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GHG DEFINITIONS - FOR REFERENCE ONLY

Greenhouse gas (GHG)


GHG emission
GHG removal
GHG reduction
GHG source
GHG sink

GHG reservoir
GHG SSR

Controlled GHG SSR

Related GHG SSR

Affected GHG SSR

Baseline scenario

GHG project
Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)

Global warming potential (GWP)

GHG PROJECT PRINCIPLES - FOR REFERENCE ONLY

GHG project principles

Relevance

Completeness
Consistency
Accuracy

Transparency

Conservativeness
gaseous constituent of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorbs and emits radiation at
specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, the atmosphere,
and clouds
NOTE GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
total mass of a GHG released to the atmosphere over a specified period of time
total mass of a GHG removed from the atmosphere over a specified period of time
calculated decrease of GHG emissions between a baseline scenario and the project
physical unit or process that releases a GHG into the atmosphere
physical unit or process that removes a GHG from the atmosphere

physical unit or component of the biosphere, geosphere or hydrosphere with the capability to store or accumulate a GHG remo
greenhouse gas sink or a GHG captured from a greenhouse gas source.
NOTE 1 The total mass of carbon contained in a GHG reservoir at a specified point in time could be referred to as the carbon st
NOTE 2 A GHG reservoir can transfer greenhouse gases to another GHG reservoir
NOTE 3 The collection of a GHG from a GHG source before it enters the atmosphere and storage of the collected GHG in a GHG
as GHG capture and storage.
GHG source, sink or reservoir

GHG source, sink or reservoir whose operation is under the direction and influence of the greenhouse gas
project proponent (2.13) through financial, policy, management or other instruments
NOTE A controlled GHG source, sink or reservoir is generally on the project site.

GHG source, sink or reservoir that has material or energy flows into, out of, or within the project
NOTE 1 A related GHG source, sink or reservoir is generally upstream or downstream from the project, and can be either
on or off the project site.
NOTE 2 A related GHG source, sink or reservoir also may include activities related to design, construction and
decommissioning of a project.

GHG source, sink or reservoir influenced by a project activity, through changes in market demand or supply for
associated products or services, or through physical displacement
NOTE 1 While related GHG sources, sinks or reservoirs are physically linked to a GHG project, affected GHG sources,
sinks or reservoirs are only linked to a GHG project by changes due to market demand and supply.
NOTE 2 An affected GHG source, sink or reservoir is generally off the project site.
NOTE 3 GHG emission reductions or removal enhancements offset by affected GHG sources, sinks or reservoirs are often
referred to as leakage.

hypothetical reference case that best represents the conditions most likely to occur in the absence of a proposed greenhouse g
determined using a project-specific approach represents what would occur in the absence of the project, whereas a GHG progr
approach to determine the baseline scenario, such as a performance standard.

activity or activities that alter the conditions identified in the baseline scenario which cause greenhouse
gas emission reductions or greenhouse gas removal enhancements
unit for comparing the radiative forcing of a GHG to carbon dioxide
NOTE 1 The carbon dioxide equivalent is calculated using the mass of a given GHG multiplied by its global warming
potential.
NOTE 2 Annex B contains global warming potentials produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

factor describing the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit of a given GHG relative to an equivalent
unit of carbon dioxide over a given period of time

ENCE ONLY

The application of principles is fundamental to ensure that GHG-related information is a true and fair account.
The principles are the basis for, and will guide the application of, requirements in this part of ISO 14064.
Select the GHG sources, GHG sinks, GHG reservoirs, data and methodologies appropriate to the needs of the
intended user.
Include all relevant GHG emissions and removals. Include all relevant information to support criteria and
procedures.
Enable meaningful comparisons in GHG-related information.
Reduce bias and uncertainties as far as is practical.
Disclose sufficient and appropriate GHG-related information to allow intended users to make decisions with
reasonable confidence.
Use conservative assumptions, values and procedures to ensure that GHG emission reductions or removal
enhancements are not over-estimated.
CAN/CSA-ISO 14064-2
CAN/CSA-ISO 14064-2
GHG EMISSION FACTORS - FOR REFERENCE ONLY

Index

Topic Description
Further guidance on GHG calculations including equatio
List of Additional Reference Sources
Guidance How to calculate CO2e emission factors; global warming
Materials Production Emission Factors Emission factors for equipment components and constru
Grid Electricity Emission Factors by Province Current and forecast emission factors for grid electricity
Natural Gas Combustion Emission Factors Emission factors for natural gas combustion by province
Natural Gas Liquids Combustion Emission Factors Emission factors for combustion of propane, butane, an
Other Combustion Emission Factors Emission factors for combustion of other fuels, e.g., dies
Fuel Extraction, Production, and Distribution Emission Factors Emission factors for upstream emissions from productio
Mobile Combustion and Freight Emission Factors Emission factors for vehicles and freight delivery (truck,
Heating Values Heating values of fuels.
Equipment Efficiencies and Emission Factors Equipment efficiencies that should be used in calculation
Unit Conversion Factors Factors for common units conversions.
Biomass Emission Factors Emission factors for combustion of biomass

Additional Reference Sources


The reference sources listed below provide guidance on GHG calculations including equations and emission factors. If an em
contained in one of these references.

Reference Source Description

Working Group I: Climate Change 2013 - The Physical Science


IPCC Fifth Assessment Report WG1 Chapter 8 All the information on the different drivers (natural and anthr

The table includes the 100-year time horizon global warming


GHG Protocol - Global Warming Potentials
Assessment Report, 2014 (AR5) is recommended.

National Inventory Report 1990-2016: Greenhouse Gas Sources and SinksCanada's


in Canadasubmission to the United Nations Framework Conve
Additional details on sector-specific methodologies for the us

The Carbon Offset Emission Factors Handbook contains a listi


Alberta Carbon Offset Emission Factors Handbook intended as inputs to formulae provided in approved quantifi
EFDB is meant to be a recognised library, where users can fin
IPCC Emission Factor Database responsibility of using this information appropriately will alw

This document was designed to provide organizations with a


EPA Center for Corporate Climate Leadership GHG Emission Factors Hub EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and the Center's te
electricity emission factors from EPA's Emissions & Generatio

GHGenius is a free to download lifecycle analysis (LCA) mode


GHGenius many regions spanning the globe. GHGenius is often used as

Ecoinvent is the world's leading LCI database which delivers b


Ecoinvent emission factors for materials and products not covered in ot

Idemat (short for Industrial Design & Engineering MATerials d


Idemat Design Engineering. It contains emission factors for materials

SimaPro SimaPro is the leading LCA software package, with a 25-year r

A National Inventory of Greenhouse Gas (GHG), Criteria


CAPP methodologies and emission factors for oil and gas equi

Guidance
The emission factors contained in this sheet may be separated into emission factors for different greenhouse gases, i.e. sep
carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) when used in GHG calculations. This requires multiplying the emission factor by the globa

AR5 GWPs Global Warming Potential


CO2 1
CH4 28
N2O 265

Additional GWPs may be found here: https://www.ghgprotocol.org/sites/default/files/ghgp/G

