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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

A road widening project is usually commissioned when the existing road width
is not adequate for the traffic, or when extra lanes are needed. Road widening can
improve traffic safety and capacity. There are many critical issues in road widening
projects and if widening is made poorly, several problems can occur. Many of these
problems are common to all ROADEX countries. Typical of these are construction joint
cracking between the old and new part of the road, non-uniform settlements between the
old and new part of the embankment and stability problems. In colder climate countries
frost action causes additional significant problems. Harmful effects however can be
avoided by good survey and design. Damages can be avoided or repaired by using
techniques such as geo-reinforcement, steel nets, stabilization and soil replacement, and
by improving drainage. These methods usually increase construction costs, but they can
decrease life cycle costs. Choosing the correct widening, or repair method, and structure
is therefore very important in order to avoid additional long term costs. There are a
number of differences between nationally agreed guidelines on road widening across the
ROADEX countries. Some of the countries have their own guidelines and some have
hardly any at all. Widening instructions for existing roads are partly similar but there are
also some differences as designing and construction can be carried out in many ways.
The 2010 ROADEX report “Road Widening: literature review and questionnaire
responses” introduced existing national guidelines in the ROADEX countries and
compared the differences and the similarities between them. Road widening tests and
research reports were also reviewed within the report. One purpose of the report was to
study road widening practice in the ROADEX countries. A road widening related
questionnaire was formulated and sent to experts in the ROADEX countries in order to
collect their experience and knowledge of road widening. Responses to the questionnaire
were examined and discussed in the report. This report provides the ROADEX guidelines
for the road widening for low volume roads. It combines many good practices from
different partner countries into one package. The main purpose of this report is to act as a
practical ‘pocket book’, to be used alongside the national guidelines, on what to keep in
mind in road widening projects and repairing widened roads with problems.
One of the most vital elements that can serve as the key to achieving
competitiveness is the provision of infrastructure. In general, infrastructure serves as the
backbone of a functioning society by providing a well-suited environment for upgrading
the economic status of a country. Research conducted by Aschauer (1989) and Munnell
(1990) report a positive correlation between public infrastructure and productivity
aggregated to the national level [as cited by Eberts, 1990]. Infrastructure affects
economic growth through its impact on profitability, levels of output, income and
employment through lessening production costs [NEDA, 2000]. The study will focus on
hard infrastructure specifically roads. Roads are catalysts in promoting economic activity.
It helps an economy adapt to the rapid pace of globalization. Roads promote the mobility
of goods and services. Transport costs are considered as a crucial determinant of the
location, scale of economic activity, and the pattern of trade. The presence of good
quality roads help in decreasing transport costs and attaining better market access. There
are lesser incidences of spoilage or breakage of goods transported. There will also be
lesser repairs to the vehicle used in transporting goods. Travel time will be shorter
causing more efficiency. If the transportation cost is reasonable, it will also be easier for
the government and for the firms to achieve their target in food production, farm crops,
and manufactured goods [Llanto, 2003]. In addition, roads also help foster trade, foreign
aid, market networks, and livelihood for the people. This study is anchored towards
verifying whether there is unequal distribution of infrastructure in the Philippines. It will
focus on examining the possible determinants of road allocation in the geographic,
political, and economic aspect. The geographic determinants that will be tested are
population density and number of vehicles. The political determinant is the official
budget for road construction. Finally the number of private establishments, number of
employed individuals, and GDP per capita will be part of the economic determinants.
These determinants will be tested on a per region basis to help answer the question
whether the distribution of road infrastructure is really unequal or not through analysis of
the regression results which are to be presented later in this paper. The dependent
variables are road quality kilometers constructed like that of concrete, asphalt, gravel, and
earth plus the official budget to measure road allocation in monetary terms. This will help
provide information on whether the abovementioned determinants also affect the budget
allocation for road construction. The results attained can help offer suggestions to help
alleviate the plight of regions with limited road infrastructure.
Roadway widening can increase the capacity of a traffic corridor by adding
lanes for vehicles. Joseph McCormick can complete these widening projects turn-key.
From Excavation, stone base, underdrains, paving and line painting, we have decades of
experience managing roadway widening projects.
About Joseph McCormick we are a family owned heavy highway construction company
specializing in asphalt paving, excavation, site development, demolition and
sanitary/storm sewer installation work for various state, county and city municipalities.
We also perform this specialized work for numerous commercial developments and local
companies throughout Erie County.
For nearly a century, road widening has been touted as a powerful stimulus for
the local economy.However, by striking contrast, I have learned the opposite.One of the
most important lessons I have learned in my many years as a city planner is that quality
of life is a powerful economic engine, and that the “habitat” intended to make cars happy
is, conversely, one of the most powerful ways that quality of life in a community is
damaged.Road widening, as my book Road to Ruin illustrates, is the best invention
humans have come up with (short of aerial carpet bombing) to destroy community quality
of life. Widening a road inevitably creates a “For Cars Only” ambience. It creates a “car
habitat” that screams “CARS ARE WELCOME. PEOPLE ARE NOT.”
It doesn’t take a genius to figure out the reasons behind traffic
congestion. First, a sincere round of applause for all commuters who despite lack of
traffic signals at most intersections manage to peacefully negotiate and reach their
destinations.People do follow directions as is evident when there is a police officer on the
road (trying to do his/her best). This shows that we are very accommodating by nature
but we are also deeply frustrated from long delays and a system that does not reward
good drivers.
Nearly every time a new road is built, traffic volume increases beyond the
predictions of the traffic studies. And nearly every time, transportation planners are
surprised.The explanation is a wonky little phenomenon called “induced demand.”
Essentially, if you widen roads to reduce congestion, people who were avoiding the road
because of congestion will find it more convenient and take more trips, thus increasing
traffic again.So what do you have then? A big expensive project to eliminate traffic, and
more traffic.Induced demand has been widely studied; it was acknowledged by the
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in 1957. Today it is
widely accepted by transportation practitioners. The Clean Air Act even requires big
cities to account for this effect in traffic modeling.But many large metropolitan planning
agencies refuse to comply, according to Todd Litman of the Victoria Transport Policy
Institute [PDF], and smaller cities are under no obligation to do so. Futhermore, though
they may account for certain types of induced demand — extra trips — they don’t
account for some of the long-term impacts of highway investments, namely sprawl.
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de60/2c671cfdd033359259526ec40fa4ec99f44b.pdf
https://www.roadex.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/ROADEX-Road-Widening-
Guidelines-2012.pdf
https://www.jmccormickconstruction.com/portfolio/road-widening/
https://domz60.wordpress.com/2013/08/13/the-impact-of-road-widening-on-the-local-
economy/
http://bengaluru.citizenmatters.in/2224-audacity-of-hope-to-solve-road-problems-2224
https://usa.streetsblog.org/2012/07/06/report-traffic-studies-systematically-overstate-the-
benefits-of-road-projects/
PORTFOLIO
IN
PRACTICAL
RSEARCH 1
NAME: SHERLYN S. DELA CRUZ

SECTION: 11-ABM 02

TEACHER: MRS. LOIDA PARULAN