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IWCF P&P

Exercises

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Contents
Theoretical Well Control Questions .................................................................................................................. 3
Risk Management .............................................................................................................................................. 3
Barriers .............................................................................................................................................................. 3
Pressures in the Earth’s Crust ............................................................................................................................ 5
Static and Dynamic Pressures............................................................................................................................ 6
Top Hole ............................................................................................................................................................ 8
L.O.T. and MAASP ............................................................................................................................................ 10
Kick Warning Signs........................................................................................................................................... 12
Well Shut-in Procedures .................................................................................................................................. 16
Well Killing Procedures .................................................................................................................................... 18
Driller’s Method........................................................................................................................................... 21
Wait and Weight Method ............................................................................................................................ 21
Pressures during Killing ............................................................................................................................... 23
Well Killing Problems ................................................................................................................................... 23
Volumetric Method/Stripping ..................................................................................................................... 27
WBM VS OBM .................................................................................................................................................. 28
Hydrates .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
Theoretical Model Answers ............................................................................................................................. 30
Well Control Calculations ................................................................................................................................ 32
Pressures in the Earth’s Crust .......................................................................................................................... 32
Static and Dynamic Pressures.......................................................................................................................... 33
Bottom-Hole Pressure Change .................................................................................................................... 33
Dynamic Pressure ........................................................................................................................................ 35
Leak-Off Test.................................................................................................................................................... 38
Tripping ............................................................................................................................................................ 41
Slug .................................................................................................................................................................. 46
Volumetric Method/Stripping ......................................................................................................................... 49
Various ............................................................................................................................................................. 52
Well Control Problems Model Answers .......................................................................................................... 53

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Theoretical Well Control Questions

Risk Management
1. During the well planning, do we need to plan for BOP?

a- Yes
b- No

2. Kicks that lead to blowouts are such an uncommon occurrence that there is no need to
make provision for them when planning a well

a- True
b- False

Barriers
3. What is the primary well barrier?
a- Monitoring the volume of the mud (gain or loss)
b- The column of the mud in the well
c- The use of BOP
4. Which of the following is necessary to maintain primary well control during tripping?

a- The hydrostatic pressure exerted by the drilling mud column must remain higher than the
formation pressure

b- Mud pumps must be in good working order

c- A minimum of one inside blowout preventer (IBOP) must be available on the drill floor

d- The level in the active tank must be constant

5. From A well control point of view, what is the primary reason for performing a check trip
followed by bottoms up circulation?
a. To verify that the pressure surge during the running in of the pipe will not lead to lost
circulation
b. To reduce the thickness of the filter cake
c. To cool the bit
d. To verify that the primary well control can be maintained during the pulling of the pipe.

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6. What is the correct definition of “primary well control” during normal drilling operation?

a- Preventing a kick by maintaining drilling mud hydrostatic pressure equal to or greater than
formation pressure.
b- Preventing the flow of formation fluid into the well bore by maintaining the sum of drilling
mud hydrostatic pressure and dynamic pressure loss in the annulus equal to or greater than
formation pressure.
c- Preventing the flow of formation fluid into the well bore by keeping the dynamic pressure
loss in the annulus equal to or greater than formation pressure.
d- Preventing the flow of formation fluid into the well bore by using BOP equipment when the
hydrostatic pressure in the well bore does not balance or exceed the formation pressure.

7. Which statement describe the secondary well barrier?

a- A secondary well barrier is the secondary object that prevents flow from a source
b- A secondary well barrier will not prevent flow from a source
c- A secondary well barrier controls the closure of blow out preventer
d- A secondary well barrier is the first object that prevents flow to well bore.

8. Pressure has built up between two casing strings in a well, a poor cement job has been
performed on the inner casing string, what could the consequences of this pressure build-
up be?

(THREE ANSWERS)

a- The inner casing could collapse

b- The ECD will increase

c- These could be different sticking

d- The formation below the outer casing shoe could fracture

e- The outer casing could burst

9. What is the meaning of well barrier envelope?

a. All Mechanical barrier.


b. Use the mud with surface pressure to prevent intrusion of formation fluid to the well.
c. The use of over balance to prevent intrusion of formation fluid to the well.
d. It is a series of dependent barriers preventing intrusion of formation fluids to the well.

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Pressures in the Earth’s Crust
10. Which one of the following values is generally accepted as a normal formation pore
pressure gradient?
a. 0.508 psi/ft
b. 0.442 psi/ft
c. 0.42 psi/ft
d. 0.465 psi/ft

11. What is meant by abnormal pressure?


a. The excess pressure due to circulating mud at high rates.
b. The excess pressure that needs to be applied to cause 'leak-off.
c. Heavy weight mud used to give an overbalance.
d. The formation fluid pressure that exceeds formation water hydrostatic pressure

12. What is the most common cause of abnormally high formation pressures worldwide?
a. Under-compacted shales.
b. Carbonate layers.
c. Depleted sands.

13. A formation is over-pressured by an artesian effect. What has created the over-pressure?
a. Compaction of the formation by the overburden pressure.
b. A formation water source located at a higher level than the rig floor.
c. The difference in density between oil and formation fluid.

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Static and Dynamic Pressures
14. Which one of the following will affect BHP while circulation constant flow rate (TWO)
a- Mud density
b- Annulus pressure loss
c- Pump pressure
d- Pressure loss through the bit nozzles

15. The equivalent circulating density (ECD) determines the actual bottom hole pressure
while circulating.

Which part of the system pressure losses contributes to the ECD?

a- The pressure loss in the surface system

b- The pressure loss over the nozzles

c- The pressure loss in the drill string

d- The pressure loss in the annulus

e- The pressure loss in the open hole section only

16. With a constant flow rate, which factors will increase the circulating pressure?

(TWO ANSWERS)
a. When bit nozzle size is increased.
b. When hole is drilled deeper.
c. When more drill collars are added.
d. When mud density is reduced.

17. If the pit level increases with the pump is off, but stays constant when the pump is
running, what is the problem?

a- A mud hydrostatic pressure Is greater than formation pressure


b- Pump pressure is greater than mud hydrostatic pressure.
c- The pump needs to be repaired.
d- Annular pressure losses are creating an overbalance that prevents the well flowing.
18. If light pill is pumped in the drill string and followed by 10 bbls original mud, What can it
lead to after disconnect the Top Drive/Kelly if the light pill doesn’t come out from the
nozzles ? (NO FLOAT VALVE IN THE STRING)
a- Reduction in the bottom hole pressure
b- Increase in the overbalance
c- Nothing will happen
d- Back flow from the drill string

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19. During normal drilling operation, 20 bbl of light mud is pumped into the string followed
by original mud. The driller shuts down while the light mud is still inside the drill pipe to
observe the well.
Which of the following statement s is correct?

a- Bottom hole pressure will drop.


b- Bottom hole pressure will remain the same, but a back pressure will show at the drill pipe.
c- Pit volume will increase
d- Bottom hole pressure will increase

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Top Hole

20. Formation strengths are generally weak when drilling top hole and total losses may occur.
How can the risk of total losses be reduced when drilling top hole?
a. By pumping slowly to reduce the drill string pressure loss.
b. Keeping a high overbalance.
c. By controlling penetration rate to prevent loading the annulus with cuttings.
21. Is it true that shallow gas kicks are easier to handle than those taken when drilling deeper?
a. Yes.
b. No.
22. Which of the following statements are good operating practices when drilling TOPHOLE
formations where there is a risk of shallow gas?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. Maintain high rate of penetration and keep mud viscosity as high as possible.
b. Use a heavy weight mud to create maximum overbalance.
c. Pump out of the hole on trips.
d. Use oil-based mud.
e. Drill a pilot hole at a controlled rate.

