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Class: Year 9 (Stage 5) Time: 1 Hr

Pre-service teacher’s Objectives

Throughout the course of these three lessons I aim to improve my use of
resources in aiding the learning of students. Additionally, I aim to
improve the flow of lessons over several days and how they connect and
remain relevant in the broader perspective.


Outcome 8: A student: questions, challenges and evaluates cultural

assumptions in texts and their effects on meaning

Respond to and compose texts

Analyse and describe the ways texts sustain or challenge established
cultural attitudes and values.

English textual concepts dot point

representation may be intentionally or unintentionally biased


Projector connected to the internet. Whiteboard/Blackboard. Students

workbooks, Pens/Pencils.

Time Organisation Teaching/ learning activities
0-15 Video Welcome students into class. Introduce the new
projector topic of ‘Representation’ to the students. Advise
ready with that we will be looking at two short texts and in
a youtube particular the way youth are represented in these
clip. texts.

Introduction activity
Pose three questions to the students. Have
questions written on board or on powerpoint and
let the students know what they need to look out
for before watching the short clip.
1. Who or is targeted in this video and are
they being represented in a positive or
negative way?
2. Why do you think the director/film creator
chose to target this audience?
3. Do you think the target audience is being
fairly represented in this video?
Show students youtube clip.

Give students 5 minutes to answer these

questions individually. When students have
finished, enter into a class discussion answering
these questions. Prompt if they think this
representation was just/fair and why or why not.
Ask if they think this representation is bias and
what implications it may have for them
individually and also youth/males as a whole.
15- Video Representation of youth in the Media
40 projector. Have students form groups of 3-5 and brainstorm
Youtube how they think that youth is represented in the
clip ready. media. Prompt them to list any specific examples
they can think of (News, tv shows,
Whiteboar advertisements, books, movies).
After 5 minutes take answers from groups and
brainstorm them on the whiteboard. See if any
common trends are coming up (delinquents,
alcoholics, reckless, irresponsible).
Once you’ve gotten a good list ask them why they
think the youth of today is represented so poorly
or in a such a way, how much truth is in the
representation portrayed?

Show students the Skins Trailer (TV show).

Instruct them to watch for things in the trailer
that might be bias or misrepresented.
Pose these questions to the class. Have them
written on the board. If students need to watch
the trailer again, show it to them.
1. Do you think a TV show like this contributes
to the stereotype or representation of
youth in the world today? Do people
actually think youth are like this?
2. How old do you think are the people who
wrote this tv show?
3. Do you think this representation of
teenagers is apt/appropriate?
4. If you showed your parents this trailer
would they think it’s something you do with
your friends?
5. Do you think this trailer is based on
assumptions about teenagers?
Students discuss these questions in the groups
they are already in and write down what they
think to each question.

List the general consensus the class has to the

questions on the board, recognising and themes
or trends. Explain how stereotypes like this are
constructed and perpetuated and how certain TV
shows like this may be bias.

40- Projector, Response to Text

55 Whiteboar Students are to write a short letter to the creators
d. of Skins highlighting how the TV show sustains
and creates negative cultural attitudes towards
youth. Paying specific attention to the way
negative representation of youth is perpetuated
through means such as TV shows like this and
describing the ways this could or should change.

Differentiation: Students can further suggest how

the TV show can highlight positive aspects of
youth in various ways within their letter.
55- Exit slips Exit Activity
60 x30 Students are given a small exit slip piece of paper
to answer on their way out and give to the
(Image 1 in the Appendix).
Homework At home on youtube see if they can think of any
other TV shows or movies about youth and look at
how they are portrayed.

Evaluation/ Extension
Throughout the course of the lesson the teacher evaluates the overall
discussion of the students to see if they are understanding and meeting
the requirements of the outcomes. Additionally the teacher can check
the bookwork of the students whilst they are in groups. The exit activity
will also give the teacher a way to evaluate the way students are
understanding the concept of representation.

In retrospect
This lesson could have included a closer look at the main text and I
possibly could have provided students with context surrounding the TV
show. However, maybe seeing the trailer blind was beneficial as it might
not taint their response. The response to the text could also be done in a
number of ways. Possibly, a response that involves the opinions or views
of themselves compared with the views of themselves in the past or
even the future.

