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This project is mainly used to find and rectify the faults of the

POWER station by using PLC. Here we are taken seven types of faults, and they are






  • 6. OVER LOAD

  • 7. NO FAULT( Initial Condition)

Faults other than blocked rotor can be rectified automatically by using PLC, i.e., over voltage, under voltage, unbalanced voltage, single phasing, over load and initial condition can be rectified automatically by using PLC,i.e., PLC giving signal to the relay driver unit, if there is any fault relay will cut off the supply from the IM, but there is no any possibility in case of blocked rotor faults, if the blocked rotor fault occurs PLC showing there is a blocked rotor faults in IM, then alarm will be on then we can rectify the faults manually.


Now many techniques are used to find and rectify the faults, here we are using PLC technique this method is very faster and precise than the other techniques and also it is easy to implemented.


Three Phase Supply
Control Unit
Control Unit
BLOCK DIAGRAM IM Three Phase Supply Control Unit PLC V & I Measurement
V & I Measurement
V & I
BLOCK DIAGRAM IM Three Phase Supply Control Unit PLC V & I Measurement
BLOCK DIAGRAM IM Three Phase Supply Control Unit PLC V & I Measurement








NO FAULT( Initial Condition)


Control unit consist of relay unit(6v electromagnetic relay).

According to the voltage & current value ,the relay will operate.

If ‘v’&‘I’ is less than the specified value,then the relay will be idle.

If ‘v’&‘I’ is more than the specified value,then the relay will operate and cut- off the three phase induction motor from the supply.


Voltage is measured by using POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER.

This voltage is stepped-down according to the PIC specification.

Current is measured by using CURRENT TRANSFORMER.

This current is converted according to the PIC specification.

  • 3.1 DELTA PLC


Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), also referred to as programmable controllers, are in the computer family. They are used in commercial and industrial applications. It was called “Sequence Controller” beforeIt was named “Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)” by NEMA (National Electrical Manufacture Association) in 1978 and defined as electronic equipment. The operation of PLC is in the following:

Step 1. Read the external input signal, such as the status of keypad, sensor, switch and pulse.

Step 2. Using microprocessor to execute the calculations of logic, sequence, timer, counter and formula according to the status and the value of the input signal read in the step 1 and pre-write programs saved inner to get the Corresponding output signal, such as open or close of relay, operation of controlled machine or procedure to control automatic machine or procedure of manufacture. PLC also can be used to maintain and adjust of production program by editing or modifying the peripheral equipments (personal

Computer/handheld programming panel). The common program language of PLC is ladder diagram. There are stronger functions in PLC with the development and application requirements of electronic technology, such as position control, network and etc. Output/Input signals are DI (Digital Input), AI (Analog Input), PI (Pulse Input), DO (Digital Output), AO (Analog Output) and PO (Pulse Output). Thus PLC plays an important role in the feature industry.


PLC consists of input modules or points, a central processing unit(CPU) and output points

Computer/handheld programming panel). The common program language of PLC is ladder diagram. There are stronger functions



The central processing unit (CPU) is a microprocessor system which contains the system memory and is the PLC’s decision making unit. The CPU monitors the inputs and makes decisions based on instructions held in the program memory. The CPU performs relay, counting, timing, data comparison, and sequential operations


An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal. Typical analog inputs may vary from 0 to 20 milliamps, 4 to 20 milliamps, or 0 to 10 volts. In the following example, a level transmitter monitors the level of liquid in a tank. Depending on the level transmitter, the signal to the PLC can either increase or decrease as the level increases or decreases. ANALOG INPUTS An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal. Typical


A discrete input, also referred to as a digital input, is an input that is either in an ON or OFF condition. DIGITAL INPUTS A discrete input, also referred to as a digital input, is an input


A discrete output is an output that is either in an ON or OFF condition. Solenoids, contactor coils, and lamps are examples of actuator devices connected to discrete outputs. Discrete outputs may also be referred to as digital outputs. In the following example, a lamp can be turned on or off by the PLC output it is connected to. DISCRETE OUTPUTS A discrete output is an output that is either in an ON or


An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal. The output may be as simple as a 0-10 VDC level that drives an analog meter. Examples of analog meter outputs are speed, weight, and temperature. The output signal may also be used on more complex applications such as a current-to pneumatic transducer that controls an air-operated flow- control valve. ANALOG OUTPUTS An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal. The





Input relay is the basic storage unit of internal


memory that corresponds to external input point (it is the terminal that used to connect to external input switch and receive external input signal). Input signal from external will decide it to display 0 or 1. You couldn’t change the state of input relay by program design or forced ON/OFF via HPP. The contacts (contact a, b) can be used unlimitedly. If there is no input signal, the corresponding input relay could be empty and can’t beused with other functions. Equipment indication method: X0, X1,…X7, X10, X11,…. The symbol of equipment is X and the number uses octal. There are numeric indications


of input point on MPU and expansion unit. Output relay is the basic storage unit of internal


memory that corresponds to external output point (it is used to connect to external load). It can be driven by input relay contact, the contact of other internal equipment and itself contact. It uses a normally open contact to connect to external load and other contacts can be used unlimitedly as input contacts. It doesn’t have the corresponding output relay, if need, it can be used as internal relay. Equipment indication: Y0, Y1,…Y7, Y10, Y11,

