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SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEM

Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the


degree of

B.Tech.
In
Computer Science and Engineering
Under the Supervision of
Ms.Neha
By
Deepankar dayal (1503310069)
Himanshu varun (1603310098)
Firoz alam (1603310090)

Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow


Session: - 2019-2020

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DECLARATION

This is to certify that Synopsis Report Entitled “Speaker Recognition system ” which is
submitted in partial Fulfilment of the requirement for the award of degree B.Tech in
Computer Science and Engineering to R.K.G.I.T, Ghaziabad, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Technical University, Lucknow comprises only original work and studies carried out by
students itself. The matter embodied in this synopsis has not been submitted for the award
of any other degree.

Date:7thNovember 2019 Deepankar dayal(1503310069)


Himanshu varun(1603310098)
Firoz alam(1603310090)

Approved By:

Signature Signature:
(Ms. Neha ) (Mr. Lalit Saraswat)
Project Guide CSE Department Project Coordinator
CSE Department RKGIT, Ghaziabad CSE Department

Countersign By
Signature:
(Dr.Sachi Gupta)
HOD, CSE Department
First Shift
RKGIT, Ghaziabad

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title ...................................................................... 1
Declaration .......................................................... 2
Abstract ............................................................... 5

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction .............................................................. 6

Overview .................................................................... 6

Image Acquisition .................................................. 6

Image Pre-proocessing ........................................... 7

Face Detection .........................................................8

Feature Extraction ................................................... 9

Declaring Match..................................................... 9

Chapter 2 LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1 Literature Survey ..................................................10

Chapter 3 INFERENCE DRAWN FROM LITERATURE


SURVEY .......................................................... 12

Chapter 4 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND SOLUTION


APPROACH .................................................... 13

Problem Statement ..................................................... 13


Proposed System ......................................................... 13
Methodology ............................................................ 14
Software and Hardware Used ................................. 15

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PROPOSED ACTIVITY CHART ................... 16

REFERENCES .....................................................17

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List of Figures

S.no. Fig. name Page no.

01 Image acquistion 8

02 Face detection architecture 9

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ABSTRACT

Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing who is speaking by


using the speaker-specific information included in speech waves to verify identities being
claimed by people accessing systems; that is, it enables access control of various services
by voice (Furui, 1991, 1997, 2000). Applicable services include voice dialing, banking
over a telephone network, telephone shopping, database access services, information and
reservation services, voice mail, security control for confidential information, and remote
access to computers. Another important application of speaker recognition technology is
as a forensics tool.

Speaker identity is correlated with physiological and behavioral characteristics of the


speech production system of an individual speaker. These characteristics derive from
both the spectral envelope (vocal tract characteristics) and the supra-segmental features
(voice source characteristics) of speech. The most commonly used short-term spectral
measurements are cepstral coefficients and their regression coefficients. As for the
regression coefficients, typically, the first- and second-order coefficients, that is,
derivatives of the time functions of cepstral coefficients, are extracted at every frame
period to represent spectral dynamics. These regression coefficients are respectively
referred to as the delta-cepstral and delta-delta-cepstral coefficients.

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
Though the video streaming service of lecture archive is readily available in many systems,
students have few opportunities to view the lecture in this service because lecture content is
not summarized. If the attendance of a student of classroom lecture is attached to the video
streaming service, it is possible to present the video of the time when he was absent. It is
important to take the attendance of the students in the classroom automatically. ID tag or
other identifications such the record of login/out in most e-Learning systems are not
sufficient because it does not represent students’ context in face-toface classroom. It is also
difficult to grasp the contexts by the data of a single moment. student’s context such as
presence, seat position, status, and comprehension are discussed in this paper. At the same
time face images reflect a lot about these context information. It is possible to estimate
automatically whether each student is present or absent and where each student is sitting by
using face recognition technology. It is also possible to know whether students are awake or
sleeping and whether students are interested or bored in lecture if face images are annotated
with the students’ name, the time and the place. We are concerned with the method to use
face image processing technology. By continuously observing of face information, our
approach can solve low effectiveness of existing face detection technology, and improve the
accuracy of face recognition. We propose a method that take the attendance using face
recognition based on continuous observation. In this paper, our purpose is to obtain the
attendance, positions and images of students’ face, which are useful information in the
classroom lecture.[Ref 1]

