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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

A kinematics-based approach for the shear strength of short fibre-reinforced concrete coupling beams

Boyan Mihaylov

University of Liege, Department of ArGEnCo, Building B52, Quartier Polytech 1, Allée de la Découverte 9, B-4000 Liège, Belgium

T

ARTICLE INFO

Keywords:

Coupling beams

Fibre-reinforced concrete

Shear

Kinematics

ABSTRACT

Short coupling beams are susceptible to brittle shear failures that are typically suppressed with dense transverse and/or diagonal reinforcement. To reduce the amount of shear reinforcement and improve the service behavior of the beam, researchers have proposed a solution with steel fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC). However, while this solution is promising, there are no sufficiently simple mechanical models capable of capturing the shear strength and displacement capacity of short FRC coupling beams without diagonal reinforcement. This paper proposes such a model based on first principles: kinematics, equilibrium, and constitutive relationships for the mechanisms of shear resistance. The model accounts in an explicit manner for five shear mechanisms across the critical shear cracks: diagonal compression in the critical loading zones, aggregate interlock, tension in the stirrups and in the steel fibres, and dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement. These mechanisms are predicted and the results are compared to 20 tests from the literature as well as to FEM predictions. It is shown that the proposed approach models well the effect of beam aspect ratio, concrete strength, stirrup ratio, and amount of steel fibres. Furthermore, the model is used to develop relationships outlining the effectiveness of steel fibres to reduce conventional stirrup reinforcement in coupling beams with various properties.

1. Introduction

This paper focuses on the modelling of short coupling beams with clear-span-to-depth ratios smaller than about 2.5 (Fig. 1a). Such beams fall into the category of disturbed regions/members (D-members) as they do not obey the classical plane-sections-remain-plane hypothesis and are typically designed with strut-and-tie models. In addition, due to their large stiffness, they typically work with high shear stresses asso- ciated with double-curvature bending, and therefore require large amounts of stirrups and/or diagonal reinforcement. Therefore, experi- mental research has been performed to find more efficient reinforce- ment layouts and to reduce the amount of shear reinforcement [2–5]. More recently, researchers have proposed the use of steel fibres in the concrete that bridge the critical shear cracks and enhance the strength of the member [5–8]. However, while tests have indicated that this is a viable solution, extending the strut-and-tie models for reinforced con- crete (RC) coupling beams to fibre-reinforced concrete (FRC) members is a challenging problem. This is mainly because the strut-and-tie ap- proach neglects the tension in the concrete, while enhanced crack control and ductility in tension is the main advantage of FRC. In ad- dition, strut-and-tie models are not well suited for evaluating de- formations and displacement capacity which are key for the perfor- mance-based seismic design of coupled-wall structures. Therefore, there

E-mail address: boyan.mihaylov@uliege.be.

is a need for a displacement-based approach which addresses these is- sues in a rational and computationally efficient manner. A kinematics-based framework has already been developed for the modelling of various reinforced concrete D-members such as deep beams, short walls, and short coupling beams [9–12]. The same fra- mework was used recently to model the complete shear response of short FRC coupling beams, including their post-peak behavior [13] (Fig. 1b). This approach is based on a kinematic model which describes the complete deformation patterns of short coupling beams with the help of only two degrees of freedom (DOFs). The kinematic model provides conditions for compatibility of deformations which are com- bined with equilibrium equations and constitutive relationships for the mechanisms of shear resistance across the critical shear cracks. As evident from Fig. 1b, the kinematics-based approach accounts for five components of shear resistance: critical loading zone, V _{C}_{L}_{Z}_{,} aggregate interlock, V _{c}_{i} , stirrups V _{s} , dowel action of the longitudinal reinforce- ment, V _{d} , and steel fibres V _{f} . The main goal of this paper is to simplify this approach to predict not the complete response, but only the peak resistance of short FRC coupling beams. The main assumption which is used in the derivation of the model stems directly from Fig. 1b and other similar analyses: the failure of the beam is triggered by the failure of the critical loading zone (CLZ). In other words, the peak resistance of the beam occurs almost simultaneously with that of the CLZ. Apart from

Received 1 May 2018; Received in revised form 31 August 2018; Accepted 26 November 2018

0141-0296/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

B. Mihaylov

θ

V V

(a)

300

250

pr ed .

200

exp.

150

V

s

100

V

CLZ

50

V

f

V

ci

0

V

d

0

5

10

15

V, kN

θ, rad x10 ^{-}^{3}

(b)

Fig. 1. Short FRC coupling beams. (a) Short coupling beams in a coupled wall system (adapted from [1]). (b) Predicted response of a short FRC coupling beam based on a two-parameter kinematic approach (adapted from [13]).

the derivation of the model, the paper presents comparisons with 20 tests as well as with nonlinear finite element simulations. Validated in this manner, the kinematics-based approach is used to evaluate the effectiveness of steel fibres to reduce conventional stirrups.

2. Kinematics of short coupling beams

The deformation patterns of short coupling beams failing in diag- onal tension are modelled with the kinematic model depicted in Fig. 2a. This model is adapted from earlier models developed for deep re- inforced concrete beams and short reinforced concrete coupling beams under double curvature [11,12]. It consists of two simple deformation patterns, each of which a function of a single degree of freedom (DOF). The shear failure is assumed to occur along a straight shear crack which extends along the diagonal of the coupling beam. It is also assumed that the load and reinforcement are symmetrical, and therefore the strains in the top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement are equal. The complete deformation pattern of the beam is obtained as a linear combination of the two simple patterns. The first degree of freedom of the kinematic model is the average

