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Pangasinan State University

Bayambang Campus
College of Teacher Education
Bayambang, Pangasinan

Reporter No. 22
Malicdem, Remhil M.
Course: Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Science II-1
Subject: BYSCIENCE 120 Anatomy and Physiology
Topic: Blood Vessels (Anatomy of Vascular System) and
Key Medical Terms Associated with the circulatory System.

Learning Objectives:
By the end of the lesson the students will be able to:
1. Define Vascular System and Blood Vessels in our body.
2. Discuss the diff. types and definition of Blood Vessels and Vascular System.
3. Identify medical terms associated with the circulatory system.

DISCUSSION:

The vascular system is made up of the vessels that carry or pathway of the blood. Blood
vessels may be tiny but they cover a lot of ground. The smallest blood vessels measure only 5
micro meters. To give you some perspective, a strand of human hair measures about 17 micro
meters. The human organism consists zillion of blood vessels that perform together to maintain
the health and state of being comfortable of the entire body.

I. What is Vascular System?

Being a human organism our body requires oxygen


and nutrients that needs to eliminate waste products to
maintain metabolic stability. Vascular System is your body’s
network of blood vessels and also called the Circulatory
System, is made vessels that carry blood and lymph through
the body. It includes your Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
that carry blood throughout the body, delivering oxygen and
nutrients to the body tissues and taking away tissue waste
matter. The lymph vessels carry lymphatic fluid (a clear,
colorless fluid containing water and blood cells).
The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood
vessels is derived from the Latin vas, meaning vessel.
Some structures such as cartilage, the epithelium, and
the lens and cornea of the eye do not contain blood vessels
and are labelled avascular.

A. Functions of the Vascular System

1. Pathway of a blood
2. Transport oxygenated blood in arteries and deoxynated blood in vein.
3. Transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes).
4. To protect the body from infection and blood loss.

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II. Blood Vessels:
Is a closed network of tubes? Blood is carried in a closed system of vessels that
begins and ends at the heart.
Blood vessels are divided into three “Circulatory Subsystems” the Coronary
Circulation, Systemic System and Pulmonary System.

1. Systemic System: transports blood to all body tissues except the lungs. It carries
oxygen and nutrients to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and waste products.
Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, through
the arteries, to the capillaries in the tissues of the body. From the tissue capillaries,
the deoxygenated blood returns through a system of veins to the right atrium of
the heart.
2. Pulmonary System: transports blood to the lungs and back to the heart.
Pulmonary circulation transports oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the
lungs, where blood picks up a new blood supply.
3. Coronary Circulation: the circulation of blood within the heart.

III. The Five types of Blood Vessels:

A. Arteries- transport high-pressure blood from the heart to smaller arteries and arterioles.
They are the thickest blood vessels and they carry blood high in oxygen known as
oxygenated blood (oxygen rich blood).

Major Arteries in our body:


Below are some of the major arteries that are found in the body and the organs and tissues
that they service.
1. Aorta -The largest and most important
artery in the circulatory system is the aorta.
It’s so important because it serves as the
initial pathway for blood that’s leaving
the heart and going to the rest of the body
via smaller, branching arteries.
Components of the Aorta.
 Ascending aorta. The ascending
aorta distributes oxygen and
nutrients to the heart via the
coronary arteries.
 Aortic arch. This has three major
branches — the brachiocephalic
trunk, the left common carotid
artery, and the left subclavian
artery. It sends blood to the upper
body, including the head, neck, and
arms.
 Descending aorta. The
descending aorta sends blood to
your torso, abdomen, and lower
body. It’s referred to as the thoracic
aorta above the diaphragm.

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2. Head and neck arteries- There are
several head and neck arteries:
 Left and right common carotid-
The left common carotid comes
directly off the aortic arch, while the
right common carotid comes from the
brachiocephalic trunk.
 External carotid-These paired
arteries are derived from the
common carotid arteries.
The external carotid supplies blood
to areas like the face, lower jaw, and
neck.
 Internal carotid- Like the external
carotid, these paired arteries are also
derived from the common carotid
arteries. They’re the primary arteries
supplying blood to the brain.
 Vertebral-Formed off of
the subclavian arteries, these paired
arteries travel up the neck, where
they also supply blood to the brain.

