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Practical Training Report

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of


(12 May, 2010 - 12th June, 2010)

Submitted To: Submitted By:




(iii) E.S.P.
A very important element in curriculum of an Engineering student is the
Practical Training.
I under went practical training at “KOTA SUPER THERMAL
POWER STATION” from 11-05-2010 to 11-06-2010. This is a part of total
30 days training program incorporated in the curriculum of the RAJASTHAN
TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY for B.Tech. courses. This period was before my
6th sem. - B.Tech. Exams.

As I am a student of Mechanical Branch so the training at K.S.T.P.S.

has been particularly beneficial for me. I saw the various procedures,
processes and equipment used in production of electricity by thermal powers
which were studied in books and this has helped me in better understanding
of power generation.

S.T.P.S. is a very large plant and it is very difficult to acquire complete

knowledge about it in a short span. I have tried to get acquainted with overall
plant functioning and main concepts involved therein. The scope of
Mechanical engineering is increasing day by day. It is a vital trade.

During training I was permitted to take training at many section of mechanical

( Boiler and maintenance, turbine , fan, Air pre heater, coal handling plant,
water treatment plant, DM plant, coal mills) and general plant familiarization. I
have summarized all the things, which I saw & learned at S.T.P.S. in this
training report.

Thermal power station

A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is
steam driven.Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine
which either drives an electrical generator or does some other work, like ship
propulsion. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a
condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine
cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to
the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because
such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electrical energy.
Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station is owned by Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut
Utpadan Nigam Ltd. and is situated near village Raiyanwali about 25 KM from
Suratgarh town, an ideal location for setting up a thermal power station in the
state having regards to the availability of land, water, transmission network
proximity to broad gauge railway and being an important load centre for north
west Rajasthan. The techno-economic clearance for the prefect was issued
by CEA in June 1991 – the planning commission accorded investment
sanction for the project in Nov. 91 for a total estimated cost of Rs. 1253.31
crores on prices prevailing in Sept. 1990. The updated cost of the project is
estimate at Rs. 2300 crores of including IDC.

It has generation capacity of 1500 MW and installed with six Units of 250 MW
each. It is a coal base thermal station. Water and coal required in a large
amount. Coal is received here from coal-fields of MP areas through railways
and water is received from INDIRA GANDHI CANAL. The supply of coal is
from MP, Jarkhand by rail. About 18000 tonne coal required per day for whole
unit and each unit consumes 150 tonnes coal per day.

About 2x3 km2 area covered by plant and approximately 1800 employees
works in a plant including chief engineer to labour. The supply electricity to the
northern Rajasthan, Ratangarh, Bikaner, Ganganagar.


It has been decided to set up 2 X 660 MW super critical units (Unit # 7 & 8) at
SSTPS. For this purpose about 446 Hectare land has been identified adjacent
to the existing 6 X 250 MW plant. This land is under process of acquisition.
M/s TEC have been appointed consulting engineers for this project. The state
Govt. has also accorded its inpriciple approval for setting up in future, two
additional units of 2 X 660 MW (Unit # 9 & 10) also based on super critical
Installed capacity
Following is the unit wise capacity of the plant.[2].

Unit Installed Capacity Date of

Stage Status
Number (MW) Comisioning
Stage I 1 250 May, 1998 Running
Stage I 2 250 March, 2000 Running
Stage II 3 250 October, 2001 Running
Stage II 4 250 March, 2002 Running
Stage III 5 250 June, 2003 Running
Stage IV
I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my training & placement
officer Mr. Arjit Choudhary and H.O.D. of Mechanical Mr. D. N. Naresh for
suggest and valuable guidance me for S.T.P.S. It is my proud privilege to
express my sense of gratitude to Mr. Anil Dhawan (AEN) for providing me
adequate facilities to undergo training at S.T.P.S.
I have in particular
to appreciate the effort and keen interest taken by Mr. D. K. Nadheria (XEN),
Mr. N. C. Jain (AEN), Mr. N. K. Jain (XEN) and Mr. Deepak Tater (JEN) for
their kind help and assistance in under standing the working of diff. Equipment
and for their kind guidance during the period of training.
I am also grateful to Mr. Jangid (TA C&I) for their
persistent help and for providing some of the technical data in form of
computer print outs.
Last but not the least I am equally obliged to all those
engineers technical personnel and operators at S.T.P.S. who gave me their
valuable time and rendered practical knowledge in my training period.
And at last I want to thank my colleagues. Without their help guidance and
suggestions it was not possible to produce this training report.

(Arvind sharma)
7th sem.- B.Tech.,Mech.
Steam and water undergo various phases of “Carnot Cycle” in the
Boiler, Turbine and other equipments during this process.
In Thermal Power Station, fossil coal is used as fuel for steam
generation in the Boiler. Steam so generated is utilised in Steam
Turbine to generate mechanical energy for rotating the Generator
for producing electric power.


The steam turbines and their auxiliaries installed have been manufactured by
M/s BHEL . The turbines are three cylinders, compound 3000 rpm, double
flow exhaust type reheat units with initial parameters of 13 kg/cm 2 and 5 low
pressure heaters are fed .The high pressure cylinder comprises of two curt is
wheels as a regulation stage . Intermediate pressure cylinders comprise of
twelve stages and each of the double flow section of the L.P. cylinder consists
of four stages.

There are two live steam lines connecting the boiler to the turbine. The
superheated steam enters the H.P.turbine and strikes its blades hence heat
energy of steam is converted into mechanical energy. The steam from H.P.
turbine is reheated in reheaters and reheated steam is sent to I.P. turbine
through hot steam lines. Here second stage of energy conversion is takes
place. Then steam is sent to L.P. turbine from where it is ejected by vacuum
ejectors and condensed. Here are two cold reheat and two hot reheat lines
connecting the reheater and turbine. In each of the two live steam lines one
electrically operated isolating valve, one water separator and one quick closing
stop valve are mounted. The direction of revolution of turbine is clock wise
when looking at turbine from front bearing pedestal. For the oil lubrication of
bearings and for governing, the main oil pump driven shaft is assembled into
the front bearing pedestal of turbine itself.
Steam turbine is a rotating machine which CONVERTS HEAT
In India, steam turbines of different capacities, varying from 15 MW to
500 MW, are employed in the field of thermal power generation. The design,
materials, auxiliary systems etc. vary widely from each other depending on
the capacity and manufacturer of the sets.

Basic principles:
The Thermal Power Plants with steam turbine uses Rankine cycle. Rankine
cycle is a vapour power cycle having two basic characteristics:
1. the working fluid is a condensable vapour which is in liquid phase
during part of the cycle and
2. The cycle consists of a succession of steady flow processes, with each
processes carried out in a separate component specially designed for
the purpose. Each constitute an open system, and all the components
are connected in series so that as the fluid circulates through the power
plant each fluid element passes through a cycle of mechanical and
thermodynamic stages.
The turbine is of tandem compound design with separate HP, IP and LP
cylinder. The HP & IP turbines are of single flow type while LP turbine is of
double flow type; the turbine is condensing type with single reheat. It is
basically engineered on reaction principle with throttle governing. The stages
are arranged in HP, IP and LP turbines, driving alternating current full capacity
Turbo generators.

Superheated steam (130 kg/cm2, 5350C) from the boiler enters into the
High pressure turbine through emergency stop valves and four control valves.
The high pressure turbine (HPT) comprises of 12 stages, the first stage being
governing stage. The steam flow in High pressure turbine (HPT) being in
reverse direction, the blades in high pressure turbine HPT are designed fro
anticlockwise rotation, when viewed in the direction of steam flow. After
passing through High pressure turbine (HPT) steam (27 kg/cm2, 3270C) flows
to boiler for reheat and reheated steam (24.5 kg/cm , 535 C) comes to the
intermediate pressure turbine (IPT) through two interceptor valves and four
control valves mounted on the IPT itself.
The intermediate pressure turbine has 11 stages. High pressure
turbine (HPT) and intermediate pressure turbine (LPT) through two crossover
pipes. In low pressure turbine, steam flows in the opposite paths have four
stages in each path. After leaving the low pressure turbine the exhaust steam
(0.09 kg/cm abs) condenses in the condensers welded directly to the exhaust
part of the low pressure turbine. Rotors of intermediate and low pressure
turbines are connected by a semi flexible coupling.
The direction of rotation of the rotors is clock wise when viewed from
the front bearing end towards the generators. The three rotors are supported
in five bearings. The common bearing of High pressure and Intermediate
pressure rotors is a combined journal and radial thrust bearing. Turbine is
equipped with a turbine gear which rotates the rotor of the turbine at a speed
of nearly 3.4 rpm for providing uniform heating during starting and uniform
cooling during shut down. Condensate from the hot well of condenser is
pumped by the condensate pumps, and supplied to he deaerator though
ejectors, gland steam cooler and four number low pressure heaters. Steam is
extraction form the various points of the turbine to the heat the condensate in
these heat exchangers. Form deaerator the feed water is supplied to boiler by
boiler feed pumps though three number High pressure heaters.
Type - tandem compound condensing
Rated output of turbine - 250 KW
Rated speed - 3000 RPM
Main steam temperature - 537 C
Rated pressure - 150 kg/cm

Casing or Cylinders:
A casing is essentially a pressure vessel which must
be capable of withstanding the maximum working pressure and temperature
that can be produced within it. The working pressure aspects demand thicker
and thicker casing and the temperature aspects demand thinner and thinner
1. H.P Turbine Casing: The principal parts of the HP turbine casing are
and axially split inner shell, enclosing the rotor and outer shell of a
barrel-type construction. The barrel type of cylinder construction
ensures symmetry of the wall thickness around the axis of rotation and
hence the wall thickness itself is relatively less than that used in other
type of construction.
2. I.P. Turbine Casing: The IP turbine is split axially and is of single
shell design. The outer casing accommodates a double flow inner
casing. The steam coming from the reheater is passed into the inner
casing via admission branches which are symmetrically arranged in the
top and bottom halves of the outer casing.
3. L.P Turbine Casing: The LP turbine is of double flow type. The
casing is of triple shell, fabricated construction. The outer casing
consists of the front and rear end walls, two longitudinal girders and a
top cover. The inner shell of the inner casing acts as the guide blade
carriers for the initial stages of the turbine. The guide blade carriers of
the LP stage groups are so designed that, together with the inner
casing, they form annular ducts which are used for extractions.

