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COMPARATIVE POLICE

SYSTEM

ERIC SAWATI CATTE, CCS, CSP, CSMS


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Comparative
Denotes the degree or grade by
which a person, thing, or other
entity has a property or quality
greater or less in extent than that
of another.

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Police
 A police service is a public force
empowered to enforce the law and to
ensure public and social order through
the legitimized use of force.
 “Police is the public and the public
is the police”- Sir Robert Peels

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In the Philippines, the police/ law
enforcement is spearheaded by
what agency/ies?
1. Philippine National Police (PNP)
2. National Bureau of Investigation
(NBI)
3.Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency
(PDEA)
11/12/2019 ERIC SAWATI CATTE, CCS, CSP 4
System
 A combination of related elements
that is functioning as a whole in order
to achieve a single goal or
objective.

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Comparative Police System
 Process of outlining the similarities
and differences of one police system
to another in order to discover insights
in the field of international policing.

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Why Compare?
Crime has become a global
phenomenon.
Transnational crimes crosses
borders and the need for bilateral
and international cooperation
become imperative.

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THEORIES IN POLICING SYSTEM
HOMERULE THEORY CONTINENTAL
THEORY
 Policemen are  Policemen are
servants of the servant of higher
community. authority.
 Effectiveness of  They just follow the
policemen depends wishes of top official
on the express wishes of the government.
of the people.
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CONTINENTAL/
Uniformed policemen will go out to the
MODERN SYSTEM
OLD
field POLICING
and patrol for the public to see them
which gives them
The yardstick thefeeling
of the of security
The yardstick and
of police
the elimination
efficiency efficiency
of opportunity
of the to is the absence
commit
crime
policeon the part of theorcriminal.
is determined lesser occurrence of
crimes.
by the number of
arrest.  Police omnipresence is
considered as the tool or
 Punishment is the
instrument in crime
sole instrument of prevention.
crime control.

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It emphasizes on
THREE STYLES
informal OF POLICINGon
It emphasizes
means of
resolving helping the
disputes.
1. Legalistic community, as
opposed to
2. Watchman enforcing
It emphasizes the
the law.
use of threats or
3. Service actual arrests to
solve disputes.

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ICPO

International Criminal
Police Organization
INTERPOL
the largest international
police organization in the
world, with National Central
Bureaus in 190 member
countries.
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Where is its headquarter
located?
Lyon, France

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1. General Assembly
2. Executive Committee
3. General Secretariat
4. National Central Bureaus
5. Advisers
6. The Commission for the Control of
INTERPOL’s Files
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THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
 INTERPOL’s supreme governing body, it
meets annually and comprises delegates
appointed by each member country.
 The assembly takes all important
decisions related to policy, resources,
working methods, finances, activities and
programs.
 It also elects the Organization's Executive
Committee
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THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
 March,
 July and
 It
comprises 13-member
Immediately committee
before the General
which is elected by the General
Assembly
Assembly.
 The Executive Committee is INTERPOL’s
select deliberative organ
1 president, which meets
three times a year.
3 vice-presidents, and
9 delegates.
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How long is the tenure of duty of
the executive committee?
President Vice- Presidents
4 years 3 years

They are not immediately eligible for


re-election either to the same posts, or
as delegates to the Executive
Committee.
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Mrs. Mireille Ballestrazzi
 She is the INTERPOL's current
President, elected at the 81st INTERPOL
General Assembly held in Rome in
November 2012.
 Mrs Ballestrazzi will serve as President
until 2016.

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GENERAL SECRETARIAT
 Where is the General Secretariat based?
 It coordinates the international activities
of member countries, holds a library of
international criminal records, and
organizes regular meetings at which
delegates can exchange
Lyon, information
France on
police work.
 The General Secretariat operates 24 hours a
day, 365 days a year.
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Who is called the head of the
General Secretariat?
SECRETARY GENERAL

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Who is known as the Current
secretary general?
JÜRGEN STOCK
He was unanimously elected Secretary
General at the 83rd INTERPOL General
Assembly session in Monaco,
November 2014.

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What are organization’s four
official languages?
1. Spanish
2. Arabic
3. French
4. English
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NATIONAL CENTRAL BUREAUS
(NCB)
 The NCB is the designated CONTACT
POINT for the General Secretariat, regional
offices and other member countries
requiring assistance with overseas
investigations and the location and
apprehension of fugitives.
 Each INTERPOL member country
maintains a National Central Bureau staffed
by national law enforcement officers.
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USA
(NCB)

JAPAN
PHI
(NCB) GS (NCB)

CHINA
(NCB)
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National Central Bureau – Manila
 CHAIRMAN?
 Director General Philippine National Police
 MEMBERS:
Director, National Bureau of Investigation
Commissioner, Bureau of Customs
Commissioner, Bureau of Internal Revenue
Commissioner, Bureau of Immigration
Governor, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
Executive Director, Dangerous Drug Board
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ADVISERS
These are experts in a purely
advisory capacity, who may be
appointed by the Executive
Committee and confirmed by
the General Assembly.

