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# Lec 1.

Control Systems

• What is control?
– Use of algorithms and feedback to affect the operation
of physical objects of interest (systems) to achieve
some desired performance

Input output
Physical Objects:
Plant, Process, System

## Turning on/off heater/cooler to maintain the room temperature at

a pre-specified level

## Similar examples: Cruise control of cars (maintaining constant speed)

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Example: Robotic Arm

Control the voltage applied on the motors so that the robot hand
moves along a specified trajectory (and grasp some object)

## Example: Air Traffic Control

National airspace

Air traffic controllers give directions for pilots so that aircraft can arrive at their
destinations in time and safely.

## Similar example: Internet congestion control

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Some Observations
• Control is everywhere
– Other examples: electrical, mechanical, ecological, and financial
systems

## • Physical process under control can be very complicated

– Air traffic control example
– Bioengineering example

## • Often need to work in adverse situations

– Environmental noises
– Part failure
– Human errors, etc

## Two Perspectives of Systems

• Black box
– Learn by training
– Example: adaptive neural network, fuzzy logic, expert systems
– Advantage: no need of physical understanding
– Disadvantage: hard to analyze, not suitable for high performance sys.

## • Model-based (this course)

– Build a math model to relate the system input and output
– Advantage: easy to analyze, high performance
– Disadvantage: physical models not always available

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Example: Satellite

gas jet

## (courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

Suppose that the antennas of the satellite need to point to the earth.
Thus the satellite can only rotate around a particular axis

Satellite is a system
Input: A force F can be generated by reaction jet, which is controllable
Output: orientation of the satellite is given by the angle θ

## Newton’s Second Law:

gas jet

Angular acceleration
Total torque Moment of interia

## Take Laplace transform (assuming

Torque generated by the thrust F: zero initial condition)

## System model (frequency domain):

System model (time domain):
i.e., transfer function:

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Example: Servomotor System
armature
resistance
Basic motor properties:
Generated torque proportional
to current:

## Motor voltage proportional to

shaft angular velocity:
friction B

## Servo System is an electro-mechanical system

Input: voltage source e(t), which can be controlled
Output: shaft angular position θ(t)

## Basic circuit properties (KVL): Newton law:

DC motor model
System model (time domain):

## System model (frequency domain):

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• For a given system, adjust the input signal in a
proper manner to achieve, e.g.,
– Faster transient response
– Disturbance rejection
– Low sensitivity to model error

## Open Loop vs. Closed Loop Control

Open Loop Control

Input output
Physical Objects
Controller
Plant, Process, System

## Closed Loop (Feedback) Control

Input output
Physical Objects
Controller
Plant, Process, System

Using output to help determine the controlled input (emphasis of this course)

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Control = Sensing + Computation + Actuation

Actuate Sensing
(gas pedal) (speedometer)

Computation
(human controller)

## We will focus on computation part.

Sensing and Actuation parts will be covered by other courses

noises noises

## Actuators System Sensors

process
y(t)
ū(t)
Digital controller
Data hold
y(kT )
u(kT ) D/A Computer A/D k = 0, 1, . . .
k = 0, 1, . . .

• The signal that the digital controller bases its decision on is sampled at
discrete time
• The command the digital controller sends to actuators is also discrete time

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Antenna Pointing System
Voltage proportional to desired angle

Difference Power
Amplifier Amplifier Motor θ
Vi
+ Vi − Vo K1
K s(s+a)

Vo
Data Hold Digital Shaft Encoder
Voltage proportional to angle θ
Binary code

Course Content
• Digital System Modeling
– How to construct math model of a digital system?

## • Digital Control System Analysis

– How does system output change under certain inputs?

## • Digital Controller Design

– How to design digital controller so that the system
output behaves desirably?