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# Mrinalini Rana CSE7th sem 685034228

## (Submitted in the partial fulfillment of B.TECH)

S.B.B.S.I.E.T
(Affiliated to PTU)

## Submitted To: - Submitted By:-

Lect.Gurpreet Singh Mrinalini Rana
685034228
CSE (7th sem)

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PRACTICAL NO.1:

## Aim: Study of propositional logic.

In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus or logic (also a sentential calculus) is a
formal system in which formulae representing propositions can be formed by combining
atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows
certain formulae to be established as theorems.

Propositional logic, also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the branch of
logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions, statements or
sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or sentences, as well as the
logical relationships and properties that are derived from these methods of combining or
altering statements. In propositional logic, the simplest statements are considered as
indivisible units, and hence, propositional logic does not study those logical properties
and relations that depend upon parts of statements that are not themselves statements on
their own, such as the subject and predicate of a statement. The most thoroughly
researched branch of propositional logic is classical truth-functional propositional logic,
which studies logical operators and connectives that are used to produce complex
statements whose truth-value depends entirely on the truth-values of the simpler
statements making them up, and in which it is assumed that every statement is either true
or false and not both. However, there are other forms of propositional logic in which
other truth-values are considered, or in which there is consideration of connectives that
are used to produce statements whose truth-values depend not simply on the truth-values
of the parts, but additional things such as their necessity, possibility or relatedness to one
another.

Introduction:
A statement can be defined as a declarative sentence, or part of a sentence, that is capable
of having a truth-value, such as being true or false. So, for example, the following are
statements:

## • George W. Bush is the 43rd President of the United States.

• Paris is the capital of France.
• Everyone born on Monday has purple hair.

Sometimes, a statement can contain one or more other statements as parts. Consider for
example, the following statement:

## • Either Ganymede is a moon of Jupiter or Ganymede is a moon of Saturn.

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Joining two simpler propositions with the word “and” is one common way of combining
statements. When two statements are joined together with “and”, the complex statement
formed by them is true if and only if both the component statements are true. Because of
this, an argument of the following form is logically valid:

Paris is the capital of France and Paris has a population of over two
million.
Therefore, Paris has a population of over two million.

## The Language of Propositional Logic:

The basic rules and principles of classical truth-functional propositional logic are, among
contemporary logicians, almost entirely agreed upon, and capable of being stated in a
definitive way. This is most easily done if we utilize a simplified logical language that
deals only with simple statements considered as indivisible units as well as complex
statements joined together by means of truth-functional connectives. We first consider a
language called PL for “Propositional Logic”. Later we shall consider two even simpler
languages, PL’ and PL”.

## a. Syntax and Formation Rules of PL

In any ordinary language, a statement would never consist of a single word, but would
always at the very least consist of a noun or pronoun along with a verb. However, because
propositional logic does not consider smaller parts of statements, and treats simple
statements as indivisible wholes, the language PL uses uppercase letters ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’,
etc., in place of complete statements. The logical signs ‘&’, ‘v‘, ‘→’, ‘↔’, and ‘¬’ are
used in place of the truth-functional operators, “and”, “or”, “if… then…”, “if and only
if”, and “not”, respectively. So, consider again the following example argument,
mentioned in Section I.

Paris is the capital of France and Paris has a population of over two
million.
Therefore, Paris has a population of over two million.

## Definition: A well-formed formula (hereafter abbreviated as wff) of PL is defined

recursively as follows:

## 1. Any statement letter is a well-formed formula.

2. If α is a well-formed formula, then so is ¬α .
3. If α and β are well-formed formulas, then so is (α & β) .
4. If α and β are well-formed formulas, then so is (α v β) .
5. If α and β are well-formed formulas, then so is (α → β) .
6. If α and β are well-formed formulas, then so is (α ↔ β) .
7. Nothing that cannot be constructed by successive steps of (1)-(6) is a well-formed
formula.

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## b. Truth Functions and Truth Tables

So far we have in effect described the grammar of language PL. When setting up a
language fully, however, it is necessary not only to establish rules of grammar, but also
describe the meanings of the symbols used in the language. We have already suggested
that uppercase letters are used as complete simple statements. Because truth-functional
propositional logic does not analyze the parts of simple statements, and only considers
those ways of combining them to form more complicated statements that make the truth
or falsity of the whole dependent entirely on the truth or falsity of the parts, in effect, it
does not matter what meaning we assign to the individual statement letters like ‘P’, ‘Q’
and ‘R’, etc., provided that each is taken as either true or false (and not both).