3. Thoracic Region - The torso arteries include:


 Bronchial: There are typically
two bronchial arteries, one on
the left and one on the right.
They supply blood to the lungs.
 Esophageal: The esophageal
artery provides blood to
the esophagus.
 Pericardial: This artery
supplies blood to
the pericardium, which is a
membrane that surrounds the
heart.
 Intercostal: The intercostal
arteries are a pair of arteries on
either side of the body that
send blood to various areas of
the torso, including the
vertebrae, spinal cord, back
muscles, and skin.
 Superior phrenic: Like the
intercostal arteries, the superior
phrenic arteries are paired and
deliver blood to the vertebrae,
spinal cord, skin, and
diaphragm.

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4. Abdomen arteries- The abdominal arteries include:
 Celiac trunk. Branching off from the abdominal aorta, the celiac trunk
divides into smaller arteries that supply blood to the organs such as
the stomach, liver, and spleen.
 Superior mesenteric. Also branching off of the abdominal aorta, it sends
blood to the small intestine, pancreas, and most of the large intestine.
 Inferior mesenteric. Like the superior mesenteric artery, this artery also
branches off of the abdominal aorta and supplies blood to the last portion of
the large intestine, which includes the rectum.
 Renal. These paired arteries deliver blood to the kidneys.
 Lumbar. These paired arteries send blood to the vertebrae and spinal cord.
 Gonadal. The gonadal arteries are paired arteries that send blood to
the testes in males and the ovaries in females.
 Internal iliac. Derived from the common iliac artery, this artery supplies
blood to the bladder, pelvis, and external portion of the genitals. It also
supplies the uterus and vagina in females.
 External iliac. Also arising from the common iliac artery, this artery

eventually becomes the femoral artery.

5. Upper Limbs- The arteries of the


arm are the:
 Axillary. This is the name given
to the subclavian artery as it
exits the torso and enters
the arm.
 Brachial. This delivers blood to
the upper region of the arm.
 Radial and ulnar. These run
alongside the two bones of the
forearm where they eventually

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divide to deliver blood to the wrist and
hand.
6. Lower Limbs- Leg arteries include
 Femoral. Derived from the external iliac
artery, this artery supplies blood to the
thigh and divides into the various smaller
arteries that supply the legs.
 Popliteal. This is the name given to the
femoral artery as it passes below the
knee.
 Anterior and posterior tibial. Derived
from the popliteal artery, these arteries
supply blood to the lower portion of the
leg. When they reach the ankle, they
divide further to supply the ankle and foot
region.

B. Arterioles- connect arteries and capillaries. Arterioles can constrict to direct and control
blood flow.

C. Veins- act as reservoir of blood and transport low- pressure blood from venules. They carry
blood that is high in carbon dioxide known as deoxygenated blood (oxygen poor blood).
Veins have thinner walls than arteries.

Major Veins in our body:


Below are some of the major veins that are found in the body and the organs and tissues
that they service.
1. Veins of the Thoracic Region:
 Superior vena cava- Large
systemic vein; drains blood
from most areas superior to
the diaphragm; empties into
the right atrium.
 Vertebral vein- Arises from
the base of the brain and the
cervical region of the spinal
cord
 Internal thoracic veins- Also
called internal mammary
veins.
 Esophageal vein- Drains the
inferior portions of the
esophagus and leads to the
azygos vein.

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 Hemiazygos vein- Smaller vein complementary to the azygos vein
2. Abdominal Region:
 Inferior vena cava- Large systemic vein that drains blood from areas
largely inferior to the diaphragm; empties into the right atrium.
 Adrenal vein- Drains the adrenal or suprarenal; the right adrenal vein
enters the inferior vena cava directly and the left adrenal vein enters the left
renal vein.
 Renal vein- Largest vein entering the inferior vena cava; drains the kidneys
and flows into the inferior vena cava
 Testicular vein- Drains the testes and forms part of the spermatic cord; the
right testicular vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava and the left
testicular vein empties into the left renal vein
 Hepatic vein- Drains systemic blood from the liver and flows into the inferior
vena cava
3. Head and Neck:
 Internal jugular vein- Parallel
to the common carotid artery.
 Temporal vein- Drains blood
from the temporal region and
flows into the external jugular
vein.
 Maxillary vein- Drains blood
from the maxillary region and
flows into the external jugular
vein.
 External jugular vein- Drains
blood from the more
superficial portions of the
head, scalp, and cranial
regions, and leads to the
subclavian vein.
4. Veins of the Upper Limbs:
 Digital veins- Drain the
digits and lead to the palmar
arches of the hand and
dorsal venous arch of the
foot.
 Radial vein- Vein that
parallels the radius and
radial artery.
 Cephalic vein- Superficial
vessel in the upper arm;
leads to the axillary vein

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 Axillary vein- The major vein in the axillary region; drains the upper limb
and becomes the subclavian vein.
5. Lower Limbs:
 Fibular vein- Drains the muscles and
integument near the fibula and flows
into the popliteal vein.
 Popliteal vein- Drains the region
behind the knee and forms from the
fusion of the fibular.
 Femoral vein- Drains the upper leg;
receives blood from the great
saphenous vein.