Steam Valves:
A turbine is equipped with one or more emergency stop
valves, in order to cut off the steam supply during periods of shut down and to
provide prompt interruption of the steam flow in emergency. In addition
governing valves are used to provide accurate control of steam flow entering
the turbine.
In steam turbine, the blades transform the thermal energy into
mechanical energy. It is obvious that balding has got direct impact on the
efficiency and reliability of turbine. Appropriate blade profile, with high
aerothermodynamics efficiency having sufficient mechanical strength to
withstand the steam forces. A final accurate check is made when the blades
have been fitted into the rotor.

HP and IP Balding;
These blades have a 50% reaction component and both fixed
and moving blades have the same profiles. Each rotor blade is milled from a
single piece of material complete with inverted T-root and integral shroud. In
medium and low temperature regions, the fixed blades are made of solid
drawn materials.
LP Balding;
The least three stages of the LP turbine have twisted blades.
The differences between the circumferential velocity at the rotor blade root
and tip is quite considerable and is taken into account by twisting the blade
along its length. The fixed blades of the last two stages are hollow.

Shaft Glands:
Labyrinth type glands seal the shaft where it passé through the
casing. In the case of HP and IP Turbine, these consist of a series of sealing
strips alternatively into the shaft and into stationary rings. In case of the LP
turbine glands sealing strips are fitted into stationary rings only. The pressure
of the steam leaking through the gland is reduced by converting the pressure
energy into velocity energy, which is then dissipated as eddies as the steam
passes through large no. of strips.

Three journal bearings and one combined journal and thrust
bearing are used for supporting the turbine shafting system. The HP Rotor is
carried into two bearings, a simple journal bearing at the front end of the shaft
and a combined journal and thrust bearing at the end immediately adjacent to
the coupling with the IP Rotor. Intermediate pressure and low pressure rotors
have a single journal bearing each at the rear ends.

Turning gear:
The turbine is equipped with hydraulic turning gear capable to
rotate the shaft system at high speed during shut-down and start-up periods in
order to minimize.
The turning gear assembly is fixed on the front pedestal of HP turbine
and engages the shaft of the main oil pump and thereby also turbine shaft via
the solined shaft, shaft flance and over-running clutch. The turbine generator
shaft system is rotated by Hydraulic motor, wheel which is driven by pressure
oil supplied by Jacking oil pump.
Thermal insulation of Turbine:
The thermal insulation of turbine shall consist of
Asbestos free Mineral Wool mixed with suitable filling and binding agent.
Insulation thickness to be applied shall vary depending on the surface
temperature prevailing in that zone. This is being done to achieve uniform rate
of cooling of different section of turbine casing.

Turbine governing system

The main purpose of governor is to maintain this desired speed of turbine
during fluctuations of load on the generator by varying steam input to the
The governing system in addition to ensuring the falling load-speed
characteristics of the turbine also ensures the following functions:
1. The run up the turbine from rest to rated speed and synchronizing with the
2. Meeting the system load variations in a predetermined manner, when
running in parallel with other machines.
3. Protecting the machine by reducing the load or shutting off completely in
abnormal and emergency situations.

The governing system also includes other devices to protect the turbine from
abnormal condition that may arise during operation.
In STPS By-pass Governing is used.

By-pass Governing:
In this system, in general, the steam is supplied
through a primary valve and is adequate to meet a major fraction of the
maximum load which is called economic load loads less than this, the
regulation is done by throttling steam through this valve. When the load on
the turbine exceeds this economic load which can be developed by the
unthrttole full flow through the primary valve, a secondary valve, is opened
and throttled steam is supplied downstream, bypassing the first stage and
some high-pressure stages. This steam joins the partially spent steam
admitted through the primary valve, developing additional blade torque to
meet the increased load.

Governing of Reheat Turbine

In reheat turbines in cases of partial of full load ow off
even after the HP control valves are fully closed the entrained steam in the
reheaters and hot reheat line is more than enough to speed up the turbine
above over speed limits. Hence it is necessary to provide stop valves and
interceptor valves on hot reheat line before IP turbine. While the stop valve
is operated controlled similar to HP control valve but at a higher speed
range by a secondary of pre-emergency governor as it is called. The valve
remains full open at rated speed and starts closing at about 3% overspeed
and is fully closed at about 5% over speed.

Purpose of Oil System

The turbine of system fulfils four functions. It:
1. Provides a supply of oil to the journal bearings to give an oil wedge at he
shaft rotates.
2. Maintaining the temperature of the turbine bearings constant at the
required level. The oil does this by removing the heat, which is produced
by, the shaft conduction, the surface friction and the turbulence set up in
the oil.
3. Provides a medium for hydraulically operating the governor gear and
controlling the steam admission valves.
4. Provides for hydrogen-cooled generators a sealing medium o prevent
hydrogen leaking out aling the shaft.

The boiler is the main part of any thermal power plant. It converts the fuel
energy into steam energy. The fuel may be furnace oil, diesel oil, natural gas
or coal. The boilers may be fired from the multiple fuels.
The boiler installed in S.T.P.S. are made by M/s BHEL . Each of the boilers are
single drum, tangential fired water tube naturally circulated over hanged,
balanced draft, dry bottom reheat type and is designed for pulverizing coal
firing with a max. Continuous steam output of 375 tons/hour at 138 kg/cm2
pressure and 540 degree cent. Temp. The thermal efficiency of each boiler at
MCR is 86.8 %. Four no. Of bowl mills have been installed for each boiler. Oil
burners are provided for initial start up and stabilization of low load .Two
E.S.P. (one for each boiler) is arranged to handle flue gases from the
respective boilers. The gases from E.S.P.are discharged through 180 meters
high chimney. I.D. fan and a motor is provided near the chimney to induce the
flue gases. The boiler is provided with a balanced draft consisting of two
forced draft fans and two induced draft fans. Flue gases are utilized to heat the
secondary air for combustion in the tubular type air heaters installed in the
boilers. Since the boiler furnace is maintained at a negative pressure, to avoid
atmospheric air entering the furnace a hydraulic pressure is maintained at the
furnace bottom. The water filled in the stainless steel seal through the
hydraulic seal between the furnace ash hoppers and the water wall ring heater.
Adequate clearance is also provided for the downward expansion of the
furnace. Ash is formed by the result of burning of coal inside furnace. A small
quantity of ash is collected in the bottom ash hopper and considerable amount
of ash is collected in the E.S.P. and magnetic separator hopper. This collected
ash is extract and disposed off in a slurry form in the ash disposal arc.
Basic theory and auxiliaries

The boiler also termed, as ‘steam generator’ is a container in which water can
be fed and by the application of heat evaporated continuously into steam. The
heat source is obtained by burning the fuel, which is coal here in our case .The
walls contained in the boiler drum flows through the down corner water walls
and then through risers back to the drum. This closed ckt. Movement of boiler
water is termed as circulation. The heat energy applied in the furnace is
absorbed by the water walls and water in this ckt. gets heated up .This give
rise to the formation of steam bubble in the water walls and risers . The
mixture of water and steam will rises continuously and move to the steam
drum due to its lightness. The mixture of water and steam is continuously
displaced by the colder water. In the drum there by establishing a natural
circulation. As the mixture of water and steam takes place in the steam
separators and the saturated steam is led into the upper heaters for further
heating and water particles fall back into the drum water. After the feed
control station the feed water enters into the economizer inlet header where
the feed water is preheated before entering the boiler drum. The economizer is
located below the real horizontal super heater in the boiler near gas pass. The
economizer has a no. Of sections composed of parallel tube ckt. The flow
direction of feed water in the economizer is in counter flow direction to the gas
flow. The feed water coming out of the economizer of the outlet header enters
the boiler drum. The boiler drum is located at 44-m level. There are four
downcomers pipes connecting the water side of the drum to the furnace lower
water wall inlet headers. The front and rear wall inlet header feed the front
and rear furnace wall tubes. The furnace sidewalls are fed by the two side
walls inlet header. The heat absorption takes place in the water walls. As a
result of heat absorption there will be a mixture of water and steam in the ckt.
Which is collected in the outlet headers .A series of riser tubes are provided to
carry the water and steam mixture from the water wall header into the drum
where separation of water and steam takes place .The wet steam which enter
the drum from the riser tubes is collected in a compartment, formed by
internal baffles. From here, the steam is passed through too rows of turbo
separator which has a primary and a secondary stage. In the turbo separator
water is thrown off and the steam passes through the screen separators in the
internal stage of separation.

