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Summerhays 1

Brielle Summerhays

Mr. Gardner

Jiggly Moles

1 November 2019

Annotated Bibliography

Bradley University. “Male vs. Female Body Image.” Bradley University, Bradley University,

2019. Web. 25 Oct. 2019.

In this 2019 article, “Male vs. Female Body Image”, written by students at Bradley University,

they talk about the similar and different ways males and females deal with negative body image.

Both men and women experience the same “risk factors and consequences of negative body

image” (Bradley University). When it comes to social situations, both genders feel insecure

when any conversation about physical appearance is confronted. Men are more prone to atypical

eating disorders and drug abuse. Men are also a lot quieter about their insecurities and mental

health problems than women. Typically, women are exposed to social situations which cause

them to feel dissatisfied with their bodies than men, so the numbers reflect that women are

affected more negatively. This is why focusing on male body image just as much as we do

female body image is so important. Society sets unrealistic body standards for men and women,

so everyone is prone to the negative mental health effects.

This article uses all rhetorical appeals to convince readers of its argument. There are many

experiments and logical arguments made throughout. When discussing insecurities and mental

health effects, this is a use of pathos because it appeals to the readers’ emotions. The article is

written by students at Bradley University, so by itself, the article is not reliable. However, they
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cite external sources from academic databases where they got their information. The authors’ are

trying to bring awareness and focus on men’s mental health as much as society does with

women. There is a logical fallacy present in the source. There is a loose generalization fallacy,

because this article is stating that men are more quiet about their mental health than women,

which is stereotypical. However, this article is reliable overall.

In my essay, I will use this article to present information which sides with the idea that women

and men are similarly affected by negative body image. It gives information about the

similarities and differences in each gender when it comes to body image. This source will help

me explain why men are portrayed to be less dissatisfied with their bodies, and why it is

important to focus on them as much as we do women.

Annotated Bibliography

Chadwick, Rona. “Gender Differences: Body Image.” Cartoon. CartoonStock 23 April 2012.

Web. 22 Oct. 2019.

This cartoon, “Gender Differences: Body Image”, drawn by cartoonist Rona Chadwick in 2012,

is a representation of how men and women view their bodies differently. In the cartoon, there is a

plump man standing in the mirror. Looking at his reflection, he sees a skinnier, more muscular

looking version of himself. He has a big smile, and seems to be very confident. On the other side,

there is a very lean woman standing in the mirror. When she looks at her reflection, she sees an

overweight version of herself. She has a disappointed frown, and seems to be insecure and

unhappy with her body.


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Rona Chadwick is a well-known cartoonist. She has created many cartoons related to gender

difference topics. Chadwick accurately shows the way some people see their bodies, even if they

truly don’t look that way. There is bias in this cartoon. Chadwick believes that men are confident

in their bodies and women dislike their bodies no matter what they look like. This bias also

creates a logical fallacy, which is loose generalization. This cartoon is based on gender

stereotypes. Overall, this source is credible.

In my essay, this cartoon will be used to discuss the side of the argument which believes that

women are more negatively affected than men when it comes to body image. I will describe how

men are portrayed to always be confident, while on the contrary, women are always insecure.

This cartoon will help me show the way society views how body image affects people depending

on gender.

Annotated Bibliography

Dr. Cain, Christopher. “Aim For Healthy and Realistic - Not Perfect.” Advertiser, The

(Adelaide). EBSCOhost. Web. 10 Oct. 2019.

In his 2019 article, “Aim For Healthy and Realistic - Not Perfect”, Dr. Christopher Cain talks

about how people view themselves how how it affects their health. Because of a negative body

image, one may be using unhealthy methods, such as starving, laxatives, diet pills, binge-eating

and throwing up, to lose weight. Dr. Cain states that “[b]ody-image attitudes develop during

childhood and dissatisfaction tends to increase during adolescence and young adulthood -

especially among women” (Cain). The media plays a large role in affecting how people feel

about themselves. In society today, eating disorders are frequently featured in TV shows and
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movies. Often times, the seriousness of these mental illnesses are underrated. In magazines and

advertisements, the portrayal of the ideal human form is unrealistic and causes people to develop

negative body image. People also spend excessive amounts of money on products that

supposedly fix or alter their faces and bodies. A survey of high school students discovered that

70% of girls and 30% of boys want to be thinner. Another study found that 36% of girls have

used at least one extreme dieting method to lose weight. Dr. Cain believes that people need to

take a more healthy approach to how they view their bodies, and not sacrifice their health and

happiness trying to achieve an unrealistic body ideal.

