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Valve is a device that regulates, controls or directs the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially
obstructing fluid flow. It controls the flow and pressure of fluid within a system or process. So basically, it
controls flow & pressure.

Gate valve - is the most common type of valve in any process plant. It is a linear motion
valve used to start or stop fluid flow. In service, these valves are either in fully open or
fully closed position. Gate valves are used in almost all fluid services such as air, fuel
gas, feedwater, steam, lube oil, hydrocarbon, and all most any services. Gate valve
provides good shutoff.
Globe Valve - is used to stop, start, and regulate the fluid flow. Globe Valves are used
in the systems where flow control is required and leak tightness is also necessary. Globe
valve provides better shut off as compared to gate valve and it is costlier than gate valve.

Check Valve - prevents backflow in the piping system. The pressure of the fluid passing
through a pipeline opens the valve, while any reversal of flow will close the valve.

Plug valve - is Quarter-turn rotary motion Valve that uses a tapered or cylindrical plug
to stop or start the flow. The disk is in plug shape, which has a passage to pass the flow.
Plug valve used as on-off stop valves and capable of providing bubble tight shutoff. Plug
valve can be used in vacuum to high-pressure & temperature applications

Ball Valve - is a quarter-turn rotary motion valve that uses a ball-shaped disk to stop or
start the flow. Most ball valves are of the quick-acting type, which requires a 90° turn of
the valve handle to operate the valve. The ball valve is Smaller and lighter than a gate
valve of same size and rating.
Butterfly Valve - is a quarter-turn rotary motion valve, that is used to stop, regulate, and
start the flow. Butterfly valve has a short circular body. Butterfly Valve is suitable for large
valve applications due to Compact, lightweight design that requires considerably less
space, as compared to other valves.

Needle Valve is similar to a globe valve in design with the biggest difference is the sharp
needle like a disk. Needle valves are designed to give very accurate control of flow in small
diameter piping systems. They get their name from their sharp-pointed conical disc and
matching seat.

Pinch Valve is also known as clamp valve. It is a linear motion valve. Used to start, regulate,
and stop fluid flow. It uses a rubber tube, also known as a pinch tube and a pinch mechanism
to control the fluid. Pinch Valve is ideally suited for the handling of slurries, liquids with large
amounts of suspended solids, and systems that convey solid material pneumatically.

Pressure Relief Valve or pressure safety valve are used to protect equipment or
piping system during an overpressure event or in the event of vacuum. This valve
releases the pressure or vacuum at pre-defined set pressure.

These valves can be classified or categorized based on;

1. Function
2. End connection
3. How it operates
4. Types of Actuator it used.
Classification of Valves Based on Function

 Isolation valve isolates or cuts the supply of fluid when needed. Gate, ball, plug, piston, diaphragm,
butterfly and pinch valve falls under this category.
 Regulation valve controls or regulates the flow of fluid. Globe, needle, butterfly, diaphragm, ball,
plug, and pinch valve are used as a control valve. You can see that; some valves serve dual purposes
such as globe and ball valve can be used as an isolation as well as a control valve.
 Safety Relief Valve. Pressure and vacuum relief valve used to prevent overpressure and vacuum
with the system that can damage the piping and equipment.
 Non-return valve such as swing and lift check valve prevents backflow within the system.
 Some valves are designed to serve a special purpose. Such as multiport, knife, and line blind valve.

Classification of Valves Based on End Connections

 Screwed or threaded that connect with matching thread on the pipe. Small-bore
valve used in instrument connection or as a sample point has a threaded end

 Flanged type ends

 Butt welded valves are used in very high pressure and temperature

 Socket Welded valves are used

in low-pressure

 Wafer and Lug End Construction for check valve and butterfly valves.
These types of ends are used when space is constrained.
Classification of Valves Based on The Way It Open and Closed

Another way to classify the valve is the way it open and close by either:
 Linear motion valves use a closure member that moves in a straight line and cut the flow to start,
stop, or throttle the flow. The closure device could be a disc, or flexible material, such as a
diaphragm. Linear motion valves are slower in operation, but they provide a higher level of accuracy
and stability in the position of the closure member.
 Rotary motion valves rotate a disc or swing it
from the hinge pin that holds the disk.
 Quarter turn. A 90° turn of the stem fully open
or fully closed the valve. Because of this quick
turn, the operation of Quarter turn valve is
much faster than linear motion valves. Some
rotary motion valves are also known as Quarter
turn valve.