It is essential to provide an adequate flow of water
and/or of water-steam mixture for an efficient transfer of heat from furnace to
the working fluid and to prevent ‘burn-outs’. This is irrespective of the mode of
circulation being used.

In STPS NATURAL type of circulation system are used.

Natural Circulation:
In this type, no external pumping device is used for the movement of
the fluid. The difference in densities in contents of fluids in down comers from
the drum and risers in the furnaces is used to effect the movement of fluids.
This type of circulation is employed in most of the utility boiler.

The movement of the steam and water will increase with increased
heat input to a maximum value or so called end point, after which further
increase in heat absorption will result in a decrease in flow.
One of the characteristics of natural circulation is its tendency to provide the
highest flow in the tubes with the greatest heat absorption.

Heat Transfer in Boiler:

In boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and
the heat is transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or
left out as unutilized.

There are three modes of heat transfer :

• Conduction
• Convection
• Radiation

Heat energy is transferred from a heat source to a heat receiver by one

or more of these modes for which heat source should be at a higher
temperature than the receiver.

In superheater tube with high temperature region but does not directly
view the flame. Here the heat is transferred from flue gas to superheater tube
metal by convection and by non-luminous radiation and in the tube metal by
conduction and to the steam by forced convection.
The power plant boilers are large capacity steam generators used
purely for the electrical power generation.



Feed water is supplied to the steam drum from the economizer outlet
links. The waterside of the steam drum is connected with the furnace bottom
water-wall header through down-comers.
The front and rear wall bottom headers feed the front and rear furnace
wall tubes. The furnace sidewalls are supplied by the two side wall bottom
headers. All the bottom headers are connected together in the form of a ring.
Some tubes of the furnace rear wall form the supply tubes to the extended
side wall inlet headers.
The extended side wall tubes terminate in the rear section of the side
wall top headers.
The water in the furnace walls front and rear water-walls and the
extended sidewalls absorb heat. The resulting mixture of water and steam is
collected in the outlet headers and discharged into the steam drum through a
series of riser tubes In the steam drum separation of water and steam takes
place .The boiler water mixes with the incoming water .The saturated steam is
led to the super heater connecting tubes.
Passing through the various stages of super heaters, the steam is
superheated to the design temperature. From the super heater outlet header
the superheated steam is led to the turbine via the main steam lines.

Steam Drum Internals:

The function of the steam drum internals is to separate water and

steam from the mixture generated in the furnace walls. The steam purification
primarily depends on the extent of moisture removal, since solids in steam are
carried by the moisture associated with it. The drum internals reduce the
dissolved solids content of the steam to below the acceptable limit.
The fitting and alignment of drum internals are very important fro its
efficient performance. Any misalignment with gap will lead to heavy carry-over
of impurities into steam which will get deposited in the superheater and
The separating chamber should be leak proof for efficient performance
of drum internals. After the fit-up of drum internals is over, the inside of the
drum should be thoroughly cleaned and should be free from foreign materials.


The purpose of the economizer is to preheat the boiler feed water

before it is introduced into the steam drum, and to recover some of the heat
from the flue gases leaving the boiler.
The economizer is located in the boiler real gas pass below the rear
horizontal superheater. Each section is composed of a number of parallel tube
circuits. All tube circuits originate from the inlet header and discharge into the
outlet header through economizer intermediate headers and economizer
hanger tubes.
Always use only deaerated water for boiler feeding. This is essential to
keep down the inside corrosion of pressure parts including economizer.
In STPS Plain tube type of economizer are installed. The staggered
formation induces more gas side turbulence than the in line and so results in a
higher rate of heat transfer. However, it has the disadvantage of giving a
higher draught loss.

Super heater:

Superheated (SH) are meant for raising the steam temperature above
the saturation temperature present trend is to limit the superheated and
reheated steam temperature around 5400C. The percentage of heat to super
heater and reheater for the 165 bar boiler is approx 50%.
The super heater is composed of four basic stages or sections: a
Pendant Spaced Section, a Platen Section, a Rear Horizontal Section and the
Steam Cooled Wall and Roof Section.
The platen Section is located directly above the furnace in front the
furnace arch. It absorbs heat mainly by radiation.
The Pendant Section is located behi9ng the screen tubes. The
predominant mode of heat transfer is convection.
The Horizontal Section of the superheater is located in the rear vertical
gas pass above the economizer. This is the primary superheater of the
convective, counter flow type.The steam cooled wall suction from the side,
front and rear walls and roof of the vertical gas pass.

Steam Flow:
Saturated dry steam from the drum follows the course that is:
Steam cooled wall roof tubes –steam cooled side wall tubes – extended
steam cooled side wall tubes – front steam cooled wall tubes – steam
cooled roof and rear wall tubes- super heater rear horizontal assemblies –
super heater de-super heater- platen super heater – pendant super heater.
Super heated steam from the pendant super heater outlet header goes to
the turbine via the main steam lines.
After passing through the high-pressure stages of the turbine, steam is
returned to the re-heater via the cold reheat lines. The reheat de-super
heaters are located in the cold reheat lines.
Reheat flow through the unit is as follows:
Front pendant re heater – rear pendant re-heater.
After being reheated to the design temperature, the reheated steam is
returned to the low-pressure section of the turbine via the hot reheat line.

Reheater are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from
which part of energy already been extracted by HP turbine.
The reheater is composed of two stages or section, the front pendant
vertical spaced platen section and the rea5r pendant vertical spaced platen
The rear pendant vertical spaced section is located above the furnace
arch between the water- cooled screen tubes and rear water wall hanger
The front pendant vertical spaced plated section is located between the
rear waterwall hanger tubes and the superheated platen section.
All reheater drains and vents are opened before lighting off. The vents
and drains to the atmosphere must be closed prior to raising a vacuum in the
condenser. Drains connecting with the condenser may be lift open until the
boiler is under light load

Desuperheaters are provided in the superheater connecting links and
the cold reheater lines to permit reduction of steam temperature when
necessary and t maintain the temperatures at design values within the limits
of the nozzle capacity.
Temperature reduction is accomplished by injecting spray water into
the path of the steam through a nozzle at the entering end of the
desuprheaterthe spray water source is from the boiler feed water system.
The location of the desuperheaters helps to ensure against water
carryover to the turbine and also eliminates the necessity for high temperature
resisting materials in the desuperheater construction.

Water Cooled Furnaces:

Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited has developed the modern water-cooled

Furnace is the primary part of boiler where the chemical energy available in
the fuel is converted to thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed
for efficient and complete combustion. Major factors that assist for efficient
combustion are time of residence (fuel) inside the furnace, temperature inside
the furnace and turbulence which causes rapid mixing between fuel and air.
It has following Advantage:
• In furnace not only combustion but also heat transfer is taking place
• The maintenance work involved in repairing the fire bricks is
practically eliminated.
• Due to heat transfer in the furnace the flue gas leaving the furnaces
is reduced to the acceptable level to the superheating surfaces.

1. Internal Deposits : It is essential that the tubes be kept free
form scale formation and copper and iron oxides deposits.
This is accomplished by proper boiler water and feed water
In high pressure boilers iron and copper oxides introduced
form the pre-boiler system, may lead to internal corrosion in
the areas of deposits and eventually cause tube failures.
Feed water treatment in this case comprises corrosion
control in pre-boiler system.

2. Blow down: Boiler blow down used as a means of

controlling boiler water concentration and to remove sludge
formation. The frequency of blowing down depends upon
local condition, such as: character of the water nature of
feed water treatment, design and rating of e boiler etc. in
most cases the continuous blow down system is sufficient.

3. Ash Deposits (slugging): The amount and the rate of

slagging depends largely on the type of fuel burned. The
furnace walls cannot be entirely kept free from deposits, but
should be kept “reasonably clean”. Heavy local accumulation
could be avoided by proper use off soot blowing equipment.
The wall blowers should not be used indiscriminately but only
as required in the affected areas.

Gradual fouling of the furnace walls during commercial operation will

cause increasing furnace outgas temperature and high steam temperature
which may result in exceeding the range of steam temperature controls. Wall
blowers can be used to keep these controls, within their operating range.
Flame inside the furnace should be watched and taken care to keep
them off from impinging furnace walls. The selection of burners and loading is
to be done such that the heat loading is uniform in furnace. The leakage if air
through the furnace should be avoided.

Soot Blowers:
Because of the mature of the deposits resulting from the combustion of
coal, and to a relatively smaller extent from oil, means have to be provided to
prevent an accumulation of deposits from chocking the boiler gas passes and
to maintain the boiler heating surfaces in a suitably clean condition for
effective heat transfer whilst on load. The most commonly used method of on
load cleaning is soot blowing, although other methods, such as shot cleaning
on economizers and tubular air heaters have been used to a more limited
extent on order boiler.
Steam has mainly been used as the soot blowing medium, but recently
the used low-pressure air as a soot blowing medium has been introduced as
this offers a number of advantage.

