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Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.

1039/9781847551924-00329

APPENDIX A

Statistical Tables
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Table A.l Critical values of the student’s t distribution, p. 330


Table A.2 Critical values of the x2 distribution, p. 331
Table A.3 Critical values of the Fdistribution, p. 332
Table A.4 Table of z scores for the standard normal distribution, p. 336
Table A S 5% Critical values for the studentised range statistic, p. 336
Table A.6 Power values for treatment F test based on the non-central F
distribution for 5% Significance testing, p. 337
Table A.7 Lower critical values for the Mann-Whitney test, p. 340
Table A.8 Lower critical values for the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, p. 343

329
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330 St at ist ical Tables


Table A.l Critical values of the Student’s t distribution
df = degrees of freedom
~ ~~

df to.1 df
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

t0.05 10.025 to.01 t0.005

1 3.078 6.3 14 12.710 3 1.820 63.660 1


2 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 2
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3 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.54 1 5.841 3


4 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 4
5 1.476 2.01 5 2.571 3.365 4.032 5
6 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 6
7 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 7
8 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 8
9 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 9
10 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 10
11 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 11
12 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 12
13 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 13
14 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 14
15 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 15
16 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 16
17 1.333 1.740 2.1 10 2.567 2.898 17
18 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 18
19 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.86 1 19
20 1.325 .725 2.086 2.528 2.845 20
21 1.323 .721 2.080 2.518 2.831 21
22 1.321 .717 2.074 2.508 2.819 22
23 1.319 .714 2.069 2.500 2.807 23
24 1.318 .711 2.064 2.492 2.797 24
25 1.316 .708 2.060 2.485 2.787 25
26 1.315 .706 2.056 2.479 2.779 26
27 1.3 14 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 27
28 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 28
29 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 29
30 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 30
32 1.309 1.694 2.037 2.449 2.738 32
34 1.307 1.691 2.032 2.441 2.728 34
36 1.306 1.688 2.028 2.434 2.719 36
38 1.304 1.686 2.024 2.429 2.712 38
40 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 40
50 1.299 1.676 2.009 2.403 2.678 50
60 1.296 1.67 1 2.000 2.390 2.660 60
90 1.291 1.662 1.987 2.369 2.632 90

The critical values presented are appropriate for both two- and one-tailed testing.
For a two-tailed test at the 5% ( a = 0.05) significance level, r12 = 0.025 and the value is
read from column to.025.
For a one-tailed test at the 5% significance level, SI = 0.05 and the value is read from
column to.05.
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Appendix A 33 1
Table A.2 Critical values of the x2 distribution

df = degrees of freedom
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

df x’0.995 x’0.99 x‘0.975 x’0.95 x20.05 x’0.025 x’0.01 x’0.005 df

1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.84 5.02 6.63 7.88 1


2 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.10 5.99 7.38 9.21 10.60 2
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3 0.07 0.1 1 0.22 0.35 7.81 9.35 11.34 12.84 3


4 0.21 0.30 0.48 0.71 9.49 11.14 13.28 14.86 4
5 0.41 0.55 0.83 1.15 11.07 12.83 15.09 16.75 5
6 0.68 0.87 1.24 1.64 12.59 14.45 16.81 18.55 6
7 0.99 1.24 1.69 2.17 14.07 16.01 18.48 20.28 7
8 1.34 1.65 2.18 2.73 15.51 17.53 20.09 21.95 8
9 1.73 2.09 2.70 3.33 16.92 19.02 21.67 23.59 9
10 2.16 2.56 3.25 3.94 18.31 20.48 23.21 25.19 10
11 2.60 3.05 3.82 4.57 19.68 21.92 24.72 26.76 11
12 3.07 3.57 4.40 5.23 21.03 23.34 26.22 28.30 12
13 3.57 4.1 1 5.01 5.89 22.36 24.74 27.69 29.82 13
14 4.07 4.66 5.63 6.57 23.68 26.12 29.14 31.32 14
15 4.60 5.23 6.26 7.26 25.00 27.49 30.58 32.80 15
16 5.14 5.81 6.9 1 7.96 26.30 28.85 32.00 34.27 16
17 5.70 6.41 7.56 8.67 27.59 30.19 33.41 35.72 17
18 6.26 7.01 8.23 9.39 28.87 31.53 34.81 37.16 18
19 6.84 7.63 8.9 1 10.12 30.14 32.85 36.19 38.58 19
20 7.43 8.26 9.59 10.85 31.41 34.17 37.57 40.00 20
21 8.03 8.90 10.28 11.59 32.67 35.48 38.93 41.40 21
22 8.64 9.54 10.98 12.34 33.92 36.78 40.29 42.80 22
23 9.26 10.20 11.69 13.09 35.17 38.08 41.64 44.18 23
24 9.89 10.86 12.40 13.85 36.42 39.36 42.98 45.56 24
25 10.52 11.52 13.12 14.61 37.65 40.65 44.31 46.93 25
26 11.16 12.20 13.84 15.38 38.89 41.92 45.64 48.29 26
27 11.81 12.88 14.57 16.15 40.11 43.19 46.96 49.65 27
28 12.46 13.56 15.31 16.93 41.34 44.46 48.28 50.99 28
29 13.12 14.26 16.05 17.71 42.56 45.72 49.59 52.34 29
30 13.79 14.95 16.79 18.49 43.77 46.98 50.89 53.67 30

The critical values presented are appropriate for both two- and one-tailed testing.
For a two-tailed tesf at the 5% (a = 0.05) significance level, d 2 = 0.025, 1 -(a/2) = 0.975
and the necessary values are read from columns ~ ~ 0 , 0 and2 5 xz0 975.