502

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

strain in the longitudinal reinforcement ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} measured along the cracked length of the member l _{t} . When the longitudinal reinforcement

elongates by ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} l _{t} , the critical crack opens as shown in the top diagram in Fig. 2a (crack width w). In addition to the critical crack, a series of radial cracks also open above and below the diagonal of the beam, outlining two fans of rigid radial struts. The struts are pinned at the bottom-left and top-right corners of the beam and are connected to the longitudinal reinforcement. As the opening of the fans is mainly caused by the bending moments M, this deformation pattern can be associated with flexure. While the deformation pattern controlled by DOF ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} is associated with flexure, the bottom deformation pattern in Fig. 2a is associated with shear. In this pattern the critical crack undergoes both opening and slip displacements w and s associated with a vertical displacement Δ _{c} between the crack faces. Namely displacement Δ _{c} is the second DOF of the kinematic model. In the ends of the critical crack Δ _{c} results in shear deformations along length l _{k} where the longitudinal reinforce- ment works in double curvature, and diagonal compressive strains in the critical loading zone (CLZ) where the concrete crushes at failure. The geometry of the CLZ is determined by its characteristic length l _{b}_{1}_{e} and the angle of the diagonal of the beam α. The expressions for l _{t} ,l _{k} , l _{b}_{1}_{e} and α as well as the remaining geometrical properties of the ki- nematic model have been derived elsewhere [12] and are summarized in Fig. 2b. The assumptions and geometry of the kinematic model were used to derive the complete displacement field of the coupling beam based on small-displacement kinematics (Eqs. 5–8 in Fig. 2c). In this way, the horizontal and vertical displacements δ _{x} and δ _{z} of each point of the beam are expressed as functions of DOFs ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} and Δ _{c} . More im- portantly, the two DOFs are used to express key deformations in the critical diagonal crack, i.e. stirrup strain ε _{v} , crack width w and crack slip s half way along the crack (Eqs. 9–11) [11,12]. These deformations will

be used to express the mechanisms of shear resistance across the crack, also as functions of DOFs ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} and Δ _{c} .

3. Mechanisms of shear resistance

There are at least five mechanisms of shear resistance which de- velop in short FRC coupling beams (Fig. 3). As characteristic of short members, a significant portion of the shear is carried in the critical loading zone where the concrete is subjected to diagonal compression associated with DOF Δ _{c} . As mentioned earlier, in addition to shear component V _{C}_{L}_{Z} , shear is also carried by aggregate interlock, V _{c}_{i} , ten- sion in the stirrups, V _{s} , dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement, V _{d} , and the contribution of the steel fibres, V _{f} . Component V _{c}_{i} depends mainly on the width of the critical crack, V _{s} on the strain in the stirrups, and V _{d} on strain ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} in the bar-dowels of length l _{k} . These four me- chanisms have been derived elsewhere [11,12] and are summarized in Fig. 3 (Eqs. 12–15), while component V _{f} is discussed in more detail below. As demonstrated in [13], the steel fibres influence the shear beha- vior of short coupling beams mainly in two ways: they transfer tension across the critical diagonal cracks and also enhance the ductility of the critical loading zones where the concrete works in compression. How- ever, as the latter effect has been shown to impact mainly the post-peak behavior of the beam and not its strength, it is neglected here for the sake of simplicity. Therefore, Eq. 12 in Fig. 3 for the shear carried in the CLZ is adopted directly from the shear strength models for deep RC beams in double curvature and short RC coupling beams [11,12]. This expression was derived based on the assumption that the CLZ is at failure under principal compressive stresses inclined at angle α. Because the CLZ is crossed by the top longitudinal reinforcement which works in tension, the strains in the reinforcement ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} damage the concrete and reduce its compression capacity. This compression softening effect is modelled with factor k _{c} (ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} ) proposed by Vecchio and Collins [14]. The tension behaviour of steel fibres across cracks has been studied

B. Mihaylov

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

(a) Deformation patterns and DOFs

(b) Geometry

(c) Deformations

DOF

t,avg

Characteristic length of critical

loading zone

Displacement field

• below critical crack

2

2

(1)

l

=

0.11

a + h

(5)

δ

= ε

x

b 1 e

x

t , avg

V

M

2

M

x

Angle of critical crack

ε t , avg

(6)

δ

=

z

V

h

− z

1

(2)

α

≈ α ≥ 35 o

d

s

1

• above critical crack

b

cr

h

(7)

(2)

δ

= ε

(

h

cot

α + x − a

)

α =

atan

x

t , avg

a+ t,avg l t

a

2

+

az

cot

α

−

(

x

−

a

)

(8)

δ

= ∆ +

ε

Dowel length

DOF

z

c

t , avg

c

z

l b1e

(3)

= l + d

(cot

α −

cot

)

Stirrup strain

l k

0

α 1

c

2

CLZ

=

1.5(

h

−

d

)cot

≥

s

∆

+ 0.25

ε

α

l 0

α 1

d cot

cr

c

t avg

,

1

(9)

ε

= 2

v

(3)

0.28 d

b 2.5 (

h

− d

)

0.9 d

=

s cr

v

ρ

d

l

Crack width and slip

Cracked length along

ε

l

t avg k

,

z

longitudinal reinforcement

(10)

w =

+ ∆

c cos

α

1

x

2sin

α

l

1

k

(4)

= d cot

+ l − l

l t

α 1

k

0

(11)

s = ∆

c sin

α

1

w

s w

h d

Fig. 2. Two-parameter kinematic model for short coupling beams [12,13].

extensively by different authors [15–17], particularly for the case of pure crack opening (Mode I fracture). It is now generally accepted that the relationship between crack opening and normal stress across the crack can be expressed as a superposition of two stresses (Fig. 4): ten- sion transferred directly between the two crack faces (tension softening of concrete), and tension carried by the steel fibres which are bonded (anchored) on each side of the crack [15]. As in the kinematic model the coupling beam is assumed fully cracked, the tension softening is neglected and the tensile stress transferred by the fibres is expressed according to a variable engagement model proposed by Voo and Foster

[15]:

w

1

0.396

f

l

tan

(

)

c

f

d

/ 3.5

f

2

w

f

=

1

f

d

l

f

f

2

(16)

where 0.396√f _{c} is the bond stress between the fibres and concrete, ρ _{f}

Fig. 4. Tension behaviour of FRC (adapted from Voo and Foster 2003).