The construction of the furnace bottom depends on fuel and ash
conditions. Bottom designs most commonly used for coal fired units are of the
open hopper type, often referred to as the dry bottom type. For gaseous and
oil fuels, closed bottoms are generally utilized.

Open Hoop Type Construction:

In this type of bottom construction two furnace water walls, usually the
front and rear walls slope down toward the centre of the furnace to form the
inclined side of the bottom. Ash and /or slag from the furnace is discharged
through the bottom opening into an ash hopper directly below it. Depending
on the height of the furnace, six to fourteen inches clearance between the
furnace and ash hopper is allowed for downward expansion of the furnace
walls. Either a water seal arrangement or a mechanical seal (expansion joint)
prevents leakage of air at this point.


The total air flow through the unit is handled by two numbers axial
reaction forced draft fans and two numbers axial reaction primary air fans.
The flue gas produced in the furnace from combustion of fuel is evacuated by
two numbers radial double suction Induced draft fans. The schematic of air
and flue gas system is enclosed.

Air System:
1. Combustion Air (Secondary Air) : The forced draft fans supply the
required secondary air for combustion.
This air is preheated by two no. RPAH. Control of secondary air flow is
done by FD fan blade pitch control. The distribution of hot secondary air to
the wind box compartments is controlled by “Secondary air dampers”.

2. Air for Drying and Transportation of pulverized coal (Primary Air) :

The cold primary air fans supply the air required for drying the coal in
the tube mills/mixing box and for transporting the pulverized fuel from
both ends of the tube mill to the coal burners. The primary air is heated
in the primary sectors of the Rotary RAPH.
The control for the primary air pressure is achieved through PA fan inlet

3. Scanner Cooling Air : Each boiler is provided with 20 no. VISIBLE

LIGHT SCANNER. The two no. of scanner air fans are provided to
supply the required air for cooling these flame scanners. The supply of
air is taken from FD fan discharge. The air is filtered and boosted to the
required pressure by the scanner air fans. Additionally an emergency
air supply connection from atmosphere is provided for supplying the
cooling air to the scanners in case both FD fans trip.

4. Seal Air: Six no. of seal air fans are (2 nos. per mill) are provided for
each boiler. The sealing air is required for mill trunounim mill
discharges valves and gravimetric feeders, of the two seal air fans
provided for each tube mill, one is in operation and the other standby.
The seal air takes suction from the atmosphere.

Gas system:
The flue gases produced in the furnace as a result of
combustion, travels upward in the furnace, across the horizontal pass and
downward through the second pass of the boiler to the air preheater.
Two no. of Induced draft fans are provided to evacuate the
flue gas from furnace to the chimney. The ID fans are provided with
hydraulic coupling and inlet damper control.
Atmospheric corrosion of ferrous materials proceeds rapidly in the
presence of oxygen and moisture. The oxides produced are objectionable and
can be transported to critical heat transfer areas as well as to the turbine. Pit
type corrosion can also occur in walls. In large boilers, with numerous
complex circuits and bends, it is practically impossible to completely dry the
boiler in preparation for storage.

In the power plants, usage of guillotine gate is probably the best device for
isolation and it can be relied upon to operate completely even in hot, noxious
and dirty environments and under corrosive conditions.
Guillotine gates are recommended for EP inlet and outlet, ID fan inlet and
outlet, Primary air fan outlet and mill isolation from cold and hot air.
Guillotine is simply a free moving obstruction tolerant blade which travels in a
rigid frame, is triggered by reliable operator, travels to close against a non-
fouling rigid seat, and has adequate provision for clean out.
Fro services operating 2600C or above, bonnet enclosures are provided to
limit thermal differential during operation.

The guillotine must be used only in a fully opened fully closed position and
never left in an intermediate position. When the gate blade is open, the gate
blade must be withdrawn completely form the seal. If the gate blade should
stall while closing run the gate blade up to 150 mm and attempt to close
again. This procedure until the gate blade is fully closed.

Fuel Oil Burning System

Fuel Oil Atomization:

Atomizes the process of spraying the fuel oil into fine mist,
for better mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. While passing through
the spray nozzles of the oil gun, the pressure energy of the oil converts
into velocity energy, which breaks up the oil stream into fine particles. for
satisfactory atomization the viscosity shall be less than 15-20 centistokes.

HEA Ignitors:
HEA Ignitors are provided in this Boiler. This ignitor uses
LFO/HFO as main fuel and this is ignited using spark and is mounted
adjacent to oil gun.

Air Cooled Oil Guns:

The atomized assembly of an operating oil gun is
protected from the hot furnace radiation by the flowing fuel oil and steam
which keeps it relatively cool. The oil gun assemblies supplied for this
project have been designed for air cooing provision.

Burner Trip Valves:

To control the atomizing medium and fuel flow to the oil
guns, pneumatic operated trip valves are used.

Main Parts of Boiler:

1. The boilers consist of the following main parts:
2. Forced Draft Fan (FDF)
3. Air Preheater (RAH)
4. Burners
5. Furnace
6. Up Rise Tubes
7. Down Comer Tubes
8. Water Tubes
9. Super Heaters
10. Gas Recirculation Fan (GRCF)
11. Re-Heater
12. Induced Draft Fan (IDF)

Air preheater is a heat exchanger in which air temp. is raised by transferring
heat from other fluids such as flue gas . Since air heater can be successfully
employed to reclaim heat from flue gas at lower temp. level ,then it is possible
with economizer the heat ejected to chimney can be reduced to a great extent
thus increasing the efficiency of a boiler.

Regeneration Air Pre Heater

It is an essential boiler auxiliary, because hot air is necessary for rapid and
efficient combustion in the furnace and also for drying coal in the milling plant.

1. Heating element - Hot end, Hot intermediate, Cold end
Materials - Carbon & Corten steel
2. Rotor main drive motor - 11 kW, 1450 rpm, 50 Hz
Coupling - Fluid coupling 11.5 fcu
2. Bearing
Guide bearing : Spherical roller bearing
Support bearing : Spherical roller thrust
Thermostat: Burling thermostat
3. Oil capacity
Guide brg. Housing : 25 lt.
Support Brg. Housing: 150 lt.
4. Steam Coil Airpreheater
Number of steam Coil APH : 2 Nos per boiler
Installed position : Vertical
Design Pressure: 20 kg/cm2
Design Temperature: 2500C
Weight of One steam coil APH: 1950 kg.




The Ljunstrom RPAH absorbs waste heat from flue gas and transfers this
heat to incoming cold air buy means of continuously rotation heat transfer
As the rotor slowly revolve the mass of the elements alternately through the
air and gas passages, heat is absorbed by the element surfaces passing
through the hot gas stream; then,, as same surfaces are carried through the
air stream, they release the stored up heat thus increasing the temperature of
the incoming combustion or process air.

Parts of RAPH
Heating Element
The heating element is a compact arrangement of formed metal sheets
contained in the rotor in two or more layers.
Cleaning - A pressure pump, garden type, pneumatic spray gun of 5 to 10
lt. capacity is suitable to apply anti rust oil with good penetration.

Rotor Bearing
The complete rotor is supported by a thrust bearing. The load is transmitted to
the thrust bearing by a trunnion, bolted to the lower end of the rotor post of by
an extension to the rotor post. To guide the upper end of the rotor, a guide
trunnion is bolted to the face of the rotor post. The position of this trunnion is
maintained by a radial guide bearing assembly. Both the support and guide
bearings are lubricated with an oil bath.

Rotor Drive Unit

The driving force for turning the rotor is applied at its periphery. A pin rack
mounted on the rotor shell is engaged by a pinion attached to the low speed
shaft of a power driven speed reducer. Auxiliary Drive - This drive
ensure the continued operation of the Preheater even if power to the electric
motors interrupted. Generally, Air Motor is used for the auxiliary drive.
Caution - Air motor should not be operated without the Lubricator.

Rotor seals
Seals are providing at both the ends of the Air Preheater to minimize leakage
between the air side and the gas side. The hot and cold end radial seals are
attached to each diaphragm of the rotor. Seals provided at the rotor post are
set to operate with minimum clearances with respect to the horizontal sealing
surface go the sector plate. The bypass / circumferential seals provide sealing
between the periphery of the rotor and the connection plate/housing, all seals
may be adjusted to necessary clearances.

Cleaning Device
Cleaning Device is provided at the cold end (gas side) to remove soot
deposits on the heating elements.
It consists of an electric motor coupled to a gear driven crank mechanism
which oscillated the swivel heater carrying the nozzle pope or pipes.

Water washing of air heater

When residua deposit accumulations cannot be removed readily by soot
blowing, it, sometimes becomes necessary to water wash the heating surface
to maintain acceptable draft losses through the air preheater. Most deposit
accumulations forming on the air prehearater heat transfer surface are highly
soluble in water and, therefore, are easily removed by washing provided a
sufficient quantity of water is used.
Water source - Fresh water is ordinarily used for washing air preheaters. The
most commonly used sources of water for washing air preheaters are rivers,
lakes, and ponds although well water and house service water are also used

Rotor Support Bearing
The rotor support bearing of the Ljungstrom air preheater may be lubricated
by one of the two methods. It may be either bathe lubricated, or lubricated by
means of a combined bath and forced circulation and filtering system.
The choice of lubricant will depend on the expected maximum operation
temperature of the support bearing. This, In turn will depend upon the type of
lubrication an cooling system, and upon condition surrounding the support
The lubrication oil used may be either an FP type of lubricate with lead
napthenate additive, pr a straight mineral oil.
The oil selected for the support bearing will also be suitable for the GUIDE

Rotor stoppage alarm

It is a device which is used to give a signal when the rotor is stopped without
our control.