Example - Average Canadian Residential Natural Gas Combustion Emission Factor


CO2 Emission Factor 1,895
CH4 Emission Factor 0.037
N2O Emission Factor 0.035
CO2e Emission Factor 1,906

Materials Production Emission Factors

Emission factors for commonly used materials are summarized below. Additional emission factors may be found in the follo
Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Version 2.0
Idemat App for Materials Selection

Material Emission Factor

Metals

Virgin Carbon Steel 1.6


Recycled Carbon Steel 0.9
Virgin High Strength Steel 1.9
Virgin Stainless Steel 3.3

General Steel 1.5

Iron 3.1

Market Aluminum (Virgin + Recycled) 5.2

Virgin Aluminum 11.3


Recycled Aluminum 2.2

Market Brass (Virgin + Recycled) 2.6

Bronze 4.0

Market Copper (Virgin + Recycled) 3.1

Virgin Copper 3.5


Recycled Copper 2.5
Titanium 9.0
Nickel 19.6
Lithium 54.1

Market Lead (Virgin + Recycled) 0.8

Virgin Lead 2.0

Recycled Lead 0.1


Plastics

General 3.3

ABS 3.8

HDPE 1.9

HDPE Pipe 2.5

LDPE 2.1

LDPE Film 2.6

Nylon (Polyamide) 6 Polymer 9.1

Polycarbonate 7.6

Polypropylene 4.5

Polystyrene 3.4

Polyurethane Foam 4.6

PVC 3.1

PVC Pipe 3.2

Miscellaneous Materials
Glass 1.4
Rubber 10.3
Wood Products
Fibreboard 1.62
MDF 2.25
CCA wood 0.04
Construction Materials

Crushed Rock (Aggregate) 0.0052

Sand 0.0051

Asphalt 0.066
Bricks 0.24

A Single Brick 0.55

Cement 0.9
Concrete 0.3
Limestone 0.7

Grid Electricity Emission Factors by Province


Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada, Strategic Policy Branch, Economic Analysis Directorate, Analysis and Mo
Grid emissions intensity is defined as: [(utility generation emissions) + (industrial net sales to grid by sector)*(industrial elec
Not included in this calculation: non-combustion emissions from electricity transmission (sulfer hexafluouride); electricity im

Grid emission intensity (tCO2e/MWh) 2018

Alberta 0.69
British Columbia 0.0117
Manitoba 0.0022
New Brunswick 0.29
Newfoundland (Island) 0.18
Northwest Territory 0.23
Nova Scotia 0.66
Nunavut 0.66
Ontario 0.04
Prince Edward Island 0.29
Quebec 0.0117
Saskatchewan 0.74
Yukon Territory 0.14

Natural Gas Combustion Emission Factors


Source: Canada's National Inventory Report, 1990-2016, Part 2.

Natural Gas - CO2 Emission Factors

CO2 Emission Factor,


Marketable
(g/m3)
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,901
Nova Scotia 1,901
New Brunswick 1,901
Quebec 1,887
Ontario 1,888
Manitoba 1,886
Saskatchewan 1,829
Alberta 1,928
British Columbia 1,926
Yukon 1,901
Northwest Territories 1,901
Canada Average (NG Availability) 1,895

Natural Gas - CH4 and N2O Emission Factors


CH4 Emission Factor
(g/m3)
Electric Utilities 0.49
Industrial 0.037
Producer Raw Gas Consumption 6.4
Pipelines 1.9
Cement 0.037
Manufacturing Industries 0.037
Residential, Commercial/Institutional, Agriculture 0.037

Renewable Natural Gas

CH4 and N2O Emission factors are the same as for natural gas
Electric Utilities
Industrial
Producer Raw Gas Consumption
Pipelines
Cement
Manufacturing Industries
Residential, Commercial/Institutional, Agriculture

Natural Gas Liquids Combustion Emission Factors


Source: Canada's National Inventory Report, 1990-2016, Part 2.
CO2 Emission Factor
(g/L)
Propane
Residential 1,515
All Other Uses 1,515
Ethane 986
Butane 1,747

Other Combustion Emission Factors


Source: Canada's National Inventory Report, 1990-2016, Part 2.

CO2 Emission Factor


(g/L)
Light Fuel Oil
Electric Utilities 2,753
Industrial 2,753
Producer Consumption 2,670
Residential 2,753
Forestry, Construction, Commercial/Institutional, Other 2,753
Heavy Fuel Oil
Electric Utilities 3,156
Industrial 3,156
Producer Consumption 3,190
Forestry, Construction, Commercial/Institutional, Other 3,156
Kerosene
Electric Utilities 2,560
Industrial 2,560
Producer Consumption 2,560
Residential 2,560
Forestry, Construction, Commercial/Institutional, Other 2,560
Diesel - Refineries and Others 2,681
Diesel - Upgraders 2,681
Petroleum Coke - Upgrading Facilities 3,494
Petroleum Coke - Refineries and Others 3,826
Still Gas - Refineries and Others 2.1
Still Gas - Upgraders 2.1
Motor Gasoline 2,307

Refer to Canada's National Inventory Report, 1990-2016, Part 2:


- Table A6-8 for coal emission factors by province.
- Table A6-11 for emission factors for cement industry waste fuel.
- Table A6-13 for emission factors for mineral products (cement, limestone, etc.)

Fuel Extraction, Production, and Distribution Emission Factors


Source: GHGenius v5.0d

These emission factors can be used to estimate upstream emissions associated with extracting, processing/refining, and de
Upstream Fuel Production & Delivery Emission Factors

Fuel Emission Factor

Coal 144.5
Gasoline 0.719
Diesel 0.843
Fuel Oil 0.612
Jet Fuel 0.705
LPG 0.300
LNG 689.8
Natural Gas 0.361
CNG from Landfill Gas (Canada Average)
0.352

CNG from Anaerobic Digestion (Canada Average)


0.670

Emissions associated with RNG production vary by province, due


to differences in grid electricity factors, emissions displaced by co-
products have been excluded. RNG from Anaerobic Digestion
(kg-CO2e/m3)

Manitoba 0.400
British Columbia 0.391
Alberta 1.781
Saskatchewan 1.559
Ontario 0.520
Quebec 0.384
Atlantic Canada 0.752

Mobile Combustion and Freight Emission Factors


Source: Canada's National Inventory Report, 1990-2016, Part 2. Table A6-12.