For a one-tailed testing, critical values depend on the form of the alternative hypothesis.
For H I with the inequality < at the 5% significance level, 2 = 0.05, 1 - S I = 0.95, and the
value is read from column ~ ’ 0 . 9 5 .For H I with the inequality > at the 5% significance
level, SI = 0.05 and the value is read from column ~ ’ 0 . 0 ~ .
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332 St at istical Tables


Table A.3 Critical values of the F distribution
Values of Feel (a = 0.1)
dfl = degrees of freedom of numerator df2 = degrees of freedom of denominator
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

2 8.53
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9.00 9.16 9.24 9.29 9.33 9.35 9.37 2


3 5.54 5.46 5.39 5.34 5.31 5.28 5.27 5.25 3
4 4.54 4.32 4.19 4.11 4.05 4.01 3.98 3.95 4
5 4.06 3.78 3.62 3.52 3.45 3.40 3.37 3.34 5
6 3.78 3.46 3.29 3.18 3.11 3.05 3.01 2.98 6
7 3.59 3.26 3.07 2.96 2.88 2.83 2.78 2.75 7
8 3.46 3.11 2.92 2.81 2.73 2.67 2.62 2.59 8
9 3.36 3.01 2.81 2.69 2.61 2.55 2.51 2.47 9
10 3.29 2.92 2.73 2.61 2.52 2.46 2.41 2.38 10
11 3.23 2.86 2.66 2.54 2.45 2.39 2.34 2.30 11
12 3.18 2.81 2.61 2.48 2.39 2.33 2.28 2.24 12
14 3.10 2.73 2.52 2.39 2.31 2.24 2.19 2.15 14
16 3.05 2.67 2.46 2.33 2.24 2.18 2.13 2.09 16
18 3.01 2.62 2.42 2.29 2.20 2.13 2.08 2.04 18
20 2.97 2.59 2.38 2.25 2.16 2.09 2.04 2.00 20
22 2.95 2.56 2.35 2.22 2.13 2.06 2.01 1.97 22
26 2.91 2.52 2.31 2.17 2.08 2.01 1.96 1.92 26
30 2.88 2.49 2.28 2.14 2.05 1.98 1.93 1.88 30
40 2.84 2.44 2.23 2.09 2.00 1.93 1.87 1.83 40
50 2.81 2.41 2.20 2.06 1.97 1.90 1.84 1.80 50
60 2.79 2.39 2.18 2.04 1.95 1.87 1.82 1.77 60

dfI
elf2 9 I0 12 15 20 24 30 dfi
2 9.38 9.39 9.41 9.42 9.44 9.45 9.46 2
3 5.24 5.23 5.22 5.20 5.18 5.18 5.17 3
4 3.94 3.92 3.90 3.87 3.84 3.83 3.82 4
5 3.32 3.30 3.27 3.24 3.21 3.19 3.17 5
6 2.96 2.94 2.90 2.87 2.84 2.82 2.80 6
7 2.72 2.70 2.67 2.63 2.59 2.58 2.56 7
8 2.56 2.54 2.50 2.46 2.42 2.40 2.38 7
9 2.44 2.42 2.38 2.34 2.30 2.28 2.25 8
10 2.35 2.32 2.28 2.24 2.20 2.18 2.16 9
11 2.27 2.25 2.21 2.17 2.12 2.10 2.08 10
12 2.21 2.19 2.15 2.10 2.06 2.04 2.01 11
14 2.12 2.10 2.05 2.01 1.96 1.94 1.91 12
16 2.06 2.03 1.99 1.94 1.89 1.87 1.84 16
18 2.00 1.98 1.93 1.89 1.84 1.81 1.78 18
20 1.96 1.94 1.89 1.84 1.79 1.77 1.74 20
22 1.93 1.90 1.86 1.81 1.76 1.73 1.70 22
26 1.88 1.86 1.81 1.76 1.71 1.68 1.65 26
30 1.85 1.82 1.77 1.72 1.67 1.64 1.61 30
40 1.79 1.76 1.71 1.66 1.61 1.57 1.54 40
50 1.76 1.73 1.68 1.63 1.57 1.54 1.50 50
60 1.74 1.71 1.66 1.60 1.54 1.51 1.48 60
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Appendix A 333
Table A.3 (continued)
Values of FOeM
(a = 0.05)
dfl = degrees of freedom of numerator dfi = degrees of freedom of denominator
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329
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2 18.51 19.00 19.16 19.25 19.30 19.33 19.35 19.37 2


3 10.13 9.55 9.28 9.12 9.01 8.94 8.89 8.85 3
4 7.71 6.94 6.59 6.39 6.26 6.16 6.09 6.04 4
5 6.61 5.79 5.41 5.19 5.05 4.95 4.88 4.82 5
6 5.99 5.14 4.76 4.53 4.39 4.28 4.21 4.15 6
7 5.59 4.74 4.35 4.12 3.97 3.87 3.79 3.73 7
8 5.32 4.46 4.07 3.84 3.69 3.58 3.50 3.44 8
9 5.12 4.26 3.86 3.63 3.48 3.37 3.29 3.23 9
10 4.96 4.10 3.71 3.48 3.33 3.22 3.14 3.07 10
11 4.84 3.98 3.59 3.36 3.20 3.09 3.01 2.95 11
12 4.75 3.89 3.49 3.26 3.11 3.00 2.91 2.85 12
14 4.60 3.74 3.34 3.11 2.96 2.85 2.76 2.70 14
16 4.49 3.63 3.24 3.01 2.85 2.74 2.66 2.59 16
18 4.41 3.55 3.16 2.93 2.77 2.66 2.58 2.51 18
20 4.35 3.49 3.10 2.87 2.7r 2.60 2.51 2.45 20
22 4.30 3.44 3.05 2.82 2.66 2.55 2.46 2.40 22
26 4.23 3.37 2.98 2.74 2.59 2.47 2.39 2.32 26
30 4.17 3.32 2.92 2.69 2.53 2.42 2.33 2.27 30
40 4.08 3.23 2.84 2.61 2.45 2.34 2.25 2.18 40
50 4.03 3.18 2.79 2.56 2.40 2.29 2.20 2.13 50
60 4.00 3.15 2.76 2.53 2.37 2.25 2.17 2.10 60

