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PASCHAL’S TRIANGLE

Diagonals
Fibonacci sequence
The 1st diagonal is Ones
(The Fibonacci Sequence starts "0, 1" and then
The 2ndt diagonal has the Counting Numbers
continues by adding the two previous numbers.
The 3rd diagonal has the triangular numbers
The 4rth diagonal has the tetrahedral numbers Odds and Evens
If you color the Odd and Even numbers, you end
Symmetrical up with a pattern the same as the Sierpinski
The triangle is also symmetrical . The numbers on Triangle
the left side have identical matching numbers on
the right side, like a mirror image. Combinations
Horizontal Sums The triangle also shows you how
They double each time ( powers of 2). many Combinations of objects are possible.

Exponents of 11 Example: You have 16 pool balls. How many

 110=1 (the first line is just a "1") different ways could you choose just 3 of them
Answer: go down to the start of row 16 (the top row
 111=11 (the second line is "1" and "1") is 0), and then along 3 places (the first place is 0)
and the value there is your answer, 560.
 112=121 (the third line is "1", "2", "1") Here is an extract at row 16:
But what happens with 115? Simple! The digits just 1 14 91 364 ...
overlap, like this: 1 15 105 455 1365 ...
1 16 120 560 1820 4368 ...

A Formula for Any Entry in the Triangle


In fact there is a formula from Combinations for
working out the value at any place in Pascal's
Squares triangle:
For the second diagonal, the square of a number is It is commonly called "n
equal to the sum of the numbers next to it and choose k" and written like
below both of those. this:
Notation: "n choose k" can also be
written C(n,k), nCk or even nCk.
The First 15 Lines
The "!" is " factorial " and
For reference, I have included row 0 to 14 of
means to multiply a series of Pascal's Triangle
descending natural numbers.
Examples:

 4! = 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24

 7! = 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 =

5040

 1! = 1

So Pascal's Triangle could also be


an "n choose k" triangle like this one.
(Note how the top row is row zero
and also the leftmost column is zero)

Example: Row 4, term 2 in Pascal's Triangle is "6" ...


... let's see if the formula works:

Yes, it works! Try another value for yourself.


This can be very useful ... you can now work out any
value in Pascal's Triangle directly (without
calculating the whole triangle above it).

Polynomials
Pascal's Triangle can also show you the coefficients
in binomial expansion :

Pascal's
Power Binomial Expansion
Triangle

2 (x + 1)2 = 1x2 + 2x + 1 1, 2, 1

3 (x + 1)3 = 1x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1 1, 3, 3, 1

(x + 1)4 = 1x4 + 4x3 + 6x2 + 4x


4 1, 4, 6, 4, 1
+1

... etc ...