These emission factors may be used where the volume of fuel CO2 Emission Factor (g/L)
consumed is known.
Road Transport
Gasoline Vehicles
Light Duty Gasoline Vehicles 2,307
Light Duty Gasoline Trucks 2,307
Heavy Duty Gasoline Vehicles 2,307
Motorcycles 2,307
Diesel Vehicles
Light Duty Diesel Vehicles 2,681
Light Duty Diesel Trucks 2,681
Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles 2,681
Natural Gas Vehicles 1.9
Propane Vehicles 1,515
Off-road Transport
Off-road Gasoline 2,307

Off-road Diesel 2,681

Off-road Natural Gas 1.9


Off-road Propane 1,515
Diesel Locomotive 2,681
Marine
Gasoline 2,307
Diesel 2,681
Light Fuel Oil 2,753
Heavy Fuel Oil 3,156
Kerosene 2,560
Aviation
Gasoline 2,365
Turbo Fuel 2,560
Renewable Fuels
Ethanol 1,508
Biodiesel 2,472

Source: GHGenius v5.0d

These emission factors may be used where the volume of fuel CO2e Emission Factor
consumed is unknown but distance travelled is known. (g-CO2e/km)

Light Duty Vehicles


Gasoline 171
Gasoline Hybrid 105
Natural Gas 144
Propane 149
Diesel 164
E10 165
Heavy Duty Vehicles
Diesel 1106
Gasoline 1341
Natural Gas 975
LNG / Diesel (95/5) 857

Freight Emissions

These emission factors should be used for calculating GHGs from CO2e Emission Factor
freight (materials delivery, shipment of product to market, etc.) (g-CO2e/tonne-km)

Medium Duty Truck


Diesel 428
Gasoline 519
Natural Gas 377
LNG 326
Heavy Duty Truck
Diesel 135
LNG 103
Rail
Diesel 14.7
LNG 11.9
Marine Liquids and Bulk
Fuel Oil/Diesel 4.3
LNG 3.6
Marine Cargo and Containers
Fuel Oil/Diesel 15.1
LNG 12.8
Aviation
Jet Fuel 1014.5

Heating Values

Appendix 10 - ON.20 General Stationary Combustion (Page 96) Table 20-1: Default High Heat Value by Fuel Type
Liquid Fuels High Heat Value
Asphalt & Road Oil 44.46
Aviation Gasoline 33.52
Diesel 38.3
Aviation Turbo Fuel 37.4
Kerosene 37.68
LPG 25.66
LNG 24.22
Ethane 18.91
Butane 28.8
Lubricants 39.16
Motor Gasoline - Off-Road 35
Light Fuel Oil 38.8
Heavy Fuel Oil 42.5
Crude Oil 38.32
Naphtha 35.17
Petrochemical Feedstocks 35.17
Petroleum Coke - Refinery Use 46.35
Petroleum Coke – Upgrader Use 40.57
Ethanol (100%) 21.04
Biodiesel (100%) 32.06
Rendered Animal Fat 31.05
Vegetable Oil 30.05

Solid Fuels High Heat Value


Anthracite Coal 27.7
Bituminous Coal 26.33
Foreign Bituminous Coal 29.82
Sub-Bituminous Coal 19.15
Lignite 15
Coal Coke 28.83
Solid Wood Waste (dry, 0% moisture) 19.2
Spent Pulping Liquor 14
Municipal Solid Waste 11.57
Tires 31.18
Agricultural byproducts 8.6
Solid byproducts 26.93

Gaseous Fuels High Heat Value


Natural Gas and Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) 0.038
Coke Oven Gas 0.01914
Still Gas – Refineries 0.03608
Still Gas – Upgraders 0.04324

Equipment Efficiencies and Emission Factors

Baseline equipment efficiencies should be based on industry standard practice and must at least meet the minimum effic
https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-standards/6861
The page above contains efficiency regulations for water heaters, household appliances, heating and air conditioning eq
Efficiencies for specific models can be searched for at the link below.
http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/pml-lmp/index.cfm?action=app.welcome-bienvenue
Gas Furnaces, < 117.23 kW (400,000 Btu/h)
an automatic operating gas-fired central forced air furnace that uses propane or natural gas and has an input rate of not m
Size / input rate Product Type
Gas furnaces without an integrated cooling component
Outdoor furnaces with an integrated cooling componen
≤ 65.92 kW (225 000 Btu/h) using single-phase electric current
Through-the-wall furnaces with an integrated cooling co

≤ 65.92 kW (225 000 Btu/h) using three-phase electric current All 3 types above
> 65.92 kW (225 000 Btu/h) but ≤ 117.23 kW
(400 000 Btu/h) All 3 types above
AFUE = Annual Fuel Use Efficiency
TE = Thermal Efficiency

Boilers
a boiler that uses propane or natural gas, that is intended for application in a low pressure steam, or hot water, central hea
Product Type
Gas hot water
Gas hot water equipped with tankless domestic water heating coils
Gas steam
AFUE = Annual Fuel Use Efficiency

Small-scale Electricity Generation


Generator Type Emission Factor
Diesel Genset 0.87
Natural Gas Genset 0.67

Heat rates for large-scale natural gas generation: https://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/html/epa_08_0


EE regulations for chillers: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-stan
EE regulations for electric water heaters: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-stan
EE regulations for gas water heaters: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-stan
EE regulations for air conditioners, heat pumps, and condensing
units: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-stan

Common Conversion Factors

Prefixes and Equivalents

Prefixes Equivalent to
k (kilo) 1E+03
M (mega) 1E+06
G (giga) 1E+09
T (tera) 1E+12
P (peta) 1E+15
E (exa) 1E+18

Distance

Unit Equivalent to
1.0 Metres (m) 3.2808
1.0 Metres (m) 1.00E-03
1.0 Metres (m) 0.00062137
1.0 Feet (ft) 0.3048
1.0 Feet (ft) 0.0003048
1.0 Feet (ft) 0.00018939
1.0 Kilometres (km) 3280.8399
1.0 Kilometres (km) 1,000
1.0 Kilometres (km) 0.6214
1.0 Miles (mi) 5,280
1.0 Miles (mi) 1.60934
1.0 Miles (mi) 1,609.34

Area

Unit Equivalent to
1.0 Hectares 2.4711
1.0 Hectares 0.003861
1.0 Acres 0.4047
1.0 Acres 0.0015625
1.0 Square miles (sq mi) 640
1.0 Square miles (sq mi) 258.9988

Volume

Unit Equivalent to
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) 6.2898
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) 1,000
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) 219.9692
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) 264.1721
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) (@ 101.325 kPaa and 15° C) 35.3147
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas (@ 14.73 psia and 60° F) 0.028317
1.0 US Gallons 0.0238
1.0 US Gallons 0.8327
1.0 US Gallons 3.7854
1.0 US Gallons 0.0037854
1.0 Litres (l) 0.22
1.0 Litres (l) 0.0062898
1.0 Litres (l) 0.2642
1.0 Litres (l) 0.001
1.0 Imperial gallons 4.5461
1.0 Imperial gallons 0.0286
1.0 Imperial gallons 1.201
1.0 Imperial gallons 0.0045461
1.0 Barrels (bbl) 0.159
1.0 Barrels (bbl) 158.9873
1.0 Barrels (bbl) 34.9723
1.0 Barrels (bbl) 42

Weight & Mass

Unit Equivalent to
1.0 Kilograms (kg) 0.001
1.0 Kilograms (kg) 2.2046
1.0 Tonnes (t) 1,000
1.0 Tonnes (t) 2,204.62
1.0 Pounds (lb) 0.4536
1.0 Pounds (lb) 0.00045359

Vehicle Mileage

Unit Equivalent to
1.0 Kilometres/Litre (km/l) 2.3522
1.0 Miles/Gallon (mi/gal) 0.4252