23. Which of the following statements are true for drilling TOP HOLE?
a. Reduce SPM to prevent breaking down formation.
b. Control ROP to prevent too many cuttings in the hole.
c. Maintain high overbalance to prevent shallow gas kick.

24. If a shallow gas flow is detected, which of the following should be taken at the same time as
activating the diverter?
a. Maintain pump rate.
b. Increase pump rate.
c. Decrease pump rate.

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25. Which of the following statements, when drilling TOP HOLE, are good operating practice
for formations where there is a risk of a shallow gas?
(TWO ANSWERS)

a- Drill a pilot hole at a slow controlled rate.


b- Use an oil based mud.
c- Pump out of the hole on trips.
d- Use heavy density mud to create maximum over balance.
e- Maintain high rate pf penetration to ensure mud viscosity level is as higher as possible.

26. During top hole drilling from a jack-up rig, the well starts to flow due to shallow gas.
What will be the safest action to take to secure the safety of the rig and personnel?
(TWO ANSWERS)

a- Start pumping mud into the well at the highest possible rate.
b- Activate the diverter system and remove non-essential personnel from the rig floor.
c- Shut in the well and prepare for kill operation.
d- Activate the blind/share ram to shut in the well.
e- First, line up to the mud/gas separator, close the diverter and send personnel from the rig
floor.

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L.O.T. and MAASP
27. What will happen to MAASP if Mud density is increased?
a. MAASP will stay the same.
b. MAASP will increase.
c. MAASP will decrease.

28. Which of the following need to be known for a leak-off test to be correct? (TWO ANSWERS)
a. The mud density in the well.
b. The volume of mud in the annulus from casing shoe to surface.
c. Slow circulating rate.
d. The pressure limit for the mud pump.
e. Mud hydrostatic pressure in the casing annulus.

29. Define the MAASP.


a- Minimum allowable annular surface pressure
b- Maximum anticipated annular surface pressure
c- Maximum allowable annular surface pressure
d- Minimum allowable active surface pit

30. After setting casing, which of the following actions are normally performed prior to
making a leak-off test?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a- Keep the bit close to bottom.
b- Circulate the mud to get a uniform column of the hole
c- Line up for using the mud pump to do a leak off- test at the slow circulating rate.
d- Drill out the casing shoe and in to the new formation.

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31. Match each of the following statements to one of the answers below
1. The pressure of formation fluids within the pore spaces.
2. Control of the well using the BOP
3. When mud hydrostatic pressure is less than formation fluid pressure.
4. The pressure created by a column of fluid.
5. Percentage of space between the grains of rock.
6. Ability of rock to allow formation fluids to flow through it.
7. Momentary increase in bottom hole pressure.
8. The formation fluid pressure that exceeds formation water hydrostatic pressure.
9. Momentary decrease in bottom hole pressure.
10. The mud hydrostatic pressure is more than formation fluid pressure.
11. The max. volume of influx which can be shut-in and circulated out without breaking
down the formation
12. Test strength of shoe and formation to designed pressure by increasing surface
pressure until it reaches the required pressure only. There is no intention to break the
formation
13. Once formation is fractured, the first pressure that deviated from a trend.

a. Permeability
b. Surging
c. Leak off test L.O.T
d. Porosity
e. Abnormal pressure
f. Underbalance
g. Swabbing
h. Formation integrity test F.I.T
i. Secondary control
j. Overbalance
k. Formation pore pressure
l. Hydrostatic
m. Kick tolerance

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Kick Warning Signs
32. When drilling with water based mud, a complete loss of returns occurs and no mud is
visible when looking down the hole. What is the first action to take?
a. Pump lost circulation material immediately.
b. Pump a heavy slug into the annulus.
c. Fill the annulus with water and record the volume added.
d. Pump a cement plug into the annulus using the kill line.

33. The flow sensor shows a total loss of returns and the mud level cannot be seen in the
annulus. What immediate action should be taken?
a. Shut the well in and pump lost circulation material.
b. Fill the annulus with water (or lightest mud available) and record volume.
c. Pump at reduced rate adding lost circulation material.
d. Continue drilling ahead cautiously.

34. Does a kick always occur after a total loss of circulation?


a. No, it depends on the mud level in the annulus and the formation pressure.
b. Yes, losses will always occur above any potential kick zone.
c. No, it depends on the reduction in drill string weight.

35. While drilling a head through a faulted formation, the flow meter drops from 50% to 42%
What is the most likely cause of this?

a- A partial lost circulation has occurred.


b- A kick has been swabbed on the last connection.
c- There is a washout in the string
d- Total lost circulation has occurred.
36. How will bottom hole pressure be affected by gas cut mud while drilling?
a. There will be a large drop
b. There will be no change
c. There will be a small drop

37. Which of the following is not a kick warning signs?


a. Increase in pump pressure.
b. Gas cut mud.
c. Connection gas.
d. Increase in mud temperature

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38. Which of the following is not an indicator of a kick whilst drilling?
a. Pit gain.
b. Decrease in pump strokes.
c. Decrease in pump pressure.
d. Flow rate increase.

39. Derrick man observed that shakers are overflowing due to increased cuttings coming out
in mud returns. What is the safest course of action?

a- Slow down the mud pumps until shakers can handle the mud returns as requested by the
derrick man.
b- Check for flow-if none, then circulate bottom up at reduced rate so that shakers can handle
cutting volume, flow check periodically while circulation.
c- Check for flow-if none, then continue at same rate By pass the shakers and get caught in the
sand trap that can be dumped
d- Check for flow-if none, then return to the original drilling parameters.

40. Which of the following are positive indications of a kick whilst drilling?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. Increase in pit volume.
b. Increase in flow rate with constant SPM.
c. Decrease in flow rate with constant SPM.
d. Decrease in pit volume.

41. Which of the following are a positive warning sign of a kick while drilling?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a- A decrease in pit volume.
b- A decrease in flow rate with constant pump stroke rate.
c- Increase in pit volume.
d- Increase in flow rate with constant pump stroke rate.
42. Gas cut mud may reduce the bottom hole pressure enough to cause a well kick; when is
bottom hole pressure reduced most?
a. When the gas is at the bottom.
b. When the gas is near the surface.
c. When the gas is halfway up the well bore.

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43. While drilling, which of the following situations make kick detection with a P.V.T. (Pit
Volume Totalizer) more difficult for the driller?
a. By-passing the solids control equipment pits.
b. Reducing the range of P.V.T. high and low alarm settings.
c. Allowing mud losses by overflowing the shakers.
d. Keeping active mud system transfers to a minimum when drilling ahead

44. Which of the following is good practice when connection gas is observed?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. Control drilling rate so that only one slug of connection gas is in the hole at any one time.
b. Pull out the hole to change the bit.
c. Raise the mud viscosity.
d. Reduce mud viscosity to minimize swabbing during trips.
e. Minimize the time during a connection when the pumps are switched off.

45. What is the first action if you encounter connection gas?


a- Flow check
b- Increase mud weight by 1 ppg
c- Continue everything is OK
d- Drill faster

46. What is the immediate effect of swabbing is:


a- Kick
b- Reduction in bottom-hole pressure
c- Losses
d- Breakdown the formation

47. What could be the immediate result of pulling out of the hole too fast?
a- A swabbed kick.
b- Lost circulation
c- An underground blow out.
d- Formation break down.

48. While pulling out of the hole the weight indicator fluctuates due to tight spots what will be
its effect?
a- Surge pressure
b- Losses
c- Swabbed kick

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49. Does swabbing happen while pulling out the pipes from the open hole only?
a- True
b- False

50. Is it true that when pulling pipe out of hole, swabbing can only take place when the bit is
the open hole?
a- Yes.
b- No.