V

v ci

M

,

V s

V f

V d

^{V} CLZ

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

Fig. 3. Mechanisms of shear resistance in short coupling beams [11,12]. k _{c} = compression softening factor; f _{c} = concrete compressive strength; b = section width; ε _{1} = principal tensile strain in CLZ; a _{g} = maximum diameter of coarse aggregates; E _{s} = modulus of elasticity of longitudinal reinforcement; A _{v} = area of stirrups; ρ _{v} = stirrup ratio; f _{y}_{v} = yield strength of stirrups; α _{1} = angle of critical crack; n _{b} = number of top/bottom longitudinal bars; d _{b} = diameter of longitudinal bars; l _{k} = length of bar-dowels; f _{y} = yield strength of longitudinal bars.

503

B. Mihaylov

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

is the volumetric ratio of steel fibres, l _{f} is the length of the fibres, d _{f} is

the fibre diameter, and w is the crack width. However, because in coupling beams the critical crack undergoes both opening and slip displacements (mixed Mode I and II fracture), shear component V _{f} is not governed only by the width of the crack w. Therefore, it is proposed to replace w in Eq. (16) with the vertical displacement in the crack w _{v} which dominates the crack movement near shear failure. Displacement w _{v} is expressed with the two DOFs of the kinematic model as follows:

w

(17)

and the shear contribution of the steel fibres across the critical crack is

(18)

where b is the width of the beam section, d is the effective depth, α _{1} is the angle of the critical crack, and d/sinα _{1} is the length of the crack. In the derivation of Eq. (18), it is assumed that the fibres generate the same force for the same magnitude of crack displacement, regardless of the direction of the displacement. In addition, it is assumed that the force generated by the fibres is parallel to the crack displacement. In other words, if the crack undergoes a vertical displacement w _{v} or a pure opening w = w _{v} , the fibres will generate the same force, but the force will be oriented either in the vertical direction or perpendicular to the crack, respectively. Therefore, the expression for V _{f} represents the tensile force across the critical crack obtained as if the crack undergoes

a pure opening w = w _{v} , but V _{f} is oriented in the vertical direction parallel to the crack displacement. According to Eqs. 12–18, all mechanisms of shear resistance are expressed directly or indirectly with DOFs ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} and Δ _{c} . Therefore, in order to predict the shear strength of short FRC coupling beams, it is necessary to predict the values of the DOFs at failure.

v = 0.5

t,avg

l cot

k

+

1

c

V = (w )bd/sin

f

f

v

1

4. Shear strength prediction

Similarly to the derivation of V _{C}_{L}_{Z} , DOF Δ _{c} is derived by assuming that the failure of short coupling beams is triggered by crushing of the critical loading zone. As the CLZ is at crushing, the strain along its bottom inclined face is assumed equal to -0.0035k _{c} , where k _{c} is the same compression softening factor used in Eq. 12. By making also ap- propriate assumptions for the geometry of the CLZ, Δ _{c} has been ex- pressed as [11]:

(19)

where l _{b}_{1}_{e} is the characteristic length of the CLZ (Eq. 1) and α is the angle of the diagonal of the beam (Eq. 2).

c

= 3 × 0.0035k

c

l

b1e

cot

The derivations so far considered two sets of fundamental equations:

compatibility of deformations (kinematics) and constitutive relationships for the mechanisms of shear resistance. To predict the second DOF of the kinematic model ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} , it is also necessary to consider the equilibrium of the internal and external forces acting on the coupling beam. This is de- monstrated graphically in Fig. 5 where on the horizontal axis is strain ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} and on the vertical axis are the shear forces. The calculations begin by determining the geometry of the kinematic model from Eqs. 1–4. Next, for a given value of DOF ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} , DOF Δ _{c} is determined from Eq. (19), and the deformations along the critical diagonal crack are obtained from Eqs. 9–10 and 17. In turn, these deformations are substituted in Eqs. 12–15 and 18 to determine shear components V _{C}_{L}_{Z} ,V _{c}_{i} ,V _{s} ,V _{d} , and V _{f} . The sum of the five components results in the shear capacity curve ΣVi in Fig. 5 (thick con- tinuous line). As evident from the plot, the shear capacity decreases with increasing strain in the longitudinal reinforcement, and therefore short coupling beams exhibit strain effect in shear similarly to slender beams. This effect is explained mainly with the compression softening of the CLZ, and in some cases with the diminishing of the aggregate interlock re- sistance due to the opening of the critical diagonal crack with increasing ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} . The dowel action V _{d} , which typically has a relatively minor con- tribution to the shear resistance, also diminishes with increasing strain. When ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} reaches the yield strain of the steel, the longitudinal bars yield in tension, and therefore do not provide any resistance to transverse dis- placements. To determine ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} at failure, the shear capacity must equal the shear expressed from the tension in the longitudinal reinforcement. For simplicity, the reinforcement is assumed linear elastic and the tension stiffening effect of the concrete around the reinforcement is neglected, therefore resulting in:

V = 2E A

(20)

s

s

t,avg

(0.9d)/a

where E _{s} A _{s} is the axial stiffness of the reinforcement, E _{s} A _{s} ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} is the tensile force in the reinforcement, 0.9d is the approximate lever arm of the longitudinal forces in the end sections, and a is the length of the beam. This shear force is derived by considering the moment equili- brium of the coupling beam and is plotted with a thick dashed line in Fig. 5. Graphically, the solution of the equations of the proposed model lies at the intersection of the two thick curves where the shear forces are in equilibrium. The solid curve is the shear capacity while the dashed line can be viewed as the shear “demand” on the beam. The abscissa of the intersection point is the predicted strain at failure and the ordinate is the predicted shear strength. The calculations illustrated in Fig. 5 were performed for an FRC coupling beam tested by Cai et al. [8], see beam 40-1-1 in Table 1. For this beam, the obtained shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio is V _{e}_{x}_{p} /V _{p}_{r}_{e}_{d} = 295 kN/277 kN = 1.06.