Energy Terms

Unit Equivalent to
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ) 0.9478
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ) 277.7778
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ) 0.2778
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ) 947.8171
1.0 Gigajoules (GJ) 26.853
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu) 1055100000
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu) 1.0551
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu) 293.0711
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu) 0.2931
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu) 1,000
1.0 Million British thermal units (MMBtu) 28.3278
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) 3600000
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) 0.0036
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) 0.0034121
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) 0.001
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) 0.000001
1.0 Kilowatt-hours (kWh) 0.000000001
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MWh) 3600000000
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MWh) 3.6
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MWh) 3.4122
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MWh) 1000
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MWh) 1.00E-03
1.0 Megawatt-hours (MWh) 0.000001
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) 3600000000000
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) 3,600
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) 3,412.14
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) 1000000
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) 1,000
1.0 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) 0.001
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas 0.0010551
1.0 Cubic feet (cf) natural gas 0.001
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas 0.0373
1.0 Cubic metres (m³) natural gas 0.0353
1.0 Therms (thm) 100000
1.0 Therms (thm) 0.1

Biomass Emission Factors


Source: 2018 Canada's National Inventory Report, 1990-2016, Part 2.
Table A6-34
Description

Wood Fuel / Wood Waste Industrial Combustion


Forest Wildfires Open Combustion
Controlled Burning Open Combustion
Spent Pulping Liquor Industrial Combustion
Stoves and Fireplaces Residential Combustion
Conventional Stoves
Conventional Fireplaces and Inserts
Stoves/Fireplaces with Advanced Technology
or Catalytic Control
Pellet Stove
Other Wood-burning Equipment

Notes:
NA = not applicable
1. CO2 emissions from biomass combusted for energy or agricultural purposes are not included in inventory totals, wherea

2. Emission ratio for CH4 is 1/90th CO2. See NIR (2018), Section A3.4 in Annex 3.
3. Emission ratio for N2O is 0.017% CO2. See NIR (2018), Section A3.4 in Annex 3.
4. Adapted from U.S. EPA (2003).
5. Adapted from NCASI (2010).
6. Adapted from IPCC (2006).
NA=not applicable
n GHG calculations including equations and emission factors.
2
e emission factors; global warming potentials that should be used.
equipment components and construction materials.
t emission factors for grid electricity by province.
natural gas combustion by province and sector.
combustion of propane, butane, and ethane.
combustion of other fuels, e.g., diesel, gasoline, propane, etc.
upstream emissions from production of fuels.
vehicles and freight delivery (truck, marine, air).
els.
ies that should be used in calculations.
units conversions.
combustion of biomass

ations and emission factors. If an emission factor needed for GHG calculations is not provided on this tab, it may be

ate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis, Chapter 8: Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing
the different drivers (natural and anthropogenic) of climate change is collected, expressed in terms of Radiative Forcing and assessed in Chapter 8

e 100-year time horizon global warming potentials (GWP) relative to CO 2. It is adapted from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, 2014 (AR5). Use of the la
014 (AR5) is recommended.

to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Part 2 Annex 6: Emission Factors summarizes the development and selection
sector-specific methodologies for the use of these factors are presented in Annex 3.

ission Factors Handbook contains a listing of common emission factors used in the Alberta carbon offset system, as well as common quantification meth
formulae provided in approved quantification protocols.
recognised library, where users can find emission factors and other parameters with background documentation or technical references that can be use
this information appropriately will always remain with the users themselves.

esigned to provide organizations with a regularly updated and easy-to-use set of default emission factors for organizational greenhouse gas reporting. Th
s Reporting Program and the Center's technical guidance. The most recent version of the Emission Factors Hub (March 2018) includes updates to emissio
ctors from EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID).

download lifecycle analysis (LCA) model with a primary focus on transportation fuels in Canada. To accomplish this it includes data for activities ranging
g the globe. GHGenius is often used as a source of emission factors for upstream extraction and production of fossil fuels and alternative fuels. The lates

's leading LCI database which delivers both in terms of transparency and consistency. The ecoinvent database provides well documented process data fo
materials and products not covered in other sources (e.g. construction materials, plastics, agricultural materials, chemicals, metals, etc.). The database ca

ustrial Design & Engineering MATerials database) is the LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) set of databases of the Delft University of Technology and maintained by
contains emission factors for materials, plastics, metals, etc. - similar to Ecoinvent. Free emission factor spreadsheet available online.

g LCA software package, with a 25-year reputation in industry and academia in more than 80 countries. Requires a purchased license.

y of Greenhouse Gas (GHG), Criteria Air Contaminant (CAC) and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Emissions by the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry,
emission factors for oil and gas equipment, including emissions from combustion, fugitives, venting.

different greenhouse gases, i.e. separate factors are provided for CO 2, CH4, and N2O. These factors should be converted to
ying the emission factor by the global warming potentials for the applicable greenhouse gas.

otocol.org/sites/default/files/ghgp/Global-Warming-Potential-Values%20%28Feb%2016%202016%29_1.pdf

g/m3
g/m3
g/m3
g/m3

ion factors may be found in the following references:

Units Reference Notes

kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d


kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Estimated from the UK's mixture of steel typ
Version 2.0 stainless steel.
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

kg-CO2e/kg Worldwide average of 33% recycled content.


Calculation Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Version 2
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Worldwide average of 37% recycled content.


Calculation Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Version 2
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

kg-CO2e/kg Worldwide average of 61% recycled content.


Calculation Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Version 2
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d


Average of plastics used in the European con
kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), industry. Use this emission factor if another f
Version 2.0 type of plastic used is not available.

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Value for injection moulded PP products.
Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Average of factors for flexible and rigid foam
Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d


kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

kg-CO2e/kg Idematapp 2018


kg-CO2e/kg Idematapp 2018
kg-CO2e/kg Idematapp 2018

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),


Version 2.0

4% (bitumen) binder by mass. Emission Facto


kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), percentages of binder may be found in the re
Version 2.0 source.
kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE),
Version 2.0

kg-CO2e/kg Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE), Assumes a single brick weighs 2.4 kg.
Version 2.0
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d
kg-CO2e/kg GHGenius v5.0d

nalysis Directorate, Analysis and Modelling Division


les to grid by sector)*(industrial electricity generation emissions factor) ]/ grid electricity consumption
n (sulfer hexafluouride); electricity imports are de-facto treated as zero-emitting due to accounting framework; no emissions are removed fo

2019 2020 2021

0.68 0.66 0.63


0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.0022 0.0022 0.0022
0.29 0.30 0.30
0.18 0.17 0.07
0.23 0.24 0.24
0.66 0.59 0.55
0.44 0.45 0.45
0.04 0.04 0.04
0.29 0.30 0.30
0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.73 0.64 0.61
0.14 0.05 0.08

CO2 Emission Factor, Raw Gas


(g/m3) NOTE: Raw gas is unprocessed gas used by
oil and gas producers.
2,494
2,494
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2,441
2,392
2,162
2,401
2,466
2,407

N2O Emission Factor CO2e Emission Factor


(g/m3) (g/m3)
0.049 26.705
0.033 9.781
0.06 195.1
0.05 66.45
0.034 10.046
0.033 9.781
0.035 10.311