Reason for rotor stopping remedial measure

1. Big foreign materials jammed in Thoroughly cleaning the

Air Preheater after
Between the rotor and sector plates. maintenance.

2. Main drive will fail Proper maintenance of

the main motor

1. It compact and hence save space and structure coal.
2. This is the type can be economically used for high capacity boiler.
3. Holes in the elements due to corrosion etc. will not materially affect for
performance of the heater.
4. Ducting arrangements are neat, streamlined, simple and less costly
5. Less weight of metal permit economic usage of alloy steel.


1. Moving parts increase the possibility of outages.

2. Leakage of air into, gas , dust into air, because of entrainment
by rotary action, Leakage of air into gas because of the
impossibility of perfect sealing.

Fouling , plugging and Corrosion

Deposits in airheateras are initiated by condensation of acid or moisture

from flue gas on metal surface. Degree of fouling depends on air heater
heating element metal surface. Minimum metal temperature occurs at the
cold end, where as a result most fouling and corrosion occur.
As coal contains less sulphur corrosion is not nor normally as much a
problem as fouling and hence lower exit gas temperature to a level of
1200C. The gas outlet temperature and /or air inlet temperature has to be
raised to restrict the corrosion to the permissible level. During starting and
at low loads the flue gas exit temperature fails to a low value that will lead
to corrosion.

The functions of condenser are:
1. To provide lowest economic heat rejection temperature from the steam.
Thus saving on steam required per unit of electricity.
2. To convert exhaust steams to water for reuse this saving on feed water
3. Deaeration of make-up water introduced in the condenser.
4. To form a convenient point for introducing makes up water.


Surface Condenser:
This type is generally used for modern steam turbine
installations. Condensation of exhaust steam takes place on the outer surface
of the tubes, which are cooled by water flowing inside them.
The condenser essentially consists of a shell, which encloses the steam space.
Tubes carrying cooling water pass through the steam space. The tubes are
supplied cooling water form inlet water box on one side and discharged, after
taking away heat form the steam, to the outlet water box on the other side.
Instead of one inlet and one outlet water boxes, the may be two or more pair
of separate inlet-outlet water boxes, each supplying cooling water to a
separate bundle of tubes. This enables cleaning and maintenance of part of
the tubes while turbine can be kept running on a reduced load.
Description of condenser
The condenser group consists of two condensers, each connected with
exhaust part of low pressure casing. A by-pass branch pipe has
interconnected these woe condensers. The condenser has been designed to
create vacuum at the exhaust of steam turbine and to provide pure
condensate for reusing as feed water for the boilers. The tube layout of
condenser has been arranged to ensure efficient heat transfer from steam to
cooking water passing through the tubes, and at the same time the resistance
to flow of steam has been reduced to the barest minimum.

350% capacity condensate pumping sets are installed for pumping the
condensate from condenser to the deaerator4 through low-pressure heaters.
Two pumps are for normal operation and one works as stand by pump.

Materials for Condenser tubes

Selection of tube material mainly on the quality of cooling water

and the cost. Coppers alloys are preferred as copper has very high heat
transfer coefficient. But as copper has very little mechanical strength; it has to
be reinforced by alloying with other metals.
Stainless steel tubes has also been used and has good corrosion resistance
though heat transfer coefficient is quite lower ht an the copper alloy.

Regenerative Feed Heating System

If steam is bled from a turbine and is made to give up its latent and any
superheat it may possess, to a heater this system is called regenerative,
because the fluid gives up heat, which would be otherwise wasted, to the fluid
whilst in another state to raise its temperature. The highest theoretical
temperature to which the feed water may be raised in the heater is the
saturation temperature of the bled steam. There is an optimum point at which
the steam is bled form the turbine once a feed temperature is selected, a
tapping point near the stop valve produces no gain in efficiency as practically
live steam is used for heating.

Regenerative system of 250 MW unit

The regenerative system of the turbine consists of four low-pressure heaters,

two gland coolers, one deaerator and three high-pressure heaters. The
condense is drawn by condensate pumps from the hot well of condenser and
is pumped to the deaerator through gland coolers and low pressure heaters
where it is progressively heated up by the steam extracted from seals and
bled points of the turbine. The drain of condensate steam on LP heaters No.
2,3 and 4 flows in cascade and is ultimately pumped into the main
condenasate line after heater No.2 or flows to condenser. The feed water
after being deaerated in the deraerator is drawn buy the boiler feed pump and
pumped to boiler through high pressure heaters where it is heated up by the
bled steam from the turbine. The drain of condensed steam of HP heaters
flows in cascade and under normal load conditions flows to the deaerator.


This bypass system has been provided to allow the steam generator to build
up, during start-up, matching steam parameter with the tribune. The steam
generated is dumped into the condenser, thus avoiding loss of boiler water.
This system enables starting of he unit of sliding parameters and also
facilitates hot restarting of the unit. In the event of loss of load on the turbine,
the bypass system disposes the steam produced by; the boiler automatically
to he condenser without affecting the boiler operation.
The bypass system had two sections: HP & LP. The HP-Bypass system
diverts the steam before main steam valve to he cold reheat CRH line. HP
Bypass system also reduces the rated steam parameters of the incoming
steam from the superheated to the steam condition expected in the CRH line
(i.e. steam temp. and pressure after HP turbine exhaust).
The LP Bypass diverts the incoming steam from hot reheat line before
intercepting valves to he condenser after reducing the HRH steam parameters
to the conditions approximately to that of LP steam turbine exhaust steam.
HP Bypass station is utilised for the following tasks:
1. To establish flow at the outlet of superheated for raising boiler parameters
during starts up.
2. To maintain or controls steam pressure at pre-set value in main steam line
during start up.
3. To warm up the steam lines.
4. To control steam temperature down of HP bypass at the reset value

LP Bypass station is utilised for the following tasks:

1. Control of steam pressure after reheater.
2. Establish flow of steam from reheat lines to condenser by its opening,
proportional to the opening of HP bypass valves.

Condensate from hot well is pumped to de aerator by
condensate extraction pump. Functions of de aerator are: -
1. Removal of dissolved air/oxygen in boiler water.
2. Chemical dosing for maintaining quality of boiler water.
3. Regenerative heating of feed water for increasing its
temperature and efficiency of plant.
4. Storage of feed water in water/steam cycle.

Booster Pump
50 % tandem boiler feed pump sets are supplied to this contact, three pump
sets for each boiler. Two sets are run in parallel, supplying each boiler, with
one pump set being on stand-by.
Each pump set consists of a “FA1856” booster pump, directly driven form one
end of the shaft of an electric driving motor, and a “FK6D30’ boiler feed pump
driven from the opposite end of the motor shaft through a variable speed
turbo-coupling. The drive is transmitted, in each case through a spacer type
flexible coupling.
The bearings in the booster pump and pressure stage pump and in the motor
are lubricated from a forced lubricating oil system incorporated in the turbo
The booster pump is a single stage, horizontal, axial split casing type, having
the suction and discharge branches on the casing bottom half, thus allowing
the pump internals to be removed without disturbing the suction and
discharge pipe work of the alignment between the pump and the motor.
The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and the non-drive end by
mechanical seals which are flushed by a supply of clarified water.

Pump type : FA1856

Direction of rotation : Anti - clockwise
(Viewed from drive end)
Liquid pumped : Boiler Feed Water
Suction temp. : 161.10C
Flow rate : 490 m3/hr.
Efficiency : 81 %
Input power : 151 KW
Speed of pump : 1485 rpm

Components of Booster Pump:

• Pump Casing
• Rotating Assembly
• Journal and Thrust bearing
• Bearing Housing
• Mechanical Seals
• Motor / Pump Casing

Boiler Feed pump


The FK6D30 type Boiler Feed Pump is a six stage, horizontal

centrifugal pump of barrel casing design.
The pump internals are designed as cartridge which can be easily
removed for maintenance without disturbing the suction and
discharge piping work or the alignment of the pump and the turbo
The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and non-drive end by
mechanical seals, each seal being flushed by water in a closed
circuit and which is circulated by the action is cooled by, [assign
through a seal cooler, one per pump, which is circulated with
clarified cooling water. The rotating assembly is supported by plain
white metal lined journal bearings and axially located by a Glacier
double tilting pad thrust bearing.