## Conjunction: The conjunction of two statements α and β, written in PL as (α & β) , is

true if both α and β are true, and is false if either α is false or β is false or both are false. In
effect, the meaning of the operator ‘&’ can be displayed according to the following chart,
which shows the truth-value of the conjunction depending on the four possibilities of the
truth-values of the parts:

α β (α & β)
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F

## Disjunction: The disjunction of two statements α and β, written in PL as (α v β) , is true

if either α is true or β is true, or both α and β are true, and is false only if both α and β are
false. A chart similar to that given above for conjunction, modified for to show the
meaning of the disjunction sign ‘v‘ instead, would be drawn as follows:

α β (α v β)
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F

Material Implication: This truth-function is represented in language PL with the sign ‘→’.
A statement of the form (α → β) , is false if α is true and β is false, and is true if either α
is false or β is true (or both). This truth-function generates the following chart:

α β (α → β)
T T T
T F F
F T T

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F F T

## Material Equivalence: This truth-function is represented in language PL with the sign

‘↔’. A statement of the form (α ↔ β) is regarded as true if α and β are either both true
or both false, and is regarded as false if they have different truth-values. Hence, we have
the following chart:

α β (α ↔ β)
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T

## Negation: The negation of statement α, simply written ¬α in language PL, is regarded as

true if α is false, and false if α is true. Unlike the other operators we have considered,
negation is applied to a single statement. The corresponding chart can therefore be drawn
more simply as follows:

α ¬α
T F
F T

c. Rules of Inference

Here we give a list of intuitively valid rules of inference. The rules are stated in schematic
form. Any inference in which any wff of language PL is substituted unformly for the
schematic letters in the forms below constitutes an instance of the rule.

α→β
α
β

## (Modus ponens is sometimes also called “modus ponendo ponens”, “detachment” or a

form of “→-elimination”.)

## Modus tollens (MT):

α→β
¬β
¬α

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(Modus tollens is sometimes also called “modus tollendo tollens” or a form of “→-
elimination”.)

d. Semantics

## An interpretation of a first-order language assigns a denotation to all non-logical

constants in that language. It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the
range of the quantifiers. The result is that each term is assigned an object that it
represents, and each sentence is assigned a truth value. In this way, an interpretation
provides semantic meaning to the terms and formulas of the language. The study of the
interpretations of formal languages is called formal semantics.

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PRACTICAL NO.2:

## Aim: Study of First Order Predicate Logic.

First-order logic is a formal logic used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and
computer science. It goes by many names, including: first-order predicate calculus, the
lower predicate calculus, and predicate logic. First-order logic is distinguished from
propositional logic by its use of quantifiers; each interpretation of first-order logic
includes a domain of discourse over which the quantifiers range.There are many
deductive systems for first-order logic that are sound (only deriving correct results) and
complete (able to derive any logically valid implication). Although the logical
consequence relation is only semidecidable, much progress has been made in automated
theorem proving in first-order logic.

## A first-order theory consists of a set of axioms in a particular first-order signature. The

set of axioms is often finite or recursively enumerable, in which case the theory is called
effective. Some authors require theories to also include all logical consequences of the
axioms.

A first-order structure that satisfies all sentences in a given theory is said to be a model of
the theory. An elementary class is the set of all structures satisfying a particular theory.
These classes are a main subject of study in model theory.

## First-order logic permits reasoning about the propositional connectives (as in

propositional logic) and also about quantification ("all" or "some"). A classic, if
elementary, example of what can be done with the predicate logic is the inference from
the premises:

## • All men are mortal.

• Socrates is a man. to the conclusion

Quantifiers:

## •Universal quantification corresponds to conjunction ("and") in that (Ax)P(x) means that

P holds for all values of x in the domain associated with that variable.
–E.g., (Ax) dolphin(x) => mammal(x)

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## •Existential quantification corresponds to disjunction ("or") in that (Ex)P(x) means that P

holds for some value of x in the domain associated with that variable.
–E.g., (Ex) mammal(x) ^ lays-eggs(x)

•Universal quantifiers are usually used with "implies" to form "if-then rules."
–E.g., (Ax) cs15-381-student(x) => smart(x) means "All cs15-381 students are smart."
–You rarely use universal quantification to make blanket statements about every
individual in the world: (Ax)cs15-381-student(x) ^ smart(x) meaning that everyone in
the world is a cs15-381 student and is smart.
•Existential quantifiers are usually used with "and" to specify a list of properties or facts
–E.g., (Ex) cs15-381-student(x) ^ smart(x) means "there is a cs15-381 student who is
smart."
–A common mistake is to represent this English sentence as the FOL sentence: (Ex) cs15-
381-student(x) => smart(x)

•Switching the order of universal quantifiers does not change the meaning: (Ax)
(Ay)P(x,y) is logically equivalent to (Ay)(Ax)P(x,y). Similarly, you can switch the order
of existential quantifiers.