D. Venules- connect capillaries and veins.

E. Capillaries- The smallest blood vessels are capillaries and they connect the arteries and
veins. Allow gas exchange, nutrient transfer and waste removal between blood and tissue
fluid.

IV. Structure of Blood Vessels:

Table 1. Comparison of Tunics in Arteries and Veins


Arteries Veins
Thick walls with small lumens; Thin wall with large lumens;
Physical Appearance
appear rounded appear flattened
Endothelium usually appears
A. Tunica Interna (Tunica
wavy due to constriction of Endothelium appears
Intima): is the
smooth muscle; Internal smooth; Internal elastic
innermost layer of
elastic membrane present in membrane absent
artery or vein.
larger vessels.

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Normally the thickest layer in
Normally thinner than the
arteries; Smooth muscle cells
B. Tunica Media: is the tunica externa; Smooth muscle
and elastic fibers
middle layer of artery cells and collagenous fibers
predominate; External elastic
or vein. predominate; External elastic
membrane present in larger
membrane absent.
vessels.
C. Tunica Externa Normally thinner than the Normally the thickest layer in
(Tunica Adventitia): is tunica media in; Collagenous veins; Collagenous and smooth
the outer layer of artery and elastic fibers that protects fibers predominate; Some
or vein. and reinforces vessels. smooth muscle fibers

V. Regulation of blood pressure:

Blood Pressure: Blood moves through our circulation system because it is under
pressure, caused by the contraction of the heart and by the muscles that surround our
blood vessels. The measure of this force is blood pressure. Using
“sphygmomanometer and stethoscope” we can measures our blood pressure. Tips to
measure blood pressure: Sphygmomanometer
1. Ensure the patient is relaxed and has not
taken any exercise for at least 10 min’s.
2. A cuff is inflated around a person’s arm.
3. The pressure in the cuff is slowly released.
4. Normal systolic pressure is about 120 mm
Hg for males; 110mm Hg for females.
5. The pressure continues to be released and
now listening for the “disappearance” of
sound.
6. Normal diastolic pressure is about 80 mm
Hg for males and 70 mm Hg for females.
The diastolic pressure, when the pressure of
the blood is sufficient to keep the arteries
opens even when the ventricles relax.

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7. Blood pressure readings are given as two numbers – the systolic (higher)
figure over the diastolic (lower) figure e.g. 120/80mm Hg.
8. Systolic pressure: pressure when the heart contracts.
9. Diastolic pressure: pressure between heart beats.

VI. Key Medical Terms Associated with the Circulatory System:


A Vascular disease is a condition that affects the arteries and veins. Most often,
Vascular Disease affects blood flows, either by blocking or weakening blood vessels, or
by damaging the valves that are found in veins. Organs and other body structures may
be damaged by vascular disease as a result of decreased or completely blocked blood
flow.
a. Coronary Artery Disease: Heart Attack, Atherosclerosis and angina (Chest
Pain)
b. Cerebrovascular Disease: Stroke, Transient ischemic attack (a sudden or
temporary loss of blood flow to an area of the brain, usually lasting less than 5
minutes but no longer than 24 hours, with complete recovery).
c. Peripheral Venous Disease: Deep vein thrombosis (also called DVT; a
blood clot in deep vein located within the muscles of the leeg), varicose
veins.
d. Embolism: This is a blockage in an artery that forms when a blood clot or
air bubble or fat particle moves through the circulatory system. The actual
clot or particle or bubble is called an ‘embolus’.
e. High cholesterol: High cholesterol is usually caused by a sedentary lifestyle
and an unhealthful diet. Some people can also be genetically at risk of high
cholesterol. People need cholesterol, but too much cholesterol can form a
thick layer on the inside of the vessels, blocking blood flow.
f. High blood pressure (hypertension): High blood pressure or hypertension
means the force or pressure of the blood flowing through the vessels is
consistently too high. High blood pressure can lead to stroke, loss of vision,
heart failure, heart attack, kidney disease, and reduced sexual function.

VII. References:

Jarvis S. and Saman S. (2018) Cardiac System 1: Anatomy and Physiology.


Nursing Times; pg. 34-37.

Marieb EN, Hoehn KN (2015) Human Anatomy and Physiology (10th edn) London
Pearson.