The symbol of equipment is Y and the





is the same as the auxiliary relay in electric control circuit. Each auxiliary relay has the corresponding basic unit. It can be driven by the contact of input relay, output relay or other internal equipment. Its contacts can be used unlimitedly. Internal auxiliary relay can’t output directly, it should output with output point. Equipment indication: M0, M1,…, M4, M5. The symbol of equipment is M and the number uses decimal number system.


DVP PLC provides input method for controlling program of step actions. It is very easy to write control program by using the conversion of control step S of command STL. If there is no step program in the program, step point S could be used as internal relay M or alarm point.

Equipment indication:




symbol of equipment is S and the number uses



Timer is used to control time. There are coil, contact and timer storage. When coil is ON, its contact will act (contact a is close, contact b is open) when attaining desired time. The time value of timer is set by settings and each timer has its regular period. User sets the timer value and each timer has its timing period. Once the coil is OFF, the contact won’t act (contact a is open and contact b is close) and the timer will be set to zero. Equipment indication: T0, T1,…,T255. The symbol of equipment is T and the number uses decimal system. The different number range


corresponds with the different timing period. Counter is used to count. It needs to set counter before using counter (i.e. the pulse of counter). There are coil, contacts and storage unit of counter in counter. When coil is form OFF to ON, that means input a pulse in counter and the counter should add 1. There are 16-bit, 32-bit and high-speed counter for user to use. Equipment indication: C0, C1,…,C255. The symbol of equipment is C and the number uses decimal.


PLC needs to handle data and operation when


controlling each order, timer value and counter value. The data register is used to store data or parameters. It stores 16-bit binary number, i.e. a word, in each register. It uses two continuous number of data register to store double words Equipment indication: D0, D1,…,D9,999. The symbol of equipment is D and the number uses decimal ..


The file register can be used to store data or


parameter when the register that PLC needs is not enough during handling data and parameter. It can store 16-bit binary number, i.e. a word, in each file register. It uses two continuous number of file register to handle double word. There are 1600 file registers for SA/SX/SC series and 10000 file registers for EH series. There is not the real equipment number for file register, thus it needs to execute READ/WRITE of file Register via commands API148 MEMR, API149 MEMW or the peripheral equipment HPP and WPLSoft. Equipment indication: K0~K9,999. There is no equipment symbol and uses decimal number for number.


Index register E and F are 16-bit data register just


the same as general data register. It can be wrote and read freely and has the function of index indication to use for character device, bit device and constants. Equipment indication: E0~E7, F0~F7. The symbols of equipment are E, F and the number uses decimal.

3.1.5 PLC SCAN

3.1.5 PLC SCAN Fig7. PLC SCAN CYCLE READING INPUT – Reads input and updates process

Fig7. PLC SCAN CYCLE READING INPUT – Reads input and updates process input. The input can be either in analog or digital form EXECUTE PROGRAM – executes user program once. The program is in the form of ladder logic diagram CHECKS COMMUNICATION – Takes care of the system processes (such as communication with other PLC’s) UPDATES OUTPUT – The PLC updates the output according to the execution of the program


Ladder diagram is an automatic control diagram language that developed during World War II. At first, it just has basic components, such as A contact (normally open), B contact (normally close), output coil, timer, counter and etc. (The power panel is made up of these basic components) It has more functions, differential contact, latched coil and the application commands, add, minus, multiply and divide calculation, that traditional power panel can’t make since PLC is developed.

The working principles of the traditional Ladder Diagram and the PLC Ladder Diagram are similar to each other; the only difference is that the symbols for the traditional ladder diagram are expressed in the format that are close to its original substance, while those for the PLC ladder diagram employ the symbols that are more explicit when being used in computers or data sheets. In the Ladder Diagram Logics, it could be divided into the Combination Logics and the Sequential Logics, and is described as follows: Combination Logics:

The following example is the combination logics that show in traditional diagram and PLC ladder diagram separately. Combination Logics: The following example is the combination logics that show in traditional diagram and



diagram Combination Logics: The following example is the combination logics that show in traditional diagram and

Fig9.PLC ladder diagram Sequential logics:

The sequential logics are a type of circuit that possesses the “Draw-Back” structure, which is to draw back the circuit’s output result and has it serve as the input condition. Thus, under the same input condition, different output results will be generated in accordance with previous conditions and motions with different orders. The following example is the sequential logics that show in traditional diagram and PLC ladder diagram separately


. Traditional Ladder Diagram PIC MICRO CONTROLLER
Traditional Ladder Diagram


With the advent of low-cost personal computers and various easily accessible software packages, computer- aided teaching tools have come an essential part of both classroom lectures and laboratory experiments in electrical machinery education the computer models and simulations of induction motors, as teaching tools, support the classroom teaching by enabling the instructor, through the computer-generated graphics, to illustrate easily steady-state operation of the motor under various loading conditions.

