive, but they are also
able to complete their tasks more efficiently.

 Compared to employees who are motivated, disengaged workers are less efficient,
miss more workdays and cost their employers thousands of dollars in lost productivity.

Keeping employee morale high is one of the best things you can do to instill loyalty and
maintain a productive workplace.

Methods of raising

Employees tend to lack motivation to perform their jobs when morale is low. A lack of
motivation can also be circular in nature. Management and employees can help increase
morale in the workplace by:

1. Recognize employees

2. Be a respectful manager

3. Have one-on-one meetings with employees

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4. Invest in your employees

5. Get to know your employees

While there are many more methods than what is listed above, each method is dependent on
theworkplace.

Overall Employee Effectiveness

Overall Employee Effectiveness (OLE) is a key performance indicator (KPI) that measures
the utilization, performance, and quality of the Employee and its impact on productivity.

Similar to Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), OLE measures availability, performance,


and quality.

 Availability – the percentage of time employees spend making effective contributions

 Performance – the amount of product delivered

 Quality – the percentage of perfect or saleable product produced

OLE allows manufacturers to make operational decisions by giving them the ability to
analyze the cumulative effect of these three Employee factors on productive output, while
considering the impact of both direct and indirect Employee.
OLE supports Lean and Six Sigma methodologies and applies them to Employee processes,
allowing manufacturers to make Employee-related activities more efficient, repeatable and
impactful.[1]

Measuring availability

There are many factors that influence Employee availability and therefore the potential output
of equipment and the manufacturing plant. OLE can help manufacturers be sure that they
have the person with the right skills available at the right time by enabling manufacturers to
locate areas where providing and scheduling the right mix of employees can increase the
number of productive hours. OLE also accounts for Employee utilization. Understanding
where downtime losses are coming from and the impact they have on production can reveal
root causes — which can include machine downtime, material delays, orabsenteeism — that
delay a line startup.
Calculation: Availability = Time operators are working productively / Time scheduled

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Example:
Two employees (Employee) are scheduled to work 8 hour (480 minutes) shifts.
The normal shift includes a scheduled 30 minute break.
The employees experiences 60 minutes of unscheduled downtime.
Scheduled Time = 960 min – 60 min break = 900 Min
Available Time = 900 min Scheduled – 120 min Unscheduled Downtime = 780 Min
Availability = 780 Avail Min / 900 Scheduled Min = 86.67%

Measuring performance

When employees cannot perform their work within standard times, performance can suffer.
Effective training can increase performance by improving the skills that directly impact the
quality of output. A skilled operator knows how to measure work, understands the impacts of
variability, and knows to stop production for corrective actions when quality falls below
specified limits. Accurately measuring this metric with OLE can pinpoint performance
improvement opportunities down to the individual level.

Calculation: Performance = Actual output of the operators / the expected output (or Employee
standard)
Example:
Two employees (Employee) are scheduled to work an 8-hour (480 minute) shift with a 30-
minute scheduled break.
Available Time = 960 Min Sched – 60 Min Unsched Downtime = 900 Minutes
The Standard Rate for the part being produced is 60 Units/Hour or 1 Minute/Unit
The Employee produces 700 Total Units during the shift.
Time to Produce Parts = 700 Units * 1 Minutes/Unit = 700 Minutes
Performance = 700 Minutes / 900 Minutes = 77.78%

Measuring quality

A number of drivers contribute to quality, but the effort to improve quality can result in a
lowering of Employee performance. When making the correlation between the Employee and
quality it is important to consider factors such as the training and skills of employees,
whether they have access to the right tools to follow procedures, and their understanding of
how their roles drive and impact quality. OLE can help manufacturers analyze shift
productivity down to a single-shift level, and determine which individual workers are most
productive, and then identify corrective actions to bring operations up to standards.
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Calculation: Quality = Saleable parts / Total parts produced
Example:
Two employees (Employee) produce 670 Good Units during a shift.
700 Units were started in order to produce the 670 Good Units.
Quality = 670 Good Units / 700 Units Started = 95.71%

