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• Discuss the evolution of the Internet
• Identify and briefly describe various broadband Internet
connections and state differences between broadband
Internet connections and dial-up connections
• Describe the types of Internet access providers
• Describe the purpose of an IP address and its
relationship to a domain name
• Explain the purpose of a Web browser and identify the
components of a Web address
• Describe how to use a search engine to search for
information on the Web and differentiate between
a search engine and a subject directory
• Describe the types of Web sites
• Explain how Web pages use graphics, animation,
audio, video, virtual reality, and plug-ins
• Identify and briefly describe the steps required for
Web publishing
• Describe the types of e-commerce
• Explain how e-mail, mailing lists, instant messaging,
chat rooms, VoIP, newsgroups and message boards,
and FTP work
• Identify the rules of netiquette
Computer Networks
•A computer network is a group of computer systems and
other computing hardware devices that are linked together
through communication channels to facilitate communication
and resource-sharing among a wide range of users.
•Networks are commonly categorized based on their
There are many types of networks, including:
•Local Area Networks (LAN) •Internetworks
•Personal Area Networks (PAN) •Backbone Networks (BBN)
•Home Area Networks (HAN) •Global Area Networks (GAN)
•Wide Area Networks (WAN) •The Internet
•Campus Networks
•Metropolitan Area Networks
•Enterprise Private Networks
The arrangement of a network which comprises of nodes and
connecting lines via sender and receiver is referred as
network topology. The various network topologies are :
1. Bus
2. Ring
3. Star
4. Mesh
5. Hybrid
Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and
network device is connected to single cable. It transmits the
data from one end to another in single direction. No bi-
directional feature is in bus topology.
Ring topology forms a ring connecting a devices with its
exactly two neighbouring devices.
In star topology, all the devices are
connected to a single hub through a
cable. This hub is the central node and
all others nodes are connected to the
central node. The hub can be
passive ​in nature i.e. not intelligent hub
such as broadcasting devices, at the
same time the hub can be intelligent
known as active ​hubs. Active hubs
have repeaters in them.
In mesh topology, every device is connected to another
device via particular channel.
Hybrid topology is a
collection of two or more
topologies which are
described above. This is
a scalable topology which
can be expanded easily.
It is reliable one but at
the same it is a costly
The Internet

Introduction to Computing
• The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that
links millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals
• The Internet originated as ARPANET in September 1969
and had two main goals:

Allow scientists at
Function even if part of
different physical
the network were
locations to share
disabled or destroyed
information and work
by a disaster
1986 NSF
NSFnet to
ARPANET and becomes 1996
becomes known as the Internet2 is
functional Internet founded

1984 1995 Today More

ARPANET NSFNet than 550
has more terminates its million hosts
than 1,000 network on connect to
individual the Internet the Internet
computers and resumes
linked as status as
hosts research
• Each organization is responsible only for maintaining its
own network
• The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) oversees research and
sets guidelines and standards
• Internet2 connects more than 200 universities and 115
companies via a high-speed private network
• Many home and small business users connect to the
Internet via high-speed broadband Internet service

Fiber to
Cable Cellular Satellite
the Fixed
Internet DSL Radio Wi-Fi Internet
Premises wireless
service Network Service
• An access provider is a business that provides individuals
and organizations access to the Internet free or for a fee
ISP (Internet Online service Wireless Internet
service provider) provider (OSP) service provider

Regional ISPs Provides wireless

provide Internet Has many members- Internet access to
access to a specific only features computers and
geographical area mobile devices

National ISPs Popular OSPs include

provide Internet AOL (America May require a
access in cities and Online) and MSN wireless modem
towns nationwide (Microsoft Network)
• An IP address is a number that uniquely identifies each
computer or device connected to the Internet
• A domain name is the text version of an IP address
• Top-level domain (TLD)
• A DNS server translates the domain name into its
associated IP address
The World Wide Web

Introduction to Computing
• The World Wide Web, or Web, consists of a worldwide
collection of electronic documents (Web pages)
• A Web site is a collection of related Web pages and
associated items
• A Web server is a computer that delivers requested Web
pages to your computer
• Web 2.0 refers to Web sites that provide a means for
users to interact
• A Web browser, or browser, allows users to access Web
pages and Web 2.0 programs

Firefox Opera

• A home page is the first • Some Web pages are
page that a Web site designed specifically for
displays microbrowsers
• Web pages provide links to
other related Web pages
• Surfing the Web
• Downloading is the process
of receiving information
• A Web page has a unique address called a URL or Web
• Tabbed browsing allows you to open and view multiple
Web pages in a single Web browser window
• Two types of search tools are search engines and subject

Search Subject
engine directory
Classifies Web
Finds information
pages in an
related to a
organized set of
specific topic
• A search engine is helpful in locating items such as:

Images Videos Audio Publications

People or
Maps Blogs
• Some Web browsers contain an Instant Search box to
eliminate the steps of displaying the search engine’s Web
page prior to entering the search text
• Search operators can help to refine your search
• There are thirteen types of Web sites

Portal News Informational Business/Marketing

Blog Wiki Online Social Educational

Entertainment Advocacy Web

Content Personal
• Information presented
on the Web must be
evaluated for accuracy
• No one oversees the
content of Web pages
• Multimedia refers to any application that combines text
• A graphic is a digital
representation of
nontext information
• Graphic formats include
and TIFF
• A thumbnail is a small
version of a larger
• Animation is the appearance of motion created by
displaying a series of still images in sequence
• Audio includes music, speech, or any other sound
• Compressed to reduce file size
• You listen to audio on your computer using a player
• Streaming is the process of transferring data in a
continuous and even flow
• Video consists of images displayed in motion
• Virtual reality (VR) is the use of computers to simulate a
real or imagined environment that appears as a three-
dimensional space
• A plug-in is a program that extends the capability of a
Web browser
• Web publishing is the development and maintenance of
Web pages

Plan a and Create a Deploy a
a Web
Web site design a Web site Web site
Web site
Other Internet Services

Introduction to Computing
• E-mail is the
transmission of
messages and files via a
computer network
• An e-mail program
allows you to create,
send, receive, forward,
store, print, and delete
e-mail messages
• A mailing list is a group of e-mail names and addresses given a single name
• Subscribing adds your e-mail name and address
• Unsubscribing removes your name
• Instant messaging (IM) is a real-time Internet communications service
• A chat is a real-time
typed conversation that
takes place on a
• A chat room is a location
on an Internet server
that permits users to
chat with each other
• VoIP (Voice over IP)
enables users to speak
to other users over the
• Also called Internet
• A newsgroup is an
online area in which
users have written
discussions about a
particular subject
• Typically requires a
• A message board is a
Web-based type of
discussion group
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an Internet standard that
permits file uploading and downloading with other
computers on the Internet
• Many operating systems include FTP capabilities
• An FTP server is a computer that allows users to upload
and/or download files using FTP
• Netiquette is the code of acceptable Internet behavior