The computational tools as a part of laboratory experiments enhance laboratory experience by providing students with the opportunity to verify the results of laboratory experiments and compare them with those obtained by computer simulations. Such a comparison opportunity helps students realize the limitations of hardware experiments and, as a counterpoint, appreciate that computer models cannot substitute for actual hardware experiments that might not exactly represent the operation of induction motors because of some modeling assumptions. Moreover, an undergraduate electric machinery course that integrates up-to-date computer hardware and software tools in both lecture and laboratory sections also meets the expectations of today’s students who want to use computers and simulation tools in every aspects of a course, and thus, possibly attracts MORE STUDENT Electrical machinery courses at the undergraduate level typically consist of classroom and laboratory sections.

The classroom section covers the steady-state operation of the induction motor in which the per-phase equivalent circuit is used to compute various motor quantities, such as input current and power, power factor, developed torque, and efficiency.

The computations associated with the steady-state operation require the knowledge of equivalent circuit parameters. These parameters are obtained by performing three tests, namely dc, no-load, and blocked-rotor tests on the motor in a typical laboratory experiment.

The laboratory section includes these tests and a load experiment that allows students to become familiar with the induction motor operation and to gain invaluable hardware and measurement experiences.

The authors’ experience while teaching induction motors at Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, indicates that students generally have difficulty when they come to the laboratory to carry out these experiments even though the corresponding theory is extensively covered in the classroom section with a detailed hand-out describing laboratory facilities and the procedure of the experiments, given to them at least a week before the laboratory. Students are not familiar with a laboratory.

Environment that contains large machines and relatively complex measurement methods and devices as compared with other laboratories they have been to before. The time constraints during the laboratory exercise are also a difficult adjustment.

Ina usual two-hour laboratory section, students are required to setup and perform four induction motor experiments, to take the necessary measurements, and to investigate steady-state performance of the motor under various loading conditions.

Because of the time limitations, students often rush through the experiments in order to finish them on time, which unfortunately prevents them from getting a true feeling of motor operation and from appreciating what has been accomplished during the laboratory practice.

Therefore, simulation tools must be developed for induction motor experiments to serve as useful preparatory exercises before students come to the laboratory. The objective of this paper is to present simulation models of these induction motor experiments in an effort to design a computational laboratory The dc, no-load, and blocked-rotor simulation models are developed as stand-alone applications using MATLAB/Simulink[8] and Power System Blocked.

For the load experiment, students are required to write a computer program using MAT Lab’s M-file programming for the per-phase equivalent circuit of the induction motor to compute operating quantities.


The steady-state operating characteristics of a three-phase induction motor are often investigated using a per-phase equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. In this circuit, and represent stator resistance and leakage reactance, respectively;and denote the rotor resistance and leakage reactance referred to the stator, respectively; resistance stands for core losses; represents magnetizing reactance; and denotes the slip. The equivalent circuit is used to facilitate the computation of various operating quantities, such as stator current, input power, losses, induced torque, and efficiency.

When power aspects of the operation need to be emphasized, the shunt resistance is usually neglected; the core losses can be included in efficiency calculations along with the friction, windage, and stray losses.

The parameters of the equivalent circuit can be obtained from the dc, no-load, and blocked-rotor tests. In the following, both experimental setup and Simulink/PSB models of each test are described.

The PSB is a useful software package to develop simulation models for power system applications in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. With its graphical user interface and extensive library, it provides power engineers and researchers with a modern and interactive design tool to build simulation models rapidly and easily.

MATLAB and Simulink/PSB have been widely used by educators to enhance teaching of transient and steady-state characteristics of induction machines. Of course, other commercial software packages, such as Maple and MathCAD, are commonly used in electrical engineering education with their advantages and disadvantages .

The reason that MATLAB with its toolboxes was selected is that it is the main software package used in almost all undergraduate courses in the authors’ institutions as a computation tool to reinforce electrical engineering education.

Therefore, students can easily access to MATLAB, and they already have the basic programming skills to use the given Simulink models and to write computer programs when required before coming to the machinery class.

No-Load Test

The no-load test on an induction motor is conducted to measure the rotational losses of the motor and to determine some of its equivalent circuit parameters. In this test, a rated, balanced ac voltage at a rated frequency is applied to the stator while it is running at no load, and input power, voltage, and phase currents are measured at the no-load condition.