dh
dfi 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 dfi
2 19.38 19.40 19.41 19.43 19.45 19.45 19.46 2
3 8.81 8.79 8.74 8.70 8.66 8.64 8.62 3
4 6.00 5.96 5.91 5.86 5.80 5.77 5.75 4
5 4.77 4.74 4.68 4.62 4.56 4.53 4.50 5
6 4.10 4.06 4.00 3.94 3.87 3.84 3.81 6
7 3.68 3.64 3.57 3.51 3.44 3.41 3.38 7
8 3.39 3.35 3.28 3.22 3.15 3.12 3.08 8
9 3.18 3.14 3.07 3.01 2.94 2.90 2.86 9
10 3.02 2.98 2.91 2.85 2.77 2.74 2.70 10
11 2.90 2.85 2.79 2.72 2.65 2.61 2.57 11
12 2.80 2.75 2.69 2.62 2.54 2.51 2.47 12
14 2.65 2.60 2.53 2.46 2.39 2.35 2.31 14
16 2.54 2.49 2.42 2.35 2.28 2.24 2.19 16
18 2.46 2.41 2.34 2.27 2.19 2.15 2.11 18
20 2.39 2.35 2.28 2.20 2.12 2.08 2.04 20
22 2.34 2.30 2.23 2.15 2.07 2.03 1.98 22
26 2.27 2.22 2.15 2.07 1.99 1.95 1.90 26
30 2.21 2.16 2.09 2.01 1.93 1.89 1.84 30
40 2.12 2.08 2.00 1.92 1.84 1.79 1.74 40
50 2.07 2.03 1.95 1.87 1.78 1.74 1.69 50
60 2.04 1.99 1.92 1.84 1.75 1.70 1.65 60
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334 Statistical Tables

Table A.3 (continued)


Values of F o . o (a
~ ~= 0.025)
df, = degrees of freedom of numerator df, = degrees of freedom of denominator
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

2 38.51 39.00 39.17 39.25 39.30 39.33 39.36 39.37 2


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3 17.44 16.04 15.44 15.10 14.88 14.73 14.62 14.54 3


4 12.22 10.65 9.98 9.60 9.36 9.20 9.07 8.98 4
5 10.01 8.43 7.76 7.39 7.15 6.98 6.85 6.76 5
6 8.81 7.26 6.60 6.23 5.99 5.82 5.70 5.60 6
7 8.07 6.54 5.89 5.52 5.29 5.12 4.99 4.90 7
8 7.57 6.06 5.42 5.05 4.82 4.65 4.53 4.43 8
9 7.21 5.71 5.08 4.72 4.48 4.32 4.20 4.10 9
10 6.94 5.46 4.83 4.47 4.24 4.07 3.95 3.85 10
11 6.72 5.26 4.63 4.28 4.04 3.88 3.76 3.66 11
12 6.55 5.10 4.47 4.12 3.89 3.73 3.61 3.51 12
14 6.30 4.86 4.24 3.89 3.66 3.50 3.38 3.29 14
16 6.12 4.69 4.08 3.73 3.50 3.34 3.22 3.12 16
18 5.98 4.56 3.95 3.61 3.38 3.22 3.10 3.01 18
20 5.87 4.46 3.86 3.51 3.29 3.13 3.01 2.91 20
22 5.79 4.38 3.78 3.44 3.22 3.05 2.93 2.84 22
26 5.66 4.27 3.67 3.33 3.10 2.94 2.82 2.73 26
30 5.57 4.18 3.59 3.25 3.03 2.87 2.75 2.65 30
40 5.42 4.05 3.46 3.13 2.90 2.74 2.62 2.53 40
50 5.34 3.97 3.39 3.05 2.83 2.67 2.55 2.46 50
60 5.29 3.93 3.34 3.01 2.79 2.63 2.5 1 2.41 60

dfl
dh 9 I0 12 15 20 24 30 dh
2 39.39 39.40 39.41 39.43 39.45 39.46 39.46 2
3 14.47 14.42 14.34 14.25 14.17 14.12 14.08 3
4 8.90 8.84 8.75 8.66 8.56 8.51 8.46 4
5 6.68 6.62 6.52 6.43 6.33 6.28 6.23 5
6 5.52 5.46 5.37 5.27 5.17 5.12 5.07 6
7 4.82 4.76 4.67 4.57 4.41 4.42 4.36 7
8 4.36 4.30 4.20 4.10 4.00 3.95 3.89 8
9 4.03 3.96 3.87 3.77 3.67 3.61 3.56 9
10 3.78 3.72 3.62 3.52 3.42 3.37 3.31 10
I1 3.59 3.53 3.43 3.33 3.23 3.17 3.12 11
12 3.44 3.37 3.28 3.18 3.07 3.02 2.96 12
14 3.21 3.15 3.05 2.95 2.84 2.79 2.73 14
16 3.05 2.99 2.89 2.79 2.68 2.63 2.57 16
18 2.93 2.87 2.77 2.67 2.56 2.50 2.44 18
20 2.84 2.77 2.68 2.57 2.46 2.41 2.35 20
22 2.76 2.70 2.60 2.50 2.39 2.33 2.27 22
26 2.65 2.59 2.49 2.39 2.28 2.22 2.16 26
30 2.57 2.51 2.4 1 2.31 2.20 2.14 2.07 30
40 2.45 2.39 2.29 2.18 2.07 2.01 1.94 40
50 2.38 2.32 2.22 2.1 1 1.99 1.93 1.87 50
60 2.33 2.27 2.17 2.06 1.94 1.88 1.82 60
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Appendix A 335
Table A.3 (continued)
Values of FOnol(a = 0.01)
dfl = degrees of freedom of numerator df2 = degree of freedom of denominator
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

dfi
df2 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 df2
2 98.50 99.00 99.17 99.25 99.30 99.33 99.36 99.37 2
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3 34.12 30.82 29.46 28.71 28.24 27.91 27.67 27.49 3


