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ib qt – t yc

The following information relates to questions 1 and 2 below. b) An electrical heater for swimming pools has the following

information written on its side:


A substance is heated at a constant rate of energy transfer.

A graph of its temperature against time is shown below. 50 Hz 2.3 kW


erutarepmet

(i) Estimate how many days it would take this

P
heater to heat the water in the swimming pool. [4]

N O (ii) Suggest two reasons why this can only be an

approximation. [2]

6. a) A cylinder tted with a piston contains 0.23 mol of

L M

helium gas.

piston

time

helium gas

1. Which regions of the graph correspond to the substance

existing in a mixture of two phases?

The following data are available for the helium with the

A. KL, MN and OP
piston in the position shown.

B. LM and NO 3 3

Volume = 5.2 × 10 m

C. All regions 5

Pressure = 1.0 × 10 Pa

D. No regions
Temperature = 290 K

2. In which region of the graph is the specic heat capacity of


(i) Use the data to calculate a value for the universal

the substance greatest?


gas constant. (2)

A. KL
(ii) State the assumption made in the calculation

B. LM in (a)(i). (1)

C. MN 7. This question is about determining the specic latent heat of

fusion of ice.
D. OP

A student determines the specic latent heat of fusion of


3. When the volume of a gas is isothermally compressed to

ice at home. She takes some ice from the freezer, measures
a smaller volume, the pressure exerted by the gas on the

its mass and mixes it with a known mass of water in an


container walls increases. The best microscopic explanation

insulating jug. She stirs until all the ice has melted and
for this pressure increase is that at the smaller volume

measures the nal temperature of the mixture. She also

A. the individual gas molecules are compressed

measured the temperature in the freezer and the initial

B. the gas molecules repel each other more strongly


temperature of the water.

C. the average velocity of gas molecules hitting the wall is greater


She records her measurements as follows:

D. the frequency of collisions with gas molecules with the

Mass of ice used m 0.12 kg


walls is greater
i

Initial temperature of ice T 12 °C


4. A lead bullet is red into an iron plate, where it deforms and
i

stops. As a result, the temperature of the lead increases by an


Initial mass of water m 0.40 kg
w

amount ∆T. For an identical bullet hitting the plate with twice

Initial temperature of water T 22 °C


w

the speed, what is the best estimate of the temperature increase?

Final temperature of mixture T 15 °C

A. ∆T f

B. 2 ∆T

The specic heat capacities of water and ice are

C. 2 ∆T
1 1 1 1

c = 4.2 kJ kg °C and c = 2.1 kJ kg °C


w i

D. 4 ∆T

a) Set up the appropriate equation, representing energy

5. In winter, in some countries, the water in a swimming pool


transfers during the process of coming to thermal

needs to be heated.
equilibrium, that will enable her to solve for the

a) Estimate the cost of heating the water in a typical swimming specic latent heat L of ice. Insert values into the
i

pool from 5 °C to a suitable temperature for swimming. You equation from the data above, but do not solve

may choose to consider any reasonable size of pool. the equation. [5]

Clearly show any estimated values. The following b) Explain the physical meaning of each energy transfer

information will be useful: term in your equation (but not each symbol). [4]

1 1

Specic heat capacity of water 4186 J kg K c) State an assumption you have made about the

3 experiment, in setting up your equation in (a). [1]


Density of water 1000 kg m

d) Why should she take the temperature of


Cost per kW h of electrical energy $0.10

the mixture immediately after all the ice

(i) Estimated values [4]

has melted? [1]

(ii) Calculations [7]

e) Explain from the microscopic point of view, in terms

of molecular behaviour, why the temperature of the

ice does not increase while it is melting. [4]

I B Q u E S T I o n S – T H E R M A L P H Y S I C S