•Switching the order of universals and existentials does change meaning:
–Everyone likes someone: (Ax)(Ey)likes(x,y)
–Someone is liked by everyone: (Ey)(Ax)likes(x,y)

## •Sentences are built up of terms and atoms:

–A term (denoting a real-world object) is a constant symbol, a variable symbol, or a
function e.g. left-leg-of ( ). For example, x and f(x1, ..., xn) are terms, where each xi is a
term.
–An atom (which has value true or false) is either an n-place predicate of n terms, or, if P
and Q are atoms, then ~P, P V Q, P ^ Q, P => Q, P <=> Q are atoms
–A sentence is an atom, or, if P is a sentence and x is a variable, then (Ax)P and (Ex)P
are sentences
–A well-formed formula (wff) is a sentence containing no "free" variables. I.e., all
variables are "bound" by universal or existential quantifiers.
•E.g., (Ax)P(x,y) has x bound as a universally quantified variable, but y is free.

## •Every gardener likes the sun. (Ax) gardener(x) => likes(x,Sun)

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•You can fool some of the people all of the time. (Ex)(At) (person(x) ^ time(t)) => can-
fool(x,t)

•You can fool all of the people some of the time. (Ax)(Et) (person(x) ^ time(t) => can-
fool(x,t)

•All purple mushrooms are poisonous. (Ax) (mushroom(x) ^ purple(x)) =>
poisonous(x)
•No purple mushroom is poisonous. ~(Ex) purple(x) ^ mushroom(x) ^ poisonous(x)
or, equivalently, (Ax) (mushroom(x) ^ purple(x)) => ~poisonous(x)

•There are exactly two purple mushrooms. (Ex)(Ey) mushroom(x) ^ purple(x) ^
mushroom(y) ^ purple(y) ^ ~(x=y) ^ (Az) (mushroom(z) ^ purple(z)) => ((x=z) v
(y=z))

•Deb is not tall. ~tall(Deb)

•X is above Y if X is on directly on top of Y or else there is a pile of one or more other
objects directly on top of one another starting with X and ending with Y. (Ax)(Ay)
above(x,y) <=> (on(x,y) v (Ez) (on(x,z) ^ above(z,y)))

## Inference Rules for FOL:

•Inference rules for PL apply to FOL as well. For example, Modus Ponens, And-
Introduction, And-Elimination, etc.
•New sound inference rules for use with quantifiers:

–UniversalElimination
If (Ax)P(x) is true, then P(c) is true, where c is a constant in the domain of x. For
example, from (Ax)eats(Ziggy, x) we can infer eats(Ziggy, IceCream).
•The variable symbol can be replaced by any ground term, i.e., any constant symbol or
function symbol applied to ground terms only.
–ExistentialIntroduction
If P(c) is true, then (Ex)P(x) is inferred.
•For example, from eats(Ziggy, IceCream) we can infer (Ex)eats(Ziggy, x).
•All instances of the given constant symbol are replaced by the new variable symbol.
Note that the variable symbol cannot already exist anywhere in the expression.
–ExistentialElimination
From (Ex)P(x) infer P(c).
•For example, from (Ex)eats(Ziggy, x) infer eats(Ziggy, Cheese).
•Note that the variable is replaced by a brand new constant that does not occur in this or
any other sentence in the Knowledge Base. In other words, we don't want to accidentally

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draw other inferences about it by introducing the constant. All we know is there must be
some constant that makes this true, so we can introduce a brand new one to stand in for
that (unknown) constant.

Semantics:
An interpretation of a first-order language assigns a denotation to all non-logical
constants in that language. It also determines a domain of discourse that specifies the
range of the quantifiers. The result is that each term is assigned an object that it
represents, and each sentence is assigned a truth value. In this way, an interpretation
provides semantic meaning to the terms and formulas of the language. The study of the
interpretations of formal languages is called formal semantics.

## The domain of discourse D is a nonempty set of "objects" of some kind. Intuitively, a

first-order formula is a statement about these objects; for example, states the
existence of an object x such that the predicate P is true where referred to it. The domain
of discourse is the set of considered objects. For example, one can take D to be the set of
integer numbers.

## Evaluation of truth values:

A formula evaluates to true or false given an interpretation, and a variable assignment μ
that associates an element of the domain of discourse with each variable. The reason that
a variable assignment is required is to give meanings to formulas with free variables, such
as y = x. The truth value of this formula changes depending on whether x and y denote
the same individual.

First, the variable assignment μ can be extended to all terms of the language, with the
result that each term maps to a single element of the domain of discourse. The following
rules are used to make this assignment:

## 1. Variables. Each variable x evaluates to μ(x)

2. Functions. Given terms that have been evaluated to elements
of the domain of discourse, and a n-ary function symbol f, the term
evaluates to .

Next, each formula is assigned a truth value. The inductive definition used to make this
assignment is called the T-schema.

## 1. Atomic formulas (1). A formula is associated the value true or

false depending on whether , where are the
evaluation of the terms and I(P) is the interpretation of P, which by
assumption is a subset of Dn.