400

350

V

Equilibrium

i

300

V

f

250

V

ci

200

V

150

s

100

V

CLZ

50

V

d

0

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

Shear forces, kN

t,avg ^{,} ^{x}^{1}^{0} ^{-}^{3}

V CLZ

V

v ci

M

, V f

V s

V d

Fig. 5. Solution of model equations applied to specimen 40-1-1 [8].

504

B. Mihaylov

Table 1 Tests of short FRC coupling beams [7,8] and shear strength predictions.

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

Beam name |
a/d |
d, mm |
b, mm |
ρ |
f |
ρ |
f |
f |
ρ |
l |
d |
Load type |
V |
V |
V |

30-2-1 |
2.32 |
345 |
150 |
1.21 |
363 |
0.56 |
296 |
40.5 |
1.0 |
32 |
0.76 |
C |
227 |
220 |
205 |

40-2-1 |
43.1 |
238 |
227 |
208 |
|||||||||||

50-2-1 |
52.9 |
243 |
238 |
220 |
|||||||||||

60-2-1 |
66.7 |
250 |
253 |
235 |
|||||||||||

70-2-1 |
70.1 |
253 |
256 |
239 |
|||||||||||

80-2-1 |
80.7 |
255 |
266 |
249 |
|||||||||||

40-1-1 |
1.16 |
345 |
150 |
1.21 |
363 |
0.56 |
296 |
43.1 |
1.0 |
32 |
0.76 |
C |
295 |
355 |
277 |

40-1.5-1 |
1.74 |
292 |
278 |
246 |
|||||||||||

40-2.5-1 |
2.90 |
190 |
185 |
185 |
|||||||||||

50-2-0 |
2.32 |
345 |
150 |
1.21 |
363 |
0.56 |
296 |
55.6 |
0 |
32 |
0.76 |
C |
203 |
220 |
188 |

50-2-0.5 |
54.5 |
0.5 |
238 |
236 |
204 |
||||||||||

55-2-1 |
54.8 |
1.0 |
244 |
242 |
222 |
||||||||||

50-2-1.5 |
55.9 |
1.5 |
250 |
252 |
242 |
||||||||||

50-2-2 |
55.3 |
2.0 |
256 |
253 |
257 |
||||||||||

50-2-2.5 |
54.1 |
2.5 |
257 |
255 |
255 |
||||||||||

S-10/M |
1.11 |
360 |
100 |
2 |
469 |
1 |
384 |
37.5 |
1.0 |
50 |
1.05 |
M |
299 |
324 |
257 |

S-15/M |
1.67 |
1 |
38.2 |
282 |
302 |
243 |
|||||||||

S-20/M |
2.22 |
1 |
38.7 |
262 |
288 |
236 |
|||||||||

S-15/W |
1.67 |
0 |
45.0 |
130 |
114 |
149 |
|||||||||

S-15/S |
1.67 |
2 |
45.2 |
358 |
364 |
301 |

Avg. (V _{e}_{x}_{p} /V _{F}_{E}_{M} ) = 0.99 with COV = 6.4%. Avg. (V _{e}_{x}_{p} /V _{p}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{.} ) = 1.08 with COV = 7.0%.

a = clear span; d = effective depth; b = width of cross section; ρ _{l} = ratio of top/bottom longitudinal reinforcement; f _{y} = yield strength of longitudinal reinforce- ment; ρ _{v} = stirrup ratio; f _{y}_{v} = yield strength of stirrups; f _{c} = compressive cylinder strength of concrete; ρ _{f} = volumetric ratio of steel fibres; l _{f} = fibre length; d _{f} = fibre diameter; C/M = cyclic/monotonic load; V _{e}_{x}_{p} = measured shear force at failure; V _{p}_{r}_{e}_{d} = predicted strength. * For brevity the name of beam CCB3-30-2-1FS is abbreviated as 30-2-1, similarly for the other 14 beams by Cai et al. [8].

5. Effect of test variables

Similar calculations were performed with a total of 20 beams listed in Table 1 (15 beams by Cai et al. [8] and 5 tests reported by Kuang and Baczkowski [7]). These tests allow for a systematic examination of four important variables on the shear strength of short FRP coupling beams:

shear-span-to-effective-depth ratio a/d, concrete compressive strength f _{c} , stirrup ratio ρ _{v} and, most importantly, the volumetric ratio of steel fibres ρ _{f} . As evident from Table 1, the beams had a/d ratios between 1.11 and 2.90, effective depths of about 350 mm, longitudinal re- inforcement ratios of 1.21% or 2%, stirrup ratios between 0 and 2%, and steel fibre ratios between 0 and 2.5%. The first 15 beams were tested under reversed cyclic loading, while the remaining 5 were loaded monotonically.