CO2 Emission Factor Biogenic CO2 Emission Factor CH4 Emission Factor
(g/m3) (g/m3) (g/m3)

0 1,895 0.49
0 1,895 0.037
0 1,895 6.4
0 1,895 1.9
0 1,895 0.037
0 1,895 0.037
0 1,895 0.037

CH4 Emission Factor N2O Emission Factor CO2e Emission Factor


(g/L) (g/L) (g/L)

0.027 0.108 1,544


0.024 0.108 1,544
0.024 0.108 1,015
0.024 0.108 1,776

CH4 Emission Factor N2O Emission Factor CO2e Emission Factor


(g/L) (g/L) (g/L)

0.18 0.031 2,766


0.006 0.031 2,761
0.006 0.031 2,678
0.026 0.006 2,755
0.026 0.031 2,762

0.034 0.064 3,174


0.12 0.064 3,176
0.12 0.064 3,210
0.057 0.064 3,175

0.006 0.031 2,568


0.006 0.031 2,568
0.006 0.031 2,568
0.026 0.006 2,562
0.026 0.031 2,569
0.133 0.4 2,791
0.151 1.1 2,977
0.12 0.024 3,504
0.12 0.0275 3,837
0.031 0.00002 3.00
0.0389 0.00002 3.23
0.1 0.02 2,315

on Factors

racting, processing/refining, and delivery/transmission of fuels to the fuel distributor.


Units

kg-CO2e/tonne Coal
kg-CO2e/L Gasoline
kg-CO2e/L Diesel
kg-CO2e/L Fuel Oil
kg-CO2e/L Jet Fuel
kg-CO2e/L LPG
kg-CO2e/tonne LNG
kg-CO2e/m3 Natural Gas

CNG from Landfill Gas


kg-CO2e/m3

CNG from Anaerobic


Digestion
kg-CO2e/m3

RNG from Landfill Gas


(kg-CO2e/m3)

0.237 Manitoba
0.233 British Columbia
0.817 Alberta
0.724 Saskatchewan
0.287 Ontario
0.229 Quebec
0.384 Atlantic Canada

N2O Emission Factor CO2e Emission Factor


CH4 Emission Factor (g/L)
(g/L) (g/L)
0.14 0.022 2,317
0.14 0.022 2,317
0.29 0.047 2,328
0.77 0.041 2,339

0.051 0.22 2,741


0.068 0.22 2,741
0.11 0.151 2,724
0.009 0.00006 2.2
0.64 0.028 1,540

5.08 0.064 2,466

0.073
0.022 2,689
0.0088 0.000066 2.2
0.64 0.087 1,556
0.15 1 2,950

0.22 0.063 2,330


0.25 0.072 2,707
0.26 0.073 2,780
0.29 0.082 3,186
0.25 0.071 2,586

2.2 0.23 2,488


0.029 0.071 2,580

0.14 0.022 1,518


0.11 0.151 2,515
gh Heat Value by Fuel Type
Units Source
MJ/L Guideline for Quantification, Reporting and Verification for GHG Emissions November 20
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L

Units Source
GJ/tonne Guideline for Quantification, Reporting and Verification for GHG Emissions November 20
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne
GJ/tonne

Source
GJ/m3 Guideline for Quantification, Reporting and Verification for GHG Emissions November 20
GJ/m3
GJ/m3
GJ/m3

must at least meet the minimum efficiency standards set out in federal regulations.

ces, heating and air conditioning equipment, lighting, electronics, other energy using products.
al gas and has an input rate of not more than 117.23 kW (400,000 Btu/h)
Minimum AFUE Minimum TE
ut an integrated cooling component 90%
ith an integrated cooling component 78%
rnaces with an integrated cooling component
90%
78% 80%

80%

ure steam, or hot water, central heating system and has an input rate of less than 88 kW (300 000 Btu/h)
Minimum AFUE
82%
82%
80%

Units
t CO2e/MWh
t CO2e/MWh

v/electricity/annual/html/epa_08_02.html
gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-standards/products/6953
gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-standards/products/6951
gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-standards/products/6901

gc.ca/energy/regulations-codes-standards/products/6881

Source
National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Source
Feet (ft) National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Kilometres (km)
Miles (mi)
Metres (m)
Kilometres (km)
Miles (mi)
Feet (ft)
Metres (m)
Miles (mi)
Feet (ft)
Kilometres (km)
Metres (m)

Source
Acres National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Square miles (sq mi)
Hectares
Square miles (sq mi)
Acres
Hectares

Source
Barrels (bbl) National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Litres (L)
Imperial gallons
US Gallons
Cubic feet (cf) natural gas (@ 14.73 psia and 60° F)
Cubic metres (m³) (@ 101.325 kPaa and 15° C)
Barrels (bbl)
Imperial gallons
Litres (L)
Cubic metres (m³)
Imperial gallons
Barrels (bbl)
US Gallons
Cubic metres (m³)
Litres (L)
Barrels (bbl)
US Gallons
Cubic metres (m³)
Cubic metres (m³)
Litres (L)
Imperial gallons
US Gallons

Source
Tonnes (t) National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Pounds (lb)
Kilograms (kg)
Pounds (lb)
Kilograms (kg)
Tonnes (t)

Source
Miles/Gallon (mi/gal) National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Kilometres/Litre (km/L)

Source
Million British thermal units (MMBtu) National Energy Board (NEB) Energy Conversion Tables
Kilowatt-hours (kWh)
Megawatt-hours (MWh)
Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
Cubic metres (m³) natural gas
Joules (J)
Gigajoules (GJ)
Kilowatt-hours (kWh)
Megawatt-hours (MWh)
Cubic feet (cf) natural gas
Cubic metres (m³)
Joules (J)
Gigajoules (GJ)thermal units
Million British
(MMBtu)
Megawatt-hours (MWh)
Gigawatt-hours (GWh)
Terawatt-hours (TWh)
Joules (J)
Gigajoules (GJ)thermal units
Million British
(MMBtu)
Kilowatt-hours (kWh)
Gigawatt-hours (GWh)
Terawatt-hours (TWh)
Joules (J)
Gigajoules (GJ)thermal units
Million British
(MMBtu)
Kilowatt-hours (kWh)
Megawatt-hours (MWh)
Terawatt-hours (TWh)
Gigajoules (GJ)
Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
Gigajoules (GJ)
Million British thermal units (MMBtu)
British thermal units (Btu)
Million British thermal units (MMBtu)

Emission Factor (g/kg fuel)


CO2 (biogenic) CH4 N2O
840 0.09 0.06
NA NA NA
NA NA NA
891 0.02 0.02

1 539 12.9 0.12


1 539 12.9 0.12
1 539 5.9 0.12

1 652 4.12 0.059


1 539 4.12 0.059

included in inventory totals, whereas CH4 and N2O emissions from these sources are inventoried under the Energy Sector. All greenhouse
nd assessed in Chapter 8

ort, 2014 (AR5). Use of the latest global warming potential values published in IPCC Fifth

he development and selection of emission factors for use in estimating GHG emissions.

common quantification methodologies. Common emission factors, provided in section 1, are


cal references that can be used for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and removals. The

greenhouse gas reporting. The document includes updated emission factors collated from both
8) includes updates to emission factors for business travel and product transport, and new

des data for activities ranging from crop production, to power generation, to tailpipe emissions in
and alternative fuels. The latest version of GHGenius is 5.0d.

ll documented process data for thousands of products. The database is useful for finding
metals, etc.). The database can be searched with a free account.

