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WELDING

METALLURGY

SECOND EDITION

Sindo Kou

Professor and Chair Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Wisconsin

Chair Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Wisconsin A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.,

A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

WELDING

METALLURGY

SECOND EDITION

WELDING

METALLURGY

SECOND EDITION

Sindo Kou

Professor and Chair Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Wisconsin

Chair Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Wisconsin A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.,

A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

Copyright © 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kou, Sindo. Welding metallurgy / Sindo Kou.–2nd ed. p. cm. “A Wiley-Interscience publication.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-471-43491-4 1. Welding. 2. Metallurgy. 3. Alloys. I. Title. TS227 .K649 2002

671.5¢2–dc21

2002014327

Printed in the United States of America.

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To Warren F. Savage for his outstanding contributions to welding metallurgy

CONTENTS

 

Preface

xiii

I

INTRODUCTION

 

1

1 Fusion Welding Processes

 

3

1.1 Overview 3

 

1.2 Oxyacetylene Welding

7

1.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding

11

1.4 Gas–Tungsten Arc Welding

13

1.5 Plasma Arc Welding

16

1.6 Gas–Metal Arc Welding

19

 

1.7 Flux-Core Arc Welding

22

1.8 Submerged Arc Welding

22

1.9 Electroslag Welding

24

1.10 Electron Beam Welding

27

 

1.11 Laser Beam Welding

29

References

33

Further Reading

34

Problems

34

2 Heat Flow in Welding

 

37

2.1 Heat Source 37

 

2.2 Analysis of Heat Flow in Welding 47

 

2.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 53

2.4 Weld Thermal Simulator 58

 

References

60

Further Reading

62

Problems

62

3 Chemical Reactions in Welding

 

65

3.1 Overview

65

3.2 Gas–Metal Reactions

68

3.3 Slag–Metal Reactions

82

References

92

viii

CONTENTS

Further Reading

95

 

Problems

95

4 Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding

97

 

4.1 Fluid Flow in Arcs

97

4.2 Fluid Flow in Weld Pools

103

4.3 Metal Evaporation

114

4.4 Active Flux GTAW

116

References

117

Further Reading

119

Problems

120

5 Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue

122

 

5.1 Residual Stresses

122

5.2 Distortion

126

5.3 Fatigue

131

5.4 Case Studies

137

 

References

140

Further Reading

141

Problems

141

II

THE FUSION ZONE

 

143

6 Basic Solidification Concepts

 

145

6.1 Solute Redistribution during Solidification

6.2 Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling

6.3 Microsegregation and Banding

6.4 Effect of Cooling Rate

6.5 Solidification Path

145

160

163

166

167

Further Reading

Problems

References

169

168

7 Weld Metal Solidification I: Grain Structure

7.1 Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary

170

155

170

7.2 Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary

172

7.3 Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone

174

7.4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure

7.5 Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms

178

174

CONTENTS

ix

195

Further Reading

References

197

 

Problems

197

8

Weld Metal Solidification II: Microstructure within Grains

199

8.1 Solidification Modes

199

 

8.2 Dendrite and Cell Spacing

204

8.3 Effect of Welding Parameters

206

8.4 Refining Microstructure within Grains

209

References

213

Further Reading

213

Problems

214

9

Post-Solidification Phase Transformations

 

216

9.1 Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds 216

9.2 Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon, Low-Alloy Steel Welds 232

 

References

239

Further Reading

241

Problems

241

10

Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities

 

243

10.1 Microsegregation 243

 

10.2 Banding 249

 

10.3 Inclusions and Gas Porosity

250

10.4 Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary

252

10.5 Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal

255

References

260

Further Reading

261

Problems

261

11

Weld Metal Solidification Cracking

 

263

11.1 Characteristics, Cause, and Testing 263

11.2 Metallurgical Factors 268

11.3 Mechanical Factors 284

11.4 Reducing Solidification Cracking 285

11.5 Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan 295

296

Further Reading

References

299

Problems

299

x

CONTENTS

III THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE

 

