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CN and Name: 3-De Silva Date Submitted: March 8, 2019

Year and Section: 12A Lab Report #: 3

DNA Extraction of Human Cheek Epithelial Cells and Creation of DNA in a


Bottle necklace
Background researchers for 30 minutes and to be spit back to
DNA extraction is the process of the test tube. Afterwards, 2 mL of lysis buffer
isolating DNA from a sample. DNA Extraction was obtained and was placed in the test tube.
was first accomplished by Friedrich Miescher in
1869. Through extracting DNA from
lymphocytes, he was able to discover Nuclein
(now called Nucleic acids). Today, DNA
extraction has many applications like in routine
diagnostic and theraputic decision-making. This
is also used in discovering causes of diseases
that involves genetics and also in developing
new drugs (What is Biotechnology, 2019)

The cells where the DNA will be


extracted from would be the Human Cheek
Epithelial Cells. These cells are found on the
basal mucosa, a tissue that fixes the inside of the Figure I: Test tube with the Lysis Buffer and the
mouth. These cells are known to secrete Mucin, Cheek Cells Sample
an important part of mucous. These cells will be
used because they were easy to extract as they The tube was to be inverted five times slowly.
are always being removed from the body ( Afterwards, 5 mL of protease was placed inside
Molecular Expressions, 2015) the test tube. The test tube was to be inverted
few times. The test tube was then placed in the
Objective/s water bath with a temperature of 50 degrees
The investigation aims to extract DNA celsius for 10 minutes.
from Human Cheek Epithelial Cells. There were
no independent variables nor dependent
variables because there was only one
experimental group. What was kept controlled
throughout the duration of the experiment would
be the protocol used and the materials used in
the experiment.

Procedure
The procedures followed the protocol
given by Bio-Rad. The experiment started with
the extraction and precipitation of DNA. A 15
mL test tube was filled with 3 mL of drinkable
water. The researchers were then required to
mildly chew their cheeks. The water from the 15
Figure II: Test tube with the Cheek Cells and the
mL test tube was to be gargled by the Water Bath to be used
It could be seen in Figure IV that the DNA
was successfully extracted into the small bottle
provided by the DNA extraction kit.

Analysis and Conclusion


The experiment involved addition of
many different components to the sample.The
function of lysis buffer breaks open the cell
membrane of the cells as said by Brennan
(2018). The addition of protease was a way to
remove the remaining proteins, enzymes and
nucleases in the sample (The Protein Man,
2013). The last process was called Ethanol
precipitation. The function of it was to make the
Figure III: Sample Being Placed in a Water Bath for
DNA less hydrophilic and to make the DNA
10 Minutes
more visible (Oswald, 2018).
Afterwards, 10 mL of 95% ethanol was placed
in the test tube. The DNA was to be left It could be concluded that this DNA
undisturbed for five minutes. The test tube was extraction was successful. The DNA is visible in
then inverted five times. Lastly, the DNA was the bottle. However, the DNA was only in small
extracted using a pipette. amount. This is most likely caused by excessive
decantation.
Students afterwards were given
materials to make their own DNA in a bottle. Bibliography
Students were given the option to bring Brennan, J. (2018, May 21). Components of
decorations in order to make the necklace look Lysis Buffers. Retrieved March 7, 2019,
more aesthetically pleasing. from
Data/Observations https://sciencing.com/components-lysis-
buffers-8148370.html
Molecular Expressions. (2015, November 13).
Human Cheek Epithelial Cells.
Retrieved March 2, 2019, from
https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/tech
niques/dic/dicgallery/cheekcellssmall.ht
ml
Oswald, N. (2018, June 27). Ethanol
Precipitation of DNA and RNA: How it
works. Retrieved March 7, 2019, from
https://bitesizebio.com/253/the-basics-h
ow-ethanol-precipitation-of-dna-and-rna
-works/
The Protein Man. (2013, April 17). A
Discussion of Protein Research.
Retrieved March 7, 2019, from
https://info.gbiosciences.com/blog/bid/1
77310/Understanding-the-Role-of-Prote
Figure IV: End Result of the Laboratory Experiment. ases-in-DNA-Extraction
What is Biotechnology. (2019). DNA extraction
isolates DNA from biological material.
Retrieved March 2, 2019, from
http://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/ind
ex.php/science/summary/extraction/dna-
extraction-isolates-dna-from-biological-
material