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HOON MARITIME INSTITUTE

1/1 NEW TARATALA ROAD


KOLKATA 700088
ADVANCED TRAINING IN OIL TANKER CARGO OPERATIONS

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

INTROduCTION

I INTERNATIONAl & NATIONAl REgulATIONS

II HydRO CARbON STRuCTuRE

Ill SAfETy

IV MARINE POlluTION

V TANk ARRANgEMENT

VI TANkER OPERATION

VII OIl POlluTION lIAbIlITIES & COMPENSATION

APPENdIX-A

APPENdIX-b

APPENdIX-C
INTROduCTION

The development of trade and economy has been the most distinguishing feature of
the 20th century. This would not have been possible without the availability of quick,
efficient and cost effective transportation which again depends on energy in the form of
oil fuels. Rapid industrialization also required large quantities of oil fuel for* their energy
needs as well as the production of heat, light and power. Since all the countries of the
world are not oil producers, the transportation of oil assumed increasing importance in
world trade.
In the early days transportation of oil was carried on in the traditional way by
packing them in barrels and drums and stowing them like general cargo. But as the
requirements increased exponentially, it became apparent that bulk transportation crude
oil was the only answer. Thus the first tankers were primarily general cargo vessels in
whose holds large cylindrical tanks were built.
World war II accelerated the tankers development and in so doing precipitated
important changes in the structure as well[ as the engines of these ships. As the size, of
the ships became larger, the cargo oil tanks also became larger and ships were how
faced with the hazard of a decreasing meta centric height due to free surface effect of
the liquid in the tanks.
Ship builders overcame this problem by fitting longitudinal bulkheads along the
centerline of the tanks as well as the provision of 'expansion trunks' along the top centre
of the main tanks. Today's tankers are varied in size and type, from the Ultra Large
Crude Carrier (ULCC) which can transport more than half a million tons of cargo to the
sophisticated and automated Liquid Petroleum Gas Carrier) LPG) and the Liquid Natural
Gas Carrier (LNG). Thus it was felt by the IMO as early as 1975 that specialized training
was required for persons in charge of tanker operations. The STCW1978 thus introduced
the Advanced Tanker Safety Course, making it mandatory for all Officers in charge of
tanker operations.
Keeping in mind the rapid developments in the tanker industry and the numerous
incidents involving tankers the STCW 1995 went several steps further and made the Oil
Tanker Familiarization Course mandatory for all Officers and ratings assigned specific
duties and responsibilities related to cargo or cargo equipment on tankers.
Further Masters, Chief Engineers, Chief Mates, Second Engineers and any person
with immediate responsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling of
cargo shall also have completed an approved Specialized Training Programme
appropriate to their duties on oil tankers, chemical tankers or liquefied gas tankers.
This course has been designed to meet the requirements of STCW '10 relating to
oil tanker operations.
OILTANKER DEVELOPMENT:

Around 1861 and for several decades thereafter, the transportation of oil could be
cairied on quite comfortably in the traditional way of packing the oil in barrels or drums
and stowing those like jther general cargo. But it was soon clear that the trade was likely
to reach such dimensions as to warrant an entirely new approach to the problem.

In the early days of oil transport by sea and for a short while after the end of First
World Wrr, some oil carrying ships were converted dry cargo in whose hold large
cylindrical tanks were built or which were properly sub-divided with internal bulkheads. In
those vessels, the engine room was located amid ships, but this was not a satisfactory
arrangement.

World war two accelerated the tankers development and in so doing-precipitated


important changes.
A new class of tanker, the T2 was developed and mass produced during the war.
At 16,500 D. W.T the T2 was considered a big ship in its day. The pump room located at
incorporated three centrifugal pumps and a direct pipeline system. These speeded up
cargo handling significantly.

The effect of the free surface of a liquid surging about a ship's tank is to reduce the
vessels metacentric heightthus impairing herstability.

This danger had already been appreciated and her builders fitted ships with a
lougitudinal bulkhead along the centre line of each hold or tank. Also side pockets were
constructed in ths top outboard corners of the main tanks thus reducing surface area.
These side packets were known as summer tanks, since they could be used to carry
cargo when the ship was loaded to her summer deadweight.

The tankers ER was now invariably placed aft. With the main weight aft the ship
could be trimmed well by the stern in light or ballast condition. It also reduced the risk of
fire because the boilers were no longer midway along the tank range but abaft it.

This design remained unchanged until in 1930s when the further evolution in
tanker development took place. The summer tanks were extended to the full depth of the
ship and the centre line bulkhead eliminated. Now we have a number of centre tanks
with port and starboard wing tanks alongside. The standard T-2 tanker of Second World
War vintage (16,500 dwt) is often used as a yardstick to illustrate the comparative
sizes*of tankers ranging from T-2 to ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs of 500,000 dwt).

TYPES OF TANKERS:

1. CRUDE OIL SHIPS :


Crude oil is obtained directly out of the well head. Ships carrying only crude oil
are called "Crnde Oil Tankers".
We have these tankers in very big size, ranging from
(a) Super Tanker : move than 100,000 MT. DWT.
(b) VLCC : 200 to 300 thou MT. DWT.
(c) UI.CC : Above 300 thou MT. DWT.
All new crude oil carriers of 20,000 DWT and above are equipped with C. O. W
system, because Waxy substances causes the crude oil to stick on the tank
bulkheads. Such tankers shall also have an inert gas system and be provided with
Segregated Ballast Tanks.