Fig illustrates the experimental setup of the no-load test conducted at Drexel University’s IPSL. Fig shows the Simulink/PSB realization of the no-load test, where a three-phase balanced Y-connected ac source whose per-phase voltage is 120 V/60 Hz is applied to the stator terminal of the induction motor.

The electrical inputs of the induction motor block are the three electrical connections of the stator (terminals A-B-C), while the electrical outputs (terminals a-b-c) are the three electrical connections of the rotor, which is short-circuited. The input block (terminal Tm) is the mechanical torque at the machine’s shaft.

This torque is set to be zero to simulate the no-load condition. The equivalent circuit parameters obtained from experimental data and the number of poles is specified using the induction motor-block dialogue box. Three current measurement blocks are used to measure the instantaneous current of each phase.

The output of each current measurement block is connected to a root-mean-square (rms) block, called signal rms, to determine the rms value of each phase current. This block computes the rms value of the input signal over a running window of the one cycle of the specified fundamental frequency (60 Hz). Three display boxes read these rms values.

Similarly, a voltage measurement block, an rms block, and a display box are used to measure the phase A voltage. The outputs of the voltage measurement block and the current measurement block of phase A are connected to a power measurement block, called the active and reactive power measurement, that computes the active power and reactive power.

The output of this block is connected to a scope and to a display block to obtain the waveforms and the values of and. The output terminal of the induction motor block (terminal m-SI) allows for the measurement of several variables, such as speed and electrical torque. A machine measurement block is used to get the mechanical speed. Through the scope and display block, the waveform and the steady-state value of the rotor speed can easily be measured in rad per second, or the corresponding data can be written to MATLAB’s workspace to make use of other graphical tools available in MATLAB. Fig shows the evolution of the mechanical speed during the no-load simulation. The rotor speed reaches its steady-state value (188.5 rad/s for the tested motor) quickly, indicating that MATLAB/Simulink is an appropriate tool to investigate steady-state behavior of induction motors as well.

One can see that there are some differences between the hardware setup and Simulink/PSB model. For example, the per-phase-based real and reactive input power is measured in the simulation model, while in the experiment the total three-phase real input power is measured. However, this difference is not significant since under the three-phase balanced operation; computations are usually completed using the per-phase quantities.

Similarly, the per-phase voltage is measured in the simulation, as opposed to the line-to- line voltages measured in the hardware experiment. These measurements enable the approximate computation of the sum of the magnetizing reactance and the stator leakage reactance as follows.

where is the per-phase voltage , is the phase measured reactive power, and is the average
where is the per-phase voltage , is the phase measured reactive power, and is the average

where is the per-phase voltage , is the phase measured reactive power, and is the average phase current measured . Using measured input power and the stator resistance obtained from the dc test, rotational losses of the motor given by the sum of the friction, windage, and core losses can be found, as follows:

where is the per-phase voltage , is the phase measured reactive power, and is the average

Blocked-Rotor Test

The blocked-rotor test on an induction motor is performed to determine some of its equivalent circuit parameters. In this test, the rotor of the induction motor is blocked, and a reduced voltage is applied to the stator terminals so that the rated current flows through the stator windings. The input power, voltage, and current are measured. For some design-class induction motors, this test is conducted under a test frequency, usually less than the normal operating frequency so as to evaluate the rotor resistance appropriately.

The experimental setup of the blocked-rotor test is not shown here since it is similar to that of the no-load test shown in Fig. The only difference is that a synchronous generator coupled with a dc motor and auto transformer were installed in the circuit in order to perform the blocked-rotor test at various frequencies and to control input voltage to the stator. Fig. shows the Simulink/PSB model of the blocked-rotor test. This model is almost the same as that of the no-load test shown in Fig. However, there is a slight difference between the two models.

In the blocked-rotor model, the inertia of the induction motor is set to infinity in order to simulate the blocked-rotor condition. Several measurements blocks are used to measure the current, voltage, and active/reactive powers.

The mechanical torque to the rotor is set to an arbitrary nonzero value [in this case, 5 Newton-meter (N.m)], which will not affect the blocked-rotor condition since the inertia isinfinite. Because of the infinite inertia, rotor speed remains at zero during the blocked-rotor simulation. Various test frequencies for blocked-rotor simulation can be easily achieved by changing the frequencies of the -connected voltage sources rather than using a synchronous generator coupled with a dc motor. The measurement data from the blocked rotor test enables one to determine approximately the blocked-rotor resistance and reactance at the test frequency

The blocked-rotor test on an induction motor is performed to determine some of its equivalent circuit

where is the blocked-rotor resistance, and is the blocked-rotor reactance at the test frequency.

where is the blocked-rotor resistance, and is the blocked-rotor reactance at the test frequency. If the

If the test frequency is different from the rated frequency, one can compute the total equivalent reactance at the normal operating frequency as follows since the reactance is directly proportional to the frequency.