5.1. Effect of a/d ratio

Fig. 6a shows the measured and predicted effect of the a/d ratio on the shear strength of four coupling beams tested by Cai et al. [8]. As can be expected, the experimental points show that the strength decreases significantly as the beams transition from a very short coupling beam with a/d of 1.16 to a slender beam with a/d of 2.90. The kinematics- based approach models well this trend, even though it produces slightly conservative strength predictions. It can be seen from the predicted components of shear resistance that the strength reduction is mainly due to the diminishing of shear components V _{C}_{L}_{Z} and V _{c}_{i} . As the span a increases for a constant d, the flexural strains in the longitudinal re- inforcement also increase, resulting in increased compression softening of the CLZ as well as wider cracks with less aggregate interlock re- sistance. In addition, as the span a increases, the critical shear crack becomes flatter, resulting in a more slender and weaker critical loading zone. Flatter cracks are also associated with larger amounts of stirrups and steel fibres engaged along the cracks, and therefore larger shear components V _{s} and V _{f} . According to the predictions in Fig. 6a, the contribution of the fibres with a volumetric ratio of 1% varies from

505

about 10% of the shear strength at a/d of 1 to about 20% at a/d of 3. It can also be seen that the dowel action contribution V _{d} is negligible across the entire range of a/d ratios. In addition to experimental results and kinematics-based predic- tions, Fig. 6a also contains shear strength predictions obtained with a nonlinear finite element model (FEM). The FE analyses were performed in an earlier study [13] and are reported here for the sake of compar- ison. Program VecTor2 based on the Disturbed Stress Field Model (DSFM [18]) was used to model the beams with plane stress finite elements. The DSFM is a smeared rotating crack model that originates from the Modified Compression Field Theory for reinforced concrete elements subjected to shear [14]. In the DSFM, the cracks are assumed parallel to the principal compressive stress directions in the concrete, while the principal strain directions deviate from the stress directions due to slip displacements in the cracks. The slip displacements and crack widths are used to calculate aggregate interlock stresses trans- ferred across the cracks. To model FRC, this formulation has been ex- tended to also account for the resistance of the steel fibers crossing the cracks [15,19]. It can be seen from Fig. 6a that this approach over- estimated the strength of the shortest beam by about 20%, but pro- duced excellent predictions for the other three test specimens. It can also be seen that the kinematics-based approach, which uses only two DOFs to describe the deformation patterns of short coupling beams, produces similarly accurate results to those of the FEM with thousands of DOFs. Similar observations for the effect of the a/d ratio can be made from Fig. 6b which includes three tests by Kuang and Baczkowski [7]. Ac- cording to the experimental points, the shear strength decreases with increasing a/d ratios, even though this trend appears less pronounced than in Fig. 6a. The kinematics-based approach predicts a nearly con- stant trend up to an a/d ratio of about 1.7, which can be explained with the predicted components of shear resistance. As before, components V _{C}_{L}_{Z} ,V _{c}_{i} and V _{d} diminish, and V _{s} and V _{f} increase with increasing a/d ratios. However, the test specimens by Kuang and Baczkowski had a significantly higher stirrup ratio (ρ _{v} = 1% vs. 0.56%), and therefore the

Shear strength, kN

B. Mihaylov

400

FEM

350

exp .

300

250

pred.

V

200

f

V

ci

150

100

V

s

50

V

CLZ

0

V

d

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Shear strength, kN

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

a/d

(a)

FEM

ex p.

V f

V ci

sliding

shear

V s

V

CLZ

V

d

1

1.5

2

2.5

a/d

(b)

Fig. 6. Measured and predicted effect of beam aspect ratio. (a) Tests 40-1-1, 40- 1.5-1, 40-2-1 and 40-2.5-1 [8]. (b) Tests S10-M, S15-M and S20-M [7].

increase of shear component V _{s} is predicted to compensate for the de- crease of V _{C}_{L}_{Z} ,V _{c}_{i} and V _{d} in the range of a/d = 1–1.7. Furthermore, it appears that the 1% stirrups were nearly sufficient to suppress shear failures along diagonal cracks, and to force sliding shear failures in the end sections of the beams. This is evident from the dashed line in Fig. 6b which represents the resistance to sliding shear evaluated based on a recently-proposed model for RC coupling beams [20]. The small difference between the predictions of this model and those of the ki- nematics-based approach are consistent with the failure modes ob- served in the tests. The failures occurred neither at the vertical end sections with yielding of the reinforcement and crushing of the con- crete, nor along diagonal cracks as assumed in the kinematics-based approach, but with the opening of steep flexure-shear cracks located in between. Nevertheless, both prediction lines in Fig. 6b approximate reasonably well the experimental results. It is also noted that the FEM predictions lie almost perfectly on the shear sliding line.

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

350

300

FEM

exp .

250

pred .

V

200

f

V

ci

150

100

V

s

50

V

CLZ

0

V

d

35

45

55

65

75

85

Shear strength, kN

f _{c} , MPa

(a)

400

350

pred .

300

V

f

250

V

ci

200

V

s

150

100

V

CLZ

50

0

V

d

35

45

55

65

75

85

Shear strength, kN

f _{c} , MPa

(b)

Fig. 7. Effect of concrete strength on shear capacity. (a) Measured and pre- dicted strength of beams with a/d=2.32 (tests 30-2-1, 40-2-1, 50-2-1, 60-2-1, 70-2-1 and 80-2-1 [8]). (b) Predicted strength of beams with a/d=1.16

5.2. Effect of concrete strength

In addition to the a/d ratio, another important factor affecting the shear strength of short FRC coupling beams is the compressive strength of the concrete. Fig. 7 shows this effect observed in six tests of beams with a/d of 2.32, longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 1.21%, stirrup ratio of 0.56%, and steel fibre ratio of 1% [8] (Table 1). This plot is very instructive as concrete strengths of up to 80–90 MPa become more and more common in the construction of high-rise buildings. According to the experimental points, as the concrete strength was doubled from 40.5 MPa to 80.7 MPa, the measured shear strength increased by about 12%. This trend is modelled very well by the nonlinear FEM, even though the model overestimated slightly the shear strength of the specimen with the strongest concrete. As also evident from the plot, the kinematics-based approach is slightly conservative for the lower

506

Shear strength, kN

Shear strength, kN

v , %

B. Mihaylov

400

ex p.