OLE calculation

Effective use of OLE uncovers the data that fuels root-cause analysis and points to corrective
actions. Likewise, OLE exposes trends that can be used to diagnose more subtle problems. It
also helps managers understand whether corrective actions did, in fact, solve problems and
improve overall productivity.
Example:
Calculation: OLE = Availability x Performance x Quality
Example:
A Employee experiences...
Availability of 87%
The Work Center Performance is 78%.
Work Center Quality is 96%.
OLE = 86.67% Availability x 77.78% Performance x 95.71% Quality = 64.52%

Employee Information Tracked by OLE

The following table provides examples of the Employee information tracked by Overall
Employee Effectiveness organized by its major categories. Using this Employee information,
manufacturers can make operational decisions to improve the cumulative effect of Employee
availability, performance, and quality.

Major Loss
OLE Category Example of Loss
Category
Availability Breakdown Lack of training and
experience
Availability is the ratio of time the operators Unplanned absenteeism
are working productively divided by the Maintenance mechanics
amount of time the operators were scheduled. delayed
Poorly scheduled breaks and

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lunches
Material handlers starved
the machine

Changeover
Set-up personnel shortages
or delays
Lack of training, skills and
experience
Operator inefficiency due to
Performance Reduced lack of skills, experience or
Speed training
Performance is the ratio of the actual output of
the operators divided by the expected output Poor operator technique due
(or Employee standard). Small stops to lack of skills, experience
or taining
Scrap or Operator error
Quality rework Set-up team error
Maintenance mechanic error
Quality has many definitions, but a common
one is the ratio of saleable parts divided by the Set-up team error
total parts produced. Yield or start- Maintenance mechanic error
up losses Operator error

Productivity deals with the ways that people behave. Managers want Employees to work
efficiently and effectively, but the same nature of the work may be such that Employees don’t
want to do at all.

Productivity may be defined as those forces that cause individuals to behave in a particular
ways. Productivity encompasses all those pressures and influences that trigger, channel and
sustain human behaviour. Managers, by definitions, are required to work with and through
people, so they must acquire at least some understanding to the forces that will motivate the
people they are to manage. Employees are complex, and they are uniquely different.

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Assuming that a manager’s primary task is to motivate others to perform the task of the
employing organization at high levels, the managers must find the productivity factors that
will get subordinates to come to work regularly and on time, to work hard, and to make
positive contributions toward the effective and efficient achievement of organizational
objectives. Vroom has proposed that work performance depends on productivity as well as
Employee ability and environmental conditions.

PROMOTION SCHEMES:-

TRADE SCHEMES

 Offered to channel members

 Incentive to increase sales

 Challenge for channel member: Balance reader interest while trying to


increase sales to avail benefits of the scheme

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 Discounts for purchase of larger volumes by vendor

 Bonus of 50 paise for each new account generation by vendor

DISCOUNTS

 Mainly for institutional sales

 Eg. Bulk sale at schools at discount rates

READER SCHEMES

 Directed at final consumer/reader. Mainly to draw in new customers

 Varies depending on location & demography

 Could include trials, discounts, freebies, combo offers etc

SUBSCRIPTION SALES

 Offer choice of publication for a certain amount of time at a lump sum


discount price

 Purpose- gaining new customers and making customer switch

SWOT ANALYSIS

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S W O T Analysis Times Of India Newspaper

1 India: SWOT Analysis For Indians who have access to western education
and possess english speaking skills, times couldn’t have been better. A
generation ago, no one could have imagined the plethora of job options
available today – IT, BPO, media, finance, insurance. Even traditional
professions like journalism provide many more opportunities than they did a

82
couple of decades ago. Economic upliftment can be seen clearly in most parts of
urban India. Perhaps, the concept of middle class values...

Definition: SWOT stands for 'Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and


Threats'. This is a method of analysis of the environment and the company's
standing in it.

Strengths
 History of the paper: The paper that dates back to 1924 has a strong
history of great people who have written articles for it. The rich history of
the paper has made it a forerunner in the publication space in India and
made it strongly associated with Indian sentiments.