where is the blocked-rotor resistance, and is the blocked-rotor reactance at the test frequency. If the

When the three tests are completed, equivalent circuit parameters can easily be computed. 1) The stator resistance is directly computed from the dc test. 2) The no-load test gives the sum of the magnetizing reactance and the stator leakage reactance . 3) The blocked-rotor test gives that of the stator and rotor leakage reactance. One needs to refer to test codes to find out the empirical proportions for stator and leakage reactance given for three-phase induction motors by class.When the classification of the motor is not known, one assumes that. The magnetization reactance can now be evaluated using, as follows:

As for the rotor resistance , a better approximation is required since it has a more

As for the rotor resistance , a better approximation

is required

since it


a more

significant effect on the motor performance when compared with the other circuit









As for the rotor resistance , a better approximation is required since it has a more

the equivalent circuit under blocked-rotor condition, the following expression achieves the desired approximation

As for the rotor resistance , a better approximation is required since it has a more


To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed simulation models, one compares the equivalent circuit parameters determined by simulations with those obtained from hardware experiments. The motors used for this purpose are the three-phase 60-Hz Y-connected, and the 5-Horse Power (HP) induction motors of 200-V rating 1735 r/min located at Drexel University’s IPSL. A set of hardware experiments are first performed (i.e., dc, no-load, and blocked-rotor tests) on four induction motors to obtain appropriate equivalent circuit parameters for software simulations. The resulting parameters are presented in Table I.


COMPARISON OF EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed simulation models, one compares

For each induction motor tested the Simulink/PSB models of the dc, no-load, and blocked-rotor tests were run. The simulation data of no-load and blocked-rotor tests for motor 1 is shown in Table II, where various quantities, such as voltage, current, and power required to compute equivalent circuit parameters, are presented. The dc test simulation data for motor 1 is as follows: 12.66 V and 15.74 A. The simulation data for the other three motors is similar to that of Motor 1 and, thus, is not given here.Table III gives the equivalent circuit parameters computed, using the simulation data and the corresponding errors relative to those obtained experimentally.

The error computations assume that equivalent circuit parameters determined experimentally are accurate. The results indicate that relative errors are negligible, and the proposed simulation models accurately predict equivalent circuit parameters. The largest error occurs in the stator and rotor leakage reactances, since one assumes that two reactances have equal contributions to the blocked-rotor reactance, which might not be the real case.


5v Power Supply


C O N 1 D 1 LM 7 8 05 +5 v 1 4 - +
LM 7 8 05
+5 v
10 6
In pu t
3 3 0E
4 7 0uF/2 5V
C 10
0 .1 uF

Almost all the electronic devices and circuits require a D.C, source for all the operation. One form of D.C. source is batteries. But they are costly and require frequent replacement. The easily available and most economical source is A.C. into a suitable

D.C. such a device is called power supply. The power supply consists of the following the three sub divisions

  • 1. Rectifier

  • 2. Filter

  • 3. Voltage regulator


A rectifier is a device which offers a low resistance to the current in one direction and a high resistance in the opposite direction. Such a device is

capable of converting A.C. voltage into a pulsating D.C. voltage. The rectifier employs

one or more diodes. It may be either a vacuum diode or a semiconductor diode. There are two types

  • 1. Half wave rectifier

  • 2. Full wave rectifier

  • 3. Bridge rectifier


Bridge rectifier is a full wave rectifier. It consists of four diodes , arranged in the form of a bridge . it utilizes the advantages of the full wave rectifier and at the same time it eliminates the need for a centre tapped transformer. The supply input and the rectified output are the two diagonally opposite terminals of the bridge.

During the positive half cycle, the secondary terminal A is positive w.r.t. terminal B. now the diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and hence do not conduct. The current flows from terminal A to terminal B through D1, load resistance RL and the diode D3 and then through the secondary of the transformer. During the negative half cycle, terminal B is positive w.r.t point A. now diodes D2 and D4 are forward biased and hence conduct. Diode D1 and D3 are reversed biased and hence do not conduct. The current flows from terminal B to terminal A through diode D2, the load resistance RL and diode D4 and then through the secondary of the transformer. On both positive and negative half cycles of the A.C. input, the current flows through the load resistance RL in the same direction. The polarity of the voltage developed across RL is such that the end connected to the junction of the diodes D1 and D2 will be positive.


  • 1. Centre tapped transformer is not necessary.

  • 2. D.C. saturation of the transformer does not take place since the two currents flow in the opposite direction through transformer secondary.

  • 3. Transformer utilization factor is increased.

  • 4. PIV rating across each diode is Vm.


2. It’s rarely used with thermionic diode value because of heater supply problem.


Output from the rectifier unit having harmonic contents , so we can provided the filter circuit, filter circuit is used to reduce the harmonics. Here we can use the pi filter .pi filter consists of capacitance and inductance (i.e. two capacitance in parallel and one inductance in series). These eliminates the harmonics from both voltage and current signals.