51. When pulling out of hole swabbing can be detected by comparing calculated volume with
The actual volume in the trip tank
How is swabbing be detected?

a- When the hole take a less volume than calculated.


b- When the hole take a higher volume than calculated.
c- When the hole take the same volume as calculated.

52. During the trip out of the well, and with the bit 1200 ft from bottom, the hole failed to take
the calculated volume of drilling fluid from the trip tank, there is no flow from the well
What is the next step that should be taken?

a- Pump remaining stands out of the hole.


b- Flow check, if negative continue to pull out of the hole.
c- Shut the well in and circulate hole clean.
d- Flow check, if negative run back to bottom and monitor returns.

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Well Shut-in Procedures
53. What are the factors that affect the initial pressure build up (pressure stabilization) after
shutting in the well on a kick? (CHOOSE THREE)
a- Porosity
b- Fracture pressure
c- Permeability
d- MAASP
e- Pore Pressure
f- RRCP

54. Which of the following practice would lead to a larger influx when shutting a well-in?

(THREE ANSWERS)

a- Calling tool pusher to floor prior to shutting the well

b- Testing stab-in valves during BOP tests

c- Switching off the flow meter alarms

d- Running regular pit drills of drill crew

e- Regular briefing for the derrick man on his duties regarding the monitoring of pit level

f- Drilling a further 20 feet after a drilling break, before flow checking

55. According to API RP59 which type of BOP can be used for the hard shut-in?

a- Annular BOP.
b- Either type of BOP can be used.
c- Ram BOP.

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56. When running in the hole, the well kicks. Which of the following actions should be taken
to shut the well in using the hard shut in?

a. Stab full opening safety valve.


Open BOP side outlet hydraulic valve (HCR).
Space out for tool joint.
Close BOP.
Close choke.
Record pressure.
b. Space out for tool joint.
Close the BOP.
Stab full opening safety valve.
Close the safety valve.
Open choke.
Record pressure.
c. Stab full opening safety valve.
Close the safety valve.
Space out for tool joint.
Close BOP.
Open BOP side outlet hydraulic valve (HCR).
Record pressure.
d. Open side outlet hydraulic valve (HCR) and remote choke.
Space out for tool joint.
Close BOP.
Stab full opening safety valve.
Close safety valve.
Record pressure.

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Well Killing Procedures
57. During a kill operation there is a delay between operating the choke and observing a
change in the drill pipe pressure.
What is the "rule of thumb" for the rate of pressure transmission through a drilling fluid?
a. 3-5 seconds.
b. 750 feet/minute.
c. 1 minute per 1000 feet of travel.
d. 1 second per 1000 feet of travel.

58. What conditions determine the selection of the kill rate circulating pressure?

(FOUR ANSWERS)

a- The burst pressure of the casing

b- Annular friction losses during the kill operation

c- The kill mud mixing capacity

d- The volume handling capacity of the choke

e- The mud/gas separator handling capacity

f- The volume of mud in the trip tank

59. Which of the following determine the selection of the slow circulation rate?

(FOUR ANSWERS)
a. Trip tank volume.
b. The mud/gas separator handling capacity
c. The volume of mud the choke can handle
d. Capacity of mud mixing equipment
e. Annular friction loss during the kill
f. The burst pressure of the casing.

60. Kill rate circulating pressure are taken at different pump rates (SPM).
Which of the following should be used to determine the maximum pump rate to use to kill
the well?
a. Depth of Casing Shoe.
b. Mud/gas separator Limit.
c. Size of casing.

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61. Which of the following statements about slow circulating rates (SCR) are correct?
(Choose THREE answers).
a. SCR’s should be taken through the choke manifold..
b. SCR’s are needed to calculate formation pressure
c. SCR’s should be taken when mud properties are changed.
d. SCR’s should be read on the drill pipe pressure gauge at the remote choke panel.
e. SCR’s should be taken with the bit near the bottom

62. When should the Driller consider taking a slow circulation rate pressure?
(THREE ANSWERS)

a- At beginning of each shift.


b- After the well has been shut in on an influx.
c- Before running casing.
d- After mud weight change.
e- After changing pump liner size

63. How to measure SCR/RRCP?

a- Turn on the pump at a slow speed with moving and rotating the pipe, Records the pressure
readings from the remote choke panel.
b- Turn on the pump at a slow speed without moving or rotating the pipe. Records the pressure
readings from the remote choke panel.
c- Turn on the pump at a slow speed without moving or rotating the pipe, Records the pressure
readings from the driller console
d- Turn on the pump with maximum speed without moving or rotating the pipe, Records the
pressure readings from the choke panel

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64. If a kick is shut in on a surface BOP stack and the slow circulating rate pressures is not
known. What procedure should be used to obtain the correct Initial Circulating Pressure?
a. Only use the Driller's Method. As the drill pipe pressure does not change during the entire
circulation it is only required to observe that the drill pipe pressure remains constant and
equal to the Shut-In Drill Pipe Pressure.
b. When starting to kill the well, keep the choke pressure as close as possible to the Shut In
Casing Pressure. When the selected kill pump rate has been reached, read the drill pipe
pressure and use that as the Initial Circulating Pressure.
c. Check the records and choose the kill rate circulating pressure taken with the last BHA in
the hole nearest to the depth where the kick took place. Add 100 psi to this value as a
precautionary measure.
d. Contact the mud logger and request the best possible calculation of the Initial
Circulating Pressure intended for use during the well kill.

65. Why should the well be shut in quickly after a kick has been detected?
a. To minimize the Shut-In Drill Pipe Pressure (SIDPP).
b. To minimize the percolation speed of influx.
c. To minimize the size of the influx in to the well

66. A well has been shut in on a kick. Which pressure gauge readings is used to calculate the
formation pressure?

a- BOP Manifold pressure gauge.


b- Drill pipe pressure gauge on the choke remote panel.
c- Casing pressure gauge on the choke panel.
d- Drill pipe pressure gauge on the Driller’s panel.

67. The SIDPP is used to calculate:


a- Formation pressure
b- Formation fracture pressure
c- Shoe pressure
d- Hydrostatic pressure

68. Why it is important to monitor the pit volume during well control? (Two Answers)
a. To maintain bottom hole pressure constant.
b. To adjust drill pipe pressure
c. To adjust pump rate
d. To follow the gas expansion
e. To check for mud loss

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69. While starting up the pump, you are holding the casing pressure constant. The drill pipe
pressure is higher than calculated. What is the correct action?
a- Decrease pump rate
b- Open choke more
c- Continue, everything is OK.

70. Which killing method pumps the kill mud while removing influx from the well?
a- Driller’s method
b- Wait and Weight method
c- Volumetric method

71. With the pumps running continuously a heavy mud pill is circulated. When will bottom hole
pressure start to increase (ignore dynamic pressure losses in the well)?
a. Once all the pill is in the annulus.
b. Once the pill starts to be displaced into the annulus.
c. As soon as the pill is pumped into the drill string.
d. Once all the pill is inside the drill string and is about to exit the bit.

