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ME G511

Mechanisms & Robotics

BITS Pilani Dr. Y. V. D. Rao


Hyderabad Campus
BITS Pilani
Hyderabad Campus

ME G511
Equivalent Axis Rotation
Sequences of Rotations
 Two different rotation sequences do not give
the same orientation and the resultant rotation
matrix depends on the order of rotations.
𝑪𝟐 𝟎 𝑺𝟐
 𝑹 = 𝑹𝒙 𝜽𝟏 𝑹𝒚 𝜽𝟐  𝑹 = 𝑺𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑪𝟏 −𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟐
−𝑪𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐

𝑪𝟐 𝑺𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑪𝟏 𝑺𝟐
 𝑹 = 𝑹𝒚 𝜽𝟐 𝑹𝒙 𝜽𝟏 𝑹= 𝟎 𝑪𝟏 −𝑺𝟏
−𝑺𝟐 𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟐 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


𝑪𝟐 𝑺𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟐
 𝑹 = 𝑹𝒚 𝜽𝟏 𝑹𝒙 𝜽𝟐  𝑹 = 𝟎 𝑪𝟐 −𝑺𝟐
−𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐
Principal axes Rotations

 Another important variation is how these


rotations about the principal axes are performed.

 There are two possible ways of rotation, they are

 Rotation of a body successively about the


principal axes of the fixed frame.
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 Successive rotations of the body are performed
about the current principal axes of the moving
frame.
 These successive rotations about these two
different types of principal axes do not result in
the same orientation of the body.
 For example consider two successive rotations
of 𝟗𝟎𝟎 given to an object about the principal axes
of the fixed frame.
 First the body is rotated about 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 followed
by rotation about 𝒚 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 as shown.
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
Z
Z’
Y’

Y
Y’’ 𝑹𝒁,𝟗𝟎𝟎 X’

X 𝑹𝒀,𝟗𝟎𝟎
X’’
Z’’
 And when the order of rotations is about the
principal axes of the moving frame in the same
sequence the result is different as shown.
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
Z

Z’ Y’
Y

X’
X
Y’’ 𝑹𝒁,𝟗𝟎𝟎
Z’’ 𝑹𝒀′,𝟗𝟎𝟎

 Similarly change in order of rotation


about the principal axes of moving
frame also produces different final
X’’ orientation of the body.
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
Fixed Angle Representation
 Let initially the fixed frame 𝑿, 𝒀, 𝒁 𝒐𝒓 𝟏 and the
moving frame 𝑼, 𝑽, 𝑾 𝒐𝒓 𝟐 be coincident.
Z
 And three different rotations W
are given to the body about the 𝜽𝟑
three axes of the fixed frame as 𝟏
shown in figure. 𝟐 V
𝜽𝟐
Y
𝜽𝟏

XU

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


First rotation is about 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 by an angle 𝜽𝟏 and
this is described by the rotation matrix 𝑹𝒙 𝜽𝟏 .
Z
W’
𝟏
𝜽𝟏 V’
𝟐′
𝜽𝟏
Y
𝜽𝟏

X U’

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


Next this new frame 𝟐′ is rotated by 𝜽𝟐 about 𝒚 −
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 to get the third frame 𝟐′′ .
Z
W’
 This rotation matrix for W’’ V’’
𝟐′
this rotation is 𝑹𝒚 𝜽𝟐 . 𝜽𝟐 𝟏 V’
𝟐′′
Y
𝜽𝟐
𝜽𝟐
X U’’

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 The final and third rotation is about the 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔
by 𝜽𝟑 to obtain the final frame 𝟐 .
 This is described by the matrix 𝑹𝒛 𝜽𝟑 .
Z
W 𝜽𝟑
V
𝟏
𝟐
Y

X U
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
Z
W’
𝟏
𝜽𝟏 Z
V’ W’
W’’ V’’
𝟐′ 𝟐′
𝜽𝟏 Y 𝜽𝟐 𝟏 V’
𝜽𝟏 𝟐′′
Y
Z
X U’ W 𝜽𝟐
𝜽𝟑 𝜽𝟐
V
𝟏 X U’’
𝟐
Y  All these rotations
are shown in figures
above.
X U
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 This convention for specifying orientation is
known as “fixed angle representation” because
each rotation is specified about an axis of fixed
reference frame.