Voltage regulator is used to maintain the constant voltage with the

variation of the supply voltage and the load current, mainly we can use the two types of voltage regulator they are

  • 1. series voltage regulator

  • 2. zener diode voltage regulator .



R 4 10K R 2 4.7K A D C _C H 0 R 3 1K 1
R 4
R 2
A D C _C H 0
R 3
B C 547
R T1

These temperature control circuit is mainly consists of transistor and resistance, it is used to maintain the constant temperature with the variation of passive circuit parameters.


A sensor is a device that converts a physical condition into an electrical

signal for use by the PLC. Sensors are connected to the input of a PLC.

The temperature sensor which we are used in our project to sense the temperature of the coaches is LM 35

3.2.1. LM-35 The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature.

The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling.

The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of -1/4ºC at room temperature and +3/4ºC over a full -55ºC to 150ºC temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level.

The LM35's low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 µA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1ºC in still air.

The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55ºC to a 150ºC temperature range,

while the LM35C improved accuracy).




a -40ºC

to a110ºC range (-10ºC with

The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages ,while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package.

The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-202

3.3 BC-547

BC-547 is an NPN silicon planar epitaxial transistor which is used in AF small signal amplifier stages and direct coupled circuits. The signals are actually amplified so as to drive the relay circuit. The electromagnetic relay which is being used in the delta PLC needs a strong current to drive it, so to amplify the amount of current coming out of the PLC ,a driver amplifier is used.

3.3 BC-547 BC-547 is an NPN silicon planar epitaxial transistor which is used in AF small

3.4 Current transformer & Voltage transformer

3.4.1General Description

A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is


to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately proportional

to the current flowing in its primary.

Current transformers are designed to produce either an alternating current or alternating voltage proportional to the current being measured. The current transformers used with the Watt node transducers produce a 333 mV alternating voltage when the rated current is measured (either 30A, or 50A). The OSI power transducers employ CT's that produce 5V output at rated value.

Current transformers measure power flow and provide electrical inputs to power transformers and instruments. Current transformers produce either an alternating current or alternating voltage that is proportional to the measured current. There are two basic types of current transformers: wound and toroidal. Wound current transformers consist of an integral primary winding that is inserted in series with the conductor that carries the measured current. Toroidal or donut-shaped

current transformers do not contain a primary winding. Instead, the wire that carries the current is threaded through a window in the toroidal transformer.

Current transformers have many performance specifications, including primary current, secondary current, insulation voltage, accuracy, and burden. Primary current, the load of the current transformer, is the measured current.

Secondary current is the range of current outputs. Insulation voltage represents the maximum insulation that current transformers provide when connected to a power source. Accuracy is the degree of certainty with which the measured current agrees with the ideal value.

Burden is the maximum load that devices can support while operating within their accuracy ratings. Typically, burden is expressed in volt-amperes (VA), the product of the voltage applied to a circuit and the current.


he accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including:


Burden class/saturation class

Rating factor


External electromagnetic fields

Temperature and

Physical configuration.

The selected tap, for multi-ratio CT's

3.4Voltage Transformer:

Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers (PT) are another type of instrument transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protection relays.

The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labeled as H 1 , H 2 (sometimes H 0 if it is internally grounded) and X 1 , X2 and sometimes an X 3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y 1 , Y 2 , Y 3 ) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.

The terminal identifications (H 1 , X 1 , Y 1 , etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays.

While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240 V primary, modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. VTs are typically used in circuits where the system voltage level is above 600 V. Modern meters eliminate the need of VT's since the voltage remains constant and it is measured in the incoming supply. This is mostly used in H.V.


The AD536A is a complete monolithic integrated circuit that performs true rms-to-dc conversion. It offers performance comparable or superior to that of hybrid or modular units costing much more.

The AD536A directly computes the true rms value of any complex input waveform containing ac and dc components. A crest factor compensation scheme allows measurements with 1% error at crest factors up to 7.

The wide bandwidth of the device extends the measurement capability to 300 kHz with less than 3 dB errors for signal levels greater than 100 mV.

An important feature of the AD536A, not previously available in rms converters, is an auxiliary dB output pin.

The logarithm of the rms output signal is brought out to a separate pin to allow the dB conversion, with a useful dynamic range of 60 dB.

Using an externally supplied reference current, the 0 dB level can be conveniently set to correspond to any input level from 0.1 V to 2 V rms.

The AD536A is laser trimmed to minimize input and output offset voltage, to optimize positive and negative waveform symmetry (dc reversal error), and to provide full-scale accuracy at 7 V rms.

As a result, no external trims are required to achieve the rated unit accuracy.

The input and output pins are fully protected. The input circuitry can take overload voltages well beyond the supply levels.