Class: Year 9 (Stage 5) Time: 1 Hr


Outcome 1: A student: responds to and composes increasingly

sophisticated and sustained texts for understanding, interpretation,
critical analysis, imaginative expression and pleasure.
Develop and apply contextual knowledge:

analyse ideas, information, perspectives, contexts and ideologies and

the ways they are presented in increasingly demanding, sustained
imaginative, informative and persuasive texts

English textual concepts dot point:

representation favours or privileges a position by omitting or silencing

the views or perspectives of particular groups.


Projector with slides and graphs ready. Newspaper articles printed out (2
or 3 of each) 30 handouts of worksheets.

Time Organisation Teaching/ learning activities
0-15 Projector Introduction Activity
with graphs Reintroduce the topic of youth representation in
and images the media. Advise students that todays lesson
will be looking in particular at the way youth are
represented in the newspaper (articles, images
Have the 3 graphs on projector for students to
observe. Explain these are graphs that analyse
certain trends from a local newspaper.

Pose the questions:

1. What is a dominant trend you can see
throughout these graphs?
2. Why would the newspaper choose to
report so frequently on such areas?
3. How accurate do you think this
information is?

Give students 5-10 minutes to answer these

questions individually. Once finished, discuss
answers as a class. Give students ideas about
why the newspaper would portray youth in ways
like this and why not in a more positive light.

15- Newspaper Text analysis

40 articles for Split the class into either 9 groups or 5 groups
each group (depending on the size of the class). Give each
(2 or 3 per group 1 or 2 newspaper articles to read. Preface
group) the reading of the articles with telling students
to look out for things like how old the people in
the article are, how many of them there are how
they think the young people are represented etc.

Each group is to then answer questions based on

the article they are reading.
 What ‘heroic’ act was performed?
 How are ‘youth’ represented in the
 Why do you think the newspaper chose to
print this article? Do you think they have
an agenda or are trying to persuade the
readers of something?

Give each group roughly 5 minutes with the

article(s) then rotate the articles clockwise. Do
this 2 to 4 times depending on how long each
group takes with the article and what they are
getting from it.

Once each group has read several of the articles

reconvene as a class. Ask how frequently they
see stories like this in their newspaper or if they
have heard any stories like this about people in
their community.
40- Articles, Newspapers comparison
55 Projector. Give students a copy of the worksheet (resource
Handout for 2) and let them analyse the information and
students x30 perspectives conveyed in each of the
(resource 2) newspapers. Prompt them to think about how
informative and persuasive each form of
information is and how this represents youth.

Differentiation: Students can write about how

newspapers could evenly represent youth. What
tools could show the positives and negatives in
an objective way.
55- Exit Activity
60 Have students write in their books one way they
have learnt about the way the media represents
youth and what they can do to not be persuaded
by this.
Homework Find an article which shows a positive
representation of youth as well as an article
which shows a negative representation of youth.

Evaluation/ Extension
Throughout this lesson the teacher can evaluate class discussion to see
how successful the understanding of the outcome is in the students.
Particularly focussing on the number of students who are engaging with
the texts and understanding how they are conveying information. The
teacher can also collect the student’s worksheets and evaluate their
answer. Additionally the exit activity can give the teacher an idea of how
the students perceive the representation of youth in the media and if
they have had their opinions influenced throughout the lesson.

In retrospect
This lesson may have more success if the students were able to search
and find their own articles. This may also give them a sense of the
prevalence of articles that highlight youth in positive ways. The
introduction activity could also be done in a way that provides more
tangible figures and graphs for students to more easily comprehend.

Class: Year 9 (Stage 5) Time: 1 Hr


Outcome 8: A student: questions, challenges and evaluates cultural

assumptions in texts and their effects on meaning

Develop and apply contextual knowledge

analyse how the construction and interpretation of texts, including

media texts, can be influenced by cultural perspectives and other texts

English textual concepts dot point

representation is influenced by and in turn influences its context


Projector, Articles (resource 1). Resource 3 worksheet x 30

Tim Organisatio Teaching/ learning activities
e n
0-15 Projector Inform students that this lesson will be spent
with image comparing the two texts studied in the previous
5 on it lesson and evaluating the way bias/stereotypes
are constructed within these texts.