2. PRODUCT CARRIER :
Petroleum products are of various types, Diesel, Petrol, Kerosene, Fuel oil etc.
All new product carriers of 30,000 ts DWT and avcbe are- equipped with
segregated Ballast Tanks to separate the oil tanks from shell. This is to prevent any
oil getting into the sea in case of collision or accident. These products gives off
vapour continuously. P.V valves are fitted to avoid excess pressure being created in
the tanks. These valves are to be maintained at all times. Such tankers are also to be
provided with IG system. NEW TANKER MEANS WHOSE KEEL IS LAID ON OR
AFTER 1ST JAN. OR DELIVERED ON OR AFTER 1ST JUNE 1882

3. ORE/OIL CARRIER :
In this ships, ore is carried only in centre cargo compartment buck oil is carried in
centre cargo compartment as well as in wing tanks.
The main difference with a similar size conventional carrier is that this ships have
centre compartment located over double bottom tanks and have heavy steel hatch
covers. Central compartments are free from all structural members to facilitate loading or
discharging of ore.
All piping system pass through the wing tanks and centre compartment are free of
piping. The centre compartment are loaded or discharged through wells led into the
double bottom and connected to the piping through the wing tanks.
Heating coils if required for heating the oil, are installed in She wing tanks or
underthe holds and welded on racks to the plating hear the bottom. Wing tank
arrangements are similar to the conventional tankers. Due to slope in compartments,
stripping becomes easier.

4. OHE/BULK/OIL (OBO) CARRIER:


These ships are quite similar to the ore/oil carriers, except that the hopper are
used purely for ballast and oil or ore is never carried in wing tanks. Centre
compartments are much bigger and covers entire breadth tanks are narrower.
Here also cargo is loaded and pumped out through the wells let into the double
bottoms.
Great care is to be taken while loading, as it is difficult to correct any list as
there is no wing tank. Stripping time is very little or no stripping is necessary.
in both ore/oil and OBO changing over from bulk to oil or oil to bulk involves lots of
work on board for preparation.

SEGREGATED BALLAST TANK:


A new crude oil tankers of more than 20.0000 tons deadweight and new product
tankers of more than 30,000 tons DWT must be provided with SBT.
In addition to providing sufficient ballast capacity, SBT should also be located so as to
offer some degree of protection against stranding & collision. Ideally this would be double
skin and double bottom of specified width and depth. This is not necessary in practice
instead the total area of the protected side and bottom should comply with certain
parameters. The regulation stipulate a minimum width of 2 Meters for the wing ballast K,
and the minimum height for the double bottom ballast tanks of 2 Meters or B/15 which
ever is less. B = Max breadth of ship.

LIMITATION OFTANK SIZE:


Applicable to cargo tanks of all of tankers. The aim is to limit quantity of oil escape
into the Marine environment when an oil tanker sustains damage to its cargo. The
provision limits the length and width of cargo tanks, the hypothetical out flow to be less
than 40,000 cubic Meters in the event of damage due to collision or stranding.

SUBDIVISIONS AND STABILITY:


Annex I lays down requirement for the subdivision & stability to ensure survival
capability after a collision or stranding.
CHAPTER-I
1.2 INTERNATIONAL & NATIONAL REGULATIONS :
MARPOL 73/78 DEFINITIONS
1. 'Oil' means petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuge
and refined products (other than petrochemicals)
2. 'Oi! tanker1 means a ship contracted or adopted primarily to carry oil in bulkin its
cargo space and includes combination carriers and any "Chemical Tanker"
when it is carrying a cargo or part cargo of oil in bulk,
3. "Crude oil tanker" means an oil tanker engaged in the trade of carrying crude
oil.
4. "Product Carrier" means an oil tanker engaged in the trade of carrying oil
other than crude oii. >
5. "Combination Carrier" means a ship designed to carry either oil or
solid cargoes in bulk.

6. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION (IMO) :


The organisation came into being in 1958 when it was called "International
Maritime Cornultative Organisation", its present name was adopted in May
1902. It is oneof the specialised agencies of the United Nations, and its
members include the traditional maritime countries and also those countries
which rely on the shipping services of others.
The first object of IMO is to improve co-operation among governments in
technical matters of all kinds affecting shipping.
Another purpose of fMO is to discourage discriminatory unfair and restrictive
practices affecting ships in order to promote the freest possible availability of
shipping services to meet the world's transport needs. Another responsibility
"the prevention of pollution
of the sea by oil".
IMO has drawn up two conventions:
(A) International convention for "Safety of life at Sea 1974" (SOLAS: 1974)
(B) International convention for Prevention of Pollution from ship 1973/1978
(Marpol 73/78).
(A) Solas 1974 entered into force on 25th May 1980 and its protocol of 1978 entered
into force onlstMay 1981.
This convention set out the minimum standard for the safe construction of
ships and for the safety equipments which must be carried out on board.
1. General Provisions (Arrival/Departure Ballast, Crude oil washing equipment) i.e.
Definition & Initial Survey.
2. Construction (a) Subdivision & stability, Machinery and Electrical installations
(b) Fire protection, detection, extinction.
3. Life saving Appliances and arrangements
4. Radiotelegraphy and Radiotelephony
5. Safety of Navigation
6. Carriage of Grain
7. Carriage of Dangerous Goods.
8. Nuclear Ships.
(B) Marpol 73/78 consists of 20 articles, two protocols and five technical Annexes.
In the two protocols first we have the duty of the master to report marine pollution
(actual or probable) and the second one deals with details of arbitration in case of
disputes.
Note: "H": Date of entry into force of Marpol 73/78
"H+2": Means two years after the date of entry into force of Marpol 73/78.
Marpol 73/78 : It was adopted on 2nd Nov. 1973 and modified by a protocol in 1978, it
is commonly referred to as MARPOL 73/78, and this applies to petroleum in any form.
Note: Annex I of Marpol 73/78 = Oil
Appendix I : List of oils
Appendix II : I.O.P.P. Certificate
Appendix III : Oil record book.