Technology and maintained by the Design for Sustainability Group of the faculty of Industrial
able online.

ed license.

ream Oil and Gas Industry, Volume 3 Methodology for Greenhouse Gases. Contains
he UK's mixture of steel types, excluding

ge of 33% recycled content. Source:


on & Energy (ICE), Version 2.0

ge of 37% recycled content. Source:


on & Energy (ICE), Version 2.0

ge of 61% recycled content. Source:


on & Energy (ICE), Version 2.0
s used in the European construction
emission factor if another factor for the
ed is not available.

n moulded PP products.

s for flexible and rigid foam.

der by mass. Emission Factors for higher


nder may be found in the reference
brick weighs 2.4 kg.

no emissions are removed for net exports due to accounting framework

2022 2023 2024 2025

0.55 0.51 0.47 0.44


0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022
0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06
0.23 0.23 0.22 0.22
0.55 0.55 0.54 0.52
0.46 0.45 0.46 0.46
0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03
0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
0.07 0.03 0.03 0.03
CO2e Emission Factor, Non-
N2O Emission Factor
Biogenic
(g/m3) (g/m3)

0.049 26.7
0.033 9.8
0.06 195.1
0.05 66.5
0.034 10.0
0.033 9.8
0.035 10.3
GHGenius Emission Factor GHGenius
(g-CO2e/GJ) Heating Value

6,461 Coal 22.4


20,726 Gasoline 34.7
21,809 Diesel 38.7
14,667 Fuel Oil 41.7
18,845 Jet Fuel 37.4
11,696 LPG 25.6
12,815 LNG 53.8
9,446 Natural Gas 0.0383
CNG from Landfill
9,191 0.0383
Gas
CNG from
17,518 Anaerobic 0.0383
Digestion

RNG from Anaerobic RNG from Landfill Gas


Digestion (g/GJ) (g/GJ)

10,460 6,189
10,213 6,081
46,545 21,344
40,746 18,914
13,581 7,494
10,032 5,997
19,658 10,041
HG Emissions November 2017 Version
HG Emissions November 2017 Version

HG Emissions November 2017 Version


CO2e
18.532

rgy Sector. All greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including CO2 emissions from biomass burned in managed forests (wildfires and controlled
2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032

0.43 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.28 0.27


0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022 0.0022
0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.27
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.43 0.43 0.43
0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46
0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.27
0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.60 0.60 0.54 0.54 0.41 0.41 0.42
0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06
Units

GJ/tonne
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
MJ/L
GJ/tonne
GJ/m3

GJ/m3

GJ/m3
d in managed forests (wildfires and controlled burning), are reported under Land-Use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) and exclude
2033 2034 2035

0.27 0.27 0.27


0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.0022 0.0022 0.0022
0.27 0.27 0.27
0.06 0.06 0.06
0.20 0.20 0.20
0.42 0.42 0.42
0.46 0.46 0.46
0.03 0.03 0.03
0.27 0.27 0.27
0.0117 0.0117 0.0117
0.42 0.42 0.42
0.06 0.07 0.05
try (LULUCF) and excluded from national inventory totals.
GHG SSR DIAGRAMS - FOR REFERENCE ONLY

EXAMPLE 1: RENEWABLE/BIO FUEL PRODUCTION

* Use GHGenius or other fuel LCA tool for upstream emission factor
** If feedstock is waste diverted from baseline, omit feedstock production in project, add waste processing and transport

EXAMPLE 2: RENEWABLE/BIO HEAT, ELECTRICITY OR CHP GENERATION


* Use GHGenius or other fuel LCA tool for upstream emission factor
** If feedstock is waste diverted from baseline, omit feedstock production in project, add waste processing and transport
#
If project is grid connected, use grid emission factor provided in tab "GHG EFs"

EXAMPLE 3: IMPROVED PROCESS AND/OR EQUIPMENT


* Use GHGenius or other fuel LCA tool for upstream emission factor
waste processing and transportation in baseline
waste processing and transportation in baseline
INTRODUCTION - FOR REFERENCE ONLY

This GHG project quantification template is primarily intended to be used by project proponents, to satisfy the requiremen
Use of template ensures a consistent methodology and approach to quantification for all projects.
Application of GHG project-level quantification guiding principles (such as relevance, completeness, consistency, accuracy,

This template is designed to align with the general specifications of the ISO 14064 GHG Project International Standard - Pa
reporting.
However, use of this template does not ensure that all the requirements of ISO 14064-2 are met, and may NOT be used to

Index

Tab

A. DEFINITIONS

B. GHG EFs

C. DIAGRAMS

INTRODUCTION

1. METHODOLOGY

2. CALCULATIONS

3. SUMMARY

4. GHG IMPACT
intended to be used by project proponents, to satisfy the requirements of OERD/NRCan funding programs which have GHG emissions redu
nd approach to quantification for all projects.
ng principles (such as relevance, completeness, consistency, accuracy, transparency and conservativeness) ensures that GHG quantification

pecifications of the ISO 14064 GHG Project International Standard - Part 2 (ISO 14064-2), which specifies standardized requirements and pr

all the requirements of ISO 14064-2 are met, and may NOT be used to satisfy the requirements of other programs and/or carbon markets.

Contents

For reference only: definitions of standard GHG terminology from ISO14064-2


For reference only: common emission factors, heating values and conversion factors, as well as reference
sources

For reference only: examples of SSRs diagrams

Worksheet: define the project, identify the baseline scenario, identify GHG sources, sinks, and reservoirs
(SSRs), and select SSRs for quantification

Worksheet: calculate GHG emissions from project and baseline SSRs

Worksheet: summarize the emissions from project and baseline SSRs and calculate GHG reductions
Worksheet: calculate GHG reduction intensity and estimate the impact of market rollout of the technology on
GHG emissions reduction
h have GHG emissions reduction as a priority.

es that GHG quantification is true and fair.

dized requirements and processes for project-level GHG quantification, monitoring and

s and/or carbon markets.


included excluded

1. GHG METHODOLOGY - WORKSHEET

APPROACH TO GHG QUANTIFICATION

I. DEFINE THE PROJECT SCENARIO

Describe the project and draw a system/process flow diagram showing all significant material/energy flows, at the end of t
Refer to ISO 14064-2 Section 5.2 "Describing the project".