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## 2. Atomic formulas (2). A formula t1 = t2 is assigned true if t1 and t2 evaluate to the

same object of the domain of discourse (see the section on equality below).
3. Logical connectives. A formula in the form , , etc. is evaluated
according to the truth table for the connective in question, as in propositional
logic.
4. Existential quantifiers. A formula is true according to M and μ if there
exists an evaluation μ' of the variables that only differs from μ regarding the
evaluation of x and such that φ is true according to the interpretation M and the
variable assignment μ'. This formal definition captures the idea that is
true if and only if there is a way to choose a value for x such that φ(x) is satisfied.
5. Universal quantifiers. A formula is true according to M and μ if φ(x) is
true for every pair composed by the interpretation M and some variable
assignment μ' that differs from μ only on the value of x. This captures the idea that
is true if every possible choice of a value for x causes φ(x) to be true.

If a formula does not contain free variables, and so is a sentence, then the initial variable
assignment does not affect its truth value. In other words, a sentence is true according to
M and μ if and only if is true according to M and any other variable assignment μ'.

There is a second common approach to defining truth values that does not rely on variable
assignment functions. Instead, given an interpretation M, one first adds to the signature a
collection of constant symbols, one for each element of the domain of discourse in M; say
that for each d in the domain the constant symbol cd is fixed. The interpretation is
extended so that each new constant symbol is assigned to its corresponding element of the
domain. One now defines truth for quantified formulas syntactically, as follows:

## 1. Existential quantifiers (alternate). A formula is true according to M if

there is some d in the domain of discourse such that φ(cd) holds. Here φ(cd) is the
result of substituting cd for every free occurrence of x in φ.
2. Universal quantifiers (alternate). A formula is true according to M if,
for every d in the domain of discourse, φ(cd) is true according to M.

This alternate approach gives exactly the same truth values to all sentences as the
approach via variable assignments.

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PRACTICAL NO.3:

## 3.1 AIM: Introduction to PROLOG programming.

Prolog is a logic programming general purpose fifth generation language associated with
artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. It has a purely logical subset, called
"pure Prolog", as well as a number of extralogical features.

Prolog has its roots in formal logic, and unlike many other programming languages,
Prolog is declarative: The program logic is expressed in terms of relations, and execution
is triggered by running queries over these relations. Relations and queries are constructed
using Prolog's single data type, the term. Relations are defined by clauses. Given a query,
the Prolog engine attempts to find a resolution refutation of the negated query. If the
negated query can be refuted, i.e., an instantiation for all free variables is found that
makes the union of clauses and the singleton set consisting of the negated query false, it
follows that the original query, with the found instantiation applied, is a logical
consequence of the program. This makes Prolog (and other logic programming
languages) particularly useful for database, symbolic mathematics, and language parsing
applications. Because Prolog allows impure predicates, checking the truth value of certain
special predicates may have some deliberate side effect, such as printing a value to the

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screen. This permits the programmer to use some amount of conventional imperative
programming when the logical paradigm is inconvenient.

## What is a Prolog program?

Programming in Prolog is very different from programming in a traditional
proceduralprocedural language like Pascal. In Prolog you don't say how the program will
work.
Prolog can be separated in two parts:

The Program

The program, sometimes called Database is a texte file (*.pl) that contain the facts and
rules that will be used by the user of the program. It contains all the relations that make
this program.

The Query

When you launch a program you are in query modequery mode. This mode is represented
by the sign? - At the begining of the line. In query mode you ask questions about relations
described in the program.

Prolog wich is a freeware (if you want to know more about SWI-Prolog go to this page).
When Prolog is launched the? - should appear meaning you are in query mode. The
manier to launch a program depends of your compiler. For SWI-Prolog you can load a
program by typing the cammand [file]. When the file of your program is file.pl. If you
compiler is not SWI-Prolog you can also try the command reconsult(file). When you have
done this you can use all the facts and rules that are contained in the program. Now let's
begin to see what a fact...is

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## 3.2 AIM: Introduction to Facts & Rules.

Simple facts:
In Prolog we can make some statements by using facts. Facts either consist of a particular
item or a relation between items. For example we can represent the fact that it is sunny by
writing the program :
sunny.
?- sunny.
?- is the Prolog prompt. To this query, Prolog will answer yes. sunny is true because
(from above) Prolog matches it in its database of facts.
Facts have some simple rules of syntax. Facts should always begin with a lowercase letter
and end with a full stop. The facts themselves can consist of any letter or number
combination, as well as the underscore _ character. However, names containing the
characters -,+,*,/, or other mathematical operators should be avoided.