OVERVIEW

IMAGE ACQUISITION

Image acquisition can be accomplished by digitally scanning an existing photograph or by


using an electro-optical camera to acquire a live picture of a subject. Video can also be used
as a source of facial images. The most existing facial recognition systems consist of a single
camera. The recognition rate is relatively low when face images are of various pose and
expression and different illumination. With increasing of the pose angle, the recognition rate

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decreases. The recognition rate decreases greatly when the pose angle is larger than 30
degrees. Different illumination is not a problem for some algorithms like LDA that can still
recognize faces with different illumination, but this is not true for PCA. To overcome this
problem, we can generate the face images with frontal view (or little rotation), moderate
facial expression, and same illumination if PCA algorithm is being used.[Ref 3]

Fig. 1.1.1.1

IMAGE PREPROCESSING
Face recognition algorithms have to deal with significant amounts of illumination variations
between gallery and probe images. For this reason, image preprocessing algorithm that
compensates for illumination variations in images is used prior to recognition. The images
used are gray scaled. Histogram equalization is used here to enhance important features by
modifying the contrast of the image, reducing the noise and thus improving the quality of an
image and improving face recognition. It is usually done on too dark or too bright images.The
idea behind image enhancement techniques is to bring out detail that is obscured, or simply to
highlight certain features of interest in an image. Images are enhanced to improve the
recognition performance of the system.[Ref 5]

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FACE DETECTION SYSTEM

Fig. 1.1.3.1

FACE DETECTION

Face detection is a computer technology that determines the locations and sizes of human
faces in arbitrary images. It detects facial features and ignores anything else, such as
buildings, trees and bodies. Face detection can be regarded as a specific case of object-class
recognition, a major task in computer vision. Software is employed to detect the location of
any faces in the acquired image. Generalized patterns of what a face “looks like” are
employed to pick out the faces. The method devised by Viola and Jones, that is used here,
uses haar –like featrures. Even for a small image, the number of Haar-like features is very
large, for a 24×24 pixel window one can generate more than 180000 features.[Ref 2]

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FEATURE EXTRACTION

This module is responsible for composing a feature vector that is well enough to represent the
face image. Its goal is to extract the relevant data from the captured sample. Feature
extraction is divided into two categories, the holistic feature category and the local features
category. Local feature based approaches try to automatically locate specific facial features
such as eyes, nose and mouth based on known distances between them. The holistic feature
category deals with the input face image as a whole.
Different methods are used to extract the identifying features of a face. The most popular
method is called Principle Components Analysis (PCA), which is commonly referred to as
the eigen face method. Another method used here is called Linear Discriminant Analysis
(LDA), which is referred to as the fisher face method. Both LDA and PCA algorithms belong
to the holistic feature category.
Template generation is the result of the feature extraction process. A template is a reduced set
of data that represents the unique features of an enrollee’s face consisting of weights for each
image in the database. The projected space can be seen as a feature space where each
component is seen as a feature.

DECLARING MATCH

The Last step is to compare the template generated in step four with those in a database of
known faces. In an identification application, the biometric device reads a sample and
compares that sample against every record or template in the database, this process returns a
match or a candidate list of potential matches that are close to the generated templates in the
database. In a verification application, the generated template is only compared with one
template in the database that of the claimed identity, which is faster

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

A Counterpart Approach to Attendance and Feedback System using Machine


Learning Techniques: In this paper, the idea of two technologies namely Student
Attendance and Feedback system has been implemented with a machine learning approach.
This system automatically detects the student performance and maintains the student's records
like attendance and their feedback on the subjects like Science, English, etc. Therefore the
attendance of the student can be made available by recognizing the face. On recognizing, the
attendance details and details about the marks of the student is obtained as feedback.

Automated Attendance System Using Face Recognition: Automated Attendance


System using Face Recognition proposes that the system is based on face detection and
recognition algorithms, which is used to automatically detects the student face when he/she
enters the class and the system is capable to marks the attendance by recognizing him. Viola-
Jones Algorithm has been used for face detection which detect human face using cascade
classifier and PCA algorithm for feature selection and SVM for classification. When it is
compared to traditional attendance marking this system saves the time and also helps to
monitor the students.