For example, the mechanism(s) by which the project will lower emissions may include:
1) decrease the carbon footprint and/or carbon intensity of a GHG emitting product or system [e.g. improve efficiency of a g
2) increase the deployment and/or improve the performance of an existing low GHG product or system [e.g. improve the effi
3) introduce a new low GHG product or system into the market,
Furthermore, the project may introduce a systems-level change, such as a change in supply or demand, that enables any on

II. IDENTIFY PROJECT SSRs


Refer to ISO 14064-2 Section 5.3 "Identifying GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs relevant to the project"

List project SSRs shown in diagram below (Section


V.) SSR Element

(include upstream and downstream, before and


after project, as well as biogenic CO2 sources) P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
…. Add elements as required
III. DEFINE THE BASELINE SCENARIO

Describe the baseline. Any GHG emissions reduction is relative to a baseline (or reference). In most cases, the baseline will
baseline must be defined to provide the same “function” (i.e., type and level of activity of products or services ) as the proje
For example, impending regulations may impact baseline emissions. Select the most appropriate baseline for quantification

IV. IDENTIFY BASELINE SSRs


Refer to ISO 14064-2 Section 5.5 "Identifying GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs for the baseline scenario".

List baseline SSRs shown in diagram below (Section


V.) SSR Element

Include upstream and downstream, before and


after baseline, as well as biogenic CO2 sources) B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
…. Add elements as required

V. DRAW SSR DIAGRAM

Draw an SSR diagram for the project and baseline - examples shown in "GHG DIAGRAMS" reference sheet. Incorporate al
The funding program does not require a full GHG life cycle analysis for the project emission reductions but does require a lif
GHG emission sources that do not need to be quantified in the life cycle (may be excluded) are those with equal representati
ll significant material/energy flows, at the end of this worksheet. Explain how it will achieve GHG emission reductions, and identify risks tha

may include:
ng product or system [e.g. improve efficiency of a gas turbine],
ng low GHG product or system [e.g. improve the efficiency of today’s c-Si solar PV technologies], and/or

a change in supply or demand, that enables any one of the above.

rvoirs relevant to the project"

Included/excluded from GHG


Description quantification?
ine (or reference). In most cases, the baseline will be the industry average and/or current practice. It is important to ensure that there is fu
vel of activity of products or services ) as the project. Identify present or future conditions that may alter the baseline. Conditions may be l
ect the most appropriate baseline for quantification. Refer to ISO 14064-2 Section 5.4 "Determining the baseline scenario".

rvoirs for the baseline scenario".

Included/excluded from GHG


Description quantification?

GHG DIAGRAMS" reference sheet. Incorporate all SSR elements (P1, 2, 3 ... and B1, 2, 3 ...) listed above.
e project emission reductions but does require a life cycle approach.
may be excluded) are those with equal representation in the baseline and project (e.g., they have the same emission factor and activity leve
mission reductions, and identify risks that may substantially affect the project's GHG emission reductions.

or

Justification and assumptions


t is important to ensure that there is functional equivalence between the baseline and the project. The
alter the baseline. Conditions may be legal, environmental, technical, economic or political in nature.
he baseline scenario".

Justification and assumptions

ove.

same emission factor and activity level) or those that are immaterial to emission reduction.
2. GHG CALCULATIONS - WORKSHEET

SUGGESTED REFERENCE DOCUMENTS


ISO 14064-2:2006 specifies principles and requirements and provides guidance at the project level for quantification, monitoring and reporting of activities intended to
ISO 14064-2 cause greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions or removal enhancements.
GHG Protocol for Project Accounting - The Project Protocol provides specific principles, concepts, and methods for quantifying and reporting GHG reductions—i.e., the
GHG Protocol for Project Accounting decreases in GHG emissions, or increases in removals and/or storage—from climate change mitigation projects (GHG projects).
The GHG Report Template is a guide for the preparation of a GHG Report for submission to GHG CleanProjects® Registry and includes sections on GHG project
CSA CleanProjects® Registry quantification, monitoring and reporting.

PROJECT CALCULATIONS
Show calculations for each project SSR element that is listed as "included" in "GHG METHODOLOGY" worksheet, section II.
If an SSR occurs once upstream (or downstream) of the project, for example: site construction, equipment installation, etc. then amortize emissions over the life of the project scenario.
Include quantification of biogenic CO2, separately
Indicate source documents for formulas and/or emission factors used in calculations (title, author, page, table and weblink if available). Check "GHG EFs" reference sheet.

EXAMPLE: CALCULATIONS FOR SSR ELEMENT Px


Parameter/variable Value Unit Source documents and notes
Electricity used for process 100 kWh/month Company records
Electricity used for process 1200 kWh/year Unit conversion
Emissions factor for wind generated electricity 0 tCO2e/kWh No emissions at point of use
Emissions from Px (annual) 0 tCO2e/year

CALCULATIONS FOR SSR ELEMENT P1


Parameter/variable Value Unit Source documents and notes
… Add parameter/variable as required

x Emission factor
Emissions from P1 (annual) tCO2e/year

… Add calculation tables for each project SSR element that is listed as "included" in "GHG METHODOLOGY" worksheet, section II.
BASELINE CALCULATIONS

Show calculations for each baseline SSR element that is listed as "included" in "GHG METHODOLOGY" worksheet, section IV.
If an SSR occurs once upstream (or downstream) of the baseline, for example: site construction, equipment installation, etc. then amortize emissions over the life of the baseline scenario.
Include quantification of biogenic CO2, separately
Indicate source documents for formulas and/or emission factors used in calculations (title, author, page, table and weblink if available). Check "GHG EFs" reference sheet.

EXAMPLE: CALCULATIONS FOR SSR ELEMENT Bx


Parameter/variable Value Unit Source documents and notes
Electricity used for process 100 kWh/month Company records
Electricity used for process 1200 kWh/year Unit conversion

Combustion emissions factor for diesel generator 1.16 lb/hp-hr EPA-AP 42, Fifth Edition Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources Table 3.4.1 G
Combustion emissions factor for diesel generator 0.696 tCO2e/kWh Unit conversion
Emissions from Bx (annual) 835.2 tCO2e/year

CALCULATIONS FOR SSR ELEMENT B1


Parameter/variable Value Unit Source documents and notes

x Emission factor
Emissions from B1 (annual) tCO2e/year

… Add calculation tables for each baseline SSR element that is listed as "included" in "GHG METHODOLOGY" worksheet, section IV.
3. GHG SUMMARY - WORKSHEET

NOTE: BLUE CELLS HAVE FORMULAS AND ARE NOT INTENDED TO BE EDITED

I. QUANTIFICATION OF PROJECT GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION

Copy over subtotals for all SSR Elements included in the "GHG CALCULATIONS" worksheet

Baseline SSR Element Baseline SSR Description


Bx
…. Add elements as required

Total baseline emissions (annual)

Project SSR Element Project SSR Description


Px
…. Add elements as required

Total project emissions (annual)

Annual project GHG emissions reduction


Emissions (tCO2e/year) Biogenic Emissions (tCO2/year) Enabled Emissions (tCO2e/year)

- - -

Emissions (tCO2e/year) Biogenic Emissions (tCO2/year) Enabled Emissions (tCO2e/year)

- - -

Emissions (tCO2e/year) Biogenic Emissions (tCO2/year) Enabled Emissions (tCO2e/year)

- - -
4. GHG IMPACT - WORKSHEET
Assessing the impact of a solution rather than a specific project
NOTE: BLUE CELLS HAVE FORMULAS AND ARE NOT INTENDED TO BE EDITED

SUGGESTED REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

The global energy system is moving closer to a historic transformation. This


scaling and accelerating the deployment of clean energy technologies. For
IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2017 innovations were pushed to their maximum practical limits.
Understanding the dynamic interplay of energy markets, technology and po
IEA World Energy Outlook strategic insight on what today’s policy and investment decisions mean for
This annual Outlook aims to assist analysts and decision makers in organiza
DNV Energy Transition Outlook 2018 It is a model-based forecast of the world’s energy system through to 2050.