## Facts with arguments:

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More complicated facts consist of a relation and the items that this refers to. These items
are called arguments. Facts can have arbitrary number of arguments from zero upwards.
A general model is shown below:
relation(<argument1>,<argument2>,....,<argumentN> ).
The arguments can be any legal Prolog term. The basic Prolog terms are an integer, an
atom, a variable or a structure. Various Prolog implementation enhance this basic list with
other data types, such as floating point numbers, or strings.
Exemple :
likes(john,mary).
In the above fact john and mary are two atomes. Atoms are usally made from letters and
digits with lowercase characters. The underscore (_) can also be used to separe 2 words
but is not allowed as the first charactere. Atoms can also be legally made from symbols.
The followings are legal atoms :atoms
hello
zz42
two_words
====>
The followings are not legal atoms :
Hello
4hello
_Hello
two words
two-words
You can use single quotes to make any character combination a legal atom.
'two words'
'UpperCase'
'12444'
'etc...'
The fact likes(john,mary). say that there is a relation between john and mary. It can be
read as either john likes mary or mary likes john. This reversibility can be very useful to
the programmer, however it can also be a source of mistakes. You have to be clear on
how you intend to interpret the relation. The number of arguments is the arity of the
predicate. A predicate with 2 arguments will be called by predicate_name/2. You can
have differents predicats with the same name if they have a different arity.

Rules:
Consider the following sentence : 'All men are mortal' We can express this thing in Prolog
by :

mortal(X) :- human(X).
The clause can be read as 'X is mortal if X is human'.
To continue with this example, let us define the fact that Socrate is a human. Our program
will be :
mortal(X) :- human(X).

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human(socrate).
Now if we ask to prolog :
?- mortal(socrate).
Prolog will respond :
yes
In order to solve the query -? mortal(socrates). Prolog will use the rule we have given. It
says that in order to prove that someone is mortal we can prove that he is human. So from
the goal mortal(socrate) Prolog generate the subgoal human(socrate).
We can still use variables. For example we might want to know who is mortal :
?- mortal(X).
Then Prolog should respond :
P=socrate
This means that Prolog was able to succed the goal by unifying the variable X to socrates.
Again this was done by using the subgoal human(X).
Sometimes we may wish to specify alternatives ways to provre something. We can do this
by using differents rules ands facts with the same name. For exeample, we can represent
the sentence 'Something is fun if it is a PC running UNIX or am old amiga or an ice
cream' with the following program :
fun(X) :- /* something is fun if */
pc(X), /* it is a pc and */
unix(X). /* it is running unix */
fun(X) :- /* or it is fun if */
old(X), /* it is old and */
amiga(X). /* it is an amiga */
fun(ice_cream). /* the ice_crean is also fun */

This program says that there are three ways to know if an object is fun or not. Like for
pure facts, Prolog will start from the first clause (a clause can be a rule or a fact) of fun
and try it. If that does not succed Prolog will try the next clause. If there is no more
clauses then it fails and Prolog responds ' no '. We can also see in this example that the
'and' is represented by a ',' and the 'or' by differents clause. If needed the 'or' can also be
represebted by ';'. In the previous examples when we was asking eats(fred,What) and
pressing the key ';' to see the following results we was in fact asking 'or'.
All identically-named variables in a rule (for example X in the last rule we've seem) are
of course considered as one unic variable and must have the same instantiation for each
solution in a particular query. Identical variables names in differents rules are
considerated as differents variables and are totally independent, this is the same as if we
The following program :
fun(X) :-
pc(X),
unix(X).

fun(X) :-
old(X),
amiga(X).

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fun(X_1) :-
pc(X_1),
unix(X_1).

fun(X_2) :-
old(X_2),
amiga(X_2).

## How to add a rule with a program?

It is possible to add new rules or facts with the instruction Assert (fact1) which will add
the fact called fact1. The predicates added with this command are considereted like any
other in the source of the program.

The instructions

## The usefull instructions are :

assert(c). Add the rule c in the database.assert()
retract(c). Remove the c from the database.retract(c)
asserta(c). Add c at the beginning of the database.asserta()
assertz(c). Add c at the end of the database.assertz()

Example

?- sunny.
no.

?- assert(sunny).
yes.

?- sunny.
yes

?- retract(sunny).
yes.

?- sunny.
no.

How to query:
Once you have entered the facts in a program you can ask prolog about it. An exemple
programm can be :
eats(fred,oranges). /* 'Fred eats oranges' */

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## eats(john,apple). /* 'John eats apple' */

If we now ask some queries we would get the followings things :
?- eats(fred,oranges).
/* does this match anything in the database? */

yes
/* yes, that matchs the first clause */

?- eats(john,apple).

yes

?- eats(mike,apple).

no
/* there is no relation between mike and apple */
3.3 AIM: Introduction to some Built-in Predicates.
This file is a list of the predicates that are built in to our prolog.
1. Append:
The built-in predicate append(?List1, ?List2, ?List1_then_List2) succeeds if List1
followed by List2 = List1_then_List2. Examples:

## ?- append([a, b], [c, d, e], Result).

Result = [a, b, c, d, e].
true.
?- append([a, b], SecondBit, [a, b, c, d, e]).
SecondBit = [c, d, e]
true.
?- append(FirstBit, [c, d, e], [a, b, c, d, e]).
FirstBit = [a, b]
true.

