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1. This question is about waves and wave properties.

The diagram below shows three wavefronts incident on a boundary between medium I and
medium R. Wavefront CD is shown crossing the boundary. Wavefront EF is incomplete.

A C E

F
m e d iu m I

m e d iu m R

B D

(a) (i) On the diagram above, draw a line to complete the wavefront EF.
(1)

(ii) Explain in which medium, I or R, the wave has the higher speed.

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(3)

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The graph below shows the variation with time t of the velocity v of one particle of the medium
through which the wave is travelling.
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2
v / m s–1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
–2 t / m s

–4

–6

–8

(b) (i) Explain how it can be deduced from the graph that the particle is oscillating.

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(2)

(ii) Determine the frequency of oscillation of the particle.

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(2)

(iii) Mark on the graph with the letter M one time at which the particle is at maximum
displacement.
(1)

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(iv) Estimate the area between the curve and the x-axis from the time t = 0 to the time
t = 1.5 ms.

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(2)

(v) Suggest what the area in b (iv) represents.

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(1)

(c) (i) State the principle of superposition.

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(2)

Two loudspeakers S1 and S2 are connected to the same output of a frequency generator and are
placed in a large room as shown below.

P
560 cm

580 cm
S 1

550 cm
S 2

Sound waves of wavelength 40 cm and amplitude A are emitted by both loudspeakers.

M is a point distance 550 cm from both S1 and S2. Point P is a distance 560 cm from S1 and
580 cm from S2.

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(ii) State and explain what happens to the loudness of the sound detected by a
microphone when the microphone is moved from point M to point P.

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(4)

(iii) Referring to the diagram above, the amplitude of the wave emitted by S 1 is now
increased to 2A. The wave emitted by S2 is unchanged. Deduce what change, if
any, occurs in the loudness of the sound at point M and at point P when this change
in amplitude is made.

at point M: ......................................................................................................

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at point P: ......................................................................................................

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(4)

(iv) The loudspeakers are now replaced with two monochromatic light sources. State
the reason why bright and dark fringes are not observed along the line PM.

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(1)

Waves of frequency f and speed c are emitted by a stationary source of sound. An observer
moves along a straight line towards the source at a constant speed v.

(d) State, in terms of f, c and v, an expression for

(i) the wavelength of the sound detected by the observer.

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(1)

(ii) the apparent speed of the wave as measured by the observer.

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(1)
(Total 25 marks)

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2. This question is about the interference of waves.

(a) State the principle of superposition.

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(2)

A wire is stretched between two points A and B.

A B

A standing wave is set up in the wire. This wave can be thought of as being made up from the
superposition of two waves, a wave X travelling from A to B and a wave Y travelling from B to
A. At one particular instant in time, the displacement of the wire is as shown. A background grid
is given for reference and the equilibrium position of the wire is shown as a dotted line.

A B

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(b) On the grids below, draw the displacement of the wire due to wave X and wave Y.

W ave X

A B

W ave Y

A B

(4)

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The diagram below shows an arrangement (not to scale) for observing the interference pattern
produced by the superposition of two light waves.

S 1

m o n o c h ro m a tic
lig h t s o u rc e S O

S 2

s in g le s lit

d o u b le s lit S c ree n

S1 and S2 are two very narrow slits. The single slit S ensures that the light leaving the slits S 1
and S2 is coherent.

(c) (i) Define coherent.

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(1)

(ii) Explain why the slits S1 and S2 need to be very narrow.

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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

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3. Waves on a string

A travelling wave is created on a string. The graph below shows the variation with time t of the
displacement y of a particular point on the string.

G raph 1 y / m m 2 .0

1 .0

0 .0
0 .0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 t / m s
– 1 .0

– 2 .0

The variation with distance x of the displacement y of the string at t = 0 is shown below.

G raph 2 y / m m 2 .0

1 .0

0 .0
0 .0 1 .0 2 .0 3 .0 4 .0 5 .0 x / c m
– 1 .0

– 2 .0

(a) Use information from the graphs to calculate, for this wave,

(i) the wavelength;

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(1)

(ii) the frequency;

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(2)

(iii) the speed of the wave.

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(1)

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(b) The wave is moving from left to right and has period T.

(i) On graph 1, draw a labelled line to indicate the amplitude of the wave.
(1)

T
t .
(ii) On graph 2, draw the displacement of the string at 4

(2)

(c) One end of the string is attached to a wall. A student creates a single pulse in the string
that travels to the right as shown in the diagram below.

s trin g p u ls e w a ll

(i) In the space below, draw a diagram to show the shape and size of the pulse after it
has been reflected from the wall.
(2)

(ii) By reference to Newton’s third law, explain the nature of the reflected pulse that
you have drawn in (c)(i) above.