Through the generation and dissemination of GHG data, the MICCA progra
UN FAO Emission estimates in the AFOLU sectorcomprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that cause emissions. M

I. CALCULATION OF GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION INTENSITY

A saleable (or replicable) unit = smallest size of technology, product or service funded in the project that can be deployed in
would be a "wind turbine", its size "1" (units "MW"), and the number in the project "5". Or if a project facility produces 10,
"quantity of energy produced", "weight of product", "size of land treated".

Column1 Parameter/ value


Calendar year project achieves actual
emissions reduction

Life of funded technology, product or service


Describe a saleable unit
Size of a saleable unit
Number of saleable units in the project

Emissions reduction intensity for a saleable


unit (also known as per unit emissions
reduction) 0

II. QUANTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION INTENSITY


Where applicable:
(1) Elaborate on alternate baseline emissions scenario(s) not quantified in "GHG CALCULATIONS" worksheet and/or explain
(2) Explain expected changes (beyond normal variations in operating conditions) in project emissions. Estimate annual cha
(3) Qualify emission reductions that are enabled by the project through system or structural change, or changes in market d
Enter estimated annual % changes in baseline and project emissions in the table below

Annual % Change in Baseline


Emissions
YEAR (+ increase, - decrease)
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%

2040 0%
2050 0%

III. QUANTIFICATION OF GLOBAL GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT

Assessing the potential for a solution to reduce emissions by ½ GT per year by 2050 requires a set of assumptions about wh
documents listed above). Base on the mechanism(s) of impact articulated in the project definition (refer to GHG METHODO
increase in sales or production. Many of the factors listed below will be qualitative but critical to consider. Identify the fact

(1) Regional dependencies: Are there meaningful regional dependencies in the emissions of the displaced product? Have th
(2) Scale constraints: What factors – including stock turnover, infrastructure inertia, material availability, and capital requir
(3) External conditions: Do the policy, technology, social, or economic conditions – that is, the factors external to the solutio
emissions?
(4) Strategic substitutes: Are there low-carbon strategic substitutes for the solution? That is, are there alternative low-carbo
strategic substitutes?
YEAR Global Market Size ()
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2040
2050
m is moving closer to a historic transformation. This year's edition of the International Energy Agency (IEA)'s comprehensive publication on
the deployment of clean energy technologies. For the first time, ETP 2017 looks at how far clean energy technologies could move the ener
d to their maximum practical limits.
mic interplay of energy markets, technology and policy has never been more critical. The IEA flagship publication World Energy Outlook (W
today’s policy and investment decisions mean for long-term trends.
s to assist analysts and decision makers in organizations involved directly or indirectly in the energy supply chain, to develop their future st
ast of the world’s energy system through to 2050. The Outlook gives our independent view of what we consider ’a most likely future’, or a

and dissemination of GHG data, the MICCA program continues to enrich the general body of knowledge on key GHG sources in the Agricult
anding of the mechanisms that cause emissions. MICCA also provided the data for the AFOLU sector for the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

ervice funded in the project that can be deployed independently and is saleable and replicable in the market. For example, if a project insta
the project "5". Or if a project facility produces 10,000L of biofuel, then the saleable unit would be "volume of biofuel" and its size would be
d".

Units

calendar year

years

tCO2e per
n "GHG CALCULATIONS" worksheet and/or explain expected changes in baseline emissions. Estimate annual changes (%) in baseline emiss
nditions) in project emissions. Estimate annual changes (%) in project emissions
system or structural change, or changes in market demand or supply for associated products or service. Use the calculated values in "SUMM
he table below

Annual % Change in Project Emissions


Annual Baseline Emissions (tCO2e) (+ increase, - decrease)
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%
0 0%

0 0%
0 0%

ar by 2050 requires a set of assumptions about what might happen in the future. Historical data and/or forward looking scenarios may be
ed in the project definition (refer to GHG METHODOLOGY tab), estimate the scale of project replication necessary to achieve a ½ GT emissio
qualitative but critical to consider. Identify the factors considered in estimating the market share.

in the emissions of the displaced product? Have these regional differences been accounted for?
ure inertia, material availability, and capital requirements – may impact the ability for the solution in question to scale to the level necessar
nditions – that is, the factors external to the solution in question – that would enable the solution to penetrate the market exist today? If no

he solution? That is, are there alternative low-carbon solutions that might win out over the solution in question? What conditions will deter
Expected Market Share (%) Expected Annual Sales ()
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
national Energy Agency (IEA)'s comprehensive publication on energy technology focuses on the opportunities and challenges of
oks at how far clean energy technologies could move the energy sector towards higher climate change ambitions if technological

critical. The IEA flagship publication World Energy Outlook (WEO), widely regarded as the gold standard of energy analysis, provides

directly in the energy supply chain, to develop their future strategic options.
pendent view of what we consider ’a most likely future’, or a central case, for the coming energy transition.

eneral body of knowledge on key GHG sources in the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector, and enables a more
a for the AFOLU sector for the IPCC 5th Assessment Report.

e and replicable in the market. For example, if a project installs 5 MW comprised of 5 x 1MW wind turbines, then: the saleable unit
leable unit would be "volume of biofuel" and its size would be "1 litre". Other examples of appropriate saleable units include:
ne emissions. Estimate annual changes (%) in baseline emissions
ns
iated products or service. Use the calculated values in "SUMMARY" worksheet to estimate annual changes (%) in project emissions

Annual Project Emissions (tCO2e) Annual Emissions Reduction (tCO2e)


0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

0 0
0 0

ure. Historical data and/or forward looking scenarios may be used to support these assumptions (see suggested reference
ale of project replication necessary to achieve a ½ GT emissions reduction by estimating: the expected market share, the implied
g the market share.

en accounted for?
bility for the solution in question to scale to the level necessary to mitigate emissions by ½ GT?
enable the solution to penetrate the market exist today? If not, what external factors need to change for the solution to reduce

out over the solution in question? What conditions will determine whether the solution in question succeeds relative to these
In Operation Annual Emissions Reduction (MtCO2e)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
cuses on the opportunities and challenges of
gher climate change ambitions if technological

as the gold standard of energy analysis, provides

oming energy transition.

her Land Use (AFOLU) sector, and enables a more

of 5 x 1MW wind turbines, then: the saleable unit


mples of appropriate saleable units include:
estimate annual changes (%) in project emissions

Emissions Reduction Intensity (tCO2e


per)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

e assumptions (see suggested reference


ating: the expected market share, the implied

ns by ½ GT?
ors need to change for the solution to reduce

ution in question succeeds relative to these