2. Atom_chars
The built-in Prolog predicate atom_chars can convert an atom into the list of its
constituent letters, or vice-versa. A fairly broad concept of atom is used: this predicate
will glue together (or split up) any reasonable characters you give it. A possible list would
be to put together a list of letters read, one character at a time, to make a word - that is, an
atom whose name is the word. Examples:
?- atom_chars(pizza, List).
List = [p, i, z, z, a]

## ?- atom_chars(Atom, [b, e, e, r]).

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Atom = beer

?- atom_chars(2007, List).
List = ['2', '0', '0', '7']

## ?- atom_chars(Atom, ['[', '3', ' ', ',', '4', ']']).

Atom = '[3 ,4]'

3. atom_codes :
The built-in Prolog predicate atom_codes can convert an atom into the list of the numeric
codes used internally to represent the characters in the atom, or vice-versa. Examples:
?- atom_codes(pizza, List).
List = [112, 105, 122, 122, 97]

## ?- atom_codes(Atom, [98, 101, 101, 114]).

Atom = beer

4. Member:
Here is the definition of the built-in Prolog predicate member:
member(X, [X | Rest]). % X is a member if it’s the first element
member(X, [Y | Rest]) :-
member(X, Rest). % otherwise, check if X is in the Rest
You may not think of member as a backtracking predicate, but backtracking is built into
Prolog, so in suitable circumstances, member will backtrack:

## ?- member(X, [a, b, c]).

X=a;
X=b;
X=c;
fail.

Here member backtracks to find every possible solution to the query given to it. Consider
also:
?- member(X, [a, a, a]).
X=a;
X=a;
X=a;
fail.

Here member backtracks even though it keeps on finding the same answer. What about
?- member(a, [a, a, a]).
true ;
true ;
true ;
fail.

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5. Fail:
Built-in Prolog predicate with no arguments, which, as the name suggests, always fails.
Useful for forcing backtracking and in various other contexts.

6. Findall:
The built-in predicate findall(+Template, +Goal, -List) is used to collect a list List of all
the items Template that satisfy some goal Goal.
Example: assume
likes(mary, pizza).
likes(marco, pizza).
likes(Human, pizza) :- italian(Human).
italian(marco).

Then

## ?- findall(Person, likes(Person, pizza), Bag).

Person = _G180
List = [mary, marco, marco]

findall succeeds and binds List to the empty list, if Goal has no solutions. This can be
convenient if you don't want your goal to fail just because the collection of solutions is
empty. (In other cases, you would want the goal to fail if there are no solutions.)

7. Functor:
In Prolog, the word functor is used to refer to the atom at the start of a structure. For
example, in likes (mary, pizza), likes is the functor. In a more complex structure, like

## persondata(name(smith, john), date(28, feb, 1963))

the top-level functor is termed the principal functor - in this case persondata - There is
also a built-in predicate called functor, used to extract the functor and arity of a structure.

There is also a built-in predicate functor with three arguments: functor(Term, Functor,
Arity), which succeeds if Term is a term with functor Functor and arity Arity. Examples:

Functor = likes
Arity = 2

X = _G180
Y = _G181
Functor = likes
Arity = 2

## ?- functor(likes, Functor, Arity).

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Functor = likes
Arity = 0

## ?- functor(X, likes, 2).

X = likes(_G232, _G233)

8. if-then-else, ->:
The built-in infix predicate … -> …; … functions as an if … then … else … facility.
Example:
min(A, B, Min) :- A < B -> Min = A ; Min = B.
This version of min (which, like the one below, assumes that A and B are numbers) says
"if A < B then unify Min with A otherwise unify Min with B". Possibly it is easier to
understand a two-rule version of min:
min(A, B, A) :- A <= B.
min(A, B, B) :- B < A.

read(X) which reads the next term in the current input stream, which means the window
on your workstation unless you have done something slightly fancy with files, and unifies
it with the variable X.

Write ('Type: '), flush_output,
get_byte(C).

10. is:
The “is” built-in predicate is used in Prolog to force the evaluation of arithmetic
expressions. If you just write something like X = 2 + 4, the result is to bind X to the
unevaluated term 2 + 4, not to 6. Example:
?- X = 2 + 4.
X = 2+4
If instead you write X is 2 + 4, Prolog arranges for the second argument, the arithmetic
expression 2 + 4, to be evaluated (giving the result 6) before binding the result to X.
?- X is 2 + 4.
X=6

11. Lists:
A list in Prolog is written as a comma-separated sequence of items, between square
brackets. For example, [1, 2, 3] is a list.
The empty list is written [].
A list with just a single item, say the number 7, is written .
Frequently it is convenient to refer to a list by giving the first item, and a list consisting of
the rest of the items. In this case, one writes the list as [First | Rest].