4 21.20 18.00 16.69 15.98 15.52 15.21 14.98 14.80 4
5 16.26 13.27 12.06 11.39 10.97 10.67 10.46 10.29 5
6 13.75 10.92 9.78 9.15 8.75 8.47 8.26 8.10 6
7 12.25 9.55 8.45 7.85 7.46 7.19 6.99 6.84 7
8 11.26 8.65 7.59 7.01 6.63 6.37 6.18 6.03 8
9 10.56 8.02 6.99 6.42 6.06 5.80 5.61 5.47 9
10 10.04 7.56 6.55 5.99 5.64 5.39 5.20 5.06 10
11 9.65 7.21 6.22 5.67 5.32 5.07 4.89 4.74 11
12 9.33 6.93 5.95 5.41 5.06 4.82 4.64 4.50 12
14 8.86 6.51 5.56 5.04 4.69 4.46 4.28 4.14 14
16 8.53 6.23 5.29 4.77 4.44 4.20 4.03 3.89 16
18 8.29 6.01 5.09 4.58 4.25 4.01 3.84 3.71 18
20 8.10 5.85 4.94 4.43 4.10 3.87 3.70 3.56 20
22 7.95 5.72 4.82 4.31 3.99 3.76 3.59 3.45 22
26 7.72 5.53 4.64 4.14 3.82 3.59 3.42 3.29 26
30 7.56 5.39 4.51 4.02 3.70 3.47 3.30 3.17 30
40 7.31 5.18 4.31 3.83 3.51 3.29 3.12 2.99 40
50 7.17 5.06 4.20 3.72 3.41 3.19 3.02 2.89 50
60 7.08 4.98 4.13 3.65 3.34 3.12 2.95 2.82 60

dfl
df2 9 I0 12 15 20 24 30 df2

2 99.39 99.40 99.42 99.43 99.45 99.46 99.46 2


3 27.35 27.23 27.05 26.87 26.69 26.60 26.50 3
4 14.66 14.55 14.37 14.20 14.02 13.93 13.84 4
5 10.16 10.05 9.89 9.72 9.55 9.47 9.38 5
6 7.98 7.87 7.72 7.56 7.40 7.3 1 7.23 6
7 6.72 6.62 6.47 6.31 6.16 6.07 5.99 7
8 5.91 5.81 5.67 5.52 5.36 5.28 5.20 8
9 5.35 5.26 5.11 4.96 4.81 4.73 4.65 9
10 4.94 4.85 4.71 4.56 4.41 4.33 4.25 10
11 4.63 4.54 4.40 4.25 4.10 4.02 3.94 11
12 4.39 4.30 4.16 4.01 3.86 3.78 3.70 12
14 4.03 3.94 3.80 3.66 3.51 3.43 3.35 14
16 3.78 3.69 3.55 3.41 3.26 3.18 3.10 16
18 3.60 3.51 3.37 3.23 3.08 3.00 2.92 18
20 3.46 3.37 3.23 3.09 2.94 2.86 2.78 20
22 3.35 3.26 3.12 2.98 2.83 2.75 2.67 22
26 3.18 3.09 2.96 2.81 2.66 2.58 2.50 26
30 3.07 2.98 2.84 2.70 2.55 2.47 2.39 30
40 2.89 2.80 2.66 2.52 2.37 2.29 2.20 40
50 2.78 2.70 2.56 2.42 2.27 2.18 2.10 50
60 2.72 2.63 2.50 2.35 2.20 2.12 2.03 60
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336 Statistical Tables


Table A.4 Table of z scoresfor the standard normal distribution

0.20 0.8416 0.10 1.2816 0.0333 1.8344 0.0036 2.6875


Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

0.19 0.8779 0.09 1.3408 0.025 1.9600 0.0033 2.7164


0.18 0.9154 0.08 1.4051 0.0167 2.1272 0.0025 2.8070
0.17 0.9542 0.07 I .4758 0.0125 2.2414 0.0024 2.8202
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0.16 0.9945 0.06 1.5548 0.0083 2.3954 0.0017 3.9290


0.15 1.0364 0.05 1.6449 0.0075 2.4324 0.0012 3.0357
0.14 1.0803 0.04 1.7507 0.0067 2.4730 0.001 3.0902
0.13 1.1264 0.03 1.8808 0.005 2.5758
0.12 1.1750 0.02 2.0537 0.0048 2.5899
0.1 1 1.2265 0.0 1 2.3263 0.0042 2.6356

Values refer to P ( z > za) = a where z corresponds to the standard, or unit, normal
distribution, mean ,u = 0 and variance a2 = 1. They represent the lOOa% critical values
of the standard normal distribution.
Computed with Minitab@by W.P. Gardiner.