Pump type : FK6D30

No. of stages : 6
Direction of rotation : Anti – clockwise
(Viewed form drive end)
Suction temp. : 161.10C
Design flow : 490 m3/hr.
Efficiency : 81 %
Speed : 5310 rpm
Input power : 3322 KW
Drive Motor
Manufacturer : B.H.E.L., Haridwar
Rating : 3550 KW
Speed : 1492 rpm
Electrical supply : 6.6 kv, 3-ph, 50 Hz

Components of Boiler Feed Pump:

• Pump Casing
• Discharge Cover
• Suction Guide
• Ring Section Assembly
• Mechanical Seal
• Journal and Thrust bearing
• Bearing Housing
• Hydraulic Balance
• Flexible Coupling
The lubricating oil for the journal and thrust bearings, of the booster pump and
boiler feed pumps and the drive motor will be supplied form the lubrication oil
system associated with the hydraulic coupling and should be as follows:

Condensate Extraction Pump

Technical Specification:

Type : EN 8 H 32
Direction of rotation viewed : Clock-wise
Suction temp. : 46.10C
Sp. Gravity : 0.9901
Speed : 1485
Power absorbed : 266 KW
Efficiency : 78 %


The condensate Extraction Pumps are of the vertical, eight stage, Centrifugal
canister type, with the driving motor supported on a fabricated head piece and
the eight inter connected pump stage are suspended below the head piece.
The pump discharge branch and suction branch are formed on the head piece
above floor level. The eight pump stages are contained within a fabricated
canister, and each stage casing is located by spigot and secured together
with bolts, nuts and lock washer. The canister is suspended and secure to a
foundation ring with screws. The head piece is also secure to the canister with
Each pump directly driven through a flexible coupling by a 325 KW electric

Components of Condensate Extraction Pumps:

• Head piece
• Foundation Ring
• Canister
• Stuffing Box Assembly
• Thrust and journal bearing assembly
• Coupling
• Driving motor
Variable Speed Fluid Coupling

Some boiler feed pumps the KHI types are coupled with their driving motor
through a variable speed hydraulic coupling. The hydraulic coupling serves
the purpose of controlling the speed of feed pump for maintaining definite
delivery head and delivered quantity of the feed water as per requirement of
the boiler. This reduces the power consumption particularly at part load

Basic Principle and Operation:

A fluid coupling is basically a combination of pump and turbine connected in

series. The rotating impeller energy to the operating fluid. The resultant
centrifugal force causes the fluid to flow outwards whereby the velocity is
increased by the impeller. The flow of the fluid into the runner takes place at
the outer diameter, where the energy is transmitted from the fluid. The fluid
contained in the runner blade chambers then flows inwards to the centre and
back into the impeller blade chambers.
The working circuit is governed by a system which can continuously extract or
supply the working compartment fluid. This enables precise adjustment of the
driven machine speed to be achieved. The working compartment is the
chamber between the primary and secondary wheels which is a connected to
a rotating chamber consisting of an inner and an outer shell. The oil level in
the working compartment determines the speed at the output side of the
coupling and depends upon the radial position of a scoop tube located in the
scoop chamber.


three fans:

1. F.D.FAN (Forced fan)

2. I.D.FAN (Induced fan)
3. P.A.FAN (Primary fan)

Forced Draft Fan

In the Axial Reaction Fans (Type AP), the major part of (about 80 %) energy
transferred is converted into static pressure in the impeller itself. The rest of
the energy is converted into static pressure in the diffuser. These fans are
generally driven at constant speed. The flow is controlled by varying the angle
of incidence of impeller blades. It therefore becomes possible by this process
to achieve high efficiencies even during part load operation.
The blade pitching operation is performed by mechanical linkages connected
to a hydraulic servomotor which is flanged to the impeller.

Technical Data:
Application : Forced Draft Fan
No. off : 2
Medium handled : Atmospheric Air
Orientation : Vertical Suction and
Horizontal Delivery
Capacity : 105.2 m3/Sec
Temp. Of medium : 450C
Speed : 1480 rpm
Coupling : Rigiflex coupling
Drive motor
Rating : 700 KW
Speed : 1480 rpm
Fan Weight : 8 Tones

Type of fan regulation : Blade Pitch Control

When looking in flow direction, the fan consists of the

following Components:
• Suction chamber
• Fan Housing
• Rotor Consisting go shaft, one impeller with adjustable blades with
pitch control mechanism.
• Main bearings (Antifriction bearings)
• Outlet Guide Vane housing with guide vanes
• Diffuser

Fan Accessories:
Rigiflex Shaft Coupling:
The fan shaft is connected to the motor shaft by means of
Rigiflex couplings.
Oil Circulation System :
The oil system consists of an oil tank, two pumps(on
Stand by), filters, coolers and necessary fitting.
Drive Motor:
These fans are driven by constant speed Synchronous
Induction motors.
These fans are provided with a silencer to attenuate.
Airborne noise to acceptable level.

The lubrication oil for the fan bearings ate supplied by the
centralized oil pumps which supply oil for the hydraulic servo meter also.
Recommend Oil:
Servo Prime - 68 of IOC
Turbinal - 68 of HPC


Radial fans manufactured are single stage, single/ double suction,
simply supported/overhung centrifugal machine which can be used to
handle fresh air as will as hot gases in power plant application.
In this, the medium handled enters the impeller axially and after
passing through the impeller leaves radially. A large part of the energy
transferred to the medium is converted into kinetic energy as the medium
passes through the impeller. The spiral casing converts part of the kinetic
energy in the medium to pressure energy. These fans are generally driven
by constant speed motors. The output of the fan is usually controlled by
inlet dampers or inlet guide vanes or by varying the speed of the fan by
suitable speed control device.

Technical data:
Application : Induced Draft Fan
No. off : 3
Type : NDZV 33 S
Medium handled : Flue Gas
Orientation : 450 Top incl. Suction
Bottom Horizontal,
Capacity : 250.5 m3/Sec
Temp. of medium : 1540C
Speed : 740 rpm
Coupling : Hydraulic Coupling
Drive motor
Rating : 1750 KW
Speed : 740 rpm
Fan Weight : 52.7 Tones

The major sub-assemblies of the fan are as follows:

• Impeller with shaft assembly

• Bearings and thermometers
• Suction chamber and spiral casing
• Flow regulation devices
• Shaft seals
• Couplings

• The fan is drive by an electric motor.

• The fan bearings are lubricated by means of oil
lubrication. The oil must not foam during operation. Foam removing agents
containing silicon must not be utilized. The oil must have good anti-corrosion


PA Fan is same as forced draft fan. Only the differences is that in this fan
there are two stages AP fan(Axial Profiles fan), the two impellers are
connected by means of a link rod, with this we can operate both the impeller
blades synchronously.

Technical data :
Application : Primary Air Fan
No. off : 3
Type : AP 2 17/12
Medium Handled : Atmospheric Air
Speed : 1480 rpm
Rating : 1400 KW
Fan wt. : 10.8 tones


E.S.P. is a highly efficient device for extraction of

suspended particles and fly ash from the industrial flue gases.


E.S.P can handle large volume of gases from which solid

particles are to be removed Advantages of E.S.P. are :- High collection
efficiency Low resistance path for gas flow Treatment of large volumes at high
temp.Ability of cope with corrosive atm.An E.S.P. can be defined as a device
which utilized electric forces to separate suspended particles from flue gases
Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles Migration
of dust particles. Deposition of charge particles on collector surface. Removal
of paE.S.P. consist of two sets of electrodes, one in the form of thin wire,
called discharge or emitting electrode in the form of plates. The emitting
electrodes are placed in the center or midway between two plates and are
connected to-ve polarity of H.V. D.C source of order of 37 KV collecting
electrodes are connected to + ve polarity. The voltage gradient between
electrodes creates “CORONA DISCHARGE”, Ionizing the gas
molecules. The dust particles present in flue gases acquire -ve charge and
deposited on collecting electrodes. The deposited particles are removed by
knocking the electrode by a process called “RAPPING’ DONE BY “
Cooling Towers:
Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat
to the
atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to
remove process heat and
cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air
to cool the
working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications
include cooling the
circulating water used in oil refineries, chemical plants, power stations.
Cooling Water Pump:
The motor of the CWP has following specification;

Type: Y1600-16/2150
Out Put Power: 1600KW
Stator Voltage: 6.6KV
Speed: 372rpm
Frequency: 50Hz
Stator Rated Current:182A
Stator Connection: 2Y
Ambient Temperature: 50C
Insulation Class B
Weight 17500Kg
CW Pump:

Type is single stage double suction centrifugal pump

Type: 1400S25-1
Capacity: 16000m3/H
Speed: 370rpm
Power : 1600KW
Weight : 35000kg
Head : 25m
NP SHR : 8.5m


Wagon tippler has rated unloading capacity of twelve box wagon
per hour, including shunting and spotting time of haulage equipment.
For vibrating feeders of capacity 350 tons/hr. each have been
provided feeding unloads coal. A steel hopper has been provided in crusher
house to receive coal and distribute it through manually operated rack and
pinion gate to three vibrating screens of 675 t/hr. capacity each coal above
200 mm size passes on granules for crushing and reduction in size. Coal
below 20 mm size passes granular and discharged on to crushed coal
conveyor belt.
Following permutation and combination of operation are
possible with installed system. To transfer all crushed coal received from
crusher house to live storage pipe. To transfer part of received crushed coal
to plant and to balance to storage yard. To deliver the raw coal bunkers part
and received crushed coal mixed with balanced coal from the live storage
pipe. To transfer the plant crushed coal at 750 T/hr from the reclaim live pile
and simultaneously stock and s/ road. the vibrating ones as stated above can
be obtained by the use of flap gates which are installed on various chute and
two vibrating feeders, installed on tower. The coal carried on various
conveyers shall be main monitored to ensure proper loading and distributing
weightless and vibrating feeders.