Student Attendance System Using Iris Detection: In this proposed system the student
is requested to stand in front of the camera to detect and recognize the iris, for the system to
mark attendance for the student. Some algorithms like Gray Scale Conversion, Six Segment
Rectangular Filter, Skin Pixel Detection is being used to detect the iris. It helps in preventing
the proxy issues and it maintains the attendance of the student in an effective manner, but in
one of the time-consuming process for a student or a staff to wait until the completion of the
previous members.

Automated Attendance System (AAS) is a process to automatically estimate the presence or


the absence of the student in the classroom by using face recognition technology. It is also
possible to recognize whether the student is sleeping or awake during the lecture and it can
also be implemented in the exam sessions to ensure the presence of the student. The

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presence of the students can be determined by capturing their faces on to a high-definition
monitor video streaming service, so it becomes highly reliable for the machine to understand
the presence of all the students in the classroom. The two common Human Face Recognition
techniques are, Feature-based approach Brightness-based approach.  The Feature-based
approach also known as local face recognition system, used in pointing the key features of the
face like eyes, ears, nose, mouth, edges, etc., whereas the brightness-based approach also
termed as the global face recognition system, used in recognizing all the parts of the
image.[Ref 7,8]

STASTISTICAL APPROACH

SVMs were first introduced Osuna et al. for face detection. SVMs work as a new paradigm to
train polynomial function, neural networks, or radial basis function (RBF) classifiers. SVMs
works on induction principle, called structural risk minimization, which targets to minimize
an upper bound on the expected generalization error. An SVM classifier is a linear classifier
where the separating hyper plane is chosen to minimize the expected classification error of
the unseen test patterns.In Osunaet al. developed an efficient method to train an SVM for
large scale problems,and applied it to face detection. Based on two test sets of 10,000,000 test
patterns of 19 X 19 pixels, their system has slightly lower error rates and runs
approximately30 times faster than the system by Sung and Poggio. SVMs have also been
used to detect faces and pedestrians in the wavelet domain.[Ref 6]

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CHAPTER 3

3.1 INFERENCE DRAWN FROM LITERATURE SURVEY


Thus the survey on FACE RECOGNITION AND DETECTION depicts the use of various
software based or hardware based, Image processing, or face recognition based techniques
which have few advantages as well as few shortcomings. Many of the existing systems in the
literature proposed the system which requires additional hardware requirement for achieving
the desired results. And the system which do not need additional hardware, do not give
efficient working model . Thus there is a need of an efficient system which will not only save

the time , but give efficiency as well.[Ref 10]

Attendance System is the advancement that has taken place in the field of automation
replacing traditional attendance marking activity. We have projected our ideas to implement
“Automated Attendance System Based on Face Recognition’, in which it imbibes large
applications. The application includes face identification, which saves time and eliminates
chances of proxy attendance because of the face authorization. Hence, this system can be
implemented in a field where attendance plays an important role.

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CHAPTER 4

PROBLEM STATEMENT AND SOLUTION APPROACH

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Nowadays Educational institutions are concerned about regularity of student attendance.


This is mainly due to students’ overall academic performance is affected by his or her
attendance in the institute. Mainly there are two conventional methods of marking attendance
which are calling out the roll call or by taking student sign on paper. They both were more
time consuming and difficult. Hence, there is a requirement of computer-based student
attendance management system which will assist the faculty for maintaining attendance
record automatically.

The goal here is to get deep neural network to output a person’s face with identification. This
means that the neural network needs to be trained to automatically identify different features
of a face and calculate numbers based on that. The output of the neural network can be
thought of as an identifier for a particular person’s face—if you pass in different images of
the same person, the output of the neural network will be very similar or close, whereas if
you pass in images of a different person, the output will be very different.[Ref 4]

PROPOSED SYSTEM

The task of the proposed system is to capture the face of each student and to store it in the
database for their attendance. The face of the student needs to be captured in such a manner
that all the feature of the students' face needs to be detected, even the seating and the posture
of the student need to be recognized. There is no need for the teacher to manually take
attendance in the class because the system records a video and through further processing
steps the face is being recognized and the attendance database is updated

METHODOLOGY

In the beginning of the 1970's, face recognition was treated as a 2D pattern recognition
problem . The distances between important points where used to recognize known faces, e.g.