Valve type Linear motion Rotary motion Quarter turn

Gate valve X

Globe valve X

Swing check valve X

Lift check valve X

Tilting-disc check valve X

Folding-disc check valve X

In-line check valve X

Stop check valve X X

Ball valve X X

Pinch valve X

Butterfly valve X X

Plug valve X X

Diaphragm valve X

Safety valve X

Relief valve X

Classification of Valves Based on Types of Actuator It Used

The last way to classify the valve is, types of the actuator is used
to transfer the motion to operate the valve.
 Manual with the help of handwheel, lever, chain or by a
gear wheel.
 External Power Source such as an electric motor, air,
hydraulic fluid or solenoid is used to operate valve from
the control room.
 Automatic. Check valve works when subjected to the
Types of pipes

 STAINLESS STEEL PIPES are comparatively expensive, but they are the
strongest and most durable of all water supply pipes. They can withstand high
water pressure, come in convenient (longer) lengths than most other pipes and
thus incur lower installation/transportation costs.

 GALVANIZED STEEL OR IRON PIPES are the traditional piping material in the
plumbing industry for the conveyance of water and wastewater. Although still
used throughout the world, its popularity is declining. The use of galvanized steel
or iron as a conveyer for drinking water is problematic where water flow is slow
or static for periods of time because it causes rust from internal corrosion.
Galvanized pipes can be used to:
 transport grey water or non-potable water.
 drinking water

 CAST IRON PIPES are quite stable and well suited for high water pressure.
However, cast iron pipes are heavy, which makes them unsuitable for buildings
taller than 25-storey because of constant vibrations which causes water leak of the
pipe joints. In addition, due to their weight they generally come in short lengths
increasing costs for layout and jointing.


non-corrosive by nature. Their advantage is that they are extremely strong and
durable. However, being bulky and heavy, they are harder and more costly to
handle, install and transport (LEE n.y.).

 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) pipes are non-corrosive, extremely light and thus easy
to handle and transport. Still, they are strong and come in long lengths that lower
installation/transportation costs. However, they are prone to physical damage if exposed overground
and become brittle when exposed to ultraviolet light.
Typically, you will use PVC for:
 Sink drain lines
 Toilet drain lines
 Bathtub drain lines
 Vent stacks
 Main water supply line running to the home
 High-pressure applications

 CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (CPVC). It is often (but not always) a cream-colored or off-
white plastic. This type of pipe can stand temperatures up to about 180 degrees F or so (this depends on
the schedule), so it and can be used for hot and cold water inside of a
house or mobile home. CPVC is the same outside diameter as copper and
PEX, so the same push-fit fittings that are used for PEX and copper will fit
the CPVC piping. Used for:
 Hot water delivery
 Drinking water delivery
 Hot water drains
 Waste and water disposal pipes

 COPPER PIPE works in both underground and above-ground applications, but

copper can be affected by some soils and should be sleeved if used
underground. Copper comes in different thicknesses which are labeled M, L,
and K. M is the thinnest grade of copper. Copper can be connected in different
ways, including compression fittings or with a torch so you can sweat solder it.
Used for:
 Hot and cold drinking water supply
 Refrigerant lines for HVAC systems
 Other applications that require a tight seal
 Underground service lines
 PEX stands for cross-linked polyethylene or XLPEl, but PEX is much easier to
remember and say. PEX is commonly used for hot and cold water in homes, and
for hydronic heating systems (such as radiant under-floor systems) due to its
resistance to hot and cold temperatures. PEX is widely used now for its
competitive pricing, ease of use, and the long rolls of piping that it can come in.
PEX can be joined in many different ways including push-fit fittings and
specialty PEX tools used with crimp rings to secure the joints.
Great for:
 Retrofitting an older home
 Snaking through walls in a remodel
 Working in areas with low ventilation where glue is dangerous

 BRASS PIPE is an option for certain applications. Highly resistant to

corrosion as well as damage from heat and water, brass is also a soft metal
that allows the installer to create a tight seal. It has a heavier wall than copper
but offers many of the same benefits, including safety in use with drinking
Some applications of brass piping include:
 Water supply lines
 Water removal drains and lines
 Some applications for gas lines, depending on local building code

 BITUMINOUS FIBER SEWER PIPE is the cheapest among the sewer

pipes. It is sometimes recommended for house sewer & for septic
tank installation. This type of pipe is light in weight; slightly flexible
w/c could take slight soil movement w/o danger of cracking or
pulling out from its joint. However, excessive hot water or chemical
flow may soften or damage the pipe.

 VITRIFIED CLAY PIPE is one of the oldest materials used for sewer lines. It’s
made out from clay, cast into length of 75 centimeters treated w/ glazing
compound. The pipe is heated in a large kiln under a temperature of 1370◦C,
making it impervious to moisture. Clay pipe is highly resistant to most acid waste. It
is a durable materials for underground installation like public sewer, house sewer
or storm drain. Being made of clay, its physical property. Is brittle. Hence, it should
not be laid on unstable ground base.

 LEAD PIPE is also one of the oldest plumbing materials used by the
Egyptians, the Greek & the roman builders as soil & waste pipe. Lead is highly
resistant to acid & is suitable for underground installation. But because lead is
poisonous & injurious to human health, it is never used to convey water for
human consumption.