Major Construction & Equipment requirements as per Marpol 73


(I) Oily water separating system (OWS) for, machinery spaces.
(ii) Tanks for oil sludge in machinery spaces. (Capacity 1% of bunker used during 30
days
steaming by vessel under normal speed) capacity reduced if fitted with incinerator.
(iii) Standard discharge connection for oily sludge and bilge of machinery space.
(iv) Slop tanks, oil discharge monitoring & control system (ODMCS)
(v) High overboard discharge pipe and drainage systems of oil residues for cargo
spaces.
(vi) Limitation of size and arrangement of cargo tanks
(vii) Segregated ballast tanks for large oil tankers (70,000 + above)

Protocol 78 makes amendments & additions


(I) Segregated ballast tanks & their protective locations SBT/P
(ii) Crude oil washing (COW) for new tankers. Existing tankers may crude oil wash
instead of
having SBT
{iii) Dedicated clean ballast tank (DCBT) for existing tankers instead of segregated ballast
tanks (SBT)
(iv) Possible exemption from SBT or CBT or COW for tanker in specific trades between
ports having adequate reception facilities.
(v) Introduction of strict inspection and certification regulations.
New oil tanker
(I) Building contract on or after 1st June 1979

(ii) Keel laid on or after 1 st January 1980

(iii)Delivery on or after 1 st June 1982


Control of discharge of oil under Marpol 73/78:
Cargo oil: (I) No discharge within special area (50 nm from base line)
(ii) Tanker proceeding en-route, 30 Itrs./nautical mile,
Total quantity: 1/15,000 for existing ship 1 /30.000 for new ship Of the total quantity
of that particular cargo.
(iii) with ODMCS and slop tank (15 PPM)
(No discharge in special area except clean or segreated ballest)

MACHINERY SPACE :
Within Special Area: No discharge except when
(i) The ship is proceeding en-route, 12 natitical miles from shore.
(ii) Effluent 15 ppm with OWS
(iii) Oily water not originated from cargo pump room bilge or not mixed with oil
cargo residue.

Special Notes: Regulation 28, Chapt.: III


(i) 1995 amendments to Solas : Passanger ships of 130 Mtr. in length and over,
built after 1 July 1999 must be fitted with a helicopter landing area
(ii) Sept 1997 amendments to Marpol: The North-West European waters were
made a 'special' area under Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 in Sept. '97. An
amendment entering into force on 1 st Feb. 1999. The special area became
effective from 1st Aug. 1999. The waters cover the North Sea & its approaches,
Irish Sea & its approaches, the Celtic sea, the English Channel and its
approaches and part of the North-East Atlantic immediately to the West of
Ireland.
(iii) July 1999 amendments to Marpol 73/78 : The committee adopted regulations
making certain sized tankers carrying persistent oils (such as Heavy Fuel Oil) as
cargo subject to the same stringent requirements as crude oil tankers.

Solas 94 — Regulation 12-2


This regulation applies to oil tankers constructed on or after 1 st October 1994 and
describes access
to spaces in the cargo area:
(1) Access to cofferdams, ballast tanks, cargo tanks and other spaces in the cargo
area shall be directed from the open deck and such as to ensure their complete
inspection. Access to double bottom spaces may be through a cargo P/P room,
pumproom, cofferdam, pipe tunnel or similar compartment subject to
consideration
of ventilation aspects.
(2) For access three horizontal openings, hatches or manholes, the dimension shall be
sufficient to allow a person wearing a self contained air breathing apparatus &
protective equipment to ascent or descent any ladder without obstruction and
also
provide a clear opening to facilitate the hoisting of an injured person from the
bottom
of the space. The minimum clear opening should not be less than 600mmx800mm.
(3) For access three vertical openings or manholes providing passage through the
length & breadth of the space, the minimum clear opening should be not less
than 600 mm. x 800 mm. at a height of not more than 600 mm. from the bottom
shell plating unless gratings or other foot holds are provided.
(4) For oil tankers of less than 5000 tons & Dead weight smaller dimensions may be
approved by the administration in special circumstances, it the ability to
transverse such openings or to remove an injured person can be proved to the
satisfaction of the administration.
REPRODUCED FROM MARPOL 73/78