Table A S 5% Critical valuesfor the studentised range statistic


r = number of steps between ordered means resdf = residual degrees of freedom

r
resdf 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I1 12 13 14 15 resdf

1 18.00 27.00 32.80 37.1040.4043.1045.4047.4049.10 50.60 52.00 53.20 54.30 55.40 1


2 6.09 8.30 9.80 10.90 11.70 12.04 13.00 13.50 14.00 14.40 14.70 15.01 15.40 15.70 2
3 4.50 5.91 6.82 7.50 8.04 8.48 8.85 9.18 9.46 9.72 9.95 10.20 10.40 10.50 3
4 3.93 5.04 5.76 6.29 6.71 7.05 7.35 7.60 7.83 8.03 8.21 8.37 8.52 8.66 4
5 3.64 4.60 5.22 5.67 6.03 6.33 6.58 6.80 6.99 7.17 7.32 7.47 7.60 7.72 5
6 3.46 4.34 4.90 5.31 5.63 5.89 6.12 6.32 6.49 6.65 6.79 6.92 7.03 7.14 6
7 3.34 4.16 4.69 5.06 5.36 5.61 5.82 6.00 6.16 6.30 6.43 6.55 6.66 6.76 7
8 3.26 4.04 4.53 4.89 5.17 5.40 5.60 5.77 5.92 6.05 6.18 6.29 6.39 6.48 8
9 3.20 3.95 4.42 4.76 5.02 5.24 5.43 5.60 5.74 5.87 5.98 6.09 6.19 6.28 9
10 3.15 3.88 4.33 4.65 4.91 5.12 5.30 5.46 5.60 5.72 5.83 5.93 6.03 6.11 10
11 3.11 3.82 4.26 4.57 4.82 5.03 5.20 5.35 5.49 5.61 5.71 5.81 5.90 5.99 11
12 3.08 3.77 4.20 4.51 4.75 4.95 5.12 5.27 5.40 5.51 5.62 5.71 5.80 5.88 12
13 3.06 3.73 4.15 4.45 4.69 4.88 5.05 5.19 5.32 5.43 5.53 5.63 5.71 5.79 13
14 3.03 3.70 4.11 4.41 4.64 4.83 4.99 5.13 5.25 5.36 5.46 5.55 5.64 5.72 14
16 3.00 3.65 4.05 4.33 4.56 4.74 4.90 5.03 5.15 5.26 5.35 5.44 5.52 5.59 16
18 2.97 3.61 4.00 4.28 4.49 4.67 4.82 4.96 5.07 5.17 5.27 5.35 5.43 5.50 18
20 2.95 3.58 3.96 4.23 4.45 4.62 4.77 4.90 5.01 5.11 5.20 5.28 5.36 5.43 20
24 2.92 3.53 3.90 4.17 4.37 4.54 4.68 4.81 4.92 5.01 5.10 5.18 5.25 5.32 24
30 2.89 3.49 3.84 4.10 4.30 4.46 4.60 4.72 4.83 4.92 5.00 5.08 5.15 5.21 30
40 2.86 3.44 3.79 4.04 4.23 4.39 4.52 4.63 4.74 4.82 4.91 4.98 5.05 5.11 40
60 2.83 3.40 3.74 3.98 4.16 4.31 4.44 4.55 4.65 4.73 4.81 4.88 4.94 5.00 60
~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~

r = j + 1 - i is the number of steps the treatments in positions i and j are apart in the
ordered list of treatment mean responses.
View Online

Appendix A 337
Table A.6 Power values for treatment F test based on the non-central F
distribution for 5% signijicance testing
fl = degrees of freedom of numerator MS f2 = degrees of freedom of denominator MS
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

h=2 4
f2 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 f2
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6 8.7 21.1 28.7 37.4 47.0 56.7 66.0 74.5 87.4 94.8 6
8 9.2 23.3 31.9 41.8 52.3 62.7 72.3 80.5 91.8 97.3 8
10 9.5 24.8 34.1 44.6 55.7 66.4 75.9 83.8 93.9 98.3 10
12 9.7 25.8 35.6 46.6 58.0 68.8 78.3 85.8 95.1 98.7 12
14 9.9 26.6 36.8 48.1 59.7 70.6 79.9 87.2 95.8 99.0 14
16 10.0 27.3 37.7 49.2 61.0 71.9 81.1 88.2 96.3 99.2 16
18 10.1 27.8 38.4 50.1 62.0 72.9 82.0 88.9 96.7 99.3 18
20 10.2 28.2 38.9 50.8 62.8 73.7 82.7 89.5 96.9 99.4 20
22 10.3 28.5 39.4 51.4 63.4 74.3 83.2 89.9 97.2 99.4 22
24 10.3 28.8 39.8 51.9 64.0 74.8 83.7 90.3 97.3 99.5 24
26 10.4 29.0 40.2 52.3 64.4 75.3 84.1 90.6 97.4 99.5 26
28 10.4 29.2 40.4 52.7 64.8 75.7 84.4 90.8 97.5 99.5 28
30 10.5 29.4 40.7 53.0 65.2 76.0 84.7 91.0 97.6 99.6 30
32 10.5 29.6 40.9 53.3 65.5 76.3 84.9 91.2 97.7 99.6 32
34 10.5 29.7 41.1 53.5 65.7 76.5 85.2 91.4 97.8 99.6 34
36 10.6 29.9 41.3 53.7 66.0 76.7 85.3 91.5 97.8 99.6 36
38 10.6 30.0 41.5 53.9 66.2 76.9 85.5 91.7 97.9 99.6 38
40 10.6 30.1 41.6 54.1 66.3 77.1 85.7 91.8 97.9 99.6 40

