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NAME : M.

RAFIQUDDIN NASUTION
STATUS : MAHASISWA PROGRAM MAGISTER MPI UIN SUMATERA UTARA
SUBTHEME : FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND
MANAGEMENT

A) ATTACHMENT FIGURE 1-1

SYSTEMS

LEADERSHIP

CONTEXT FOR EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

INQUIRY COMMUNICATION ANALYSIS AND DECISION MAKING


AND HUMAN PLANNING AND CHANGE
INTERACTION

HUMAN
INQUIRY PLANNING DECISION
HUMAN MAKING
RELATION

PHILOSOPHY ALLOCATION
OF RESOURCES POLICY
COMMUNICATION
INFORMATION

OBSERVATION
EVALUATION
ORGANIZATION CHANGE

ENVIRONMENTAL
INTERACTION
B) EXPLANATION
We bolt our leaders and managers resposible when solutions are not fortbcoming
(Scbon, 1983). Grant (1988) writes about the disturbing evolution of hamilton high school
during the last half of the twentieth century from an elite public high school, through
deconstruction to a student rights movement and into a second transformation. Starting as a
relatively affluent school in the 1950s. Hamilton traverses the period reacting to the major
societal events occurring in the nation: through periods of varied economic stability, the civil
rights movement, the vietnam era, watergate the reagan era, and other signigicant events. As
we closely investigate the school enviroment, we see that at hamilton these societal changes
had dramatic effects. In the same period we find student rioting, teacher apathy, common
curriculum giving way to liberalized curriculum to a back to basics movement, and role
conflicts among leadership. Although the story of Hamilton high school ends, educators
today are cognizant of further concerns.
In our schools today, pupils graduate who cannot read. Students must pass through
metal detectors upon entering school buildings, and security guards patrol the halls. Upon
completing schooling, late adolescents find the prospects of attaining meaningful
employment bleak. Business people claim that the schools curricula are irrelevant to the
business world and that educational standards are unacceptably low. In each case leadership
and management in the schools is cited as a leading cause of decline.
In an effort to undestand these vroad and complex issues and promote a return to
stability, we frequently resort to narrow minded solutions. To curb confusion, we view
problems conventionally through a single lens in search of linear solutions. Various
disciplinary approaches are taken from shelves, brussed off, and offered up to combat
deficiencies. Organizational leaders are retrained in the latest rendition of short term,
minimalist fixes that suffice untill the next round of crises. The sum of our efforts is too often
a series of superficial, symptomatic solutions, rarely providing fundamental resolution which
can be obtained only from holistic reflection and action (Senge, 1990). Across discipliners
and professions. We find ourselves fallingshort of our original set of long term broadly
defined goals, education is no exception.
This book is about those problematic culprits, leaders, and managers, and most
particularly leadership and management in education. Educational institutions today are in
crisis. But is the offender the individual leader or manager? Too often our principals,
superintendents, and teacher are scapegoats. Very often the performance of these individuals
is labeled inadequate wihout through review of the educational system and its sub systems
not its processes, not its activities, not its membership, not the larger scprasystem. How does
leadership or management occur in the educational environment? Do we have a firm grasp of
the meaning of leadership and management? Can our definitions remain adaptable in a post
industrial paradigm, in a society where leaders and managers help to remodel or redesign our
vital institutions, including education?
As the twenty first century dawns, we find that leadership and management have been
studied extensively. While the study of leader/manager traits and vehaviors has resulted in
more detailed understanding of roles, no consensus on leadership theory has yet emerged.
Leadership and management are diffrent, but we have not fully investigated the reasons why
nor arrived at plausible interpretations that explain the divergence. At best, Yukl (1989)
postulated an expanded conceptual framework that brings together much of the existing
leadership knowledge. But, at the same time, he stated, “the terms leader and manager are
used interchangeably in this book”. Undoubtedly, he might also use leadership and
management interchangeably. So what is leadership? What is management? Are leaders and
managers really diffrent? Do the definitions coincide? Does it matter? Apparently, to
educational reformers, the difference does matter. The assignment of the title leaders to
administrators and reassignment of management tasks to staff members suggests that there is
more of a difference in the roles than mere semantics.
It is common to elevate leadership and to denigrate management. This is a mistake.
While it may be possible to be an effective manager without strong leadership skills. When
administrators minister to the needs of the schools, what appears superficially to be
managerial can be transformed into leadership by bommunicating meaning and purpose in the
context of the mundane.
This book addresses general principles underlying the knowledge base of leadership
and management as specifically applied to educational institutions. We intend to stirlearnes
thoughts in introductory/preparatory educational administration programs. The review of
current scholarship in a wide range of areas will compel potential administrators to critically
consider theoretical under pinnings of current educational administration. Being aware of
issues and problems and devising short term remedies is no longer enough. As we incorporate
technological developments and as social, polotical, and economic complexity multiply
exponentially, there is need for both systematic and systemic understanding within, and more
important, across content areas. Analysis, synthesis, flexibility, and adaptability must cross a
variety of venues before evolving into action. Leadership must evolve with societal change
and empower all our teachers and administrators.
In this text, leadership will take on four exploratory dimensions: inquiry,
communication and human interaction, analysis and planning, and decision making and
change. Specific concepts are developed within each dimension, as illustrated in Figure 1-1.
These concepts are discussed in separate chapters and are interrelated to the broader
dimensions. Case studies and activities are included to relate theory to practice. A final
chapter discusses the role of the leaders within the context of contemporary expactations of
and conditions surrounding educational institutions. The text concludes with an author index
and a subject index. An annotated bibli ography of primary references and a reference list are
places at the end of each chapter to assist readers with future in depth study.
The organization of this text is illustrated by figure 1-1. In part 1 we build theoretical
and contextual foundations for the study of educational leadership. An updated version of
systems theory is used to unify the many concepts of educational leadership that are
discussed subsequently. This theory is presented in:
1. Chapter 1 and is represented by the outer ring in the figure.
2. Chapter 2 provides a synthesizing discussion of leadership in general, leadership
theory is represented by the second ring.
3. The third ring refers to the context in which educational leadership takes place the
social, political, legal, and economic environments of educational enterprises, which
are described in chapter 3.
4. The fourth ring represents the bulk of this volume and addresses secific concepts of
educational leadership: inquiry, communication and human interaction. Analysis and
planning, decision making and change.
The careful reader will quickly detect that the authors do not subscribe wholly to any
particular philosophy of science. We attempt to report the best of what has been produced by
researchers regardless of their paradigm and orientation. We view the study of leadership and
management as a multiple perspective activity. Theories of managment and leadership should
not be viewed as competing with one another in the quest for the “one best view”
(Sergiovanni, 1984). Each approach, each theory, has inherent strengths and weanesses. Each
theory is better able to illuminate and explain certain aspects of each concept. Taken together
a more complete understanding of the concept is possible through the power of triangulation
and perspective.

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