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We have expressed this here using variable, but this need not be so, for example, we
could write [1, 2, and 3] as:

• [1 | [2, 3]]
• [1 | Rest], where Rest is bound to [2, 3]
• [First | [2, 3]], where First is bound to 1
• [First | Rest], where First is bound to 1, and Rest is bound to [2, 3]
• [1, 2 | ]
• [1, 2, 3 | []]

## and many more possibilities.

You should always write your Prolog list in the most compact reasonable format. So for
example, while [X | []] is the same list as [X], the second version is much easier to read,
so you should use it.

Lists can also be expressed using a normal term syntax, using the built-in predicate name
. - that is, a full stop or period. In this case, the empty list atom ([]) must be used to
terminate the list. However, this approach is more cumbersome, and in practice people
use the [1, 2, 3]- style syntax. Example:

## ?- X = .(1, .(2, .(3, []))).

X = [1, 2, 3]

12. Once:
The built-in Prolog extra-logical predicate once takes a single argument, which must be a
"callable term" - one that makes sense as a goal - e.g. happy(X) makes sense as a goal, but
23 does not - and calls the term in such a way as to produces just one solution. It is
defined as:
once(P) :- P, !.

## 13. op, infix, prefix, and postfix operators, precedence in Prolog :

Syntax:
: - op (+Precedence, +Type, Name).

The Prolog built-in predicate op serves to define the Type and Precedence of infix and
postfix, and prefix operators in Prolog terms. Prolog terms normal begin with the functor
(e.g. likes, in likes(mary, pizza)) but exceptions exist - for example, arithmetic
expressions are written in the usual infix way (i.e. as X + 1, rather than +(X, 1)), and
negation can be written without parentheses, as a prefix operator: not P.
The table below lists the predefined infix operators in SWI-Prolog. You may wish to add
infix operators of your own. For example, you might wish to define an infix and. This can
be done as follows:
: - op (700, xfy, and).

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14. Repeat:
The built-in predicate repeat behaves as if defined by:
repeat.
repeat :- repeat.

Thus repeat succeeds when first called, thanks to the first clause. If the Prolog interpreter
subsequently backtracks, the second clause (repeat :- repeat.) is tried. This initiates a new
call to repeat, which succeeds via the first clause, and so on.

15. Retract:
Retract is a built-in meta-predicate used to remove facts or rules from the Prolog database
while a program is executing. It is most often used in partnership with assert (or one of its
relatives). For example, your program might have hypothesised that some fact or rule is
correct, added it to the Prolog database using assert (or one of its relatives), then your
program explores the consequences of that assumption, and concludes that the fact or rule
was wrong. So then the program retracts the fact or rule.

More prosaically, you might simply have a query that runs repeatedly during a single
prolog session, discovers some new facts in each run, but needs to get rid of them at the
start of the next query. So again, retract can be used to clean the discovered facts out of
the database.

?- assert(likes(mary, pizza)).
true.
?- likes(mary, pizza).
true.
?- retract(likes(mary, pizza)).
true.
?- likes(mary, pizza).
fail.
?- assert((happy(X) :- rich(X), famous(X))).
X = _G180
true.
?- retract((happy(X) :- rich(X), famous(X))).
X = _G180
true.
Don't worry about the X = _G180, that's just SWI Prolog renaming the variable X with a
unique name so it doesn't get confused with the (different) variable X that you might have
used in some other rule. Note also the extra pair of parentheses () around the rule, as
opposed to the fact.

16. Retractall:
What a call to retract actually does is to remove the first fact or rule that matches the
argument to retract. If you want to remove, say, all the facts relating to likes with two
arguments, it looks as though you might have to call retract repeatedly. Never fear,

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retractall is here! This meta-predicate, as its name suggests, retracts all facts or rules that
match its single argument. For example:
?- assert(likes(mary, pizza)), assert(likes(john, beer)).
true.
?- listing(likes).
:- dynamic likes/2.
likes(mary, pizza).
likes(john, beer).
The ":- dynamic/2" tells us that likes/2 is a built-in predicate that can be modified during
program execution (see dynamic). This is to stop the program modifying unauthorised
parts of itself, and becoming totally un-debuggable. Example continues:
?- retractall(likes(X, Y)).
X = _G180
Y = _G181
?- listing(likes).
:- dynamic likes/2.
true.

17. Setof:
The built-in Prolog predicate setof(+Template, +Goal, -Set) binds Set to the list of all
instances of Template satisfying the goal Goal.
For example, given the facts and rule:

happy(fido).
happy(harry).
happy(X) :- rich(X).
rich(harry).

it follows that

## ?- setof(Y, happy(Y), Set).

Y = _G180
Set = [fido, harry] ;
fail.