f,=3 4
f2 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 f2

6 8.6 20.9 28.7 37.7 47.6 57.7 67.4 75.9 88.7 95.6 6
8 9.1 23.6 32.7 43.2 54.3 65.2 75.0 83.1 93.6 98.2 8
10 9.4 25.5 35.5 46.9 58.7 69.8 79.4 86.9 95.8 99.0 10
12 9.7 26.9 37.5 49.5 61.7 72.9 82.2 89.3 97.0 99.4 12
14 9.9 27.9 39.1 51.5 63.9 75.1 84.2 90.8 97.6 99.6 14
16 10.1 28.8 40.3 53.0 65.6 76.7 85.6 91.8 98.0 99.7 16
18 10.2 29.5 41.3 54.2 66.9 78.0 86.6 92.6 98.3 99.8 18
20 10.4 30.0 42.1 55.2 67.9 78.9 87.4 93.2 98.5 99.8 20
22 10.4 30.5 42.7 56.0 68.8 79.7 88.0 93.6 98.7 99.8 22
24 10.5 30.9 43.3 56.7 69.5 80.4 88.6 94.0 98.8 99.8 24
26 10.6 31.3 43.8 57.2 70.1 80.9 89.0 94.3 98.9 99.9 26
28 10.7 31.6 44.2 57.7 70.6 81.4 89.4 94.5 99.0 99.9 28
30 10.7 31.8 44.6 58.2 71.1 81.8 89.7 94.7 99.0 99.9 30
32 10.8 32.1 44.9 58.6 71.5 82.1 89.9 94.9 99.1 99.9 32
34 10.8 32.3 45.2 58.9 71.8 82.4 90.2 95.1 99.1 99.9 34
36 10.8 32.4 45.4 59.2 72.1 82.7 90.4 95.2 99.2 99.9 36
38 10.9 32.6 45.7 59.5 72.4 83.0 90.5 95.3 99.2 99.9 38
40 10.9 32.8 45.9 59.7 72.6 83.2 90.7 95.4 99.2 99.9 40
View Online

338 Statistical Tables


Table A.6 (continued)
fl = degrees of freedom of numerator MS f2 = degrees of freedom of denominator MS

f, = 4 4
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

f2 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 f2

6 8.5 20.9 28.9 38.2 48.4 58.8 68.6 77.2 89.7 96.2 6
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8 9.1 24.0 33.5 44.5 56.1 67.3 77.1 85.1 94.9 98.7 8
10 9.5 26.2 36.8 48.9 61.2 72.6 82.1 89.2 97.0 99.4 10
12 9.8 27.9 39.3 52.1 64.8 76.2 85.2 91.7 98.0 99.7 12
14 10.0 29.2 41.3 54.5 67.5 78.7 87.3 93.2 98.6 99.8 14
16 10.2 30.3 42.8 56.4 69.5 80.6 88.8 94.2 98.9 99.9 16
18 10.4 31.2 44.0 57.9 71.0 82.0 89.9 95.0 99.1 99.9 18
20 10.6 31.9 45.0 59.1 72.3 83.1 90.7 95.5 99.3 99.9 20
22 10.7 32.5 45.9 60.1 73.3 83.9 91.4 95.9 99.4 99.9 22
24 10.8 33.0 46.6 60.9 74.1 84.7 91.9 96.2 99.5 100 24
26 10.9 33.5 47.2 61.7 74.8 85.3 92.3 96.5 99.5 100 26
28 10.9 33.9 47.7 62.3 75.5 85.8 92.7 96.7 99.6 100 28
30 11.0 34.2 48.2 62.8 76.0 86.2 93.0 96.9 99.6 100 30
32 11.1 34.5 48.6 63.3 76.4 86.6 93.3 97.0 99.6 100 32
34 11.1 34.8 49.0 63.7 76.8 86.9 93.5 97.2 99.7 100 34
36 11.2 35.0 49.3 64.1 77.2 87.2 93.7 97.3 99.7 100 36
38 11.2 35.3 49.6 64.4 77.5 87.4 93.8 97.4 99.7 100 38
40 11.3 35.5 49.9 64.7 77.8 87.7 94.0 97.5 99.7 100 40

h=5 4
f2 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 f2
~ ~~

6 8.5 21.0 29.1 38.7 49.1 59.7 69.6 78.2 90.5 96.7 6
8 9.1 24.4 34.3 45.7 57.6 69.0 78.9 86.6 95.7 99.0 8
10 9.5 26.9 38.1 50.7 63.4 74.9 84.2 90.9 97.7 99.6 10
12 9.9 28.9 41.0 54.3 67.5 78.8 87.5 93.4 98.6 99.8 12
14 10.2 30.4 43.2 57.1 70.4 81.6 89.7 94.8 99.1 99.9 14
16 10.4 31.7 45.0 59.3 72.7 83.5 91.2 95.8 99.4 99.9 16
18 10.6 32.7 46.5 61.0 74.4 85.0 92.3 96.5 99.5 100 18
20 10.8 33.6 47.7 62.5 75.8 86.2 93.1 97.0 99.6 100 20
22 10.9 34.4 48.7 63.6 77.0 87.1 93.7 97.3 99.7 100 22
24 11.0 35.0 49.6 64.6 77.9 87.9 94.2 97.6 99.7 100 24
26 11.1 35.5 50.3 65.5 78.7 88.5 94.6 97.8 99.8 100 26
28 11.2 36.0 51.0 66.2 79.4 89.0 94.9 98.0 99.8 100 28
30 11.3 36.5 51.6 66.9 80.0 89.4 95.2 98.1 99.8 100 30
32 11.4 36.8 52.1 67.4 80.5 89.8 95.4 98.3 99.8 100 32
34 11.4 37.2 52.5 67.9 80.9 90.2 95.6 98.4 99.9 100 34
36 11.5 37.5 52.9 68.3 81.3 90.4 95.8 98.4 99.9 100 36
38 11.6 37.8 53.3 68.7 81.7 90.7 96.0 98.5 99.9 100 38
40 11.6 38.0 53.6 69.1 82.0 90.9 96.1 98.6 99.9 100 40
View Online