Driller’s Method
72. When circulating a gas kick from a well using the Driller's Method, what happens to the
casing shoe pressure as the influx is circulated past the shoe?
a. The casing shoe pressure will decrease.
b. The casing shoe pressure will remain stay the same.
c. The casing shoe pressure will increase.
73. After the Driller’s method first circulation, the well was shut in. The SICP was higher than
SIDPP. What is the correct action?

a- Continue circulating using the driller’s method first circulation till all the gas is out.
b- Start the second circulation and adjust the choke to maintain the SICP constant
c- Continue circulating using the driller’s method first circulation till all the gas is out and
maintain the SICP constant during the circulation
d- Pump kill mud from the kill line immediately

Wait and Weight Method


74. Which of the following actions would minimize pressure on the open hole?
(THREE ANSWERS)
a. Slower pump rate to kill well.
b. Use the Wait and Weight Method.
c. Use the Driller's Method.
d. Shut-in early to minimize kick size

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75. What will happen if we ignore a large surface line volume (from the mud pumps to the drill
floor) when preparing a kill sheet for a Wait and Weight Method kill?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. The drill pipe pressure schedule will result in a bottom hole pressure that is too low.
b. The total time to kill the well will be shorter than calculated.
c. The total time to kill the well will be longer than calculated.
d. The drill pipe pressure schedule will result in a bottom hole pressure that is too high.
e. There will not effect on the bottom hole pressure.

76. Which of the following statements is true?


a. The wait and the weight method should always be used because the pressure against the
open hole will always be lower than when using the driller's method.
b. If the kill mud enters the annulus before the kick reaches the shoe then the wait and weight
method will reduce the risk of formation breakdown compared to the driller's method.
c. There's no difference between using the driller's method or the wait and the weight method kill
operation is ready to start.

77. The wait and weight method is to be used the kill mud is ready to be pumped. It takes 100
strokes to displace surface lines. What is the correct procedure?
a. Ignore the 100 strokes. It will not affect the drill pipe pressure schedule, and may give an
added safety factor.
b. Subtract the 100 strokes from the surface to bit strokes and re-calculate the drill pipe
pressure schedule.
c. Re-Zero stroke counter after 100 strokes are pumped.

78. Kill operation is ready to start. The Wait and Weight Method is to be used. Kill
mud is ready to be pumped, but it takes 10 bbl to fill the surface lines. What is the
correct procedure?
a. Subtract the 10 bbl (converted to pump strokes) from the total strokes to be pumped.
b. Ignore it. Start the kill operation. It will not affect your drill pipe pressure schedule.
c. Re-zero stroke counter when kill mud reaches the drill pipe.

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79. While killing the well using Weight & wait method by mistake original mud has been
pumped instead of kill mud for 1000 ft from the drill string, what action should be taken
in the case?
a- It doesn’t matter
b- Make surface pressure equivalent to the differential pressure between original & kill mud
c- Stop the pump evaluate pressures, re-zero strokes and start again from the beginning

Pressures during Killing

80. At what stage during a kill operation can choke pressure reading exceed MAASP
without breaking down the formation at the shoe?
a. When the influx is in the open hole section.
b. When the influx is on bottom.
c. When the kill mud is at the bit.
d. When the influx is above the casing shoe.

81. While circulating out a gas kick, when is it possible for the pressure at the casing shoe
to be at its maximum?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. When kill mud reaches the casing shoe.
b. At initial shut in.
c. When kill mud reaches the bit.
d. When top of gas reaches the casing shoe.
Well Killing Problems
82. Pump speed is increased during a kill and bottom hole pressure is kept constant. What should
happen to pump pressure?
a. Pump pressure should rise.
b. Pump pressure should stay the same.
c. Pump pressure should fall.
83. What will happen to bottom hole pressure if you decrease the pump speed (SPM) while
holding drill pipe pressure constant?
a- Increase
b- Decrease
c- Remains Steady

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84. What will happen to bottom hole pressure if you increase the pump speed (SPM) while
holding drill pipe pressure constant?
a- Increase
b- Decrease
c- Remains Steady

85. While circulating the kick, you adjusted the choke to increase the drill pipe pressure. What
will happen to bottom-hole pressure?
a- Increase
b- Decrease
c- Stay the same

86. How does the choke operator recognize drill string washout?
a- Drill pipe pressure drops gradually
b- Drill pipe pressure increase gradually
c- Drill pipe pressure drops suddenly
d- Reduction in the weight of the string

87. What will happen to the BHP if you are decreasing the SPM while holding the casing
pressure constant?
a- Increase
b- Decrease
c- Stay the same

88. While killing the well the drill pipe suddenly increase, and it doesn’t respond to the choke
movement, why?
a- Nozzle plugged
b- Hole pack-off
c- Choke plugged
d- Washout in the drill string

89. Which of the following parameters could be affected by a string washout during a well kill
operation (TWO ANSWERS)

a- Slow circulating rate pressure

b- Bottom hole pressure

c- Formation fracture pressure

d- Kick tolerance

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90. If leaks happen in the choke line, what should be closed?

a- Choke valve

b- HCR

c- Manual valve

91. During a kill operation, minor losses are experienced. What could you do to reduce the
pressure at the loss zone?
a. Reduce mud viscosity.
b. Stop circulation and shut in the well. Allow the influx to migrate to surface using the
Volumetric Method.
c. Reduce pump speed and keep bottom hole pressure as close to formation pressure as
possible.

92. While killing a well, the drill string is displaced to kill mud at a constant pump rate. A
sudden loss of standpipe pressure is observed, but there is no change in the casing
pressure.
If the choke was closed to compensate for the reduction in pressure, how would this effect
bottom hole pressure?
a. It would remain constant
b. It would decrease
c. It would increase

93. A well has kicked, and is shut in. There is a float valve in the drill string and drill pipe
gauge reads zero. Before the gas start to migrate which of the following will be used to
determine the kill density required to kill the well?

a- Start circulation at a slow circulation rate. Read initial circulating pressure, and Ignoring
string pressure losses, assume initial circulating pressure = shut in drill Pipe pressure use this
pressure to calculate the kill mud density
b- Assume that gas gradient is 0.1 psi/ft which together with the influx volume will be used to
determine the formation pressure and kill mud weight
c- Start pumping very slowly in to the drill pipe with the well shut in. When the float valve has
opened, stop the pump. The pressure the on the drill pipe pressure gauge = shut in drill pipe
pressure. Use this pressure to calculate the kill mud density.

94. After a round trip @9100 ft with 11.6 ppg drilling fluid circulation is started, After one
hour of circulation an increase in returns is observed, the will is shut in with zero pressure
on the D/P gauge and 300 psi on the casing gauge there is no float in the drill string, what
kill mud density will be required
a- 12.2
b- There is no way of knowing
c- 11.6
d- 11.2

25
95. While killing the well, a washout developed in the choke while the kill mud was filling the
annulus.
What would have happened to the drillpipe pressure if the choke was not adjusted to
compensate for the pressure drop?

a. Decrease
b. Increase
c. Stay the same

96. A well is being killed with a constant bottomhole pressure method.


The choke has been adjusted to increase the drillpipe pressure by 200 psi while the pump
speed is held constant at 35 SPM.
What will happen to the casing pressure?

a. Decrease
b. Increase
c. Stay the same

97. While killing the well using the Driller’s method second circulation, the drillpipe pressure
suddenly decreased, while the casing pressure is not affected.
What will happen to bottomhole pressure if the choke was adjusted to compensate for the
pressure drop?

a. Decrease
b. Increase
c. Stay the same

26
Volumetric Method/Stripping
98. Which one of the following best describes the purpose of the “volumetric method” of well
control

a- It allows the influx of migrate to surface while maintaining pressure in the influx more or
less constant

b- It allows the influx to migrate to surface under control while maintaining bottom hole
pressure close to constant

c- It allows the influx to migrate to surface while maintaining casing pressure at its initial
values

d- It allows the influx to migrate to surface while maintaining the casing shoe pressure more or
less constant

99. When can maximum casing shoe pressure occur when using the Volumetric Method?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. When the influx reaches the BOP stack.
b. When top the influx reaches the Casing Shoe
c. When the well is first Shut-in.
100. A well is shut in on a kick. Circulation cannot start due to mechanical problems. Gas is
migrating and bottom-hole pressure has to be kept constant.