Appendix II
Form of IOPP Certificate

INTERNATIONAL OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION CERTIFICATE


(Note : This certificate shall be supplemented by a Record of Construction and
Equipment)

Issued under the provisions of the International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto
(hereinafter referred to as "the Convention") under the authority of the Government of
(full designation of the country)

by......................... ................................................................................. ………………………


. (full designation of the competent person or organization authorised under the provision
of the Convention)

Name of ship Distinctive number or Port of registry Gross tonnage


letters

Type of ship:
Oil tanker*
Ship other than an oil tanker with cargo tanks coming under regulation 2(2) of
Annex 1 of the Convention*
Ship other than any of the above THIS IS TO CERTIFY:
1. That the ship has been surveyed in accordance with regulation 4 of Annex 1 of
the Convention, and
2. That the survey shows that the structure, equipment, system, fittings, arrangement
and material of the ship and the condition thereof are in all respects satisfactory
and that
the ship complies with the applicable requirements of Annex I of the convention.
This certificate is valid until ...................
subject to surveys in accordance with regulation 4 of Annex I of the convention.

Issued at ......................................................................................................................
(Place of issue of certificate)

(Date of issue) Signature of dulyauthorizedofficial


issuing the certificate)

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


ENDORSEMENT FOR ANNUAL AND INTERMEDIATE SURVEYS
THIS IS TO CERTIFY that a survey required be regulation 4 of Annex I of the
convention the ship was found comply with the relevant provision of the convention :

Annual survey : Signed ..............................................

(Signature of duly authorized official)

Place ................................................

Date ..... ............................................

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

Annual / Intermediate survey : Signed ..............................................

(Signature of duly authorized official)

Place ................................................

Date ..................................................

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)

Annual survey : Signed ...............................................

(Signature of duly authorized official)

Place ................................................

Date ..................................................

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


Appendix FORM
A
(Revised 1991)

Supplement to the International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate


(IOPP Certificate)

RECORD OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPS OTHER THAN OIL


TANKERS

In respect of the provisions of Annex I of the international Convention for the


Prevention of Pollution from ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating
thereto (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention")

Notes:
1. This form is to be used for third type of ships as categorized in the IOPP
Certificate, i.e. "ships other than any of the above ". For oil tankers and
ships other than oil tankers with cargo tanks coming under regulation 2(2)
of
Annex I of the Convention. From B shall be used.
2. This Record shall be permanently attached to the IOPP Certificate. The
IOPP Certificate shall be available on board the ship at all times.
3. If the language of the original Record is neither English nor French, the
text shall include a translation into one of these languages.
4. Entries in boxes shall be made by inserting either a cross (x) for the
answers "Yes" and "applicable" or a dash (-) for the answers "no" and
"not applicable" as appropriate.
5. Regulations mentioned in this Record referto regulations of Annex I of the
Convention and resolutions refer to those adopted by the International
Maritime Organization.

1. Particulars of ship
1.1 Name of ship
1.2 Distinctive number or letters
1.3 port of registry
1.4 Gross tonnage .
1.5 Sate of build:
1.5.1 Date of building contract
1.5.2 Date on which keel was laid or ship was at a similar stage of construction
1.5.3 Date of delivery
1.6 Major con version (if applicable):.
1.6.1 Date of conversion contract
1.6.2 Date on which conversion was commenced
1.6.3 Date of completion of conversion
1.7 Status of ship:
1.7.1 New ship in accordance with regulation 1(6)
1.7.2 Existing ship in accordance with regulation 1 (7)
1.7.3 The ship has been accepted by the Administration as an"existing ship" under
regulation
1 (7) due to unforeseen delay in delivery.
2. Equipment for the control of oil discharge from machinery space
bilges and oil fuel tanks (regulation 10 and 16)
2.1 Carriage of ballast water in oil fuel tanks :
2.1.1 The ship may under normal conditions carry ballast water in oil tanks
2.2 Type of oi! filtering equipment fitted :
2.2.1 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment (regulation 16(4))
2.2.2 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment with alarm and automatic stopping device
(regulation 16(5))
2.3 The ship is allowed to operate with the existing equipment until 6 July
1998 (regulation 16(6)) and fitted wjth :
2.3.1 Oily-water separating (100 ppm) equipment
2.3.2 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment without alarm
2.3.3 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment with alarm and manual stopping device
2.4 Approval Standards:*
2.4.1 The separating / filtering equipment:
.1 has been approved in accordance with resolution A.393(X)
.2 has been approved in accordance with resolution A.333(VII)
.3 has been approved in accordance with national standards not based upon
resolution A.393(X) or A.333(VII)
.4 has not been approve
2.4.2 The process until has been approved in accordance with resolution A.444(XI)
2.4.3 The oil content meter has been approved in accordance with resolution A.393(X)
2.5 Maximum throughput of the system is m3 /h
2.6 Waiver of regulation 16.
2.6.1 The requirements of regulation 16(1) or (2) are waived in respect of the ship
in accordance with regulation 16(3)(a). The ship is engaged exclusively on :
1. Voyages within special area(s): .........................................................................
2. Voyages within 12 miles of the nearest land outside special area(s) restricted to
2.6.2 The ship is fitted with holding tank(s) having a volume of m3 for the total
retention on board of all oily bilge water.
Means for retention and disposal of oil residue (sludge) (regulation 17)
2.7 The ship is provided with oil residue (sludge) tanks as follows :