 Presence across channels: Hindustan Times has a presence in most


channels of media through its social media website desimartini.com, job
portal shine.com and radio Fever 104 FM. This ensured that the brand HT
was continuously visible to the customer which in turn improved brand
recall.

 Reach: Hindustan Times is a popular newspaper amongst old and young.


The newspaper is popular in North India and has circulation in New Delhi,
Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Patna, Ranchi, Bhopal Chandigarh, and
Jaipur. This ensures that it has a maximum reach in these parts and access
to the audience across.

 Advertising Support: The paper has a wide circulation and reach and is
credible because of the history it is associated with. Moreover, it enjoys
wide readership amongst all age groups and all this has made it immensely
popular amongst advertisers which acts as its

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WEAKNESSES

 Lack of leadership in South India: Though Hindustan Times is a


popular newspaper in the North, the same cannot be said of South India.
This prevents it from being the biggest news publication in the country.

 Pro-Congress approach: The newspaper which was started by the


Akalis to reach out to non-Punjabi readers had a strong
Congress orientation right from the beginning. This has made it part of
various controversies and dimmed its popularity amongst other party
supporters.

 More ads in competing newspapers: The race to the finishing line for
any publication is about how many advertisements it is able to garner.

Compromise of quality: Newspapers are in a constant bid to increase their


readership and thus in continuous touch with what readers demand. In a bid to
stay in the race they often try to sensationalize events and this, in turn, affects
the quality of the news drastically.

OPPORTUNITIES
 Sensationalisation of events: Today media is robust and press activity at
its peak. Every news irrespective of whether it is small or big can be
sensationalized and this creates fodder for newspapers and every new bit of
juicy information creates a circulation boom.

 More features, more revenue: Newspapers are trying their best to


innovate to the maximum extent possible. Some of this includes adding
new features like blogs, entertainment news, cartoons, games etc and each
feature would mean more revenue streams.

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 The building of long-term relationship: Newspapers often thrive
on brand loyalty for which they need to build a bond with the reader. Once
the bond is built it is difficult for the link to break. Hindustan Times
through its history has been able to build a strong relationship with its
readers.

THREATS
 Internet: Everything on the Internet like social media, entertainment
websites, blogs, and shopping has almost replaced the newspaper in the
minds of the younger generation. Advertisers are also preferring to go
online as against advertising in newspapers and all this is likely to affect
the industry at large.

INTRODUCTIO TO INDUSTRY

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.


According to Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has the largest circulation
among all English-language newspapers in the world, across all formats
(broadsheet, tabloid, compact, Berliner and online). In 2008,
the newspaper reported that (with a circulation of over 3.14 million) it was
certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations (India) as the world's largest
selling English-language daily, ranking.

Types Private

founded 4thNovember 1838

headquarters Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Key people Indu Jain (Chairperson) Samir Jain (Vice-


Chairman) Vineet Jain (Managing
Director) Raj Jain (Chief Executive
Officer)
Products Publishing Broadcasting Radio Film Entertainment Web portals

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Key Business areas:

 Publishing

 Television

 Digital

 Out of Home

 Other Activities

Publishing:-

 Largest publisher in India: 13 newspapers, 18 magazines, 16 publishing


centres, 26 printing centres

 Largest English newspaper in India by circulation (and the world), the

Times of India.

 Largest Business newspaper in India by circulation (2nd largest English


Business daily in the world, behind WSJ), the Economic Times.

 Largest Non‐English newspapers in Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore by

circulation (India’s three largest cities).

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Television:-

 Largest English News TV Channel, No. 2 English Business News TV


Channel.

 Largest Bollywood News and Lifestyle TV Channel, No. 2 English

Movies TV Channel.

Digital:-

 Largest Indian network based on traffic and revenue (behind Google,


Facebook, Yahoo).

 Operates 30+ digital businesses, most of which are Top 3 in their

competitive segment.

 Most popular B2C mobile short code in India, across SMS, voice, WAP,

and USSD Radio.

 Largest radio network in India by revenue and listenership, with 32

stations.

 Operates the largest rock radio station in the UK.