In which of the following situations can the volumetric method of well control be used?
(THREE ANSWERS)

a- With the bit on bottom, and a non-return valve in the string


b- With the bit is a long way off-bottom, and no non-return valve in the string.
c- With the bit on bottom, no non-return valve in the string.
d- With the bit on bottom, and the drill string fully plugged-off.

101. After shutting in the well for a long time without starting circulation, both SIDPP and
SICP started to rise. What is the main cause of the rising pressures?

a- Gas migration in the drill pipe and the annulus


b- Gas migration in the annulus
c- Gas migration in the drill pipe
d- Gas Expansion

27
102. If the kill operation will be delayed and we need to prevent the increase of bottom hole
pressure due to gas migration, what is the pressure should be kept constant?
a- SIDPP
b- SICP
c- Shoe pressure
d- Hydrostatic pressure

103. A well is shut in with a kick, due to equipment problems the kill operation is delayed.
Drill pipe pressure and casing pressure are gradually rising.
What is the most likely cause of that?

a- There is a non-return valve in the BHA.


b- The mud in the hole is heating up and it is causing the volume to decrease.
c- The influx is gas and is migrating.
d- The formation that kicked has high permeability.

104. A kick is closed in off-bottom. You are stripping back to bottom. What will happen to
the casing pressure when the bit is on bottom?
a- Increase
b- Decrease
c- Stay the same

WBM VS OBM
105. The solubility of gas in oil based or water based mud can make a difference to the shut
in well data following a kick under identical conditions.
Which of the following statements is correct when using oil base mud?
(TWO ANSWERS)
a. The shut in casing pressure will be higher.
b. There will be no difference in pit gain compared with water based drilling mud.
c. The initial pit gain will be lower.
d. There will be no difference in shut in casing pressure compared with water based drilling
mud.
e. The initial pit gain will be higher.
f. The shut in casing pressure will be lower.
106. The following statement describe one of the difference between drilling with oil based
mud And water based mud;
Hydrocarbon gas is more soluble in water based mud than in oil based mud.
a- Yes.
b- No

28
Hydrates
107. What are the products commonly used to prevent the formation of hydrates: (TWO
ANSWERS)
a. Fresh Water.
b. Methanol.
c. Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose (CMC).
d. Glycol.
e. Diesel oil.
108. Which of the following statements about the formation of hydrates are correct?(TWO)
a- Injecting distilled water will prevent hydrate formation
b- Temp. below freezing point of water are necessary for hydrate formation
c- Hydrates are likely to form at low pressure rather than high pressure
d- Hydrates are likely to form @ choke
e- Hydrates only form in presence of water

109. While killing the well, the choke operator noticed that the choke is stuck in place. The
problem was identified to be due to hydrates formation.
Where did the hydrates form?

a. There is Hydrate formed inside the chock line.


b. There is Hydrate formed inside the chock.
c. There is Hydrate formed in the downstream of the chock.
d. Air lost.

29
Theoretical Model Answers
1. A 36. C 73. A
2. B 37. A 74. A-B-D
3. B 38. B 75. A-C
4. A 39. B 76. B
5. D 40. A-B 77. C
6. A 41. C-D 78. C
7. A 42. B 79. C
8. A-D-E 43. C 80. D
9. D 44. A-E 81. B-D
10. D 45. A 82. A
11. D 46. B 83. A
12. A 47. A 84. B
13. B 48. C 85. A
14. A-B 49. B 86. A
15. D 50. B 87. C
16. B-C 51. A 88. B
17. D 52. D 89. A-B
18. D 53. A-C-E 90. B
19. B 54. A-C-F 91. C
20. C 55. B 92. C
21. B 56. C 93. C
22. C-E 57. D 94. C
23. B 58. B-C-D-E 95. A
24. B 59. B-C-D-E 96. B
25. A-C 60. B 97. B
26. A-B 61. C-D-E 98. B
27. C 62. A-D-E 99. B-C
28. A-E 63. B 100. A-B-D
29. C 64. B 101. B
30. B-D 65. C 102. A
31. 6-7-13-5- 66. B 103. C
8-3-9-12-2-10-1- 67. A 104. A
4-11 68. D-E 105. C-F
32. C 69. C 106. B
33. B 70. B 107. B-D
34. A 71. B 108. D-E
35. A 72. B 109. B

30
31
Well Control Calculations

Pressures in the Earth’s Crust


1. A 26 inch surface hole is being drilled. At 1200 ft TVD from surface, a formation pressure
is exactly 601 psi.
What is the formation pressure should be?

a- Above normal
b- Normal
c- Below normal

2. At 171/2 inch surface hole is being drilled at 3750 feet. The formation fluid pressure is 2000
psi at this depth. Is the formation fluid pressure?
a. Above normal.
b. Below normal.
c. Normal.
3. Gas and oil are trapped below a dome shaped cap rock with communication to a
permeable and porous formation at 6315 ft TVD. Top of the impermeable cap rock is at
5700 ft TVD.

Formation fluid 0.465 psi/ft


gradient.
400 ft gas bearing 0.1 psi/ft
formation. 5700 ft
200 ft oil bearing 0.23 psi/ft
formation 6315 ft 15 ft
Thickness of the cap 15 ft
Gas 400 ft
rock
Oil 200 ft

Communication
a)  What is the pressure at 5715 ____________ psi
ft? _

b)  What is the pressure at 6115 ____________ psi


ft? _

c)  What is the pressure at 6315 ____________ Psi


ft? _

32
Static and Dynamic Pressures
Bottom-Hole Pressure Change
4. Calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure when circulating gas cut mud in the
following well:
Vertical depth 5900 feet
Surface to 650 feet mud density of 11.2 ppg.
650 - 1300 feet mud density of 11.8 ppg
1300 feet to bottom mud density of 12.5 ppg
Original mud density 12.5 ppg

a. 88 psi.
b. 68 psi.
c. 24 psi.

5. What would be the reduction in bottom hole pressure if the drilling fluid level dropped by
800 feet, with a density of 10.5 ppg?
……………………………psi

6. Severe losses occurred while drilling. The pumps were stopped and the mud in the
well could not be seen. The well was then filled to the top with water.
Mud density 12 ppg
Sea water density 8.6 ppg
Equivalent height of water column 150 feet of annulus
What is the reduction in bottom hole pressure with the 150 feet of water?
a. 94 psi.
b. 26 psi
c. 67 psi.
d. 30 psi.

7. Whilst drilling ahead, partial losses are measured a 10 bbl/hour. A total power loss

occurs.
Annular capacity 0.1512 bbl/ft (with pipe)
Mud density 1O.2 ppg
If the hole cannot be filled, what will be the reduction in bottom hole pressure after 4 hour?

a. 250 psi.
b. 560 psi
c. 175 psi.
d. 140 psi.

33
8. A well 9850 feet (TVD) is filled with 9.2 ppg brine.
The plan is to run in the hole to 6200 feet TVD (6600 feet MD) and displace with drill
water (8.4 ppg ). - -
What will the hydrostatic pressure be at 9850 feet when the drill water has been circulated
back to the surface?
a. 4815 psi
b. 4303 psi
c. 4454 psi.
d. 5164 psi.

9. When pulling out of the hole from the top of the reservoir at 10000 feet swab pressures are
calculated to be 150 psi.
Mud density 10.2 ppg.
Formation Pressure 5200 psi.
Will the well flow?
a. No
b. Yes.