Tank Tank location Volume


identification (m3)
Frame Lateral position
(from) - to)

Total volume ............ m3

2.8 Means for the disposal of residue in addition to the provisions of sludge tanks :
2.8.1.......................................................................... Incinerator for oil residue, capacity
l/h
2.8.2 Auxiliary boiler suitable for burning oil residue
2.8.3...................................................................................... Tank for mixing oil residue
with fuel oil, capacity ............................................................. m3
2.8.4............................................................................................................. Other
acceptable means : .....................................................................................
3. Standard discharge connection (regulation 19)
3.1 The ship is provided with a pipeline for the discharge of residue from machinery
bilges to reception
facilities, fitted with a standard discharge connection in accordance with Regulation
19
4. Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (regulation 26)
4.1 The ship is provided with a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan in compliance
with Regulation 26
5. Exemption
5.1 Exemptions have been granted by the Administration from the requirements of
chapter II of Annex I of the Convention in accordance with regulation 2(4)(a) on
these items listed under paragraph(s) .....................................................................
............................................................................................................. of this Record
6. Equivalents (regulation 3)
6.1 Equivalents have been approved by the Administration for certain requirements of
Annex I on those
items listed under paragraph (s) ......................... of this Record
THIS TO CERTIFY that this Record is correct in all respects

issued at ......................................................................................................
(Place of issue of the Record)

(Signature of duly authorized officer issuing the Record)


(Seal or stamp of the issuing authority as appropriate)

FORM B
(Revised
1991)

Supplement to International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate


(IOPP Certificate)

RECORD OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT FOR OIL TANKERS

in respect of the provisions of annex I to the international convention for the prevention
of pollution from ships. 1973 as modified by the protocol of 1978 relating thereto
(hereinafter referred to as: "the Convention"

Notes:
1. This form is to be used for the first two type of ships as categorized in
the IOPP Certificate, i.e. "oil tankers" and "ships other than oil tankers with
cargo tanks coming under regulation 2(2) of Annex I of the Convention".
For the third type of ships as categorized in the IOPP Certificate. Form A shall
be used.
2. This Record shaii be permanently attached to the IOPP Certificate. The
IOPP Certificate shall be available on board the ship at all times,

3. If the language of the original Record is neither English nor French, the
text shall include a translation into one of these languages.

4. Entries in boxes shall be made by inserting either a cross (x) for the
answers
"yes" and "applicable" or a dash (-) for the answers "no" and "not applicable"
as appropriate.
5. Unless otherwise stated, regulations mentioned in this Record refer to
Regulations of Annex of the Convention and resolutions refer to those adopted
by the International Maritime Organization.
1. Particulars of Ship

1.1 Name of ship


1.2 Distinctive Number or letters
1.3 Port of Registry
1.4 Gross Tonnage
1.5 Carrying Capacity of the Ship (M3)
1.6 Deadweight of ship(Metric Tons) (Regulation 1(22))
1.7 Length of the Ship (m) (Regulation 1(18))
1.8 Date of Build:
1.8.1 Date of Building Contract
1.8.2 Date on which the keel was laid or ship was at a similar stage of construction
1.8.3 Date of delivery
1.9 Major Conversion(If Applicable)
1.9.1 Date of Conversion Contract
1.9.2 Date on which conversion was commenced
1.9.3 Date of completion of conversion
1.10 Status of Ship:
1.10.1 New ship in accordance with regulation 1 (6)
1.10.2 Existing ship in accordance with regulation 1 (7)
1.10.3 New oil tanker in accordance with regulation 1(26)
1.10.4 Exiting oil tanker in accordance with regulation 1 (27)
1.10.5 The ship has been accepted by the Administration as an "existing ship" under regulation 1
(7) due to unforeseen delay in delivery.
1.10.6 The ship has been accepted by the Administration as an "existing oil tanker" under
regulation 1 (27) due to unforeseen delay in delivery.
1.10.7 The ship is not required to comply with the provisions of regulation 24 due to unforeseen
delay in delivery.
1.11 Type of ship:
1.11.1 Crude oil tanker
1.11.2 Product carrier
1.11.3 Crude oil/product carrier
1.11.4 Combination carrier
1.11.6 Oil tanker dedicated to the carriage of products referred to in regulation 15(7)
1.11.7 The ship, being designated as a "crude oil tanker" operating with COW, is also designate
as a "product carrier" operating with CBT, for which a separate IOPP Certificate has also
been issued.
1.11.8 The ship, being designated as a "product carrier" operating with CBT, is also designated
as a "crude oil tanker" operating with COW, for which a separate IOPP Certificate has also
been issued.
1.11.9 Chemical tanker carrying oil.
2. Equipment for the control of oil discharge from machinery space bilges and oil fuel
tanks (regulation 10 and 16).
2.1 Carriage of ballast water in oil fuel tanks
2.1.1 The ship may under normal conditions carry ballast water in oil fuel tanks
22 Type of oil filtering equipment fitted:
2.2.1 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment (regulation 16(4))
2.2.2 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment with alarm and automatic stopping device (regulation 16(5))
2.3 The ship is allowed to operate with the existing equipment until 6 July 1998 (regulation
16(6)) and fitted with
2.3.1 Oily-water separating (100 ppm) equipment :
2.3.2 Oilfiltering(15ppm)equipmentwithoutalarm
2.3.3 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment with alarm and manual stopping device 2.4 Approval Standards:
2.4.1 Theseparating/filteringsystem
1. Has been approved in accordance with resolution A.393(X)
2. Has been approved in accordance with resolution A.233(VII)
3. Has been approved in accordance with national standards not based upon resolution
A.393(X)orA.333(Vil)
4. Has not been approved
2.4.2 The process until has been approved in accordance with resolution A.444(X!)
2.4.3 The oil content meter has been approved in accordance with resolution A.393(X)
2.5 Maximum throughput of the system is…………………………..m3 /h
2.6 Waiver of regulation 16.
2.6.1 The requirement of regulation 16(1) or (2) are waived in respect of the ship in accordance
with regulation 16(3)(a). The ship is engaged exclusively on:
1. Voyages within special area(s): .......................................................................
2. Voyages within 12 miles of the nearest land outside special area(s) restricted to:
2.6.2 .The ship is fitted with holding tank(s) having a volume of m3 for the total retention on
board of all oily bilge water.
2.6.3 .In lieu of the holding tank the ship is provided with arrangements to transfer bilge water
to the slop tank *
5.23. Means for retention and disposal of oil residue (sludge) (regulation 17)
3.1 The ship is provided with oil residue (sludge) tanks as follows:
Tank Tank location Volume
identification Frame Lateral position (m3)
(from) - (to)