The above three rotations are referred to as


“𝑿𝒀𝒁 − 𝒇𝒊𝒙𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒍𝒆 𝒓𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔”.

 The final frame orientation is given by the


overall rotation matrix computed by pre-
multiplication of the matrices of individual
rotations.
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 Hence 𝑹𝒙𝒚𝒛 𝜽𝟑 , 𝜽𝟐 , 𝜽𝟏 = 𝟏𝑹𝟐 =
𝑹𝒛 𝜽𝟑 𝑹𝒚 𝜽𝟐 𝑹𝒙 𝜽𝟏

 Clearly the rotation order is from right to left.

 Using the three individual matrices the final


rotation matrix is obtained.

𝑹𝒙𝒚𝒛 𝜽𝟑 , 𝜽𝟐 , 𝜽𝟏 =
𝑪𝟑 −𝑺𝟑 𝟎 𝑪𝟐 𝟎 𝑺𝟐 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎
𝑺𝟑 𝑪𝟑 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝑪𝟏 −𝑺𝟏
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 −𝑺𝟐 𝟎 𝑪𝟐 𝟎 𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟏
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
𝑪𝟐 𝑪𝟑 𝑺𝟏 𝑺 𝟐 𝑪𝟑 − 𝑪𝟏 𝑺𝟑 𝑪𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑪𝟑 + 𝑺𝟏 𝑺𝟑
𝑹𝒙𝒚𝒛 𝜽𝟑 , 𝜽𝟐 , 𝜽𝟏 = 𝑪𝟐 𝑺𝟑 𝑺𝟏 𝑺 𝟐 𝑺𝟑 + 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟑 𝑪𝟏 𝑺𝟐 𝑺𝟑 − 𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟑
−𝑺𝟐 𝑺𝟏 𝑪𝟐 𝑪 𝟏 𝑪𝟐
Z

 𝒙𝒚𝒛 − 𝒇𝒊𝒙𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒍𝒆


transformation is 𝜽𝟑 Roll
equivalent to 𝒓𝒐𝒍𝒍 −
𝒑𝒊𝒕𝒄𝒉 − 𝒚𝒂𝒘 (𝑹𝑷𝒀)
Pitch Y
transformation.
Yaw 𝜽𝟐

𝜽𝟏
X
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
Equivalent Axis Rotation
A third representation of orientation is by a single
rotation about an arbitrary axis.
 A coordinate frame can be rotated about an
arbitrary 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 passing through the origin of
fixed reference frame 𝟏 .
 The rotation matrix for this case is obtained by
viewing the rotation as a sequence of rotations of
frame 𝟐 (along with 𝒌 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔) about the principal
axes of frame 𝟏 .
 Consider frame 𝟐 , initially coincident with
frame 𝟏 .
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
W Z

𝜽
 Frame 𝟐 is rotated 𝟏
V
by an angle 𝜽 about
𝒌 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔, in frame 𝟏 . Y

𝟐′

X
U
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 The rotation of frame 𝟐 is decomposed into rotations
about the principal axes of frame 𝟏 .

 First, suitable rotations are made about the principal


axes of frame 𝟏 so as to align the 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 with 𝒙 −
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Rotation made about the principal axes of frame 𝟏 so
as to align the 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 with 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔
Z
K

𝜶 P 𝜽
P’
Kz
1
𝜷 Ky Y
Kx
𝜶
P” 𝜽
X
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 These rotations are illustrated with the help of a vector
𝑷, initially in the direction of 𝒌 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔, as shown in
figure above.
 First, rotate the vector 𝑷 (along with 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 and frame
𝟐 of figure above) by an angle −𝜶 about 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 such
that this rotation causes the 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 to lie in 𝒙𝒛 − 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒆
of frame 𝟏 .