10. Pressure recorders located below the drill stem test tools show that the swab pressure is
250.
Drilling fluid density in the hole is 10 ppg. .
Top of reservoir is at 9500 feet.
The swap pressure was 250 psi
If the well does not flow when the pipe is static, what would the reservoir pressure have to
be at this swab pressure?
a. 3800 psi.
b. 5800 psi.
c. 4690 psi.
d. 4940 psi.

11. If it’s needed to increase 200 psi on the BHP


Mwt =10.2 ppg
TVD=9000 ft
Mud weight should be equal to?
………………………
12. While drilling out at TVD of 8300 ft. mud weight was increase form 11.2 to 11.7 ,
Calculate the increase of BHP.
……………………………….

34
13. A well has been drilled to a depth of 8200 ft TVD and the current density of the
drilling mud is 12.5 ppg
What will the bottom hole pressure be if 580 psi pressure is applied from surface with the
BOP closed?

a- 5076 psi

b- 4760 psi

c- 5394 psi

d- 5910 psi

14. A well has been drilled to depth 8200 ft TVD and the current density of drilling mud
is 12.5 ppg
What will the fluid pressure be at 4920 ft if 580 psi is applied from surface with BOP
Closed?
a- 4580 psi
b- 3260 psi
c- 2980 psi
d- 3780 psi

Dynamic Pressure

15. Calculate the new pump pressure?


Old strokes: 20 spm
New strokes: 70 spm
Old pump pressure: 180 psi
No. required answer 1
A……………………… psi
16. At 60 strokes/minute, with a mud density of 12 ppg, the circulating pressure is 750 psi.
What would the approximate circulating pressure with a mud density of 13 ppg at the
same pump rate?

…………………………….. psi

17. At 60 strokes/minute, with a mud density of 12 ppg, the circulating pressure is 750 psi.
What would the approximate circulating pressure with a mud density of 11 ppg at the
same pump rate?
………………………………….. psi

35
18. When pumping at 80 SPM the pump pressure = 4000 psi. What would be approximate
pump pressure if pumps were slowed to 40 SPM?
a. 500 psi.
b. 800psi.
c. 1000 psi
d. 2000 psi

19. When circulating the drilling mud at 40 spm, the pressure on the standpipe gauge reads
800 psi. What would the calculated standpipe pressure be if the pump speed is increased
to 60 spm?
a. Approximately 1200 psi.
b. Approximately 356 psi.
c. Approximately 1800 psi.
d. Approximately 533 psi.

20. At 60 spm, with 10 ppg mud, the pump pressure is 1,500 psi.
What would the pump pressure be if the rate decreased to 20 spm and the mud density
increased to 11.0 ppg?
a. 167 psi
b. 183 psi.
c. 204 psi.
d. 262 psi.
21. The new bit is on bottom and these data are noted before initiating drilling:

Drilling fluid density 10.0 ppg


Pump rate 35 SPM

Standpipe pressure 1200 psi

Which one of the pressures can be expected on the standpipe if the pump rate is reduced to 30 SPM?

------------------------------------------------------------

22. A vertical well is 5500 feet deep and filled with 11.2 ppg mud.
While circulating at 100 SPM the friction losses in the well system are as follows:
a. 150 psi pressure loss through surface equipment.
b. 900 psi pressure loss in drill string.
c. 1700 psi pressure loss through bit nozzles.
d. 100 psi pressure loss in annulus.
What is the bottom hole pressure when the pumps are running at 100 spm?
………………..psi

36
23. A vertical well is 5500 feet deep and filled with 11.2 ppg mud.
While circulating at 100 SPM the friction losses in the well system are as follows:
a. 150 psi pressure loss through surface equipment.
b. 900 psi pressure loss in drill string.
c. 1700 psi pressure loss through bit nozzles.
d. 100 psi pressure loss in annulus.
What is the pump pressure when circulating at 100 spm?
………………..psi

24. A vertical well is 6020 feet deep and filled with 11.5 ppg mud. While circulating at 80

SPM the friction losses in the well system are as follows:


120 psi pressure loss through surface equipment.
680 psi pressure loss in drill string.
1570 psi pressure loss through bit nozzles.
110psi pressure loss in annulus.
What is the bottom hole pressure in the well when the pumps are running at 80 spm?

a- 3600 psi.
b- 4280 psi.
c- 3720 psi.
d- 3710 psi

25. A vertical well is 5500 feet deep and filled with 11.2 ppg mud.
While circulating at 100 SPM the friction losses in the well system are as
follows:

a. 150 psi pressure loss through surface equipment.


b. 900 psi pressure loss in drill string.
c. 1700 psi pressure loss through bit nozzles.
d. 100 psi pressure loss in annulus.

What is the pump pressure when circulating at 90 SPM?


……………………….psi

37
Leak-Off Test
26. A well is full of 11 ppg mud and a leak-off test has been performed at 6000 feet
TVD.
A leak-off pressure of 1000 psi has been recorded.
Calculate the maximum allowable mud density?

a. 15.5 ppg
b. 14.2 ppg
c. 13.4 ppg
d. 11 ppg

27. Calculate the MAASP using the following information:


WELL DATA
Casing Shoe Depth (TVD) 6000 ft
Maximum Allowable Mud Density 15.4 ppg
Mud density of in hole 12 ppg

…………………………… psi

28. Calculate the MAASP using the following information:


WELL DATA:
Well depth 11200 ft TVD. 13000 ft MD
Casing Shoe Depth 7400 ft TVD. 9000 ft MD
Formation Fracture gradient 0.707 psilft
Mud density in hole 10 ppg
…………………………….. psi

29. WELL DATA:


13-3/8 inch casing is set at 5210 feet TVD. Formation strength at the shoe is 3800 psi.
Current mud density = 10.6 ppg.
What is the Maximum Allowable Annulus Surface Pressure {MAASP)?
a. 2050 psi.
b. 555 psi
c. 928 psi
d. 1800 psi

30. Calculate the formation strength at the casing shoe using the following information?
Q)
WELL DATA:
Casing Shoe Depth (TVD) 6000 ft
Drilling Mud Density 12 ppg
MAASP 1300 psi
…………………………….. psi

38
31. A well has been drilled to 10,000 feet with a 10 ppg mud. A leak-off test has been
conducted at the casing shoe at 5500 feet. The surface leak-off pressure was 1000 psi.
What will happen to MAASP, if the mud weight in the well is increased by 2 ppg?

a- MAASP will decrease by 572 psi


b- MAASP will increase by 572 psi
c- No change in MAASP
d- MAASP will decrease by 1040 psi

32. A well has been drilled to 5500 feet with 11 ppg mud. The surface leak off test pressure
with 11 ppg mud is 1500 psi. Calculate the new MAASP if the mud weight is increased by
2 ppg
Ans.= ------------------psi

33. Calculate the maximum allowable mud weight using the following

Well Data:

Casing shoe depth: 8000 ft, TVD


Leak off test pressure at pump: 1500 psi
Density of drilling mud in hole: 10.4 ppg

…………………………ppg

39
34. The plotted diagram is results from a formation strength test (LOT).
Data:
True vertical depth 8320 ft
Drilling fluid 12.0 ppg
density

Surface pressure psi


2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 bbl pumped

I. Indicate at which point the fluid injection into the formation begins to take place.

a)  1825 psi
b)  1700 psi
c)  1900 psi

II. Calculate the formation fluid intake pressure at the casing shoe.

a)  1700 psi
b)  6040 psi
c)  6891 psi

III. Calculate the maximum equivalent drilling fluid density at the casing shoe.

a)  16.0 ppg
b)  15.8 ppg
c)  15.9 ppg

40
Tripping
35. WELLDATA
Drill Pipe Capacity 0.01776 bbl/ft
Drill Pipe Metal Displacement 0.0083 bbl/ft
Average Stand Length 93 feet
a. Calculate the mud required to fill the hole per stand when pulled 'dry'.
……………………… bbl
b. Calculate the mud required to fill the hole per stand when pulled 'wet'.
……………………… bbl