Introduction activity
Start with analysing a picture on the projector
that displays the hulk’s finger with a band-aid on
it. (Image 5)
Have students:
 point out what stands out to them
 what they think this picture is representing
 what the message of the picture is trying
to say.
Students should write down their answers in
their books, give them 5 minutes.
When everyone is done discuss how
representation is being construction in this

The simplicity of the image and colour scheme as

well as the juxtaposition of the colour contrast
makes the band aid stand out initially.
Furthermore, the common knowledge that hulk is
indestructible but still using a band aid suggests
that this band aid can fix anything and is very
strong. The use of the angelic glow around the
band aid also further suggests is strength/power.

Highlight how all these tools are used to create a

representation of a band aid that is useful/strong
15- Newspaper Compare the pair
40 articles Recap both texts that were studied in the
(resource 1) previous lessons. Skins TV trailer and the 9
Youtube newspaper articles. Let students re-watch the
video ready trailer if necessary and have the articles
Resource 3
worksheet Xs
Students look at how the construction of these
texts are influenced by cultural perspectives.
Hand out student worksheet to all students.
Whilst students are completing worksheets have
the texts accessible and aid in any questions or
queries students have about the work.

Give students 10-15 minutes to finish the

worksheets individually. Once students have
completed the worksheet, instruct them to form
small groups and compare their answers with
each other to see any differences or similarities.
Come together as a class and answer the
questions in a group discussion. Prompt answers
and ask them how they think the cultural
perspectives influence the representation of
youth throughout the texts.
40- Short creative writing task
55 Students individually write in their book with the
prompt “Imagine you live in a world with no
social media, television or internet. How would
your perspective and opinion of youth be
different than it is today?”

Give students and opportunity to share what this

exercise made them think about and share any
questions they may have about the way culture
shapes our view of certain things.
55- Exit Activity
60 Students answer a question about representation
and context in their books before they leave
“What is one way the media shapes the
dominant representation of youth?”
Homework Talk to parents about how the media has
changed their view of the youth over their life

The teacher will be able to evaluate how students are progressing
through this lesson by their interaction with the students during group
discussions and also by reading the response they have in their books.
The creative writing task also will give the teacher and idea of how
students understand the concept outlined throughout the lesson.
Finally, the exit activity will help the teacher understand how students’
opinions have changed about representation and the media over the 3

In retrospect
This lesson could have compared and contrasted the texts in numerous
ways. Possibly looking at the may these types have been portrayed over
time and what effect this has had on the culture during these times. The
short writing task could also be flexible in the way it is presented to the
students. Some students might not be able to immediately grasp a
somewhat abstract concepts of living in a world without social media, so
a more applicable task may be to look at how the media has influenced
their personal actions and if the media has changed the way they acted
based on how they feel they are supposed to act.
Image 1

List three ways

youth are 
represented in
culture/media. 

Image 2 (Mason, 2011)

Image 3 (Mason, 2011)

Image 4

(Mason, 2011)
Resource 5 (Hansen, 2013)
1. The prom-bound teens who came to the aid of car-crash
Wearing three-piece suits and floor-sweeping gowns, 20 seniors
from Western High in Davie, Fla., were heading to their prom in
a white stretch limo on May 11. In front of them on a highway, a
Honda Odyssey van started swerving wildly, nearly driving on
two wheels, until it hit a side barrier and flipped over. The limo
screeched to a halt, narrowly missing the van, whose passengers
were already in a panic, yelling, crying and trying to free
themselves from the broken glass and crumpled metal. The limo
driver and the students scrambled out to help. The limo driver
reportedly kicked one door open to get access to the passengers
inside. A student climbed on top of the van, forced the sliding
door open, and reached inside to free some of the passengers.
There were young kids in the van, including a small child who
was stuck under one of the seats. The limo driver was able to
pull the child out and handed the kid over to one of the gown-
clad students. The group continued to help the bloodied and
petrified passengers until firefighters and police arrived. All told,
seven injured passengers were taken to nearby hospitals. And
the students? They were shaken but continued on. "I went on to
prom and a lot of girls were helping me get the blood out of my
dress, so it was good," one student told the Sun Sentinel.