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measuring the distance between the eyes or other important points or measuring different
angles of facial components. But it is necessary that the face recognition systems to be fully
automatic. Face recognition is such a challenging yet interesting problem that it has attracted
researchers who have different backgrounds: psychology, pattern recognition, neural
networks, computer vision, and computer graphics. The following methods are used to face
recognition.

SHOOTING PLAN

Camera planning module selects one seat from the estimated sitting area in order to determine
where to direct the front camera. Actually, in this paper, the module selects a seat by
scanning the seats sequentially. This approach is insufficient because it wastes time directing
the camera to where the student-and-seat the seats the students correspondence is already
decided In other words, if we direct the camera to each seat with the same probability, it is
difficult to detect the faces according to the student or the seat, and the system judges the
students who are actually present to be absent consequently. In order to solve this problem, it
is important to the information of each student’s position. The camera is directed to the
selected seat using the pan/tilt/zoom that have been registered in the database. The camera
captures the image of the student.[Ref 9]

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SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE

Software requirement

1. PyCharm
2. Windows 10
3. Google API
4. Microsoft Excel

Hardware requirement

1. Web Camera

2. Computer

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PROPOSED ACTIVITY CHART

S.No. Activity to be Date (From) Date(to)


Done
DD-MM-YYYY DD-MM-YYYY
1. Project title 09-09-2019 18-09-2019
selection
2. feasibility study 12-09-2019 23-09-2019
3. Literature survey 15-09-2019 26-09-2018
4. Problem 20-09-2019 29-09-2019
statement
5. Requirement 29-09-2019 2-10-2019
elicitation
6. Solution 1-10-2019 18-10-2019
approach
7. Designing 5-10-2019 2-11-2019
solution
8. Hardware/tool
implementation

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REFERENCES
1. N.Sudhakar Reddy, M.V.Sumanth, S.Suresh Babu, "A Counterpart Approach to
Attendance and Feedback System using Machine Learning Techniques",Journal of Emerging
Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR), Volume 5, Issue 12, Dec 2018.

2. Dan Wang, Rong Fu, Zuying Luo, "Classroom Attendance Auto-management Based on
Deep Learning",Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume
123,ICESAME 2017.

3. Akshara Jadhav, Akshay Jadhav, Tushar Ladhe, Krishna Yeolekar, "Automated


Attendance System Using Face Recognition", International Research Journal of Engineering
and Technology (IRJET), Volume 4, Issue 1, Jan 2017.

4. B Prabhavathi, V Tanuja, V Madhu Viswanatham and M Rajashekhara Babu, "A smart


technique for attendance system to recognize faces through parallelism", IOP Conf. Series:
Materials Science and Engineering 263, 2017.

5. Prajakta Lad, Sonali More, Simran Parkhe, Priyanka Nikam, Dipalee Chaudhari, " Student
Attendance System Using Iris Detection", IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396, Vol-3 Issue-2 2017.

6. Samuel Lukas, Aditya Rama Mitra, Ririn Ikana Desanti, Dion Krisnadi, "Student
Attendance System in Classroom Using Face Recognition Technique", Conference Paper
DOI: 10.1109/ICTC.2016.7763360, Oct 2016.

7. K.Senthamil Selvi, P.Chitrakala, A.Antony Jenitha, "Face Recognition Based Attendance


Marking System", IJCSMC, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, February 2014.

8. Yohei KAWAGUCHI, Tetsuo SHOJI, Weijane LIN, Koh KAKUSHO, Michihiko


MINOH, "Face Recognition-based Lecture Attendance System", Oct 2014.

9. Shireesha Chintalapati, M.V. Raghunadh, "Automated Attendance Management System


Based On Face Recognition Algorithms", IEEE International Conference on Computational
Intelligence and Computing Research, 2013.

10. B. K. Mohamed and C. Raghu, “Fingerprint attendance system for classroom needs,”
India Conference (INDICON), Annual IEEE, pp. 433–438, 2012.

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