36. TWO stands of drill collars are pulled from the well (dry)
Drill collar capacity 0.0073 bbl. /ft.
Drill collar metal displacement 0.0370 bbl. /ft.
How many barrels of drilling mud should be pumped into the well?
(Assume one stand equals 90 feet).
a. 5.5 bbl.
b. 6.6 bbl.
c. 1.3 bbl.
d. 7.9 bbl

37. During a trip 15 stand of dry pipe have been pulled out, the volume of drilling fluid use to
fill the hole was 8.2 bbl.
Well data:
Well depth: 5800 ft
Stand Length: 90 ft
Drill pipe Capacity: 0.01782 bbl/ft
Drill pipe metal displacement: 0.0082 bbl/ft
Drilling mud density: 11.2 ppg

Select the correct action from the following list.

a- The volume is not corrected due to swabbing but as long as the well is stable continue to pull
out.
b- Continue to pull out since the situation seems to be under control.
c- Start pumping high density drilling mud in to the annulus.
d- An influx has been swabbed in, check for flow, if no flow, trip back to bottom while
monitoring displaced volume and carefully then circulate bottom up.

41
38. Well data:
Drill Pipe capacity: 0.0178 bbl/ft
Drill pipe metal displacement: 0.0082
Average stand length: 93 ft
Calculate the volume of mud required to fill the hole per stand when pulling ‘wet’ with no
return of mud to the well?

a- 0.76 bbl.
b- 1.65 bbl.
c- 2.42 bbl

39. What is the bottom hole hydrostatic pressure reduction when pulling 1000 ft of 5" drill
pipe dry without filling the hole (no mud returning to the well)?
Well Data:
Casing capacity 0.1522 bbl/ft
Drill pipe capacity 0.0178 bbl/ft
Drill pipe steel displacement 0.0076 bbl/ft
Mud density 11 ppg

a. 51 psi
b. 61 psi
c. 30 psi
d. 101 psi

40. On pulling out of the well from 10000 feet, the first 930 feet of 5 inch drill pipe is pulled wet
without filling the hole (no mud returning to the well).
WELL DATA
Casing capacity 0.074 bbl/ft
Drill pipe capacity 0.0178 bbl/ft
Drill pipe steel displacement 0.0077 bbl/ft
Mud density 11.4 ppg

What is the drop in bottom hole pressure?

a. 84 psi.
b. 290 psi.
c. 220 psi
d. 140 psi.

42
41. The following data is valid:

Drilling fluid density 10 ppg


Casing and riser 0.0758 bbl/f
capacity t

Drill pipe stand length 93 ft


Drill pipe capacity 0.0178 bbl/f
t
Drill pipe metal 0.0075 bbl/f
displacement t

Calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure once 10 stands ft of 5 in drill pipe has been
pulled wet and without filling the hole.

-------------------------------------------psi

42. Well data;


Mud density: 10 ppg
Metal displacement: 0.0075 bbl/ft
Pipe capacity: 0.0178 bbl/ft
Casing capacity: 0.0758 bbl/ft
Stand length: 93 ft
Calculate the drop in mud hydrostatic pressure if ten stand of pipe are pulled ‘wet’ from
the well (no returns from inside of pipe back to the well)

………………………………psi

43. On a trip out of the hole the hole fill pump was stopped and the complete BHA was pulled
dry
Hole size 8 ½ inch
Length of BHA 600 feet
Internal capacity of BHA 0.006 bbl/ft
Steel displacement of BHA 0.03 bbl/ft
Internal capacity of casing 0.072 bbl/ft
Capacity between BHA and casing 0.035 bbl/ft
Mud density 12 ppg

Calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure?


a. 250 psi.
b. 208 psi
c. 156 psi.
d. 127 psi.

43
44. If the BHA is pulled wet without filling the hole, calculate the reduction in bottom hole
pressure?
BHA length 580 feet
BHA capacity 0.0061 bbl/ft
BHA steel displacement 0.032 bbl/ft
Annular capacity BHA to 12-1/4 inch Bore 0.0322 bbl/ft
Casing capacity 0.0719 bbl/ft
Mud density 11 ppg
A. 148 psi
B.307 PSi
C. 258 psi.
D.176 psi

45. A vertical well has been drilled to a depth of 7480 feet.


Overbalance 179 psi
Mud gradient 0.624 psi /lft
Casing capacity: 0.1571 bbl/ft
Drill pipe metal displacement: 0.008 bbl/ft
How many complete stands can be pulled dry before the overbalance is lost?
(Assume one stand equals 93 feet).
a. 59 stand
b. 58 stand
c. 57 stand

46. A vertical well has been drilled to a depth of 9400 feet.


Overbalance 200 psi
Mud gradient 0.572 psilft
Casing capacity: 0.157 bbl/ft
Drill pipe metal displacement 0.0082 bbl/ft
Drill pipe capacity 0.0178 bbl/ft
How many complete stands can be pulled wet before the overbalance is lost?
(Assume one stand equals 90 feet)
a. 19 stand
b. 20 stand
c. 21 stand

47. Whilst running 9-5/8 inch casing, 15 joints are run without filling the string.
Mud density 10.8 ppg
Casing capacity 0.0719 bbl/ft
Annular capacity 0.0558 bbl/ft
Casing joint 40 feet

If the float valve was to fail at this point, what would be the reduction in bottom hole pressure?

…………………….. psi

44
48. 13 3/8" string of casing is run into the hole with conventional float. The Driller did not
fill the casing for fourteen 40 feet joints. If the float were to fail at this point, and mud
U-Tubes up inside the casing, calculate the effect on bottom hole pressure.

DATA:
Casing capacity 0.152 bbl/ft
Annular capacity 0.1238 bbl/ft
Mud density 12.6 ppg

a. BHP will decreases by 298 psi.


b. BHP will decreases by 102 psi.
c. BHP will decreases by 202 psi.
d. BHP will decreases by 83 psi.

49. 13-3/8 in casing is run into the well. A float valve is installed in the shoe joint. The
mixing pump used to fill the casing malfunctioned for 40 minutes, however the Driller
continued to run 12 joints of casing into the well without filling up the casing. At this
stage the float valve malfunctioned.

13-3/8 in casing capacity 0.1548 bbl/f


t
13-3/8 in casing steel 0.02574 bbl/f
displacement t
13-3/8 in casing average joint 40.00 ft
length
Annulus capacity 0.12365 bbl/f
t
Drilling fluid density 11.50 ppg

Calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure caused by the malfunctioning float valve.
-----------------------------psi

45
Slug
50. A 20 bbl heavy slug with a density of 13 ppg is pumped before pulling out of the hole.
TVD = 9750 feet. The level in the pipe falls by 180 feet.
What is the change in bottom hole pressure if the original mud density was 10.7 ppg?
a. 1,200psi
b. 100psi.
c. 0 psi.
d. 180 psi.

51. In a well 12482 ft TVD, 20 bbl slug 12.5 ppg has been pumped in the drill string
followed by 30 bbl from original mud 10 ppg, after disconnect top drive the mud level
dropped in the drill string 225 ft
Calculate the reduction in bottom hole pressure

a- 0 psi
b- 30 psi
c- 146 psi
d- 117 psi

52. Before a trip out of well, a slug was pumped and chased by mud while having returns
to the pit the pumps were stopped. The trip tank was lined up to the well. The top
drive was then disconnected and slug allowed to fall.