Loss of supply voltage with the input connected to external circuitry does not cause the device.

The AD536A is available in two accuracy grades (J and K) for commercial temperature range (0°C to 70°C) applications, and one grade (S) rated for the −55°C to +125°C extended range.

The AD536AK offers a maximum total error of ±2 mV ± 0.2% of reading, while the AD536AJ and AD536AS have maximum errors of ±5 mV ± 0.5% of reading. All three versions are available in a hermetically sealed 14- lead DIP or a 10-pin TO-100 metal header package. The AD536AS is also available in a 20-terminal leadless hermetically sealed ceramic chip carrier.

The AD536A computes the true root-mean-square level of a complex ac (or ac plus dc) input signal and provides an eluvia-lent dc output level.

The true rms value of a waveform is a more useful quantity than the average rectified value because it relates directly to the power of the signal. The rms value of a statistical signal also relates to its standard deviation.

An external capacitor is required to perform measurements to the fully specified accuracy.

The value of this capacitor deter-mines the low frequency ac accuracy, ripple amplitude, and settling time.

The AD536A operates equally well from split supplies or a single supply with total supply levels from 5 V to 36 V.

With 1 mA quiescent supply current, the device is well suited for a wide variety of remote controllers and battery-powered instruments.



D 1 NO AC LOAD NC 1K MC P ort P in Q1 2N 2222 1N4007
D 1
P ort P in
2N 2222

Relays are components which allow a low-power circuit to switch a relatively high current on and off, or to control signals that must be electrically isolated from the controlling circuit itself. Newcomers to electronics sometimes want to use a relay for this type of application, but are unsure about the details of doing so. Here’s a quick rundown. To make a relay operate, you have to pass a suitable .pull-in. and .holding current (DC) through its energizing coil. And generally relay coils are designed to operate from a particular supply voltage. Often 12V or 5V, in the case of many of the small relays used for electronics work. In each case the coil has a resistance which will draw the right pull-in and holding currents when it’s connected to that supply voltage. So the basic idea is to choose a relay with a coil designed to operate from the supply voltage you’re using for your control circuit (and with contacts capable of switching the currents you want to control), and then provide a suitable .relay driver. Circuit so that your low-power circuitry can control the current through the relay’s coil. Typically this will be somewhere between 25Ma and 70mA. Often your relay driver can be very simple, using little more than an NPN or PNP transistor to control the coil current. All your low-power circuitry has to do is provide enough base current to turn the transistor on and off, as you can see from diagrams A and B. In A, NPN transistor Q1 (say a BC337 or BC338) is being used to control a relay (RLY1) with a 12V coil, operating from a +12V supply. Series base resistor R1 is used to set the base current for Q1, so that the transistor is driven into saturation (fully turned on) when the relay is to be energized. That way, the transistor will have minimal voltage drop, and hence dissipate very little power. As well as delivering most of the 12V to the relay coil. How do you work out the value of R1? It’s not hard. Let’s say RLY1 needs 50mA of coil current to pull in and hold reliably, and has a resistance of 240ohmso it draws this current from 12V. Our BC337/338 transistor will need enough base current to make sure it remains saturated at this collector current level. To work this out, we simply make sure that the base current is greater than this collector current divided by the transistor’s minimum DC current gain hFE. So as the BC337/338

has a minimum hFE of 100 (at 100mA), we’d need to provide it with at least 50mA/100 = 0.5mA of base current. In practice, you’d give it roughly double this value, say 1mA of base current, just to make sure it does saturate. So if your control signal Vin was switching between 0V and +12V, you’d give R1 a value of say 11kohm, to provide the 1mA of base current needed to turn on both Q1 and the relay. If our relay has a coil resistance of say 180ohm, so that it draws say 67mA at 12V, we’d need to reduce R1 to say 8.2kohm, to increase the base current to about 1.4mA. Conversely if the relay coil is 360ohmand draws only 33mA, we could increase R1 to 15kohm, giving about 0.76mA of base current. Each time we go for about twice the relay coil current divided by Q1.s hFE. Get the idea? As you can see a power diode D1 (1N4001 or similar) is connected across the relay coil, to protect the transistor from damage due to the back-EMF pulse generated in the relay coil’s inductance when Q1 turns off. The basic NPN circuit in diagram A is fine if you want the relay to energies when your control voltage Vin is high (+12V), and be off when Vin is low (0V). But what if you want the opposite? That’s where you’d opt for a circuit like that shown in diagram B, using a PNP transistor like the BC327 or BC328. This is essentially the same circuit as in A, just swung around to suit the PNP transistor’s polarity. This time transistor Q2 will turn on and energies the relay when Vin is low (0V), and will turn off when Vin is high (+12V). Otherwise everything works just as before, and the value of base resistor R2 is worked out in the same way as for R1. In fact because the minimum hFE of the BC327/328 PNP transistors is also 100 at 100mA, you could use exactly the same values of R2 to suit each relay resistance/current. The simple transistor driver circuits of A and B are very low in cost, and are generally fine for driving most relays. However there may be occasions, such as when your control circuit is based on CMOS logic, where the base current needed by these circuits is a bit too high. For these situations the circuit shown in C might be of interest, because it needs rather less input current. As you can see it uses a readily available and very low cost 555 IC as the relay driver, plus only one extra component: bypass capacitor C1. Although we normally think of the 555 as a timer/oscillator, it’s actually very well suited for driving a small relay.