350

FEM

300

250

V

f

V

200

ci

150

V

s

100

50

V

CLZ

0

V

d

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

Shear strength, kN

_{v} , %

Fig. 8. Measured and predicted effect of stirrup ratio (tests S-15/W, S-15/M and S-15/S by [7]).

concrete strengths and approaches the experimental results as f _{c} ap- proaches 90 MPa. The model predicts that shear components V _{C}_{L}_{Z} ,V _{c}_{i} and V _{f} increase in a very similar manner, while V _{s} remains constant and equal to the yield strength of the stirrups crossing the critical diagonal crack. It should be noted that the continuous prediction line is obtained without taking into account that the cracks in high-strength concretes propagate through the coarse aggregates, and therefore have less ca- pacity to interlock. This effect can be modelled by reducing the max- imum aggregate size a _{g} in Eq. 13 from its actual value to 0 as the concrete strength increases from 60 MPa to 70 MPa [21]. The results obtained based on this approach are shown with a dashed line in Fig. 7. As the effect of the concrete strength in Fig. 7a is relatively modest, the kinematics-based approach is used to demonstrate cases where this effect is significantly larger. Fig. 7b is generated with the same beam properties as Fig. 7a, but the length of the beams is reduced by one half, and therefore the a/d ratio is 1.16. It can be seen that in this case as f _{c} is doubled from 40 to 80 MPa, the shear strength is predicted to increase

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

FEM

V f

V ci

^{V} s

exp .

V CLZ

V

d

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

_{f} , %

Fig. 9. Measured and predicted effect of steel fibre volumetric ratio (tests 50–2- 0, 50–2-0.5, 55–2-1, 50–2-1.5, 50–2-2, and 50–2-2.5 by [8]).

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

by 33%. This is explained with the larger contribution of the CLZ whose strength is proportional to f _{c} ^{0}^{.}^{8} and sin ^{2} α (Eq. 12). Therefore, the

shorter is the beam and the larger is the inclination of its diagonal α, the larger is the shear component V _{C}_{L}_{Z} as compared to the other compo- nents and the larger is the effect of f _{c} .

5.3. Effect of stirrup ratio

Fig. 8 shows how the shear strength of coupling beams increases with increasing amounts of stirrups. The a/d ratio of the beams was 1.67, the concrete strength about 42 MPa, the longitudinal reinforce-

ment ratio 2%, and the fibre volumetric ratio 1% [7] (Table 1). Ac- cording to the experimental points, as the stirrup ratio was increased from 0 to 2%, the shear strength increased by a factor of 2.8. The

prediction curve approximates well the first two experimental points and underestimates by 19% the shear capacity of the test specimen with

maximum stirrup ratio. It can be seen that the shear strength is pre- dicted to increase almost linearly up to a stirrup ratio of about 1.3%,

followed by a horizontal plateau for larger ratios. The linear branch corresponds to diagonal tension failures modelled with the kinematics- based approach, while the upper bound on this branch corresponds to failures in the end sections calculated according to [20]. Within the linear branch, the stirrup shear contribution increases linearly, while the rest of the shear mechanisms remain approximately constant. Within the plateau, the longitudinal reinforcement in the end sections is predicted to yield, and the concrete in the compression zones to crush under the combined action of flexural compression and shear.

250

200

150

100

50

0

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

V

f

V

ci

V

s

^{V}

CLZ

V

d

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

_{f} , %

Fig. 10. Combinations of ρ _{f} and ρ _{v} to achieve the same shear strength (beam properties identical to those of specimen S-10/M).

507

B. Mihaylov

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

v / f

v / f

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

f

c =

90 MPa

60

30

h=1000 mm

d=950 mm

f yv =400 MPa

l f =50 mm

d f =1.05 mm

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

f c =

90 MPa

60

30

h=1000 mm

d=950 mm

f yv =400 MPa

l f =32 mm

d f =0.76 mm

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

a/d

Fig. 11. Effectiveness of steel fibre reinforcement as compared to stirrups.

5.4. Effect of fibre volume ratio

Fig. 9 shows how the shear strength of coupling beams increases with increasing amounts of steel fibres. The six tests specimens used for the plot had an a/d ratio of 2.32, concrete strength of about 55 MPa, longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 1.21%, and stirrup ratio of 0.56% [8] (Table 1). According to the experimental points, as the volumetric fibre ratio was increased from 0 to 2.5%, the shear strength increased by a factor of 1.27. The predicted shear strengths agree well with the test results at small and large volumes of fibres, and slightly under- estimate the shear strength for intermediate volumes. It has been identified that this slight discrepancy is mainly due to the modelling of the compression softening effect which is based on an expression de- rived from shear panels without fibres (factor k _{c} in Eq. 12). As evident from the predicted shear components, all shear contributions remain nearly constant, except for the contribution of the fibres which in- creases linearly with ρ _{f} . As in Fig. 8, the plateau of the prediction curve for ρ _{f} > 2% is due to the yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement and crushing of the concrete in the end sections (sliding shear failure) [20].