Out-of-home:-

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 Largest Out‐of‐home advertising business in India with presence in all
major metros.

 Owns advertising contracts in most major airports in India.

Other Activities:-

 Music

 Movies

 Syndication

 Education

 Financial Services

 Event Management

 Specialised publications - including books and multimedia.

Strengths:

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 Being the largest company of its kind, it has the largest market share in
India. It can be said as the most awarded brand of its kind in Lucknow.

 It provides best quality contents including all magazines and newspapers in


low prices.

 Having tie-up with BBC, increases the brand value.

 Parent company’s presence in all media i.e television and radio etc.,
becomes easy to reach a wide range of consumers for its campaign.

Weaknesses:-

 Tough competition in the industry raises limited scope for increasing


market share.

Opportunities:-

 It has better opportunity in regional language publications in India. For


example many peopleasks about Gujarati magazines.

 It can also penetrate in the online market, by making its contents available
online. So that users can avail this on their computers and mobiles.

Threats:-

 Main threat comes from its competitors.

 Basically local language publications can take over its market share.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Task

As a part of the Summer Internship Program we have been assigned to book


subscriptions for the various magazines published by WorldWide Media and
sold and distributed by Times Of India and also to collect renewal from the
expired subscribers.

Research Methodology

Objectives:

 To predict and explore the customer demands in terms of Price, Quality


and Services for magazines published by WorldWide Media (WWM).

 To find out the reasons why subscribers are not renewing or


discontinuing their subscription.

Problem definition: What are the various aspects in which WorldWide


Media is lacking behind in fulfilling the customers demand?

Research methodology:

This Exploratory research has been conducted through primary data. The data
will be qualitative as well as quantitative. The data has been collected through
personal interview, door to door visit and telephonic interview.

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Research design:

 Geographical location: The geographical location taken for the purpose


of data collection and the research in Lucknow city.

 Sample size: The sample size for collecting primary data 150
respondents. The sampling will be done through Random Technique.

Table:-

Reader 100

Non-Reader 50
 Data collection method: The data has been collected through personal
interview, door to door visit and telephonic interview.

 Target group: The respondents consist of existing subscribers,


discontinued subscribers and non-readers.

Limitations:

 The field work for the purpose of research was limited to some part of
the Lucknow city only. Therefore it may not represent the overall
consumers as perceptions of the consumers may vary place to place due
to demographic factors.

 The sample size is 150.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

1. Sample Size Distribution:

Table:-

Reader 100

Non-Reader 50

Readers include Existing subscribers (during the SIP) and Expired subscribers.
The Expired subscribers are divided into two parts, 1) Discontinued subscriber,
who doesn’t want to renew their subscription and 2) Continued subscriber, who
have renewed their subscription.

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2.Reason for not-reading:

Among the Respondents covered under Non-reader criteria, 20% said that they
are not able to afford a magazine, 24% do not read due to non-availability of
time, 22% prefer to read online and the remaining 34% are not interested in
reading magazines.

3. Rating upon features:

Respondents were asked to rate the features with number between 1 to 10.

A) Entertainment:

It shows that only 16% subscribers are fully entertained by the magazines who
gave 10 out of 10. The highest 44% subscribers gave 8 out of 10. They are less
entertained than other 24% subscriber who gave 8 out of 10. Therefore it shows

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that maximum percentage of population want more entertainment in the
magazines.

B) Information:

Survey indicates that all the respondents are


well satisfied with the information delivered
through the magazines. They are giving 8, 9
and 10 out of 10.

C) Gossip:

It shows that customers are demanding less gossip in the magazines. They rated
this feature with 7,8,9 and 10. The personal interviews on this topic also shows
their demand to avoid gossiping.

D) Updates:

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The contents in the magazines are well updated as the diagram shows that 55%
respondent gave 9 out of 10. Only a few percentage of respondent think that
magazines are not well updated.

E) Price:

In case of price, survey shows that 27% are highly satisfied and another 45%
are less satisfied than the first one. By seeing other responses we can say that
subscribers are well satisfied with price of the magazines. But still their demand
is to decrease the price due to human behaviour of expecting more than what
they get.