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COMMISSION FOR THE CONTROL
OF INTERPOL’S FILES (CCF)
 To ensure that the processing of personal
information by INTERPOL complies with the
Organization's regulations,
 To advise INTERPOL on any project, operation,
set of rules or other matter involving the
processing of personal information and
 To process requests concerning the
information contained in INTERPOL's files
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The INTERPOL Notices System
An Interpol notice or international
notice is issued by Interpol to share
information between its members.

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Red Notice
To seek the arrest
or provisional arrest
of wanted persons
with a view to
extradition.

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Black Notice

To seek information
on unidentified
bodies.

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Yellow Notice
To help locate missing
persons, often minors,
or to help identify
persons who are
unable to identify
themselves.

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Blue Notice
To collect additional
information about a
person’s identity or
activities in relation
to a crime.

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Green Notice
To provide warnings and
criminal intelligence
about persons who have
committed criminal
offenses and are likely to
repeat these crimes in
other countries
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Orange Notice
To warn police, public
entities and other
international
organizations about
potential threats from
disguised weapons,
parcel bombs and other
dangerous materials.
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PHILIPPINE CENTER ON
TRANSNATIONAL CRIME (PCTC)
Its mission was to formulate and
implement a concerted program of
action of all law enforcement and
government agencies for the
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prevention and control of
transnational crimes.

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What is the mother agency of
PCTC?
Office of the President

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INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
CHIEFS OF POLICE (IACP)
The world's oldest and largest
nonprofit membership organization
of police executives.
IACP's leadership consists of the
operating chief executives of
international, federal, state and
local agencies of all sizes.
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1. federal,
2. state,
3. county and
4.city

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City
County
State
Federal

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Who will respond? (Two fold)
First, one must determine which
government unit prohibits the
acts. For example, homicide is an act
that is prohibited at the state level.
So, as a general rule, only law
enforcement agencies with authority
to enforce state laws may investigate
the crime of murder.
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Second, one must look at the place
(venue) where the criminal act
occurred. If the murder occurred
in Alabama, the Alabama
authorities will be responsible in
investigating the crime.

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1. CITY POLICE
City police are mainly responsible for
enforcing the law in their own city.
A small town mayNYPDhave a police
force of only one or two officers.
What is the largest city police
department in the United States?
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In most cities in USA, who
appoints the head of the police
department in cities?
MAYOR

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2. COUNTY POLICE
The powers of a county police force
extend throughout the county.
What do we call the chief law
enforcement officer in most
counties?
SHERIFF
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Who appoints the Sheriff?
PEOPLE

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3. STATE POLICE
Headed by a commissioner or
superintendent.
What is term called for all of the
state police officers?

TROOPERS

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Who appoints the commissioner
or superintendent?
State Governor

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How many police states are
there in the USA?
(fifty) 50 out of 51 states
Except: Hawaii

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4. Federal Police
They are responsible in
enforcing law within the
whole country of USA
including outside boarders.

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FBI
Chief investigating branch of
the United States Department
of Justice;
Investigates federal crimes and
handles cases involving stolen
money or property that has been
taken from one state to another.
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National Crime Information Center
(NCIC)
A computerized information
system that stores records on
wanted persons and stolen
property FBI
Who operates it?
Washington,
Where is it located?
DC.
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OTHER FEDERAL AGENCIES
1. Secret Service
 Protecting all living current and former U.S.
president and their families
2. Bureau Of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, And
Explosives
 Assist in controlling the sale of untaxed liquor
and cigarettes, illegal firearms, and explosives.
3. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
 The federal agency that enforces federal drug
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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
 Is a U.S. citizen
 Is at least 21 years of age
 5’8” (MALE), 5’6” (FEMALE)
 Has at least 20/20 vision uncorrected; ( or 20/20
corrected by glasses)
 Is able to distinguish colors
 Is physically and mentally healthy.
 Applicants who have served in the military must have
been honorably discharged.
 May not have been convicted of driving while intoxicated
and must hold a valid license for at least three years prior
to application and have a driving record.
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 Applicants should have no criminal conviction, although
some misdemeanor crimes may bar applicants from a law
enforcement position.
 All applicants are expected to be free from drug use, be of
good moral character, and have personal integrity.
 No applicant should have any history of criminal or
improper conduct, have a poor employment record, or
have an irresponsible financial history.
 Generally, applicants should at least have a GED
equivalency or a high school diploma, however, some
departments, such as that in Dallas, Texas, are requiring
60 or more hours of completed college coursework.