301

12 Formation of the Partially Melted Zone

 

303

12.1 Evidence of Liquation

303

12.2 Liquation Mechanisms

304

12.3 Directional Solidification of Liquated Material

314

12.4 Grain Boundary Segregation

314

12.5 Grain Boundary Solidification Modes

316

12.6 Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons

318

References

318

Problems

319

13 Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone

 

321

13.1 Liquation Cracking

321

 

13.2 Loss of Strength and Ductility

328

 

13.3 Hydrogen Cracking

328

 

13.4 Remedies 330

 

References

336

Problems

338

IV THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE

 

341

14 Work-Hardened Materials

343

14.1 Background 343

 

14.2 Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding

347

14.3 Effect of Welding Parameters and Process

349

References

351

Further Reading

352

Problems

352

15 Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys

 

353

15.1 Background 353

 

15.2 Al–Cu–Mg and Al–Mg–Si Alloys

359

 

15.3 Al–Zn–Mg Alloys

367

 

15.4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

370

References

371

Further Reading

372

Problems

372

16 Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys

375

16.1 Background

375

CONTENTS

xi

16.2 Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength

16.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking

390

Further Reading

References

384

392

379

Problems

392

17 Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon and Alloy Steels

393

17.1 Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams 393

17.2 Carbon Steels

396

 

17.3 Low-Alloy Steels 404

17.4 Hydrogen Cracking 410

 

17.5 Reheat Cracking

418

17.6 Lamellar Tearing

422

17.7 Case Studies

425

References

427

Further Reading

429

Problems

430

18 Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels

431

18.1 Classification of Stainless Steels

431

18.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels

433

18.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels

446

18.4 Martensitic Stainless Steels

449

 

18.5 Case Study: Failure of a Pipe

451

References

452

Further Reading

453

Problems

454

Index

455

PREFACE

Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 1987, there has been much new progress made in welding metallurgy. The purpose for the second edition is to update and improve the first edition. Examples of improvements include (1) much sharper photomicrographs and line drawings; (2) integration of the phase diagram, thermal cycles, and kinetics with the microstructure to explain microstructural development and defect formation in welds; and (3) additional exercise problems. Specific revisions are as follows. In Chapter 1 the illustrations for all welding processes have been re- drawn to show both the overall process and the welding area. In Chapter 2 the heat source efficiency has been updated and the melting efficiency added. Chapter 3 has been revised extensively, with the dissolution of atomic nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen in the molten metal considered and electrochemical reactions added. Chapter 4 has also been revised extensively, with the arc added, and with flow visualization, arc plasma dragging, and turbulence included in weld pool convection. Shot peening is added to Chapter 5. Chapter 6 has been revised extensively, with solute redistribution and microsegregation expanded and the solidification path added. Chapter 7 now includes nonepitaxial growth at the fusion boundary and formation of non- dendritic equiaxed grains. In Chapter 8 solidification modes are explained with more illustrations. Chapter 9 has been expanded significantly to add ferrite formation mechanisms, new ferrite prediction methods, the effect of cooling rate, and factors affecting the austenite–ferrite transformation. Chapter 10 now includes the effect of both solid-state diffusion and dendrite tip under- cooling on microsegregation. Chapter 11 has been revised extensively to include the effect of eutectic reactions, liquid distribution, and ductility of the solidifying metal on solidification cracking and the calculation of fraction of liquid in multicomponent alloys. Chapter 12 has been rewritten completely to include six different liquation mechanisms in the partially melted zone (PMZ), the direction and modes of grain boundary (GB) solidification, and the resultant GB segregation. Chapter 13 has been revised extensively to include the mechanism of PMZ cracking and the effect of the weld-metal composition on cracking. Chapter 15 now includes the heat-affected zone (HAZ) in aluminum– lithium–copper welds and friction stir welds and Chapter 16 the HAZ of Inconel 718. Chapter 17 now includes the effect of multiple-pass welding on