6. Effectiveness of steel fibre reinforcement as compared to stirrups

By comparing Figs. 8 and 9, it can be seen that the stirrup ratio and steel fibre ratio affect the shear capacity in a very similar manner. In both cases the contribution of the shear reinforcement to the shear capacity of the members increases linearly with the reinforcement ratio, while the remaining shear mechanisms remain approximately constant. Furthermore, both stirrups and steel fibres can be used to suppress di- agonal tension failures and to shift the failure to the end sections. However, the steeper linear branch in Fig. 8 shows that stirrups are more effective than steel fibres in increasing the shear strength of short coupling beams. This conclusion is of general validity, even though the beams in the two figures did not have the same geometrical and

508

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

material properties. To perform more rigorous comparisons, Fig. 10 shows results from a series of beams with a constant shear strength of 200 kN, but different

amounts of stirrups and steel fibres. Apart from the ρ _{v} and ρ _{f} ratios, the properties of the beams are identical to those of test specimen S/15-M (Table 1). The steel fibre ratio is increased from 0 to 2.5% (though 2.5% is rare in practice due to corrosion problems), and the stirrup ratio is decreased appropriately to maintain a constant shear strength. It can be seen from the top plot that as the shear contribution of the fibres V _{f} increases linearly with increasing ρ _{f} , the contribution of the stirrups V _{s} decreases linearly with the same rate, and components V _{C}_{L}_{Z} ,V _{c}_{i} and V _{d} remain constant. The bottom plot shows that the stirrup ratio decreases linearly from 0.65% to 0.2%, and that 2.5% of fibres are sufficient to replace 0.45% of stirrups. Therefore, the efficiency of the fibres can be quantified by the ratio of 0.45%/2.5% = 0.18, where a unit value would correspond to equal efficiency of fibres and stirrups. It is also of interest to use the kinematics-based approach to identify the main factors affecting the efficiency of the fibres, and to study

systematically the effect of these factors. To express the fibre efficiency ratio, it is necessary to equate the shear strength contribution of the fibres V _{f} (Eq. (18)) to the contribution of the stirrups V _{s} (Eq. 14). After performing some rearrangements, and also assuming that the stirrups yield at failure, the efficiency ratio becomes

(

w v

)

f

v

=

0.9

cos

f

f yv

1

(21)

where σ _{f} is the stress transferred by fibres, f _{y}_{v} is the yield strength of the stirrups and α _{1} is the angle of the critical crack. To evaluate the right- hand-side of Eq. (21), it is necessary to make further simplifications and to select beam properties of practical relevance. To evaluate cos α _{1} based on Eq. 2, the analysis will focus on a series of beams with a constant depth h = 1000 mm (d ≈ 950 mm) and variable span a. In addition, it is necessary to simplify the expression for the crack dis- placement w _{v} which depends on both DOFs of the kinematic model and controls the stress in the fibres. To that end, it is assumed that the strain in the longitudinal reinforcement ε _{t}_{,}_{a}_{v}_{g} ≈ 0.002 and the length of the

_{1} , re-

reinforcement contributing to w _{v} is l 2l = 2 × 1.5(h d)cot sulting in:

k

0

w

v

=

0.003(

h

d

)cot

2

2

0.00116

a

+ h

cot

2

+

1

0.8

+

0.34(1

+

cot

2 )

(22)

With this expression substituted in Eq. (16), the ρ _{v} /ρ _{f} ratio is eval- uated for a series of beams with a yield strength of the stirrups f _{y}_{v} = 400 MPa and concrete strengths f _{c} = 30–90 MPa. Fig. 11 presents the results from these calculations for two types of fibres: fibre diameter d _{f} = 1.05 mm and length l _{f} = 50 mm ≈ 48d _{f} (top plot), and d _{f} = 32 mm and l _{f} = 32 mm ≈ 42d _{f} (bottom plot). The longer fibres were used in the tests by Kuang and Baczkowski [7] while the shorter ones in the tests by Cai et al. [8]. It can be seen from both plots that the effectiveness of the fibres is affected by the a/d ratio of the member as well as the concrete strength. The ρ _{v} /ρ _{f} ratio decreases with increasing beam aspect ratio up to a/d of about 1.5, and remains approximately constant for more slender coupling beams. This trend is explained mainly by the presence of cosα _{1} in the denominator of Eq. (22), as for members with a/d > 1.5 the angle of the critical shear crack remains constant at α _{1} = 35° (Eq. 2). A more physical explanation of this trend has to do with the properties of FRC: steel fibres will transfer shear even if the critical crack is very steep (i.e. small a/d and large α _{1} ) as long as there are slip displacements in the crack associated with DOF Δ _{c} . Stir- rups, in contrast, are not as effective in members with small a/d ratios because the steep critical cracks cross very few stirrup legs. In addition to small a/d ratios, the effectiveness of steel fibres is also increased by high concrete strengths. It can be seen from Fig. 11 that as f _{c} is increased from 30 MPa to 90 MPa, the ρ _{v} /ρ _{f} ratio increases by a factor √(90/30) = 1.73. It is evident that this effect is due to the better

_{e}_{x}_{p} _{/}_{V} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{d}

_{e}_{x}_{p} /V _{p}_{r}_{e}_{d}

V

V

B. Mihaylov

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

monotonic

cyclic

1

1.5

2

a/d

2.5

3

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

Engineering Structures 182 (2019) 501–509

0

0.5

1

_{f} , %

1.5

2

2.5

Fig. 12. Experimental-to-predicted strength ratios for 20 tests; Avg. = 1.08 and COV = 7.0%

bond between the fibres and the concrete, which requires a larger stress to pull the fibres out of the concrete matrix. By comparing the two plots in Fig. 11, it can be concluded that the longer fibres with larger l _{f} /d _{f} ratio are more effective in replacing conventional transverse re- inforcement. Finally, to complete the validation of the proposed kinematics-based approach, Fig. 12 shows the shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratios V _{e}_{x}_{p} /V _{r}_{p}_{e}_{d} for all 20 tests listed in Table 1. The ratios are plotted as functions of a/d and the steel fibre ratio showing no visible bias across the entire range of the test variables. For this test database, the average V _{e}_{x}_{p} /V _{r}_{p}_{e}_{d} ratio is 1.08 and the coefficient of variation (COV) is 7.0%. For comparison, the nonlinear FEM produced an average ratio of 0.99 with a COV of 6.4%.