Total Volume ........ (m3)

3.2 Means for the disposal of residues in addition to the provisions of sludge tanks
3.2.1 Incinerator for oil residues, capacity l/h
3.2.2 Auxiliary boiler suitable for burning oil residues
3.2.3 Tank for mixing oil residues with fuel m3
3.2.4 Other acceptable means……………………………………………………

4. Standard discharge connection (regulation 19)


4.1 The ship is provided with a pipeline for the discharge of residues from machinery bilges to
reception facilities, fitted with a standard discharge connection in accordance with regulation
19
5. Construction (regulation 19)
5.1 In accordance with the requirements of regulation 13, the ship is

5.1.2 Required to be provided with SBT, PL and COW


5.1.3 Required to be provided with SBT and PL
5.1.4 Required to be provided with SBT
5.1.5 Required to be provided with SBT or COW
5.1.6 Required to be provided with SBT or CBT
5.1.7 Not required to comply with the requirements of regulation 13
5.2 Segregated ballast tanks (SBT):
5.2.1 The ship is provided with SBT in compliance with regulation 13
5.2.2 The ship is provided with SBT, in compliance with regulation 13, which are arranged in
protective locations (PL) in compliance with regulation I3E
5.2.3 SBT are distributed as follows:

Tank Volume (m3) Tank Volume (m3)

Total Volume ............ (m3)

5.3 Dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT) :


5.3.1 The ship is provided with CBT in compliance with regulation 13A, and may
operate as a product carrier
5.3.2 CBT are distributed as follows:
Tank Volume (m3) Tank Volume (m3)

Total Volume ............ (m3)


5.3.3 The ship has been supplied with a valid Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual,
which is dated ..........................
5.3.4 The ship has common piping and pumping arrangement for ballasting the CBT and handling
cargo oil
5.3.5 The ship has separate independent piping and pumping arrangement for ballasting the CBT
5.4 Crude oil washing (COW):
5.4.1 The ship is equipped with a COW system in compliance with regulation 13B
5.4.2 The ship is equipped with a COW system in compliance with regulation 13B expect that the
effectiveness of the system has not been confirmed in accordance with regulation
13(6) and paragraph 4,2.10 of the Revised COW Specifications (resolution A.446(XI)*)
5.4.3 The ship has been supplied with a valid Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment
Manual, which is dated ............................

5.4.4 The ship is not required to be but is equipped with COW in Compliance with the sat
aspects of the Revised COW Specifications (resolution A.446(XI)*)
5.5 Exemption from regulation 13:
5.5.1 The ship is solely engaged in trade between ................................................. in accordance
with regulation 13C and is therefore exempted from the requirements of regulation 13
5.5.2 The ship is operating with special ballast arrangements in accordance with regulat 13D and
is therefore exempted from the requirements regulation 13
5.6 Limitation of size and arrangements of cargo tanks (regulation 24):
5.6.1 .The ship is required to be constructed according to, and complies with, the requiremei of
regulation 24
5.6.2 The ship is required to be constructed according to, and complies with, the requiremer of
regulation 24(4) (see regulation 2(2))
5.7 Subdivision and stability (regulation 25):
5.7.1 The ship required to be constructed according to, and complies with, the requiremen of
regulation 25
5.7.2.Information and data required under regulation 25(5) have been supplied to the shia
approved form
5.8 Double-hull construction:
5.8.1 The ship is required to be constructed according to regulation 13F and complies wit the
requirements of:
1. Paragraph (3) (double-hull construction)
2. Paragraph (4) (mid-light deck tankers with double side construction)
3. Paragraph(5) (alternative method approved by the Marine Environment Protection
Cornmittel
5.8.2 The ship is required to be constructed according to and complies with the requireme of
regulation 13F(7) (double bottom requirements)
5.8.3 The ship is not required to comply with the requirements of regulation 13F
5.8.4 The is subject to regulation 13G and:
1. Is required to comply with regulation 13F not later than ....................
2. Is so arranged that the following tanks or spaces are not used for the carriage of oil ...
5.8.5 The ship is not subject to regulation 13G