Output pin 3 can both source and sink 200mA (enough to handle most small relays comfortably), and the internal flip-flop which controls its output stage is triggered swiftly between its two states by internal comparators connected to the two sensing inputs on pins 2 and 6. When these pins are taken to a voltage above 2/3 the supply voltage, the output switches low (0V); then they are taken below 1/3 the supply voltage, the output swings high. And the 555 can happily work at 5V, as you can see, so it’s very suitable for driving a 5V relay coil from this supply voltage.

3.8 RS-232 DETAILS


In computing, a serial port is a serial communication physical interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (contrast parallel port). Throughout most of the history of personal computers, data transfer through serial ports connected the computer to devices such as terminals or modems. Mice, keyboards, and other peripheral devices also connected in this way.

While such interfaces as Ethernet, FireWire, and USB all send data as a serial stream, the term "serial port" usually identifies hardware more or less compliant to the RS-232 standard, intended to interface with a modem or with a similar communication device.

3.8 RS-232 DETAILS 3.8.1 SERIAL COMMUNICATION INTRODUCTION: In computing, a serial port is a serial

3.8.2 HOW RS232 WORKS










describing complex handshake methods - only the simplest system is described - this it the most useful and the most likely to work

Data is transmitted serially in one direction over a pair of wires. Data going out is labeled TX (indicating transmission) while data coming in is labeled Rx (indicating reception). To create a two way communication system a minimum of three wires are needed TX, RX and GND (ground). Crossing over TX & RX between the two systems lets each unit talk to the opposite one.

Each byte can be transmitted at any time (as long as the previous byte has been transmitted). The transmitted byte is not synchronized to the receiver - it is an asynchronous protocol i.e. there is no clock signal. For this reason software at each end of the communication link must be set up exactly the same so that each serial decoder chip can decode the serial data stream.

(Fig17. RS232 TRANSMISSION) 3.8.3. BAUD: This is simply the transmission speed measured in bits per second.


3.8.3. BAUD:

This is simply the transmission speed measured in bits per second. It defines the frequency of each bit period. For a baud rate of 2400 (2400 bps) the frequency is 2400Hz and the bit period is 1/2400 or 416.6us. This is the information that a receiver uses to recover the bits from the data stream.


To make it work over long cables high voltages are sent from each transmitter since due to cable resistance the voltage reduces the further the signal has to travel. The output voltage specification is from +5V to +25V (transmitting a logical zero) and -5V to -25V (transmitting a logical one).

Note: all signals in the cable have to generate the same voltage levels e.g. DTR, DSR, RTS, CTS. So you need a lot of level translator chips for a full interface but for very short distances you only need TX and RX and ground.

The receiver


accept minimum




±3V. The

maximum voltage of ±25V does not have to be used and a common voltage in use is ±12V (output by MAX232 transceiver chip) A mark (logical one) is sent as -12V and a space (logical zero) is sent as +12V i.e. the logic sense is inverted RECEIVER

At the receiver the input voltage levels are defined as ±3V i.e. to receive a logic zero the voltage must be greater than 3V and to receive a logic one the voltage must be smaller than -3V. This allows for losses as the signal travels down the cable and provides noise immunity i.e. any spurious noise up to a level of ±3V can be tolerated without it having any effect on the receiver.


STEP 1:-Start

STEP 2:-The temperature , current ,voltage is taken from both the Motor

STEP 3:-The measured temperature, voltage , current the inputs are then compared with the threshold value.

STEP 4:-If the value of the input increases the threshold value then the processing unit activates the driver circuit

STEP 5:-The driver circuit will then gives us the output

STEP 6:-Stop


Response of a PLC is much faster than a microcontroller

A PLC can handle more than one inputs at a time

Programming in plc takes less time than in microcontrollers


SCADA HMI (human machine interface) Computer numeric control


The program has been successfully implemented and the

temperature control

and voltage control, current control in

INDUCTION MOTOR has been done using Programmable logic



The implementation of the project included programming of the delta PLC and interfacing the hardware components with the PLC.

During the implementation certain problems were encountered with the interfacing of the temperature sensor with the PLC. The required output voltage to activate the PLC is 24 volts but the output acquired was less than that so to overcome this problem we are using BC547 to bring the required amplification in the voltage.