Appendix A 339
Table A.6 (continued)
f, = degrees of freedom of numerator MS f2 = degrees of freedom of denominator MS

h=6 4
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

f2 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.6 3.0 f2

6 8.4 21.1 29.4 39.1 49.7 60.4 70.4 79.0 91.1 97.0 6
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8 9.1 24.8 34.9 46.7 58.9 70.4 80.2 87.8 96.3 99.2 8
10 9.6 27.6 39.1 52.2 65.2 76.7 85.8 92.2 98.2 99.7 10
12 10.0 29.8 42.4 56.3 69.6 80.9 89.2 94.6 99.0 99.9 12
14 10.3 31.5 44.9 59.4 72.9 83.8 91.4 96.0 99.4 99.9 14
16 10.5 33.0 47.0 61.8 75.3 85.9 92.9 96.9 99.6 100 16
18 10.8 34.2 48.7 63.8 77.2 87.4 93.9 97.5 99.7 100 18
20 10.9 35.2 50.1 65.4 78.8 88.6 94.7 97.9 99.8 100 20
22 11.1 36.1 51.3 66.7 80.0 89.5 95.3 98.2 99.8 100 22
24 11.2 36.8 52.3 67.8 81.0 90.3 95.8 98.4 99.9 100 24
26 11.4 37.5 53.1 68.8 81.8 90.9 96.1 98.6 99.9 100 26
28 11.5 38.0 53.9 69.6 82.6 91.4 96.4 98.7 99.9 100 28
30 11.6 38.5 54.6 70.3 83.2 91.9 96.7 98.9 99.9 100 30
32 11.7 39.0 55.2 70.9 83.7 92.2 96.9 99.0 99.9 100 32
34 11.7 39.4 55.7 71.5 84.2 92.5 97.1 99.0 99.9 100 34
36 11.8 39.8 56.2 72.0 84.6 92.8 97.2 99.1 99.9 100 36
38 11.9 40.1 56.6 72.4 85.0 93.1 97.3 99.1 100 100 38
40 11.9 40.4 57.0 72.8 85.3 93.3 97.4 99.2 100 100 40

Entries refer to estimated power for the planned treatment F test based on Cfi, f 2 )
degrees of freedom and parameter 4 = J[(nb2)/(2ka2)]. The values presented refer to
percentages.
Computed with SAS@by W.P. Gardiner.
View Online

340 Statistical Tables


Table A.7 Lower critical valuesfor the Mann- Whitney test
rn = number in sample 1 n = number in sample 2

Lower
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

critical n
m values 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
~
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2 T o ~ ~ 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 1 1
T 0 . 0 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 11 1 2 2
T ~ . 0 ~ 5 0 0 0 0 O O ~ I 1 ~ 2 23 2 3 2 32 3
T o . 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5

3 T ' ~ ~ 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 33 3 3 4 4
T o . o l O O O O O 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6
T o . 0 2 5 0 0 0 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9
To.05 0 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 12

4 T o . ~ 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 66 7 7 8 9
T o . o ~ O O O 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 78 8 9 1 0 1 0 1 1
To.025 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 15
T0.05 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19

5T0.005 0 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 11 12 13
10 14
To.01 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
T0.025 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21
To.05 1 2 3 5 6 7 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 19 20 21 23 24 26

6To.005 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19
To.0, 0 0 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 16 17 19 20 21 23
To.025 0 2 3 4 6 7 9 11 12 14 15 17 18 20 22 23 25 26 28
To.05 1 3 4 6 8 9 11 13 15 17 18 20 22 24 26 27 29 31 33

7 TO,^^ 0 0 1 2 4 5 7 8 10 11 13 14 16 17 19 20 22 23 25
To.01 0 1 2 4 5 7 8 10 12 13 15 17 18 20 22 24 25 27 29
To.025 0 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35
To.05 1 3 5 7 9 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 27 29 31 34 36 38 40

8 To.005 0 0 2 3 5 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25 27 29 31
To,ol 0 1 3 5 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35
T0.025 1 3 5 7 9 11 14 16 18 20 23 25 27 30 32 35 37 39 42
To.05 2 4 6 9 11 14 16 19 21 24 27 29 32 34 37 40 42 45 48

9 To.335 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 17 19 21 23 25 28 30 32 34 37
To.01 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 15 17 19 22 24 27 29 32 34 37 39 41
To.025 1 3 5 8 11 13 16 18 21 24 27 29 32 35 38 40 43 46 49
To.05 2 5 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55

10 To.005 0 1 3 5 7 10 12 14 17 19 22 25 27 30 32 35 38 40 43
T0.01 0 2 4 7 9 12 14 17 20 23 25 28 31 34 37 39 42 45 48
T0.025 1 4 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 34 37 40 43 46 49 53 56
To.05 2 5 8 12 15 18 21 25 28 32 35 38 42 45 49 52 56 59 63
View Online

Appendix A 34 1
Table A.7 (continued)
~~ ~

Lower
critical n
m values 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

11 To.005 0 1 3 6 8 11 14 17 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49
To.01 0 2 5 8 10 13 16 19 23 26 29 32 35 38 42 45 48 51 54
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T0.025 1 4 7 10 14 17 20 24 27 31 34 38 41 45 48 52 56 59 63
To.05 2 6 9 13 17 20 24 28 32 35 39 43 47 51 55 58 62 66 70

12 To.005 0 2 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 32 35 38 42 45 48 52 55
7'0.0, 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 22 25 29 32 36 39 43 47 50 54 57 61
To.025 2 5 8 12 15 19 23 27 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 66 70
To.05 3 6 10 14 18 22 27 31 35 39 43 48 52 56 61 65 69 73 79