6. Retention of oil on board (regulation 15)


The ship comes under category……………………..oil tankers as defined in resolution
A.496(XI
6.1.1 or A.586(14)* (delete as appropriate)

6.1.2 The system comprises :


1. Control unit
2. Computing unit
3. Calculating unit
6.1.3 The system is :
1. Fitted with a starting interlock
2. Fitted with automatic stopping device
6.1.4 The oil content meter is approved under the terms of resolution A.393(X) or A.586(14)
(delete as appropriate) suitable for:
.1 crude oil
.2 black products
.3 white products
.4 oil-like noxious liquid substances as listed in the attachment to the certificate
6.1.5 The ship has been supplied with an operations manual for the oil discharge
monitoring and control system
6.2 Slop tanks :
6.2.1 The ship is provided with ........... dedicated slop tank(s) with the total capacity
of....................... m3, which is ..... %of the oil carrying capacity, in accordance with :
1 regulation 15(2)(c)
.2 regulation 15(2)(c)(l)
.3 regulation 15(2)(c)(ii)
.4 regulation 15(2)(c)(iii)
6.2.2 Cargo tanks have been designated as slop tanks
6.3 Oil / water interface detectors :
6.3.1 The ship is provided with oil / waterinterface detectors approved underthe terms of
resolution
MEPC.5(XIII)*
6.4 Exemptions from regulation 15 :
6.4.1 The ship is exempted from the requirements of regulation 15(1). (2) and (3) in
accordance with regulation 15(7)
6.4.2 The ship is exempted from the requirements of regulation 15(1). (2) and (3) in
accordance with regulation 2(2)
6.5 Waiver of regulation 15 :
6.5.1 The requirements of regulation15(3)arewaived in respect of the ship in accordance with
regulation
15(5)(b).
The ship is engaged exclusively on:
.1 specific trade under regulation 13C …………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
.2 voyages within special area(s):………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
.3 voyages within 50 miles of the nearest land outside special area(s) of 72 hours or less in duration
restricted to : ............................................ .... .................................................................................... …

7. Pumping, piping and discharge arrangements (regulation 18)


7.1 The overboard discharge outlets for segregated ballast are located:
7.1.1 Above the waterline
7.1.2 Bellow the waterline
72 The overboard discharge outlets, other than the discharge manifold, for clean ballast are
located:
7.2.1 Above the waterline
7.2.2 Bellow the waterline
7.3 The overboard discharge outlets, other than the discharge manifold, for dirty ballast water or
oil-contained water from cargo tanks areas are located :*
7.3.1 Above the waterline
7.3.2 Bellow the waterline in conjunction with the part flow arrangement in compliance with
regulation 18(6)(e)
7.3.3 Bellow the waterline
7.4 Discharge of oil from cargo pumps and oil lines (regulation 18(4) and (5)):
7.4.1 Means to drain all cargo pumps and oil lines at the completion of cargo discharge.
. 1 draining capable of being discharged to a cargo tank or slop tank
.2 for discharge ashore a special small-diameter line is provided
8. Shipboard oil pollution emergency plan (regulation 26)
8.1 The ship is provided with a shipboard oil pollution emergency plan in compliance with
regulation 26
9. Equivalent arrangement for chemical tankers carrying oil
9.1 As equivalent arrangements for the carriage of oil by a chemical tanker, the ship is fitli with
the following equipment in lieu of slop tanks (paragraph 6.2 above):
9.1.1 Oily-water separating equipment capable of producing effluent with oil content less than
100 ppm, with the capacity of ............ ......... m3/ h
9.1.2................................................................................................ A holding tanks with the capacity of
.................................................................................................... m3
9.1.3 A tank for collecting tank washings which is :
.1 a dedicated tank
.2 a cargo tank designated as a collecting tank
9.1.4 A permanently installed transfer pump for overboard discharge of effluent containing oil
through the oily-water separating equipment
9.2 The oily-water separating equipment has been approved under the terms of resolution A.393
and is suitable for the full range of Annex I products
9.3 The ship holds a valid Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemical in Bulk

10. Oil-like noxious liquid substances


10.1 The equipment is permitted, in accordance with regulation 14 of Annex II of the Convention to
carry the oil-like noxious liquid substances specified in the list attached

11. Exemption

11.1 Exemptions have been granted by the Administration from the requirements of
chapter II and III of Annex I of the Convention in accordance with regulation 2(4)(a) on those
items listed under paragraph(s) ....................................................................................................
............................................................. ............................................................. of this Record
12. Equivalents (regulation 3)
12.1 Equivalents have been approved by the Administration for certain requirements of
Annex I on those items listed under paragraph(s) ........................................................ ,.....of this
Record.