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(2)

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(d) The free end of the string in (c) is now made to oscillate with frequency f such that a
standing wave is established on the string. The diagram below illustrates the standing
wave.

w a ll

fre e e n d

(i) Explain, by reference to the principle of superposition, the formation of a standing


wave.

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(3)

(ii) The length of the string is 3.0 m. Using your answer for the speed of the wave in
(a)(iii) calculate the frequency f.

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(2)

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(e) A satellite orbits the Earth at a fixed height above the equator. Two coherent radio
transmitters on the equator emit radio waves of equal amplitude as illustrated in the
diagram below.

s a te llite o rb it

s a te llite

E a rth ra d io tra n s m itte rs

n o t to s c a le

The signal that the satellite receives varies in intensity.

(i) State what is meant by coherent sources.

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(1)

(ii) Suggest why the signal received by the satellite varies in intensity.

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(2)

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(iii) The transmitters have a separation of 160 m and emit waves of wavelength 1.2 m.
The signal received by the satellite varies in intensity with a frequency of 3.0 Hz as
–1
it flies overhead. The speed of the satellite is 7.7 km s .

Calculate the height of the satellite above the Earth’s surface.

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(3)
(Total 22 marks)

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4. This question is about waves.

(a) With reference to the direction of energy transfer through a medium, distinguish between
a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave.

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(3)

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(b) A wave is travelling along the surface of some shallow water in the x-direction. The graph
shows the variation with time t of the displacement d of a particle of water.

d / m m 10

0
0 0 .0 5 0 .1 0 .1 5 0 .2 0 .2 5 0 .3
–2 t / s

–4

–6

–8

–10

Use the graph to determine for the wave

(i) the frequency,

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(2)

(ii) the amplitude.

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(1)

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–1
(c) The speed of the wave in (b) is 15 cm s . Deduce that the wavelength of this wave is
2.0 cm.

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(2)

(d) The graph in (b) shows the displacement of a particle at the position x = 0.

On the axes below, draw a graph to show the variation with distance x along the water
surface of the displacement d of the water surface at time t = 0.070 s.

d / m m 10

0
0 1 2 3 4 x /c m
–2

–4

–6

–8

–10
(3)

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(e) The wave encounters a shelf that divides the water into two separate depths. The water to
the right of the shelf is deeper than that to the left of the shelf.

w a v e fro n ts
s h e lf
d ire c tio n o f
tra v e l o f w a v e

30

d e e p w a te r
s h a llo w w a te r

The angle between the wavefronts in the shallow water and the shelf is 30°. The speed of
–1 –1
the wave in the shallow water is 15 cm s and in the deeper water is 20 cm s . For the
wave in the deeper water, determine the angle between the normal to the wavefronts and
the shelf.

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(3)
(Total 14 marks)

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5. This question is about wave phenomena.

(a) The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of one particle in a
sound wave.

x /m m 0 .3

0 .2

0 .1

0 .0 0 .0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6

– 0 .1 t/m s

– 0 .2

– 0 .3
–1
The speed of the wave is 380 m s .

(i) Suggest, by marking the letter C on the t-axis of the graph above, one time at which
the particle could be at the centre of a compression.
(1)

(ii) Deduce the wavelength of the wave.

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(3)

(b) (i) Outline the conditions necessary for the formation of a standing (stationary) wave.

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(2)

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(ii) A horizontal tube, closed at one end, has some fine powder sprinkled along its
length. A source S of sound is placed at the open end of the tube, as shown below.

heap of pow der


so u rc e S

The frequency of the source S is varied. Explain why, at a particular frequency, the
powder is seen to form small equally-spaced heaps in the tube.

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(2)

(iii) The mean separation of the heaps of powder in (b)(ii) is 9.3 cm when the frequency
of the source S is 1800 Hz. Calculate the speed of sound in the tube.

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(2)

(c) The experiment in (b)(ii) is repeated on a day when the temperature of the air in the tube
is higher. The mean separation of the heaps is observed to have increased for the same
frequency of the source S. Deduce qualitatively the effect, if any, of temperature rise on
the speed of the sound in the tube.

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(2)

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(d) The diagram below shows wavefronts produced by two sources S 1 and S2 of sound that
are vibrating in phase.

B A B

S 1 S 2

The waves interfere constructively along the lines labelled A and B.

(i) State what is meant by constructive interference.

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(3)

(ii) On the diagram above, draw another line, labelled C, along which the waves
interfere constructively.
(1)

(iii) On the diagram above, draw another line, labelled D, along which the waves
interfere destructively.
(1)
(Total 17 marks)

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