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National Police Agency or NPA

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Who is the parent agency of NPA?
National Public Safety Commission

It ensures that Japan's police are an


apolitical body and free of direct
central government executive control.
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NATIONAL POLICE AGENCY
 The central coordinating body for the
Commissioner
entire police system. General
 Who is the head of NPA?
 Who appoints the Commissioner
General? National Public Safety
Commission with the
approval of the prime
minister
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Bureaus of NPA?
 Police Administration Bureau
 Criminal Investigation Bureau
 Traffic Bureau
 Security Bureau
 Regional Public Safety Bureaus

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POLICE ADMINISTRATION BUREAU
The Administration Bureau is
concerned with police
personnel, education,
welfare, training, and unit
inspections.

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CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
BUREAU
It is in-charge of research
statistics and the
investigation of nationally
important and international
cases.
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TRAFFIC BUREAU
It is concerned of the
licenses drivers, enforces
traffic safety laws, and
regulates traffic.

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SECURITY BUREAU
It formulates and supervises the
execution of security policies. It
conducts research on equipment
and tactics for suppressing riots
and oversaw and coordinates
activities of the riot police.

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REGIONAL PUBLIC SAFETY
BUREAUS
The National Police Agency has
seven regional police bureaus.
What is called the head of RPSB?

Director General

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What are the 2 police department
excluded from the jurisdiction of
RPSB?
 Tokyo Metropolitan Police
Department
Hokkaido Prefectural Police

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KOBAN
It is a police post located in
urban neighborhood.
The smallest organizational
unit in today's Japanese police
system.
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How many % are designated as
Koban officers among the total
police strength in Japan?
40%

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CHUZAISHO
It is the rural equivalent of the
urban Koban.
What is the term called for the
police officers of Chuzaisho?

chuzaishan
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Who provides personal security
for the Emperor, Crown Prince and
other members of the Imperial
Family of Japan?
IMPERIAL GUARD

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KIDOTAI (SPECIAL RIOT POLICE )
 These units were formed after riots at
the Imperial Palace in 1952, to respond
quickly and effectively to large public
disturbances.
 Main requirements?
 The overwhelming majority of officers
are bachelors who live in dormitories
within riot police compounds.
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What is the official paramilitary
anti-terrorist unit under the
Japanese National Police Agency?
SAT
SPECIAL ASSAULT TEAM

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What police force is the world’s
second and the Asia's first police
agency to operate with a
modern policing system?
HONG KONG POLICE FORCE

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What is the highest police rank
in Hongkong? (April 2014)
Commissioner of Police

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People’s Police
Public security police
The largest and most visible
component of the Chinese Police
that performs a wide range of
ordinary police functions.

86%

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Judicial procuratorates police
They escort suspects in cases
investigated by the
procuratorates

Prosecutors in the Phils.

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Judicial people court police
They maintain security and
order in the various courts and
also may carryout death
sentence.

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To become a police officer, a
candidate must have the following:
1. At least 18 years of age but not more than 25 years old.
* As a preferential treatment for candidates from ethnic
minority groups, the regulation extends the maximum
age limit to 30
2. Must support the constitution
3. Must be of Good moral character
4. Be in good health
5. Education level no less than high school graduate
6. Be willing to serve as a police officer
7. No criminal records and must not have been expelled
from public employment.
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Police Task Force (PTF)
It is an effective ground response
force to serious incidents such as
major disasters, firearm situations
and riots.
They are called upon to restore
public order in times of riots and
demonstrations.
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Special Tactics and Rescue (STAR)
Unit
 The STAR Unit provides the Singapore
Police Force with a tactical armed-
response capability.
 Besides dealing with highly dangerous
criminals, STAR is also involved in risky
protective security operations and
prisoner escort.
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Police K-9 Unit (PDU)
The Police K-9 Unit has dogs
trained specifically for explosive
detection, drug detection, guard
duties and anti-crime
operations.

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Prison police
It is responsible for supervision of
convicted offenders in prison.

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Who is known as the shortest
Police Officer in United Kingdom?
Sue Day
(4 feet 10 inches)

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Royal Malaysia Police
Its headquarters is located at
Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur.
The police force is led by an
Inspector-General of Police
(IGP)

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SWITZERLAND POLICING SYSTEM
 All police departments require at least
a high school diploma or equivalent
education from their officers. While
some hire graduates right out of high
school, many require potential officers
to be at least 21 years old. Retirement
is 65 yrs of age

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Indian Police Service
PHILIPPINES INDIA
You must possess a You have a degree certificate
baccalaureate degree.
At least 21 yrs old. At least 21 years old.
You must pass the medical, You must be physically fit.
psychological, physical and
drug test.
Male (162cm) Female Male (165 cm) Female (150cm)
(157cm) in height.
You must pass the exam You must pass the 3 stage
in NAPOLCOM PNP pattern CSAT, preliminary
Entrance Exam exam, Exam/Board
main exam.
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