2. The high school baseball team that lifted a car to save a

On May 8, in the parking lot of Sacramento's Valley High School,
a student's mom was picking her daughter up when she hit a car
in front of her. Panicked, she quickly reversed, not realizing her
daughter was directly behind the car. The girl was hit and
became trapped under the car. Meanwhile, Valley's varsity and
junior varsity baseball teams were having their last practice of
the season nearby. They heard desperate screams for help. The
team sprinted toward the parking lot, jumping over fences to get
there. About a dozen of the players surrounded the car, lifting
the four-door sedan off of the girl. The teams' assistant coach
pulled the girl out and she was sent to a hospital, where she was
reportedly expected to recover. Co-head coach Brett Sawyer said
he was proud of the boys' brave actions. "To be honest, we might
not have the best baseball team around, but we sure do have a
great group of guys."

3. The 14-year-old who protected a rape victim from her

James Persyn III was home alone on Jan. 16 watching his two
younger siblings when he heard frantic banging at the door of
his house in a small Michigan town. Though frightened, James
unlocked the door to an alarming sight — a woman, a senior at
Central Michigan University, who was wrapped in clear packing
tape, with bruises on her face, and cradling one arm. She said
she'd been raped by a man who held her at gunpoint and was
transporting her in a car when she escaped. James could see
headlights coming up his long, winding driveway. The 14-year-
old wasted no time. He locked all the house doors, herded
everyone into the bathroom, turned off the lights, grabbed his
hunting knife and waited. The alleged rapist, Eric Ramsey, came
pounding at the door, reportedly screaming, "Let me in or I'll kill
you!" James called his dad and the victim called 911, so help was
on the way. But Ramsey, unable to break in, had moved onto
another plan, pouring gasoline on the house and setting it ablaze.
Luckily, James' father came home in time to put the fire out
before it could spread. Police and an ambulance soon followed.
The attacker escaped the scene but was later shot and
killed, the Detroit Free Press reports.

4. The 14-year-old who saved a young boy from a burning

One evening last September, Marcos Ugarte was doing
homework with his dad when the two saw an orange-red hue
down their street. They ran to their neighbor's home in
Troutdale, Ore., to find the house aflame and four of the five
family members safe outside. The father who lived in the
burning home, Yu "Alex" Ma, said his 8-year-old son Cody was
trapped in a room on the second floor. Marcos offered to run
inside, but his father, Eduardo, told him to stay put while he
attempted to retrieve Cody. The heat and smoke forced the elder
Ugarte out, but Marcos was already on the move. He got ahold of
a ladder and placed it under the second-story window. With his
father holding the ladder in place, Marcos knocked the window
screen out and guided the boy out the window and down the
ladder. Cody was taken to the hospital, but was unharmed. While
the Ugarte family is proud of their son, Marcos himself remains
humble: "I can't say I really consider myself a hero," he
told The Oregonian. "I think anyone would have done what I did."

5. The 16-year-old who braved thin ice to save a boy from

In the winter of 2011, Kole Devisscher was driving by a stretch
of the Red River in Winnipeg, Manitoba, when he noticed a blue
jacket floating in the freezing waters. Curious, he backed up his
truck for another look to find that a young boy was struggling to
get out of a crack in the ice. The 16-year-old used his truck's tow
strap to pull the 10-year-old out, but the boy wasn't able to grab
the rope because his hands were already turning blue.
Devisscher made a loop out of the rope and threw it back into
the river, telling the boy to put it around his shoulders. It
worked. Devisscher was honored with an award for bravery,
which he said was "pretty awesome." When asked about his
heroic act he said only that "I hope someone else would do that
for me if I was in the same situation."

6. The 16-year-old who saved his fellow campers during a

bear attack
In July 2011, a group of teenagers ranging in age from 16 to 18
were attacked by a mother grizzly bear while on a survival-skills
course in Alaska. The teens were on day 24 of a 30-day trek and
traveling, at that point, without adults. All seven of the teens
survived, including two who suffered life-threatening wounds,
largely thanks to 16-year-old Samuel Boas, who was reportedly
not injured. For nine hours the group waited for emergency
workers to reach them, and all the while Boas, who had been
trained by his Connecticut hometown EMS group, administered
first aid with improvised materials while staying calm. When
medics arrived on the scene, the industrious young man
even refused to be evacuated with the first lot, staying on with
the remaining injured to do what he could.

