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2. Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation: Special Cases

2.1. Foundation Supported by a Soil with a Rigid Base at Shallow Depth

Figure 1. Failure surface under a rough, continuous foundation with a rigid, rough base located at a shallow depth

Neglecting the depth factors, the ultimate bearing capacity of rough circular nd rectangular foundations on a sand layer (c’=0) wth a rough, rigid base located at a shallow depth:

q u

F

F

=

qs

qs

0 +

qN

q

F

qs

1

+ 2

γBN

γ

F

γ s

and F

γs

are modified shape factors.

1

m

1

B   and

L

F

γ

s

1

m

2

B

L

For saturated clay (i.e., under the undrained condition, or φ’ = 0)

q u

=

c

u

N

c

+ q

Problem:

A square foundation measuring 0.75 m x 0.75 m is constructed on a layer of sand. We are given that D f = 0.6 m, γ = 17 kN/m 2 , φ’ = 35° and c’ = 0. A rock layer is located at a depth of 0.5 m below the bottom of foundation. Using the factor of safety of 4, determine the gross allowable load the foundation can carry.

Solution:

q

u

=

and

0 +

q

u

= γD

f

qN

q

F

qs

+

1 2 γBN

γ

F

γ s

= 17 x 0.6 = 10.2 kN/m 2

For φ’ = 35°, H/B = 0.5 / 0.75 = 0.67, N*q 90 and N*γ 50,

and

m 1 = 0.34

F

qs

=

1

m

1

m 2 = 0.45

F

γs

=

Hence,

0

q

=

u

1

+

m

qN

2

B

L

B

L

q

F

qs

=

1

=

1

+

0.75

0.75

0.34

0.45   0.75

0.75

1

2

γBN

γ

F

γ

s

=

=

0.66

0.55

= 0 + (10.2)(90)(0.66) + ½ (17)(0.75)(50)(0.55)

= 0 + 605.88 + 175.3125

= 781.1925 kN/m 2

and

Q

all

=

q

u B

2 (781.1925)(0.75)

2

=

FS

4

=

109.855 kN

2.2.

Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Top of a Slope

Figure 2. Shallow foundation on top of a slope

q

u

=

c N

c

q

+

1

2

BN γ

γ

q

for purely granular soil, c’ = 0 ;

q u

=

1

2

BN γ

γ

q

for purely cohesive soil, φ = 0 (undrained condition) ;

Problem:

q

u

= cN

c

q

In Figure 2. for a shallow continuous foundation in a clay, the following data is given: B = 1.2 m; D f = 1.2 m ; b = 0.8 m ; H = 6.2 m ; β = 30° ; unit weight of soil = 17.5 kN/m 3 ; φ = 0 ; and c = 50 kN/m 2 . Determine the gross allowable bearing capacity with a factor of safety FS = 4.

Solution:

Since B<H, the stability number N s is assumed 0

q

u

= cN

c

q

D f /

b / B = 0.8 / 1.2 = 0.67

B =

For β = 30° ; D f /

Hence,

B = 1.2 / 1.2 = 1

q

u

=

cN

c

q

= (50)(6.3)

1 ; b / B = 0.67 N cq = 6.3.

= 315 kN/m 2 and q all = q u / FS = 315 / 4 = 78.8 kN/m 2 .

2.3.

Bearing Capacity of Foundation on a Slope

Figure 3. Shallow continuous foundation on a slope

for purely granular soil, c’ = 0 ;

q u

=

1

2

BN γ

γ

qs

for purely cohesive soil, φ = 0 (undrained condition) ;

q

u

= cN

cqs