Well data:

Well depth: 7218 feet


Drill pipe internal capacity: 0.0176 bbl/ft
Mud density: 10.8 ppg
Slug density: 13.3 ppg
Slug volume in the string: 25 bbl

Calculate the volume increased to trip tank.

…………………………….bbl

46
53. Before pulling out of the well, a slug was pumped and chased by mud with returns to the
pit. The pumps were stopped. The trip tank was lined up on the well. The top drive was
then disconnected and the slug allowed to fall.
WELL DATA
Well depth 8000 feet
Drill pipe internal capacity 0.0176 bbl/ft
Mud density 9.8 ppg
Slug density 11.3 ppg
Slug volume in the string 20 bbl
Calculate the mud volume increase in the trip tank.
a. 3 bbl.
b. 15 bbl.
c. 20 bbl

54. Prior to starting a trip out of the well, a 15 bbl heavy slug is pumped and followed by 10
bbls of regular mud. .
WELL DATA
Well depth 10200 feet
Drill pipe capacity 0.0177 bbl/ft
Annulus capacity DP/Casing 0.0514 bbllft
Mud density 10.8 ppg
Slug density 13.3 ppg
How far will the mud level drop when the well has equalized?
a. 197 feet.
b. 247 feet
c. 597 feet
d. 847 feet

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55. Use the given information:

True vertical depth of well 9000 ft


Open hole capacity 0.0703 bbl/ft
Casing shoe MD 6120 ft
Casing size 9-5/8" x 53.5 lb./ft, Grade N80
Casing capacity 0.0707 bbl/ft
5" x 19.5 lb./ft grade E, NC 50, internal 0.0176 bbl/ft
capacity
Drill collars 6-1/4 in x 2-1/4 in 600 ft
Drill collar internal capacity 0.00492 bbl/ft
Drill collar closed end displacement 0.038 bbl/ft
Drilling fluid density 10.5 ppg
Slug density 13.1 ppg
Pumped slug volume 22 bbl

The slug was pumped and the surface lines displaced by original drilling fluid.

Calculate the volume increase in the trip tank after the _____________ bbl
topdrive was disconnected and the slug was allowed to
drop.

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Volumetric Method/Stripping

56. A vertical well is shut in with a gas kick. Surface Pressures are:
Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure 500 psi
Shut In Casing Pressure 600 psi
Mud density 11.5 ppg
If the gas migrates 500 feet up the well what would the pressures be if no action is taken?
a. Drill pipe pressure = 500 psi, Casing pressure = 900 psi
b. Drill pipe pressure = 800 psi, Casing pressure = 600 psi
c. Drill pipe pressure = 600 psi, Casing pressure = 900 psi
d.Drill pipe pressure = 800 psi, Casing pressure = 900 psi

57. A well is shut in on a kick.


Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure 400 psi
Shut In Casing Pressure 600 psi
Mud density 13 ppg
Influx gradient 0.1 psi/ft
After 30 minutes both pressures have risen by 150 psi due to gas migration.
Calculate the speed of gas migration in feet per hour.
a. 325 ftlhr
b. 444 ftlhr.
c. 590 ftlhr.
d. 200 ftlhr.

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58. A vertical well is shut in following a gas kick. The kill operation is delayed and the
influx has started to migrate with both drill pipe pressure and casing pressure increasing by
100psi
WELL DATA
Well depth 9000 feet
Casing shoe depth 5000 feet
Mud density 11 ppg
Open hole/drill pipe capacity 0.060 bbl/ft
Casing/drill pipe capacity 0.065 bbllft
NOTE: Assume only drill pipe to be present in the well
KICK DATA:
Shut-In stabilized drill pipe pressure 600 psi
Shut in stabilized casing pressure 800 psi
Kick volume 25 bbl

How many barrels of mud should be bled from the well in order to maintain original bottom
hole pressure?

………………………….. bbl.

59. 5-inch drill pipe is stripped into the hole through the Annular Preventer.
Average length of a stand 93 feet
Drill pipe inside capacity 0.0178 bbllft
Closed end displacement 0.0254 bbllft
Metal displacement 0.0076 bbllft
For each stand of pi e stripped, how many barrels of mud must be bled off from the annulus?

………………………….. bbl.

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60. After pulling 40 stands the well starts to flow and is shut in.
WELL DATA
Well depth 11000 ft
9-5/8 inch casing shoe 7000 ft
8-1/2 inch hole capacity 0.0702 bbl/ft
Mud density 11 ppg
Drill Collar length 450 ft
Drill Collar Capacity 0.0077 bbl/ft
Drill Collar Metal displacement 0.033 bbl/ft
Drill pipe capacity 0.0178 bbl/ft
Drill pipe Metal displacement 0,0075 bbl/ft
Capacity drill collar/open hole 0.0292 bbl/ft
Capacity drill pipe/open hole 0.0459 bbl/ft
Capacity drill pipe/casing 0.0515 bbl/ft
The bit depth at time of kick 7280 feet
Shut in Casing Pressure 150 psi
Influx volume 15 bbl
The influx is on bottom and is NOT migrating.
a. Calculate the volume to bleed off to strip back to the bottom?
………….. bbl.~
b. What will happen to the bottom hole pressure if too much mud is bled off
whilst stripping back to bottom?

o Increase 0 Decrease 0 Stay the same

c. What will happen to the bottom hole pressure if too little mud is bled off
whilst stripping back to bottom?

o Increase 0 Decrease 0 Stay the same

d. What is likely to happen to casing pressure as the drill string is stripped into
the influx?

o Increase 0 Decrease 0 Stay the same

61. 5-inch drill pipe is stripped into the hole through the annular preventer.

Average length of a stand 93 feet


Drill pipe inside capacity 0.0177 bbl/ft
Closed end displacement 0.0253 bbl/ft
Metal displacement 0.0076 bbl/ft
For each stand of pipe stripped, how many barrels of mud must be pumped to
keep the drillstring full?

…………………….. bbl.

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Various
62. Calculate the maximum operating pressure for the mud gas separator (Poor boy
degasser) if you are circulating oil with 6 ppg weight from the well, and the mud gas
separator has 10 ppg mud. The dip tube height is 10 feet.

a- 5.12 psi
b- 6.12 psi
c- 3.12 psi
d- 5.5 psi

63. Whilst drilling a horizontal well a fault is crossed and a kick is taken. The well is shut in.
Calculate the mud density required to kill the well using the data below:
WELL DATA MD TVD
Depth at start of horizontal 6500 feet 4050 feet
Depth at time of kick 10500 feet 3970 feet
Length of horizontal section 4000 feet
Mud density 11.2 ppg
KICK DATA
Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure 150 psi
Shut In Casing Pressure 150 psi
………………………………. ppg.

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Well Control Problems Model Answers
1- A 33- 14
2- A 34- B-C-C
3- 2850 – 2890 – 2936 35- 0.7719 – 2.423
4- B 36- B
5- 436 37- D
6- B 38- C
7- D 39- C
8- C 40- B
9- B 41- 243
10- C 42- 242
11- 10.62 43- C
12- 215 44- D
13- D 45- C
14- D 46- A
15- 2205 47- 190
16- 813 48- C
17- 688 49- 160
18- C 50- C
19- C 51- A
20- B 52- 5.7
21- 882 53- A
22- 3303 54- A
23- 2850 55- 5.44
24- D 56- D
25- 2308 57- B
26- B 58- 0.442
27- 1060 59- 2.362
28- 1383 60- 94 – Decrease – Increase – Increase
29- C 61- 1.646
30- 5044 62- C
31- A 63- 11.91 - 12.0
32- 928

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