7. The 18-year-old who pulled the driver out of a truck

hanging off a cliff
Peter Hanne was in his New Zealand home late one night in 2008
when a panicked knock came at the door. A passerby said a truck
was on the brink of falling into the Waioeka Gorge, a riverway
just a few hundred yards from Hanne's house. The 18-year-old
didn't even think to grab his shoes; he just just told his family to
call the cops and rushed to the scene himself. He found the 23-
ton truck had jackknifed over the side of the road and was
teetering on the edge, with the cab — and the driver inside —
dangling underneath it. "I knew the normal thing to do was call
the fire brigade and wait, but I heard it creaking and I knew we
needed to get him out pretty quick," Hanne said. The young man
climbed down the steep bank and into the space between the
trailer and the cab. He broke the rear window with a wheel
brace and helped the injured driver climb out. Hanne's bold
rescue left even the police in awe. "We're always complaining
about our young people... but here is one young man who has
really laid his life on the line for another. He is a real hero," the
police constable said.

8. The teen who saved his South Dakota school from a

Columbine-like tragedy
Before Sandy Hook, Virginia Tech, and Columbine, there almost
could have been Rapid City, had it not been for the swift acts of
senior Chris Ericks. On Sept. 11, 1991, 17-year-old Ryan Harris
entered Stevens High School in Rapid City, S.D., walked into a
math class, demanded that the teacher leave, and held 22 of his
fellow students, including Ericks, hostage with a 12-gauge
sawed-off shotgun. For four hours, the students cowered, while
the young man blared demands for pizza, cigarettes, $1 million,
and a helicopter getaway over the public address system,
accenting each order by firing his weapon into the classroom. He
shot at the chalkboard, the ceiling, and the window, making it
clear that he had plenty of ammo and that he would leave no
survivors. But then, for one moment, Harris put his gun down
and Ericks lunged for it. Harris, realizing his mistake, jumped at
the shotgun too, and the pair struggled for control. Ericks,
however, won the tug-of-war, and the gunman was
overpowered. "To this day, I'm so proud of Chris Ericks for
having the courage to do what he did to bring the situation to a
close," police Capt. Christopher Grant told the Rapid City
Journal in 2011.

9. The 14-year-old who saved two men from drowning

Gordon Arnette's inner alarm went off when he heard Jimmy
Dowd and Thomas McGarry loudly announce one June day in
1989 that they were going for a swim in the Norwalk River. The
Connecticut teen said it was clear the two men, who he had
chatted with at a neighborhood pharmacy, had been drinking, so
he followed them down to the banks of the river and even asked
them not to go in. But they refused and jumped into the swirling
river, where they were quickly swept away by the heavy current,
their heads bobbing in and out of the water. Arnette sprang into
action, jumping into a nearby inflatable raft and paddling some
130 feet with his hands to reach the drowning men. Arnette
grabbed Dowd with one hand and then paddled another 30 feet
to McGarry who had begun to have a seizure. The teen left Dowd
hanging on the raft and dove into the water to retrieve McGarry.
"It was hard, but I grabbed him by his chin like they taught me in
school, and I got his arm and put it over the other side of the
raft," he said. By the time police arrived, Arnette had already
safely paddled the two men to shore, where they had collapsed,
semi-conscious. "If [Arnette] had not take action, McGarry would
have perished," the official police report said. Ironically, the high
school sophomore, who dreamed of becoming a lifeguard, had
been told by his P.E. teacher just a few weeks prior that he
wasn't a strong enough swimmer for the job
Resource 2
Newspaper 1 (Graphs) Newspaper 2 (Articles)
How are

would you
say this

How does
one side of
youth inform
the reader?

How do you
feel about
youth about
reading this

What could
to do
Image 5 (JWT, 2010)
Resource 3
Skins TV Trailer Newspaper article
Would this texts
of youth be valid
50 years ago?

How does the

target audience
of this text
influence the
of youth?

How would you

interpret these
texts if you had
no knowledge of
western culture?