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 First, rotate the vector 𝑷 (along with 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 and frame 𝟐 of
figure below) by an angle −𝜶 about 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 such that this rotation
causes the 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 to lie in 𝒙𝒛 − 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒆 of frame 𝟏 .
Z
𝜶
K

𝜶 P
P’
Kz

Kx 1 Ky Y
𝜶
P”
X
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 This rotation is written as 𝟏𝑹𝟐 = 𝑹𝒛 −𝜶

 Next, vector 𝑷 (along with rotated 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌) is


rotated about 𝒚 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 by an angle 𝜷 so that
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 aligns with 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔.

At the end of this rotation 𝟏𝑹𝟐 =


𝑹𝒚 𝜷 𝑹𝒛 −𝜶

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Next, vector 𝑷 (along with rotated 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌) is rotated about 𝒚 −
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 by an angle 𝜷 so that 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌 aligns with 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔.

Z
𝜶
K

𝜶 P
P’
Kz
1
𝜷 Ky Y
Kx
𝜶 𝜷

P”
X
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 Now the third rotation by an angle 𝜽 about the
rotated 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌, which is rotation about 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔, is
made.

 The resulting rotation matrix is then

 𝟏𝑹𝟐 = 𝑹𝒙 𝜽 𝑹𝒚 𝜷 𝑹𝒛 −𝜶

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Now the third rotation by an angle 𝜽 about the rotated 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌,
which is rotation about 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔, is made.

Z
𝜶
K

𝜶 P
P’
Kz
1
𝜷 Ky Y
Kx
𝜶 𝜷

𝜽
P”
X
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 Finally, the next two rotations are made about
𝒚 − and 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒆𝒔, respectively, in the opposite
sense and reverse order so as to restore the 𝒌 −
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 to its original position leaving frame 𝟐 in
that rotated position.
 This gives
 𝟏𝑹𝟐 = 𝑹𝒌 𝜽 = 𝑹𝒛 𝜶 𝑹𝒚 −𝜷 𝑹𝒙 𝜽 𝑹𝒚 𝜷 𝑹𝒛 −𝜶

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Next two rotations are made about 𝒚 − and 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒆𝒔,
respectively, in the opposite sense and reverse order.
Z
𝜶
K

𝜶 P
P’
Kz

𝜷
Kx 1 Ky Y
𝜶

P” 𝜽
X
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 𝟏𝑹𝟐 = 𝑹𝒌 𝜽 = 𝑹𝒛 𝜶 𝑹𝒚 −𝜷 𝑹𝒙 𝜽 𝑹𝒚 𝜷 𝑹𝒛 −𝜶
 Using the corresponding fundamental rotation
matrices one gets
 𝑹𝑲 (𝜽) =
𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜶 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 𝟎 −𝑺𝜷 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 𝟎 𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜶 𝑺𝜶 𝟎
𝑺𝜶 𝑪𝜶 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝑪𝜽 −𝑺𝜽 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 − 𝑺𝜶 𝑪𝜶 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝑺𝜷 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 𝟎 𝑺𝜽 𝑪𝜽 −𝑺𝜷 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏

𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 −𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜷 𝟎 𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜶 𝑺𝜶 𝟎


 𝑹𝑲 (𝜽) = 𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜽 −𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜷 − 𝑺𝜶 𝑪𝜶 𝟎
𝑺𝜷 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 −𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜷 𝑺𝜽 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜷 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏

 𝑹𝑲 (𝜽) =
𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 −𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑺𝜷
𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 − 𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜶 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 + 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜷
𝑺𝜷 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 −𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 − 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 + 𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜶 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜷
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 𝑹𝑲 (𝜽) =
𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 −𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑺𝜷
𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 − 𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜶 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 + 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜷
𝑺𝜷 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 −𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 − 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 + 𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜶 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜷

 𝑹𝑲 (𝜽) =
𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 −𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑪𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑺𝜷
𝑺𝜶𝑪𝜷 𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 − 𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜶 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 + 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜶 −𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜷
𝑺𝜷 𝟎 𝑪𝜷 −𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜶𝑺𝜷 − 𝑺𝜽𝑺𝜶 −𝑪𝜽𝑺𝜶𝑺𝜷 + 𝑺𝜽𝑪𝜶 𝑪𝜽𝑪𝜷