F) Services:

Services is one of the main factor which helps in maintaining the customer
loyalty and keeping the readership size constant. The survey shows that there
are less percentage of people who are well satisfied with the services who give

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higher rating. Their demand is to improve the services including the distribution
system and customer care system.

G)Language:

Customers are well satisfied with the language used in the magazines.
Maximum percentages of the respondents give higher rating.

H) Quality Vs Price Ratio:

When the respondents were asked about the quality Vs price, good responses
have received from them. There are maximum percentages of people who are
highly satisfied with the quality of the magazines relating with price.

4. Renewal Call:

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During the internship period, 50 renewal calls has been done. Out of which 26%
i.e. 13 renewals have been collected. The remaining 74% has denied renewing
their subscription.

The reasons for denying are discussed

A) Reason for Discontinuation:

Reasons derived from the survey, for the discontinuation of the subscriptions,

 Decrease of interest and usability: 32% of the respondent said that they
have stopped their subscriptions due to decrease in interest. Also the
usability.

 Shifting: There are two types of shifting observed, 1. To other TOI


magazines. 2.To other publishers.

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 Due to contents: 5% subscriber thought that the full contents comes in an
issue are not necessary for him/her. They need only a part or few pages
of the magazine. For which they think that it is none other than wasting
of money by buying the whole. Therefore they now prefer internet for
their need.

 Only subscribed for gift: Subscription scheme plays an important role in


increasing readership. There is high demand of gifts in subscription
scheme. There are 8% people who are not interested in continuing their
subscription because there is no gift in current scheme. But if they will be
provided with preferable gift scheme, they are ready to continue their
subscription.

 Cost: Only 3% people are not ready to continue their subscription


because they thought that the current scheme of 50% discount on 1 year
subscription is not so cost effective.

 Service: The last but the main reason for which people are not ready to
renew their subscriptions. As maximum percentage i.e. 39% of the
respondents have stopped their subscription only because of services
problem. There are three types of service problems derived.

1. Delivery: Customers were getting issues lately or never got some


issues. In case of fortnightly magazines, they were getting two
issues at a time. Also some were not getting issues in a proper
condition i.e. damage of packaging, crashed papers etc.

2. No response in problems: When the subscribers faced the above


mentioned problems, they were not responded well from the sales
department. Their problems were not solved. That’s why this
became a big reason for discontinuing subscription. o
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3. Representative: Another problem in services is due to
representatives. At the time of renewal no representative were
came to collect. They were interested but due to available
publishers they have shifted to others. Again in this case, they
have got calls from sales department for renewal, appointments
for collection were also fixed, but still they didn’t come to collect.
Thus TOI have lost some subscriber.

FINDINGS

 Magazines are well entertained, updated and well informative.

 The price according to the quality of the magazines is satisfactory.

 Subscribers have high demand in the improvement of services.

 There is a tough competition among magazines in LUCKNOW.

 Maximum people prefer Hindi rather than English.

 Subscription schemes attract more customers.

 Schemes with gift are playing a good role in increasing readership as


there are a lot of customers who have subscribed only for gift.

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 There are a big number of boutiques and designers in Lucknow and most
of them deals with Indian traditions. That’s why the contents should
specific customer centric.

 Peoples are highly interested in magazines but low awareness about the
schemes.

RECOMMENDATION

 Improvement of Services: The first and foremost recommendation that


can be suggested from the findings of the research is the improvement in
services. As there are high demand of the magazines of WWM. The
customers now have huge options for selecting a magazine, as there are
so many producers of magazines in different language and increased
usage of internet. Therefore a small problem faced by a customer may
lead to losing that one.

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 A better distribution channel: I would also like to recommend that by
implementing a better distribution channel, TOI can increase its market
share.

 A better renewal reminder system: A better renewal reminder system


can also be implemented. There is a system of reminder but customers
are complaining that they are not getting the reminder alarm.

 Appointment of new staff: TOI can also improve their services by


appointing new staff as ‘Customer care Executive’ by giving well
training so that they will be able to respond the customers well who have
problems. Because currently customers are not well responded.