Imagine these
stories were
based in Africa,
how would the
stories different
based on cultural
How do these
texts influence
those who
Throughout this series of three lessons I am aiming to teach year 9
students about representation, in particular the way the media
represents youth. A specific focus throughout these lesson is several
media sources with various texts, including a television (TV) show trailer
from the show Skins, several newspaper findings, and various sources
which highlight representation in various contexts. Lesson one focusses
on the TV show skins and the way youth are represented to be a party
driven destructive group who spread chaos and only think of themselves.
I also chose to start this lesson with a video advertisement about
speeding and hopefully relate it somewhat to the TV show and overall
link of television media to representation. Lesson two focuses on the
written side of media, in particular the newspaper and how it represents
youth. The lesson draws examples from several newspapers and using
statistics as well as stories to give the students a wide variety of
information to draw from. The final lesson draws these texts together to
look at the way representation is constructed in the media and what
influences this has both within the world of media and to consumers of
media. Beginning the lesson by showing them a picture of the hulk for
advertising purposes and later comparing and contrasting the two
studied texts.

I chose to teach representation and the way the media represents youth
as it is an increasingly important thing to consider in todays evolving
technological world. When students engage with English textual concepts
such as representation, a higher level of intellectual quality is promoted
and skills such as higher order thinking and deep knowledge is embedded
within the student (Gore, Griffths, & Ladwig, 2004). Students require
certain skills to judge representations of themselves and by showing
them how they are often portrayed in the media and why, I am giving the
students the knowledge to know how to discern certain information. It is
also necessary to recognise when something or someone is being
represented poorly, an understanding of when this might be the case is
beneficial for students to learn as it is a skill that may be used commonly
throughout their lives. With regards to teaching how a representation is
constructed within the media, it is important for students to learn how
the construction and interpretation of texts is influenced by cultural
perspectives and other social norms. This is why there is an evaluation of
various types of media and the way it is portrayed. Certain skill is required
to recognise how texts are created, the point of view and representation
of a text shapes the values and meaning of a text (Boas & Gazis, 2018).
Mastering the skill of understanding the reasons why an author creates a
text is a pivotal skill for a student to have.

Throughout several lesson I am providing various ways for students to

engage with and develop their understanding of representation in the
media. Several class discussions are used throughout these three lessons
as there is evidence that they provide students with opportunities to
discover further similarities and differences in their ideas and aid in the
way they continue their discovery method (Boas & Gazis, 2018). An
additional emphasis is also placed on understanding context and the
influence it has on representation within media. Pope (1998) highlights
how context can be perceived in flexible and plural ways and the varying
aspects that go into creating context. I am teaching students this
understanding of context by giving them the opportunity to look at how
certain texts are created within contexts and prompting them to consider
the role context has in creating the representation within the text. For
example considering how the TV show skins would look 50 years ago,
within a completely different context. Understanding the purpose behind
an author’s creation of a text also helps students grasp the idea of
representation. These lessons also aid students into questioning the
purpose or reason a specific text is created. Students are advised to think
about the authors motive behind creating a text and what influence it has
on a text.

Reading in this unit has shown me useful ways and strategies to aid
students learning and improve my teaching pedagogy. Reading chapter 1
of The Artful English Teacher has given me an insight into the processes
that are involved when teaching English to students at all levels.
Highlighting the main concepts that are dealt with throughout the English
curriculum and how students engage with them is a useful way to aid
teachers understanding of the English textual concepts and how to teach
them. This series of lessons has helped me relate my reading in this unit
in a practical way in which I am able to look at concepts and strategies
and attempt to put them in a practical setting and hypothesis how they
would work in a class room. Related readings have also improved my
pedagogical style as they have given me a framework in which to shape
my teaching strategies. Gore, Griffiths and Ladwig as well and Pope help
structure learning processes and give examples of how to effectively
teach students concepts and ideas.
Boas, E., & Gazis, S. (2018). Chapter 1 Teaching English through textual concepts. In
E. Boas, & S. Gazis, The Artful English Teacher (pp. 1-20). Kensington
Gardens: The Australian Association for the Teaching of English.
Gore, J. M., Griffths, T., & Ladwig, J. G. (2004). Towards better teaching: productive
pedagogy as a framework for teacher education. Teaching and Teacher
Education. Vol 20, Issue 4, 375-387.
Hansen, L. (2013, May 15). 9 heroic teens and their incredible acts of bravery.
Retrieved from The Week:
JWT, D. (2010, March 02). Band aid Hulk. Retrieved from Ads of the World:
Mason, G. (2011). The Representation of Young People in the Media . Glasgow:
Youth Justice Research Team .
Pope, R. (1998). The English studies book. London: Routledge.