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# 1. Data analysis question.

The photograph below shows a magnified image of a dark central disc surrounded by
concentric dark rings. These rings were produced as a result of interference of
monochromatic light.

The graph below shows how the ring diameter D varies with the ring number n.
The innermost ring corresponds to n = 1. The corresponding diameter is labelled in the
photograph. Error bars for the diameter D are shown.

(a) State one piece of evidence that shows that D is not proportional to n.

(1)
(b) On the graph opposite, draw the line of best-fit for the data points.
(2)
(c) It is suggested that the relationship between D and n is of the form
p
D = cn
where c and p are constants.
Explain what graph you would plot in order to determine the value of p.
(3)
1 2 2
(d) Theory suggests that p = and so D = kn (where k = c ).
2
2
A graph of D against n is shown below. Error bars are shown for the first and last data
points only.

2
(i) Using the first graph, calculate the percentage uncertainty in D , of the ring
n = 7.

(2)
(ii) Based on the second graph, state one piece of evidence that supports the
2
relationship D = kn.

(1)
(iii) Use the second graph to determine the value of the constant k, as well as its
uncertainty.

(4)
(iv) State the unit for the constant k.

(1)
(Total 14 marks)

## 2. Data analysis question

At high pressures, a real gas does not behave as an ideal gas. For a certain range of pressures,
it is suggested that the relation between the pressure P and volume V of one mole of the gas
at constant temperature is given by the equation
PV = A + BP
where A and B are constants.
In an experiment to measure the deviation of nitrogen gas from ideal gas behaviour, 1 mole
of nitrogen gas was compressed at a constant temperature of 150 K. The volume V of the gas
was measured for different values of the pressure P. A graph of the product PV of pressure
and volume was plotted against the pressure P and is shown below. (Error bars showing the
uncertainties in measurements are not shown).
13

12

PV / ×102N m

11

10
0 5 .0 10 15 20
P / ×106Pa
(a) Draw a line of best fit for the data points.
(1)
(b) Use the graph to determine the values of the constants A and B in the equation
PV = A + BP.
Constant A

Constant B

(5)
(c) State the value of the constant B for an ideal gas.

(1)
7
(d) The equation PV = A + BP is valid for pressures up to 6.0 × 10 Pa.
7
(i) Determine the value of PV for nitrogen gas at a pressure of 6.0 × 10 Pa.

(2)
(ii) Calculate the difference between the value of PV for an ideal gas and nitrogen
7
gas when both are at a pressure of 6.0 × 10 Pa.

(2)
(e) In the original experiment, the pressure P was measured to an accuracy of 5% and the
volume V was measured to an accuracy of 2%. Determine the absolute error in the
value of the constant A.

(3)
(Total 14 marks)
3. This question is about data analysis.
Data for the refractive index n of a type of glass and wavelength λ of the light transmitted
through the glass are shown below.
Only the uncertainties in the values of n are significant and these uncertainties are shown by
error bars.
1 .6 0 6 5

1 .6 0 6 0

1 .6 0 5 5

1 .6 0 5 0

1 .6 0 4 5
n
1 .6 0 4 0

1 .6 0 3 5

1 .6 0 3 0

1 .6 0 2 5

1 .6 0 2 0

1 .6 0 1 5
300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
/n m
(a) State why the data do not support the hypothesis that there is a linear relationship
between refractive index and wavelength.

(1)
(b) Draw a best-fit line for the data points.
(2)
(c) The rate of change of refractive index D with wavelength is referred to as the
dispersion. At any particular value of wavelength, D is defined by
n
D =

Use the graph to determine the value of D at a wavelength of 380 nm.

(4)
(d) It is suggested that the relationship between n and  is of the form
p
n = k
where k and p are constants.
State and explain the graph that you would plot in order to determine the value of p.
(3)
(e) A second suggestion is that the relationship between n and  is of the form
B
n=A+ 2

where A and B are constants.
1
To test this suggestion, values of n are plotted against values of 2 . The resulting

graph with the line of best fit is shown below.
1 .6 0 6 5

1 .6 0 6 0

1 .6 0 5 5

1 .6 0 5 0

1 .6 0 4 5

n 1 .6 0 4 0

1 .6 0 3 5

1 .6 0 3 0

1 .6 0 2 5

1 .6 0 2 0

1 .6 0 1 5

1 .6 0 1 0
0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1 .0 1 .1 1 .2

1 -1 5 -2
2 / 1 0 m
(i) Use the graph to determine the value of the constant A.

(3)

## (ii) State the significance of the constant A.

(1)
(Total 14 marks)
1. (a) line of best fit is not straight / line of best fit does not go through origin; 1
(b) smooth curve;
that does not go outside the error bars; 2
Ignore extrapolations below n = 1.
(c) we can re-write the suggested relation as log D = log c + p log n;
now we can plot a graph of log D versus log n;
the slope of the (straight line) graph is equal to p; 3
Accept logs in any base.
(d) (i) absolute uncertainty in diameter D is ±0.08cm;
2 0.08
giving a relative uncertainty in D of 2 × = 0.13 or 13%; 2
1.26
Award  if uncertainty is calculated for a different ring number.
(ii) it is possible to draw a straight line that passes through the
origin (and lies within the error bars);
or
D2
the ratio of is constant for all data points; 1
n
range 0.21 to 0.25);
evidence for drawing or working with lines of maximum
and minimum slope;
answers in the form k = 0.23± 0.03; 4
Accept an uncertainty in k in range 0.02 to 0.04.
First marking point does not need to be explicit.
2
(iv) cm ; 1


## 2. (a) suitable straight-line of best fit; 1

(b) A is the intercept on the y-axis consistent with line drawn (or by implication);
3
= 12.6 = 1.3 × 10 Nm – the best fit line should give a 2 SD
3
value of 1.3 × 10 Nm;
some evidence that reasonable values have been used (y2 – y1 > 0.9, x2 – x1 > 8);
–5
= –1.0(0.1) × 10 ; 5
Accept answers based on using two data points on line.
Award [3 max] if points not on line. Ignore any missing units
and do not penalize if minus sign is omitted.
Award  for determination of B if only one data point is
used.
(c) B = 0; 1
(d) (i) substitute into PV = A + BP
–5 7
PV = 1300 – (1.0 × 10 × 6.0 × 10 );
= 700(640  760)Nm; 2
3
= 1.9(0.5) × 10 Nm if BP is added instead of subtracted.
Award  for ecf.
(ii) recognize that the ideal gas value is the intercept on the y-axis;
or
from PV = RT;
or
= constant A;
difference 600(540  660) Nm; 2
(e) error bars constructed on two well separated points;
attempt to draw reasonable extreme graph line / lines;
reasonable estimate of uncertainty;
Accept alternative approach.
total% error for PV = 7%;
2 2
7% of 12.6 × 10 = 0.9 × 10 ;
2
so absolute error = (0.9) × 10 N m; 3


3. (a) a straight line / linear graph cannot be drawn that lies within all the error bars; 1
(b) smooth curve;
that does not go outside error bars; 2
(c) recognize that Dλ is the gradient of the graph;
suitable triangle ∆λ ≥ 100 nm;
–5 –1 4 –1
to give magnitude 1.15 – 1.40 × 10 nm / 10 m ;
negative sign; 4
(d) lgn against lg;
lgn = lg k + plgλ;