18. True:
Built-in Prolog predicate with no arguments, which, as the name suggests, always
succeeds

19. Arithmetic:
Many of the usual arithmetic operators are available in Prolog:

## Operator Meaning Example

+ addition 2 is 1 + 1.
– subtraction 1 is 2 – 1.
– unary minus Try the query X is 1, Y is - X.

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* multiplication 4 is 2 * 2.
/ division 2 is 6 / 3.
// integer division 1 is 7 // 4.
mod integer remainder 3 is 7 mod 4.
** exponentiation 1.21 is 1.1 ** 2.

## Except in the context of an arithmetic comparison operator, arithmetic expressions need

to be explicitly evaluated in Prolog, using the is built-in predicate.
Mostly one uses these operators in a goal more like this:
1. X = Y + 2
where Y is a variable already bound to a numeric value, or perhaps a arithmetic
comparison goal like this:
2. X > Y * Z
Here's another example: a rule to tell if a (whole) number is odd:
3. odd(Num) :- 1 is Num mod 2.
Another way to do this one is to use =:=:
4. odd(Num) :- Num mod 2 =:= 1.
If you wanted to be more cautious, you could first check that Num is in fact a whole
number:
5. odd(Num) :- integer(Num), 1 is Num mod 2.

## As usual in digital computations, with fractional numbers, it is necessary to be careful

with approximation issues. Thus the final example in the table above, 1.21 is 1.1 ** 2.
actually fails when typed into Prolog as a query. This is because 1.1 ** 2, as represented
in computers, actually comes out to be something like 1.210000000001. See the section
on comparison operators for a solution to this issue.
20. Call:
Call is a built-in meta-predicate that allows its single argument to be called/invoked as a
goal. For example, a program might create a goal (perhaps using =..) on the fly, and then,
presumably later in the program, need to test the goal. Here are queries that perform these
roles - in a real program, both the assert and the call would be built in to Prolog
procedures written by the programmer.

?- assert(likes(mary, pizza)).
?- call(likes(Person, pizza)).
Person = mary
?- Goal =.. [likes, mary, What], call(Goal).
Goal = likes(mary, pizza)
What = pizza

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programs.

## 1. Write a simple program in PROLOG.

Program:
likes(john,mary).
likes(john,flowers).
likes(mary,flowers).

?-likes(john,mary).

Output:

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## 2. Write a program to print the value of variable.

Program:
likes(john,mary).
likes(john,flowers).
likes(mary,flowers).

?-likes(john,X),write(X).

Output:

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## 3. Write a program of Tower of Hanoi.

Program:
hanoi(N):-hanoi(N,a,b,c).
hanoi(N,_,_,_).
hanoi(N,fromPin,ToPin,UsingPin):-M is N-1,N>1.
hanoi(M,FromPin,UsingPin,ToPin).
move(FromPin,FromPin).
hanoi(M,ToPin,FromPin,UsingPin).
move(From,To):-write([move,disk,from,pin,from,to,pin,ToPin]).

?-hanoi(N,FromPin,ToPin,UsingPin).

Output:

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## 4. Write a program of factorial.

Program:
factorial(0,1).
factorial(X,Y) :-
X1 is X - 1,
factorial(X1,Z),
Y is Z*X,!.

?- factorial(15,X),write(X).

Output:

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## 5. Write a program to find member from a list.

Program:
member(X,[X|R]).
member(X,[Y|R]) :- member(X,R).

?- member(2,[1,2,3]).

Output:

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## 6. Write a program to find the fibonnacci series.

Program:
fib(1,1).
fib(2,1).
fib(N,R):- N >= 3,N1 is N-1,N2 is N-2,
fib(N1,R1),fib(N2,R2),R is R1+R2.
?- fib(7,R),write(R).

Output:

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## 7. Write a prolog program to print the sum of n numbers.

PROGRAM:
sum_to(1,1).
sum_to(N,R):- N\=1,
N1 is N-1,
sum_to(N1,R1),
R is N+R1.

?-sum_to(6,X),write(X).

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Output:

## 8. Write a program using aless predicate.

Program:

Output:

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## 9. Write a program to get the possible pairs.

Program:
boy(rohan).
boy(krishana).
boy(paul).
girl(ritika).
girl(komal).
girl(ridhima).

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possible_pair(X,Y):-boy(X),girl(Y).

?-possible_pair(X,Y),write(X),write(Y).

Output:

## 10. Write a program to use change predicate.

Program:
change(you,i).
change(are,[am,not]).
change(frence,german).
change(do,no).
change(X,X).
alter([],[]).

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alter([H|T],[X|Y]):-change(H,X),alter(T,Y).

?-alter([you,are,a,computer],Z),write(Z).

Output:

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