 A Hindi version of Femina: There is also a demand from the target


group in Lucknow is a Hindi version of Femina. By doing this they can
get readers from others magazines like Gruhsubha etc.

CONCLUSION

The summer internship project plays an important role in management


education where students get a golden opportunity to apply his knowledge and
learning gained from classroom lectures in practical business environment. The

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SIP program also helps in gaining knowledge and developing the confidence
level to work. I have also learnt a lot by my Internship at Times of India Group,
Lucknow. This research has been done to study sales and promotion of
magazine in Lucknow towards Times Group’s magazines. The people in
Lucknow still preferring printed contents despite of technology adaption. In
posh areas like Hazratganj, Gomtinagar, Mahanagar etc. people prefer
English magazines rather than Hindi or Gujarati. But maximum areas still prefer
to read a Gujarati or Hindi magazine. There is high demand and high awareness
about TOI newspaper in Lucknow. But less people are aware that TOI has
magazines also. And there are some people who are aware about it but they are
not aware about the subscription schemes. They are interested in subscribing.
When they came to know about the schemes, they immediately bought
subscriptions. But still there are some areas where awareness about these
magazines is very low. Customer loyalty towards TOI magazines is very high.
Survey shows that only 26% of the customers don’t renew their subscription.
But this is only happening mainly because of service problems. TOI is not able
to provide accurate service to all customers. There are some other reasons also,
but if TOI works on improving services of delivery or customer relationship or
improving the quality of responding towards the customers’ problems with
better solutions, than obviously no reader will leave TOI.

REFERENCES

1. Ali S., .“A Study of Consumer Behaviour & Loyalty In Print Media –
Challenges & strategic prescriptions with Special reference to English, Hindi,
Marathi News Paper readers-Mumbai”.ABHINAV. 1 (4), pp.64-70

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2. ArcGate.Indian Magazine Market Overview. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://arcgate.com/blog/2010/09/29/indian-magazine-market-overview/.
3. WorldWide Media .About Grazia. [ONLINE] Available at: Available at:
http://grazia.co.in/about-us.
4. WorldWide Media. BBC Good Homes.[ONLINE]
https://www.facebook.com/goodhomesmagazineindia/info.
5. WorldWide Media (). About Lonely Planet. [ONLINE] Available at:
https://www.facebook.com/LonelyPlanetMagazineIndia/info.
6. Times Group .About Hometrends. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.timesgroup.com/brands/publishing/magazines/home-trends-
english.html
. 7. Times Group .About BBC Knowledge. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.timesgroup.com/brands/publishing/magazines/bbc-
knowledgeenglish.html
. 8. Ernest &Young . Indian magazine segment: Navigating new growth
avenues. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ey.com/IN/en/Industries/Media---
Entertainment/Indian-magazine-segment.
9. Vital Business Media . Go East, young journalist: India publishing market is
hot. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.emediavitals.com/content/go-east-
youngjournalist-india-publishing-market-hot.
10. Times Group. About us. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.timesgroup.com/bccl/about-us.html.

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Do you read magazines? Yes / No

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2. If No, then Why?

 Non-availability of time

 Online preference

 Non-interest

 Affordability

3.Which type of magazines you prefer to read?

 Fashion and lifestyle

 Interiors and design

 Travel

 Automobile

 Bollywood and movie masala

 Sports

 Other

4. Name of the magazine you


read/subscribed._____________________________

5. How do you like this magazine? Please rate the features.

 Entertainment 1--------10

 Information 1--------10

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 Gossip 1--------10

 Updates 1--------10

 Price 1--------10

 Services 1--------10

 Languages 1--------10

 Quality vs Price 1--------10

6. What would you like to do to improve the quality and services of a


magazine?
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

7. References

 ___________________________

 ___________________________

8. Reason for discontinuation:


________________________________________________________________

Name:-

Contact No:-

Address:-

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THANKS FOR YOUR VALUABLE TIME AND COOPERATION

SUBSCRIPTION FORM OF THE TIMES OF INDIA

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