𝒌𝟐𝒙 𝑽𝜽 + 𝑪𝜽 𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒚 𝑽𝜽 − 𝒌𝒛 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒚 𝑺𝜽
𝑹𝒌 𝜽 = 𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒚 𝑽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒛 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝟐𝒚 𝑽𝜽 + 𝑪𝜽 𝒌𝒚 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 − 𝒌𝒙 𝑺𝜽
𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 − 𝒌𝒚 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝒚 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒙 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝟐𝒛 𝑽𝜽 + 𝑪𝜽

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 The angles 𝜶 and 𝜷 can be eliminated from the
resulting final rotation matrix using the geometry.
 From the figure below it can be written for the
෡ = 𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒚 𝒌𝒛 𝑻 as
unit vector𝒌
𝒌𝒚
 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜶 = ; Z
𝟐 𝟐
𝒌𝒙 +𝒌𝒚 K

𝒌𝒙
 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶 = ; P

𝒌𝒙 𝟐 +𝒌𝒚 𝟐 P’
Kz

1
𝜷 Ky Y
 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜷 = 𝒌𝒛 ; Kx
𝜶

 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜷 = 𝒌𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒌𝟐 𝒚 P” 𝒌𝒙 𝟐 + 𝒌𝒚 𝟐
X

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


𝒌𝒚 𝒌𝒙
 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜶 = ; 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶 = ;
𝒌𝒙 𝟐+𝒌𝒚 𝟐 𝒌𝒙 𝟐 +𝒌𝒚 𝟐

 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜷 = 𝒌𝒛 ; 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜷 = 𝒌𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒌𝟐 𝒚

 Substituting these in the expression for 𝑹𝑲 (𝜽) and


simplifying one gets

𝑹𝒌 𝜽 =
𝒌𝟐𝒙 𝑽𝜽 + 𝑪𝜽 𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒚 𝑽𝜽 − 𝒌𝒛 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒚 𝑺𝜽
𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒚 𝑽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒛 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝟐𝒚 𝑽𝜽 + 𝑪𝜽 𝒌𝒚 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 − 𝒌𝒙 𝑺𝜽
𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 − 𝒌𝒚 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝒚 𝒌𝒛 𝑽𝜽 + 𝒌𝒙 𝑺𝜽 𝒌𝟐𝒛 𝑽𝜽 + 𝑪𝜽

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Where 𝒌𝒙 , 𝒌𝒚 , 𝒌𝒛 are the projections of a unit
෡ on frame 𝒙𝒚𝒛 , and
vector 𝒌
 𝑽𝜽 = 𝟏 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 .

 This is an important rotation matrix and needs


thorough understanding.

 The principal axes fundamental rotations can be


obtained from the above equation.

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 For example, if 𝒌 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 is aligned with 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔,
𝑹𝒌 𝜽 becomes 𝑹𝒛 𝜽 with 𝒌𝒙 = 𝒌𝒚 = 𝟎 and 𝒌𝒛 = 𝟏 .
 Substituting these values one gets
𝑪𝜽 −𝑺𝜽 𝟎
 𝑹𝒌 𝜽 = 𝑹𝒛 𝜽 = 𝑺𝜽 𝑪𝜽 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏
 This is same as that obtained earlier for rotation
about 𝒛 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔.
 Note that any combination of rotations about the
principal axes of a coordinate frame is always
equivalent to a single rotation by some angle 𝜽
about some arbitrary 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒌.
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 To find the direction 𝑲, consider the general
rotational transformation matrix 𝑹.

 It is required to determine 𝜽 and 𝒌.
 Analysis of robotic manipulators for various
aspects is done using the transformation
matrices explained here.