Dr. Christopher Cain is SA president of the Austrailian Medical Association, so he is a very

reliable source for this topic. He uses his knowledge of unhealthy dieting methods to describe the

way today’s society affects the mental health of adolescents. He uses statistics to further prove

his point that mental illnesses need to be taken more seriously. There are a few logical fallacies

found in this article. There is an either/or fallacy, which suggests that people who have eating

disorders can simply just stop using unhealthy methods and switch to healthier options. There is

also a single cause-effect fallacy, which is claiming that the media is the main reason why people

have negative body image. The last fallacy is the bandwagon thinking, which is claiming that

because most people agree on the idea of what the ideal body is, it is right. Cain believes that

although women are more open about their self-esteem, negative body image affects men and

women equally. Overall this article is a good, reliable source.

I will use this article to emphasize the seriousness of mental illnesses that come from negative

body image. This article shows the way that today’s society plays a major role in how people,
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especially women, view themselves. In my essay, this article will help me describe the unhealthy

coping practices people use to lose weight. I will also use it to discuss the different methods

available to people who are attempting to achieve the ideal body. This article will help answer

my question by providing information that shows that men and women are equally affected by

negative body image.

Annotated Bibliography

Warren, Rossalyn. “How Much Does Poor Body Image Affect Mental Health?” The Guardian.

Guardian News and Media. 17 May 2019. Web. 7 Oct. 2019.

In this 2019 article, “How Much Does Poor Body Image Affect Mental Health” by Rossalyn

Warren, she talks about how poor body image affects the mental health of women of all different

ages. Women feel so much pressure to live up to the stereotypical standards held for their bodies.

This can cause anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, self harm, etcetera. She discusses how

social media and unrealistic models put pressure on young girls and negatively change how they

view themselves. Warren writes about the story of a woman named Alexia Harrison who

struggled with anorexia. She talks about her experiences, feelings, and coping mechanisms. She

states that people need to be more aware of mental illnesses like anorexia and other eating

disorders and realize the impact they have on women.

This article comes from a reliable source and author. Warren is a journalist, which helps build

credibility. In the article, information about many statistics and studies are given which develops

a logical appeal. The Mental Health Foundation (MHF) is a legitimate charity which is

trustworthy and credible. Warren’s purpose for writing this article is to inform readers of the

seriousness of mental illnesses. However, there is some bias found in this source. Warren tends
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to believe that women are more negatively affected than men. This is a loose generalization

fallacy, which is drawing conclusions about a group based on stereotypes. This is also an

anecdotal fallacy, which is using personal experience instead of evidence. Overall, this is a good,

reliable source that contains valuable information about the affects a negative body image can

have on women.

In my essay, I will use this article to provide trustworthy information about how women are

mentally, physically, and emotionally affected by negative body images. Using the studies and

statistics, I can put the seriousness of this topic into perspective. I will discuss the different

mental illnesses and eating disorders that are caused by women’s unrealistic body standards. The

story of Alexia Harrison will also help me discuss different coping mechanisms and ways to

avoid developing mental illnesses because of negative body image.

Annotated Bibliography

Wellcome Trust. “Can Body Image Affect Our Mental Health | BBC Tomorrow’s World.”

YouTube. YouTube, 7 Feb. 2019. Web. 20 Oct. 2019.

In this YouTube video, “Can Body Image Affect Our Mental Health” published by the

Wellcome Trust in 2019, multiple people discuss their experiences with body image and mental

issues. They talk about the specific thoughts and feelings that go through their head when having

an anxiety attack or a complete lack of confidence. They experience suicidal thoughts, body-

shame themselves, etc. Dr. Annemarie O’Connor talks about how Body Dysmorphic Disorder

(BDD) is an obsessional anxiety disorder. People who have BDD have unintentionally trained

their minds to see their bodies in a completely different way than someone else sees it. All they
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want is to have an acceptable appearance, which causes them to become obsessed with how they

look. Around one in fifty people have BDD. Most people are unaware that BDD is a treatable

illness. For some people, negative body image is linked to eating disorders. Depression and

anxiety are also common in people who have a negative body image. The people who discussed

their experiences then go on to talk about what has helped them the most in overcoming their

low self-esteem: family, friends, and passions.

Throughout the video, there are two people who narrate and discuss the mental disorders and

illnesses. Dr. Annemarie O’Connor is a clinical psychologist, and Dr. Rob Willson is a cognitive

behavior therapist. They both have a great deal of experience so they are reliable sources. This

video uses an emotional appeal to bring attention to the seriousness of mental disorders. There is

dramatic music, emotional stories, and inspirational words. There is a logical fallacy present in

the media. When it comes to the testimonials, because they are only using personal experience

instead of evidence, this could be an anecdotal fallacy. The people in the video believe that

everyone is equally affected by negative body image. Overall, the media is reliable and

informative.

This video will help me explain how people are emotionally and mentally affected by having a

negative body image. I will talk about BDD, and the role it plays in the minds of people with

mental disorders. In my essay, I will discuss the physical health problems that are caused by

BDD. The video will also be used to list the different things that help people overcome and

recover. This video will help answer my question by talking about an illness that is common in

both men and women.


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