13 To.005 0 2 4 8 11 14 18 21 25 28 32 35 39 43 46 50 54 58 61
TO.0, 1 3 6 10 13 17 21 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68
To.025 2 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 34 38 42 46 51 55 60 64 68 73 77
To.05 3 7 11 16 20 25 29 34 38 43 48 52 57 62 66 71 76 81 85

14 T0.005 0 2 5 8 12 16 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 64 68
7'0.0, 1 3 7 11 14 18 23 27 31 35 39 44 48 52 57 61 66 70 74
T0.025 2 6 10 14 18 23 27 32 37 41 46 51 56 60 65 70 75 79 84
To.05 4 8 12 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 78 83 88 93

15 To.005 0 3 6 9 13 17 21 25 30 34 38 43 47 52 56 61 65 70 74
To.01 1 4 8 12 16 20 25 29 34 38 43 48 52 57 62 67 71 76 81
T0.025 2 6 11 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 71 76 81 86 91
T0.05 4 8 13 19 24 29 34 40 45 51 56 62 67 73 78 84 89 95 101

16 To.005 0 3 6 10 14 19 23 28 32 37 42 46 51 56 61 66 71 75 80
To.01 1 4 8 13 17 22 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 83 88
T0.025 2 7 12 16 22 27 32 38 43 48 54 60 65 71 76 82 87 93 99
To.05 4 9 15 20 26 31 37 43 49 55 61 66 72 78 84 90 96 102 108

17 To.005 0 3 7 11 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 61 66 71 76 82 87
To.01 1 5 9 14 19 24 29 34 39 45 50 56 61 67 72 78 83 89 94
T0.025 3 7 12 18 23 29 35 40 46 52 58 64 70 76 82 88 94 100 106
To.05 4 10 16 21 27 34 40 46 52 58 65 71 78 84 90 97 103 110 116

18 To.005 0 3 7 12 17 22 27 32 38 43 48 54 59 65 71 76 82 88 93
7'0.01 1 5 10 15 20 25 31 37 42 48 54 60 66 71 77 83 89 95 101
To.025 3 8 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 56 62 68 75 81 87 94 100 107 113
T0.05 5 10 17 23 29 36 42 49 56 62 69 76 83 89 96 103 110 117 124

19 To.005 4 8 13 18
1 23 29 34 40 46 52 58 64 70 75 82 88 94 100
To.01 2 5 10 16 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 64 70 76 83 89 95 102 108
T0.025 3 8 14 20 26 33 39 46 53 59 66 73 79 86 93 100 107 114 120
To.05 5 11 18 24 31 38 45 52 59 66 73 81 88 95 102 110 117 124 131
View Online

342 Statistical Tables

Table A.7 (continued)


~~~~ ~

Lower
critical n
m values 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

~~ ~~

20 To.005 1 4 9 14 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 68 74 80 87 93 100 106


To.01 2 6 11 17 23 29 35 41 48 54 61 68 74 81 88 94 101 108 115
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To.025 3 9 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 99 106 113 120 128


To.05 5 12 19 26 33 40 48 55 63 70 78 85 93 101 108 116 124 131 139

The values presented refer to the lower critical values for the Mann-Whitney procedure.
Upper critical values are determined as (mn - T J .
For a two-tailed test at the 5% (a = 0.05) significance level, a/2 = 0.025 with the lower
critical value read from the To.o25entry and the upper critical value calculated as
(mn- T0.025).
For one-tailed testing, critical values depend on the form of the alternative hypothesis.
For H I with the inequality < at the 5% significance level, a = 0.05 and the critical value
is read from the T0.05entry. For HI with the inequality > at the 5% significance level,
the critical value is calculated as (rnn- To.os).
View Online

Appendix A 343
Table A.8 Lower critical valuesfor the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test
n = number of non-zero differences

Lower critical values


Published on 12 September 1997 on http://pubs.rsc.org | doi:10.1039/9781847551924-00329

n TO.005 TO.01 T0.025 T0.05 TO.l

4 0 0 0 0 1 4
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5 0 0 0 1 3 5
6 0 0 1 3 4 6
7 0 1 3 4 6 7
8 1 2 4 6 9 8
9 2 4 6 9 11 9
10 4 6 9 11 15 10
11 6 8 11 14 18 11
12 8 10 14 18 22 12
13 10 13 18 22 27 13
14 13 16 22 26 32 14
15 16 20 26 31 37 15
16 20 24 30 36 43 16
17 24 28 35 42 49 17
18 28 33 41 48 56 18
19 33 38 47 54 63 19
20 38 44 53 61 70 20
21 43 50 59 68 78 21
22 49 56 66 76 87 22
23 55 63 74 84 95 23
24 62 70 82 92 105 24
25 69 77 90 101 114 25
26 76 85 99 111 125 26
27 84 93 108 120 135 27
28 92 102 117 131 146 28
29 101 111 127 141 158 29
30 110 121 138 152 170 30
- ~~

The values presented refer to the lower critical values for the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks
procedure. Upper critical values are gven by [n(n + 1)/2 - T,] where n is the number of
non-zero differences.
For a two-tailed test at the 5% (a = 0.05) significance level, d 2 = 0.025 with the lower
critical value read from the To.025 column and the upper critical value calculated as
[n(n+ 1112- T0.025)-
For one-tailed testing, critical values depend on the form of the alternative hypothesis.
For HI with the inequality -c at the 5% significance level, a = 0.05 and the critical value
is read from column To.05.For HI with the inequality > at the 5% significance level, the
critical value is calculated as [n(n + 1)/2 - To.05).