7. Conclusions

This paper presented a kinematics-based approach for evaluating the shear strength of short fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) coupling beams. This approach was validated with 20 tests from the literature and its accuracy was compared to that of a nonlinear FEM im- plementing the disturbed stress field model. As the kinematics-based approach is relatively simple and predicts explicitly the contribution of five mechanisms of shear resistance, it was used to study the effec- tiveness of steel fibres in comparison to that of conventional stirrups. The main conclusions from these studies are the following:

(1) According to the kinematics-based approach, short coupling beams exhibit strain effect in shear, and their shear strength can be pre- dicted by intersecting a shear capacity curve with a shear “demand” line. The strain effect consists of decreasing shear capacity as the strains in the longitudinal reinforcement increase and the critical shear cracks widen. (2) As demonstrated in the parametric studies, the kinematics-based approach can model adequately the effect of a/d ratio, concrete strength, stirrup ratio and steel fibre ratio on the shear strength of short FRC coupling beams. For the 20 tests, the kinematics-based approach produced shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratios with an average value of 1.08 and a coefficient of variation of only 7.0%. More tests are however needed to further evaluate the re- liability of the model. (3) The kinematics-based approach, which uses only two degrees of freedom to describe the deformation patterns of short coupling beams, predicts the shear strength with approximately the same accuracy as the complex FEM with thousands of DOFs. (4) With a parametric study involving beams with an a/d ratio of 1.67, it was shown that the required amount of stirrups to achieve the same shear strength decreases linearly with the increase of the steel fibre ratio. It was also shown that a member with 0.65% of stirrups and no fibres possesses the same shear strength as a member with

509

0.2% of stirrups and 2.5% of fibres. (5) According to the kinematics-based approach, the efficiency of steel fibres as compared to that of conventional stirrups depends mainly on the a/d ratio of the beam, the concrete compressive strength and the properties of the fibres. The fibre efficiency decreases with in- creasing a/d and increases with increasing concrete strength.

References

[1] Moehle JP, Ghodsi T, Hooper JD, Fields DC, Gedhada R. Seismic design of cast-in- place concrete special structural walls and coupling beams. NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 6, produced by the NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, a part- nership of the Applied Technology Council and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, for the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, NIST GCR 11-917-11REV-1; 2011. [2] Barney GB, Shiu KN, Rabbat BG, Fiorato AE, Russell HG, Corley WG. Behavior of coupling beams under load reversals. Research and Development Bulletin RD068. 01B. Portland Cement Association; 1980. p. 22.

[3]

coupling beams of shear walls. ACI Struct J 1996;93(6):711–20. [4] Galano L, Vignoli A. Seismic behavior of short coupling beams with different re-

inforcement layouts. ACI Struct J 2000;97(6):876–85. [5] Canbolat B, Parra-Montesinos G, Wight J. Experimental study on seismic behavior

[6] Yun H-D, Kim S-W, Jeon E, Park W-S, Lee Y-T. Effects of fiber-reinforced cement composites’ ductility on the seismic performance of short coupling beams. Mag Concr Res 2008;60(3):223–33. [7] Kuang JS, Baczkowski BJ. Steel-fiber-reinforced concrete coupling beams subjected to monotonic loading. Mag Concr Res 2009;61(1):35–41. [8] Cai G, Zhao J, Degée H, Vandoren B. Shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced con- crete coupling beams using conventional reinforcements. Eng Struct

[9] Mihaylov BI, Bentz EC, Collins MP. Two-parameter kinematic theory for shear be- havior of deep beams. ACI Struct J 2013;110(3):447–56. [10] Mihaylov BI, Hannewald P, Beyer K. Three-parameter kinematic theory for shear- dominated reinforced concrete walls. J Struct Eng 2016;142(7). [11] Mihaylov BI, Hunt B, Bentz EC, Collins MP. Three-parameter kinematic theory for shear behavior of continuous deep beams. ACI Struct J 2015;112(1):47–57. [12] Mihaylov BI, Franssen R. Three-parameter kinematic approach for shear behaviour of short coupling beams with conventional reinforcement. fib Bulletin

[13] Mihaylov BI, Liu J, Lobet R. A kinematic approach for the complete shear behavior of short FRC coupling beams. ACI Struct J Spec Publ 2018;SP-328:8.1–8.20. [14] Vecchio FJ, Collins MP. The modified compression field theory for reinforced concrete elements subjected to shear. ACI J 1986;83(2):219–31. [15] Voo JYL, Foster SJ. Variable engagement model for fibre-reinforced concrete in tension. Uniciv Report No. R-420, University of New South Wales, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; 2003. p. 86. [16] Lee S-C, Cho J-Y, Vecchio FJ. Diverse embedment model for steel fiber-reinforced concrete in tension: model development. ACI Mater J 2011;108(5):516–25. [17] Lee S-C, Cho J-Y, Vecchio FJ. Simplified diverse embedment model for steel fiber reinforced concrete elements in tension. ACI Mater J 2013;110(4):403–12. [18] Vecchio FJ. Disturbed stress field model for reinforced concrete: formulation. J Struct Eng 2000;126(9):1070–7. [19] Lee S-C, Cho J-Y, Vecchio FJ. Analysis of steel fiber-reinforced concrete elements subjected to shear. ACI Struct J 2016;113(2):275–85. [20] Mihaylov BI, Franssen I. Shear-flexure interaction in the critical sections of short coupling beams. Eng Struct 2017;152(12):370–80. [21] AASHTO, AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications, 4th ed. Washington, DC:

American Association of State Highway Officials; 2007. 1526p.

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