The ash handling system provide for continuous
collection of bottom ash from the furnace hearth and its intermittent removal
by hydro ejectors to a common slurry sump. It also provides for removal of fly
ash to the common slurry sump. Each boiler is provided with ash precipitator
for collecting the fly ash from the flue gases with high efficiency of collection to
minimize the dust mains and to reduce the wear of induced draft fan. The fly
ash separated from flue gases in the ash precipitator is collected in hoppers at
the bottom from where it is mixed with water to form slurry and disposed off to
pumping area by means of hydro ash pumps. Bottom ash from the boiler
furnace is passed through slag crushers and then slurred to the slurry
chamber at the suction of the ash disposal pumps. These are high pressure
and low pressure pumps for this purpose. At a time one pump is working and
other two are stand by. From the ash disposal pump house ash slurry is
pumped through pipe lines to the ash dump area within about 1.5 km away
from the ash disposal pump house. Too separate discharge lines are provided
one for each unit but only one line is used. The ash slurry from the two units is
taken in one discharge line through electrically operated valves.

The natural water contains solid, liquid and
gaseous impurities and therefore, this water cannot be used for the
generation of steam in the boilers. The impurities present in the water should
be removed before its use in steam generation. The necessity for reducing the
corrosive nature & quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed water
has become increasingly important with the advent for high pressure, critical &
supercritical boilers.


The impurities present in the feed water are classified as given below –

1. Undissolved and suspended solid materials

• Turbidity and Sediment
• Sodium and Potassium Salts
• Chlorides
• Iron
• Manganese & Silica

2. Dissolved Salts and Minerals

• Calcium and Magnesium Slats

3. Dissolved Gases
• Oxygen
• Carbon Dioxide

4. Other Materials
• Free Mineral Acid
• Oil


The various sources of water can be broadly classifies as:
a) Rain water
b) Surface water (Rivers, Streams, Ponds, Lakes)
c) Ground water ( Springs, Shallow wells and Deep Wells)


The major impurities of water can be classified in three main groups

Non- ionic and Undissolved :
These are mainly turbidity, slat,mud, dirt and other
suspended matter

1. .Ionic and Dissolved

2. Gaseous Impurities : Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen

Removal Of Impurities:
Our major concern is industrial water
treatment, whereby, water used directly or indirectly in an industrial process is
made suitable for that particular application. The use of water in boilers fro
steam generation is an obvious industrial use. Depending on the process,
varying degrees of purity of treated water are required. For example, a textile
processing unit will require soft and clear water for process use: a chemical
plant or electronic components manufacturing unit will require ultra-pure water
containing total dissolved impurities not exceeding 0.5mg/litre or less.
Pulverized coal Systems:
For steam generation, there is basically system of
pulverization normally in STPS plant used is Direct Firing System

Direct Firing System:

1. Hot Primary System:

In this system the fan is located before the pulverized

and handles complete primary air required for drying a transporting the coal.
Disadvantages are that the fan is required to handle high temperature air
resulting in high a fan power. Separate sealing air fans are required to seal
the mill and Journal bearings.

2. Cold Primary Air System:

The primary air fan handles clean cold air either from
FD fan discharge or taking suction from atmosphere. The advantages are
saving in fan power and maintenance. The only disadvantage. Is the cost
increase due to additional duct work and air heater.

3. Suction System:

In this system the mill operates under negative

pressure. Suction being created by an exhauster placed after the mill. The
exhauster handles all the coal air mixture and forces it into the burners. The
advantage of suction system is that the plant can be maintained clean. The
disadvantage of this system id that he high speed exhauster has to handle
coal air mixture and tends to wear more as the pulverized size increase.

4. Pressurized Exhauster system:

In this system the mills operate under positive pressure.

With exhauster provided at hr exit of pulverize to boost the pulverized coal
into the pressurized furnace. Since the pulverized operates with lesser
pressure than forced draft fan pressure.
In plant TUBE type of pulverized mill is used.

Drum/Tube mills:
This type mills is slow speed type. They operate at a
speed of 17-20 rev/min and formerly were designed as suction mills.
The mill drum carrying the ball charge rotate in the
antifriction bearings. Raw-coal is fed to the drum through the inlet elbow and
gets crushed to powder inside the mill drum. The ball charge and the coal are
carried to certain height inside the drum and slowed to fall down. Due to the
impact of the balls on cola particle sand due to attrition as the particles slide
over each other and also over the liners, the coal gets crushed. Hot flue gases
are used for drying and transporting the pulverized coal from the mill to the
As a result of this high availability in a tube- ball mill
installation, it is not normal to provide standby milling capacity; this helps to
reduce the overall capital cost of the plant. Power requirements have also
been reduced, but they are still much greater than those for medium-speed


• High output possible, up to 50 tones per hour.

• No maintenance over long periods
• High availability
• Because of high availability no stand by capacity is required
• No mill rejects, no problems with ‘tramp’ iron
• Reserve of fuel within mill makes output more stable.


• High power consumption

• Some problems with control of coal level within the mill.
• Virtually constant power consumption at all loads; low load
operation of therefore not economical.
• With high moisture content fuels a high primary air temperature
is required because of the low air /fuel ratio
• Unplanned stops leave the mill full of coal which, under
unfavorable conditions, can ignite. This coal has to be quenched and
even dug out otherwise the mill cannot be restarted.

Coal feeders deliver the cola from the bunkers to the mill. Since
the amount of coal delivered determines the output of the mill, if follows that
the cola flow, through the feeder has to be controlled. This is normally
achieved either by control of feeder speed or by control of the position of a
scraper knife or plough.

In plant Drag Link Coal Feeders type of Coal Feeder is


Drag Link Coal Feeders:

In this type of cola feeder, the coal leaves the bottom of the
bunker through a large outlet hopper which is connected directly to the feeder
casing. The cola falls on the feeder top plate and is dragged along by the
conveyor chain to the point where the top plate ends. The depth of the cola
bed is controlled by the height regulating gate. At the end of the top plate the
cola falls down between the stands of the chains to the Point of discharge at
the mill inlet coal delivery chute. The rate of coal feeds controlled by variable
speed motor drive.
In plant the methods used for the removal of dust from gases are
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR which uses electrical forces to remove
the dust from the gas stream.

Electrostatic Precipitators

Working Principle:
The principles upon which an electrostatic precipitator
operates are that the dust laden gases pass into a chamber where the
individual particles of dust are given an electric charge by absorption of free
ions from a high voltage d.c. ionizing field. Electric forces cause a steam of
ions to pass from the discharge electrodes to the collecting electrodes and the
particles of dust entrained in the gas are deflected out o the gas steam into
the collecting surfaces where they are retained, either by electrical or
molecular attraction. They are removed by an intermittent blow usually
referred to as rapping, this causes the dust particles to drop into dust hoppers
situated below the collecting electrodes.

There are four different steps in the process of

1. Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles.
2. Migration of the particle to the collector.
3. Deposition of charged particles on the collecting surface.
4. Dislodging of particles from the collecting surface.

Performance Criteria:

The performance of the electrostatic precipitator depends on

several factors among which the prominent are:

• Characteristics of dust:

a) Particle size distribution

b) Dust loading
c) Chemical composition
d) Electrical resistively
e) Adhesive/cohesive properties

• Characteristics of gases :

a) Temperature.
b) Chemical composition
c) Moisture content
d) Quantity to be handled
e) Pressure

The electrostatic precipitator essentially consists of two sets of
electrodes, one in the from of thin wires called discharge or emitting
electrodes and other set called collecting electrodes in the from of pipes or
plates. The emitting electrodes are placed in the centre of pipe or midway
between two plates and are connected usually to negative polarity of high
voltage d.c. source if the order if 25-100 kv. The collecting electrodes are
connected to the positive polarity of the source and grounded.
The major fundamental parts of the electrostatic
precipitator consist of the following:
1. Casing
2. Hoppers
3. Has distributor screen
4. Collecting System
5. Emitting system
6. Rapping mechanism for collecting system
7. Rapping mechanism for emitting system
8. Insulator housing

Electrical System:
For optimum functional efficiency of the precipitator, the
supply voltage cloud is maintained near the flash over level between the
precipitator electrodes. This can be achieved by an electronic control system
which rises the output voltage to flash over level and reduces it automatically
by a small amount in the event of a flash over.

Interlocking System:
This system is designed for the safety of the personnel and
protection of equipment during the operation and maintenance. This system
will not operate unless the instructions are followed sequentially.
The system consists of rotary switches interlocks and key
exchange boxes. The exchange boxes are located in control room and at
prominent places on the precipitator casing.
In the interlocking system, the insulator housing, inspection
doors, hopper doors, HV isolating switches are provided with key interlocks.