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Example1: The coordinates of point 𝑷 in frame
𝟏 are [𝟑. 𝟎 𝟐. 𝟎 𝟏. 𝟎]. The position vector 𝑷 is
rotated about the 𝒛 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 by 𝟒𝟓𝟎 . Find the
coordinates of point 𝑸 , the new position of
point 𝑷.
 Solution: The 𝟒𝟓𝟎 rotation of 𝑷 about the 𝒛 −
𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 of frame 𝟏 is

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


𝑪𝜽 −𝑺𝜽 𝟎 𝑪𝟒𝟓 −𝑺𝟒𝟓 𝟎
𝑹𝒛 𝜽 = 𝑺𝜽 𝑪𝜽 𝟎 = 𝑺𝟒𝟓 𝑪𝟒𝟓 𝟎 =
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏
𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 −𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟎
𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏

For the rotation of vectors 𝟏𝑸 = 𝑹𝒛 𝜽 𝟏𝑷

Substituting values of 𝑹𝒛 and 1𝑷

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 −𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟎 𝟑 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕
 𝟏𝑸 = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟎 𝟐 = 𝟑. 𝟓𝟑𝟓
𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
 Thus, the coordinates of the new point 𝑸 relative to
frame 𝟏 are [𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟑. 𝟓𝟑𝟓 𝟏. 𝟎]𝑻 or the new position
vector is [𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝟑. 𝟓𝟑𝟓 𝟏. 𝟎]𝑻

Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus


 Example 2: Frame 𝟐 is rotated with respect to frame
𝟏 about the 𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 by an angle of 𝟔𝟎𝟎 . The
position of the origin of frame 𝟐 as seen from frame
𝟏 is 𝟏𝑫𝟐 = [𝟕. 𝟎 𝟓. 𝟎 𝟕. 𝟎]. Obtain the
transformation matrix 𝟏𝑻𝟐 , which describes frame 𝟐
relative to frame 𝟏 . Also, find the description of
point 𝑷 in frame 𝟏 if 𝟐𝑷 = [𝟐. 𝟎 𝟒. 𝟎 𝟔. 𝟎]𝑻
 Solution: The homogeneous transformation matrix that
describes frame 𝟐 with respect to frame 𝟏 is
𝟏𝑹𝟐 𝟏𝑫𝟐
𝟏𝑻𝟐 =
𝟎 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 Because frame 𝟐 is rotated relative to frame 𝟏 about
𝒙 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 by 𝟔𝟎𝟎 using
𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟎 𝟎
 𝟏𝑹𝟐 = 𝟎 𝑪 𝟔𝟎 −𝑺 𝟔𝟎 = 𝟎 𝟎. 𝟓 −𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟔
𝟎 𝑺 𝟔𝟎 𝑪 𝟔𝟎 𝟎 𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝟎. 𝟓
 And 1𝑫𝟐 = [𝟕. 𝟎 𝟓. 𝟎 𝟕. 𝟎]𝑻
 Substituting 1𝑹𝟐 and 1𝑫𝟐 in the above equation
𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟕. 𝟎 𝟐. 𝟎
1𝑷 = 𝟎 𝟎. 𝟓 −𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝟓. 𝟎 𝟒. 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝟎. 𝟓 𝟕. 𝟎 𝟔. 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏 𝟏
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
𝟏 𝟎 𝟎 𝟕. 𝟎
 1𝑻𝟐 = 𝟎 𝟎. 𝟓 −𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝟓. 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟔 𝟎. 𝟓 𝟕. 𝟎
𝟎 𝟎 𝟎 𝟏

 Given: 2𝑷 = [𝟐. 𝟎 𝟒. 𝟎 𝟔. 𝟎]𝑻 , point 𝑷 in frame 𝟏 is


given by  1𝑷 =1𝑻𝟐 2𝑷
𝟗. 𝟎𝟎𝟎
1𝑷 = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟎𝟒
𝟏𝟑. 𝟒𝟔𝟒
𝟏
 1𝑷 = 𝟗. 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝟏. 𝟖𝟎𝟒 𝟏𝟑. 𝟒𝟔𝟒 𝟏 𝑻
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus
 The 𝟑𝑿𝟏 position vector of point 𝑷 in frame 𝟏 in
physical coordinates is
𝑻
 1𝑷 = 𝟗. 𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝟏. 𝟖𝟎𝟒 𝟏𝟑. 𝟒𝟔𝟒

THANK YOU
Lecture 17 ME G511 Mechanisms and Robotics BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus