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# Q 2.

1
Solution :
The objective of this question is to learn how to improve the precision of sensing element
by increasing the number of terms of polynomial. This can be done by solving a system
of equations. In this question we have 3 coefficients a1,a2 and a3.
Using textbook page 28, we can find
Tsteam= 100 °C Tzinc= 419.527 °C Tsilver= 961.78 °C
And the question gives
Esteam=645 µV Ezinc= 3375µV Esilver= 9149 µV

##  E steam = a1Tsteam + a 2Tsteam

2
+ a 3Tsteam
3

 
 E zinc = a1Tzinc + a 2Tzinc + a 3Tzinc
2 3

 
 E silver = a1Tsilver + a 2Tsilver + a 3Tsilver 
2 3

Q 2.2.
Solution
The purpose of the question is to learn how to define the coefficients of thermistor. This
can be done by measuring the temperature of thermistor at different temperatures ice
point and steam point .
1. find the coefficients α and β by solving the equations
2. find the resistance at t= 25 °C (remember that at t= 25 °C= 273.15 +25 K)

Q 2.6
Solution

The purpose of the question is to learn how to define the coefficients of RTD. This can be
done by measuring the temperature of RTD at different temperatures ice point and
boiling point .
1. solve the following system
(
138.5 = 100 1 + α100 + β 100 2  )
 
(
253.7 = 100 1 + α 200 + β 200 2  )
2. Define α and β
3. Write the equation with obtained coefficients

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Q. 2.7
This question is dealing with environmental effect estimation. You can understand the
effect of voltage source change on the output signal and you can the estimate the
temperature effect.

Solution

## a. find the equation of straight line at standard conditions

1. Calculate the sensitivity K , when the device is operated at standard supply and
temperature (standard conditions )

Omax − Omin 20 − 4
K= = = 1.6mA/barg
Imax − Imin 10 − 0
* barg = bar gauge

## a standard = Omin − KImin = 4 - 0 = 4 mA

b. find the equation of straight line when the voltage source is changed
Omax − Omin 28 − 4
1. K (at Vs =12 v ) = Knew = = = 2.4mA/barg
Imax − Imin 10 − 0
2. calculate IM= Vnew-Vold=12-10=2 V
3. claculte KM
Knew=Kold+KMIM see page 12 textbook

## K new − K old 2.4 − .6

So K M = = = 0.4 mA/(barg ⋅ V)
IM 2
d. find the equation of straight line when the temperature is changed

Omax − Omin 22 − 6
1. K (at t =25o C ) = K t25 = = = 1.6mA/barg
Imax − Imin 10 − 0
2. calculate Ii= t25-t20=25-20=5°C

## 4. calculate Ki from the following relation anew=aold+IiKi see page 12 textbook

a new − a old
So K i = = 0.4 mA/ o C
Ii

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Q 8.1
a) Recall Q 2.6 you find α=3.91 ×10-3 °C-1, β= -5.85×10 -7 °C-2
b) given R100=138.50 Ω= R100experimental , and you can calculate the resistance at 100 °C
using the equation

( )
R100 = 100 1 + 3.91 × 10 −3100 + (−5.85 × 10 −7 )100 2 = R(100)ideal

Calculate the non linearity using the formula 2.3 : N(i)=O(I)experimental –O(I)ideal , then
calculate the non linearity as percentage of F.S.D

N(100)
N (100) % of FSD = ⋅ 100%
O span

اا‬

Q 8.22

## Omax − Omim 14.860 - 0.000

K= = = 0.049533 ≈ 0.05mV/ o C , a= 0
Imax − Imin 300 - 0

## The equation is O(I)=0.05I or E(T)=0.05T

E(150)=0.05*150=7.43 mV
From the table the generated voltage at 150 °C= 6.702 mV

## N(159)= 6.702-7.43= -0.728 mV

− 0.728
N(150) % of fsd = ⋅ 100% = -4.89906 = -4.9%
14.860

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b) Apply the low of intermediate temperature

The generated voltage when the reference temperature is 20° C and the measured
temperature is t is: V20/T= 11.5 mV.
The table gives the generated voltage when the measuring temperature is 20 ° C and the
reference is 0° C V0/20=0.789 mV.

So

V0/T=V0/20+V20/T=
We have to calculate V0/T=11.5+0.789= 12.289 mV
V0/t can not be not found directly form the table but you can see that

E(250)=12.011 mV
E(260)=12.572 mV

But

250  12.011
X12.289
X=256 ° C