Mechanical energy is converted into electric power the stator
windings of generator by the interaction of rotating magnetic field. Rotating
magnetic field is created by field windings mounted on rotor shaft with the
help of excitation system. When the shaft is rotated at 3000 RPM by the
coupled turbine electric power is generated at a voltage 16.5 KV and 50 HZ
frequency. Generator is filled with hydrogen gas for cooling its winding which
in turn is cooled by circulating water. The voltage of such generated electricity
is step up to 220kv or 400kv through transformer and power transmitted to
Ratangarh GSS for Northern Grid, and different areas of Rajasthan.
6.0 million units energy is generated in 250 MW unit in a single day,
out of this about ten percent is consumed in unit itself for running its auxiliary
equipments like pumps, fans etc. about 3300 metric tons of coal is consumed
in one 250 MW unit in one day.
Turbo generator manefactured by BHEL in Co-Operate with
most modern design concept and constructional features which ensures
reliability, easy and constructional and operational economicity.
The generator stator is a tight construction, supporting and
enclosing the stator wdgs, core and hydrogen coolers. Cooling medium
hydrogen is contained within a frame and circulated by fans mounted at either
ends of rotor. The Generator is driven by directly equipped steam turbine at a
speed of 3000 r.p.m. The generator is designed for continuous operation at
rated O/P.
Temp. detector and other devices installed or connected within
the M/c, permit the measrement of wdgs, teeth core, and hydrogen temp.
hydrogen pressure and purity in M/C under the conditions.
The Source of excitation to rotor wdgs is thyristorised D.C.
supply. The Ausiliary equipment supplied with M/C superrises and enables
the control of hydrogen pressure and purity, shaft sealing lubricating oils.
There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a
constant temp. of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temp. of wdg., core
etc as per loads.
Technical Data:
Apparent power 294MVA
Active Power 250 MW
Current 10290 Amps.
Voltage 16.5 kV+/- 825V
Speed 3000 rpm
Power Factor 0.85
Hydrogen Pr. 3.0 bar
Rated Field Current 2386 Amps.


STPS have divided four sections in C&I (control &
instrumentation) Circle: -

1. SWAS package
2. FSSS package
3. ATRS package
4. DDC section
SWAS [Steam Water Analasis System]: -
Steam Water Analysis System is full
form of SWAS. SWAS package is use for analysis of steam sample
which coming from Boiler. There are coming nine lines from the
Boiler. These nine lines go in cooling system for temperature
There are two types of cooling system, Primary cooling system and
Secondary cooling system. The equipment is designed and
assembled to enable the conditioning of samples of Boiler water
and steam by reducing the temperature and pressure to a suitable
state to enable the chemical parameters of the sample to be

Sample conditioning panel comprises: -

Line Numbers: -
1. Make up drum water
2. Conedensate pump Discharge
3. LP Heater inlet
4. Feed water booster pump
5. Feed water economizer inlet
6. Boiler drum water
7. Boiler saturated steam
8. Main steam
9. Hot well


Steam samples
Form Boiler
Primary Secondary Conditioning Dry
Cooling Cooling P&T Panel

There are different measurements of samples of steam: -

SODIMAT: - The measurement of sodium in industrial
ultrapure waters. The measurement is based on a direct
potentionetric technique. Technique using highly sensitive sodium
glass electrode. The difference of potential between the glass
electrode and the reference electrode is directly proportional to the
sodium concentration.
Modern high-pressure power plants require
feed water of very high purity. Safety in that sector is of great
importance and the sodium measurement plays a specific role
compared to pH, conductivity and silica trace.
Actually sodium
cations and anions are always linked. Most cations have a corrosive
influence in water and vapor cooling circuits. Became of this
chemical link between sodium ions and anions, sodium
measurement presents particularly important risk of corrosion and
other effects. The SODIMAT uses a sodium sensitive glass
electrode to measure sodium in a sample which has been
previously conditioned to a pH > 10.

HYDRASTAT: - low-carbon steel exhibits a significantly

improved resistance to corrosion it in contact with water of high
alkalinity (pH 9-10).
High – pressure circuits operating with the alkaline reign,
therefore employ volatile alkalizing agents such as ammonia in
combination with hydrazine to elevate the feed water pH to a level
> pH 9.0.
The addition of
hydrazine serves the dual function of an alkalizing agent as well as
on oxygen scavenger thus lowering the level of corrosion. The
anodic dissolution of iron in low carbon steels is nominal at ph 9.5
provided the totally demineralized water is available ammonia
concentrations required to reach this high degree of alkalinity
would be detrimental to the copper tubes of the condenser because
of dissolution of copper, thus imposing an upper limit of ph 9-9.3.


conductivity measures the transport of electric change in any field.
In metal conductors the current flows by transport of electrons
where as in solution. It flows by transportation such as Na+ and
Cl- which the higher transport of charges is the conductance of the
Conductivity is the capacity of a solution has to conduct
current: -
In solution conductivity is much more complicated than in
conductors because several species ensure the transport of charge
for instance in drinking water the conductive species registered are
sodium, calcium, magnesium, ferrous cations, ferrites, phosphates
and nitrate ions for slightly concentrated solution. The
concentration of H+ protons and hydroxyl OH- ions can no longer
be neglected in the presence of the product this. Therefore leads to
a non-linear variation conductivity/ concentration.

SILICOSTAT: - Hp turbine nozzles and blades may, under the

influence of high-pressure superheated steam exhibits significant
capacity and conversion efficiency losses as a result of silica
contaminated steam latter tends to from insoluble deposits on
critical part of the turbine leading to surface roughness which, in
turn, is detrimental to turbine efficiency. In order to assure
optimum turbine performance continuous monitoring of silica in
superheated steam, boiler water and feedwater is of the utmost
importance. The polymetron silcostat has been designed
specifically to complete this task.

Analyzers: -

Lines Coming from Type of Analysis

Line 1 Make up Drum water Specific conductivity

pH, specific
Line 2 Conedensate pump conductivity, cation
discharge conductivity,
dissolved oxygen,

Line 3 LP heater / inlet pH, specific

y, dissolved
Line 4 Feed water booster Dissolved

Line 5 Feed water pH, specific

Economizer conductivit
inlet y, cation
conductivity, silica,

Line 6 Boiler drum water pH, specific

y, silica.

Line 7 Boiler saturated Specific conductivity,

Steam cation

Line 8 Main steam Specific conductivity,

y, silica.

Line 9 Hot well (2 off) Specific conductivity.

The sample analysis panel comprises the following analyzers: -

No. of Analyzers
1 Single channel silica
1 Two channel silica
2 Dissolved oxygen
1 Hydrazine
14 Conductivity
4 pH
1 Sodium
ATRS [Automatic Turbine Run Up System ]: -
All control function related to turbine are realized by
Microprocessor based PROCONTROL ATRS System. This is based on user
friendly programming languageP10. The system is divided in three sub
groups: -
1. SGC-Oil :- Oil pumps(AOP,EOP,JOP) interlocks, automatic & protn.
Operation are realized in this group.
2. SGC-Conden. & Evac. : - CEP’s & vacuum pump operation.
3. SGC-Turbine :- For automatic synchronization of machine to the grid.
Procontrol requires serial data exchange confined to the electronic
room(panels), process computer(monitoring) and control room.
The data transmission is performed with two level
serial bus system-
• Local Bus: - Local bus interconnects all input, output, and processing
electronic modules, which is part of station. Each local bus work
independently from any other local bus or Intra-Plant.
• Intra – Plant Bus: - This bus interconnects its related local buses via
coaxial cables. And through which Monitoring computer and diagnostic
station connected. The local bus can be grouped together in the same panel
or distributed in different panels. Each massage is cyclically transmitted
over the local as well as intra- plant buses and transmission freq. Is
selectable and can be every 10 ms.
PROCONTROL has following basic type of electronic modules: -
• Individual Control modules: - These implemented to control, supervise,
monitor, protect individual valves, pumps, fans etc. Modules equipped
with a microprocessor, built-in l/o and dedicated control entity to control
element. A serial l/o interface to the local bus to receive process signals
required for interlaces & permissive logoc. Hardwired interface is also
provided to control room. Modules are- AS45, AS46, AS47.
• Programmable Processor:- This modules used for automation and
superimposed on the individual control modules and allows to build
control, protection and alarms. Module is-PR05.
• Input/Output modules:- Various modules for input/output capabilities
and connected to local bus. These modules can handle single, double throw
contacts, thermocouple, RTD’s, milliamp signals etc. or to provide
milliamp, voltage, electronic contact output signals.
1 Lub oil Pr V. Low 2.1kg/cm2
(2 out of Pr. Swth. Oprt.)
2 Cond vacuum V. Low -0.8
(2 out of 3 vac. Swth. Oprt.)
3 HPT Exhst Stm Tmp V. Hi 480 510
(2 out of 3 T/C Tmp. Rises)
4 Axial Shift V. Hi +/- 0.5mm. +/-
(2 out of 3 Senser optd.)
Protection ON:- 1) FIRE PROT.2 CH-1 (2) FIRE PROT.2 CH-2
& SO/H2 DP>1.2 BAR
Protection ON:- 1 SLC EOP-DC CMD-51
Protection ON:- 1)FIRE PROT.2 CH-1 (2)FIRE PROT.2 CH-
2(3)EOP AC
(ii) EOP DC ON
Per. ON:- JOP-1(AC) OFF
Auto ON:- 1.SLC JOP-2 CMD-51
(i)SLC JOP-2 ON & JOP PR.<100 &TUR
Prot. ON:- 1) FIRE PROT.2 CH-1 (2)FIRE PROT. 2 CH-2
Prot. ON:- 1)FIRE PROT.2 CH-1 (2)FIRE PROT.2 CH-2