THIS IS TO CERTIFY that this Record is correct in ail respects.

issued at ...........................................................................................………………………………………..
(Place of issue of the Record)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(Signature of duly authorized officer issuing the Record)

(Seal or stamp of the authority, as appropriate)


CHAPTER - II
2. HYDRO CARBON STRUCTURE
2.1 PETROLEUM
(1) Petroleum is raw oil obtained from the ground
(2) Petroleum is made up of hydro carbon molecules
(3) Hydro carbon molecules are made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

Petroleum ________ V Hydro carbon _____________ V Carbon & Hydrogen


compound molecules atoms
Crude Petroleum Is Classified Into One Of The Three Types :
(i) Paraffin Base : In which the residue after distillation contains more than 5% Paraffin Wax.
(ii) Asphalt Base : In which the residue after distillation contain less than 2% Paraffin Wax
and is mainly composed of asphalt.
(iii) Mixed Base : In which the residue after distillation contain between 2 and 5%
paraffin wax mixed intimately with asphalt.
The type, obtained depends on the source.
PRODUCTION DISTILLATION :
The petroleum is pumped from the well through pipe lines to storage tanks at the port of
shipment. Here the crude oil undergoes a preliminary purification treatment (Removal of salt and
water).
Tankers convey the crude oil to other ports, where it is discharged into storage tanks. From
here it is distributed to the refineries through the pipe line. Here the petroleum is preheated & then
passes to tube-stills where it is heated to a high temp in special steel tubes. The crude oil thus
heated expands in the distilling column where it is separated into the fractions. From the residue we
get tar, pitch and coke.
Products :
(I) Gaseous: Methane, Butane, Propane
(ii) Luquid: Petrol, diesel
(iii) Semi Solid: Grease
(iv) Solid: Bitumen, wax

An English Chemist, Datton in 1803 put forward the atomic theory. He explained that all
matters are made up of millions & millions of small particles called atoms; (atom = cannot be
cut — Greek).
But this was not so, Atoms consits of several particles like electron, proton & neutron.
However atom remains indivisible in all physical and chemical changes.
Mass of hydrogen atom = 1.7x10~24 gm.

STRUCTURE OF ATOM

1) The centre of an atom consists of a positively (+ve) charged body called nucleus. All the
protons and neutrons are present in this nucleus. It is very heavy due to the presence of
all protons and neutrons in it.

2) The electrons keep revolving in orbit around the nucleus at extremely high speed and at
great distance from the nucleus as the planets revolve round the sun.
MOLECULES :
Compounds are made up of small particles called molecules. These molecules are formed from
atoms held together by bonding. Hydrogen atom has only one bond, and carbon atom has four
bonds.
Atoms by itself is rarely capable of free existance. They exist as cluster or as a mass of atoms.
Any such mass in which atoms are held together is called a molecule.

CHEMICAL BOND :
This may be regarded as a force which holds the atoms together in a molecule. The nature of
chemical bond and cause were very little known before the development of atomic structure.
Inert gas such as Helium, Argon, Neon have very stable atoms (i.e. favourable energy state which
connot be improved by molecule formating)
For example one hydrogen atom has one electron and one proton. To attain stability it would try to
get two electrons, (like Helium). So two hydrogen atoms will combine such that they have two
electrons which are common to both. This forms a bond between the two hydrogen atoms. Two
hydrogen atoms combine to form a molucule of Hydrogen (H2).

We know hydrocarbon molecules are made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms.


The weight of hydrocarbon molecules is governed by the number of carbon atoms forming the
molecules.
Where the number of carbon molecules are very less the molecule becomes gaseous under
normal atmospheric condition as in the .case of methane, butane, Propane etc.

Methane CH4

Butane : C4H10

Propane : C3H8

The very heavy molecules tend to become solid under normal atmospheric condition, such as
Butane, asphalt. When the molucules are of intermediate and neither heavy nor light, it remains a
liquid under normal atmospheric condition.

Gaseous Liquid Solid

-- > 6 ------------ > 26 -------- >


Under Six upto 26 over 26
Carbon atom Carbon atoms Carbon atoms
AROMATIC COMPOUND :
The word aromatic means fragrant and was chosen long ago to distinguish between plant and
paraffin substances and benzene derivatives. Benzene is a colourless liquid and is of immense
importance to the industrial chemists. It is used to react with a vast range of other substances and
does so easily as a consequence of its ringed carbon molecular structure.

liquid
2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.
Physical & Chemical properties which have the greatest bearing on the hazards arising from
handling petroleum liquids : Vapour presure, the flammability of gases evolved from liquids and
density of these gases.
1. Density : is the mass of a substance per unit volume. (MKS system).
2. Density of Hydrocarbon Gases :
The density of the gas mixtures evolved from the normal petroleum liquids, when undiluted with
air, are all greater than the density of air. Layering effects are, therefore, encountered in cargo
handling operations and cangive rise to hazardous situations.
The following table gives gas densities relative to air for the three pure hydrocarbon gases
propane, butane and pentane, which represent roughly the gas mixtures that are produced
respectively by crude oils, by motor or aviation gasolines and by natural gasolines. These figures
are not significantly changed if inert gas is substituted for air.

Gas Pure By Volume Lower


Hydrocarbon 20% Hydrocarbon Flammable Limit
50% Air Mixture
1. Propane 1.55 1.25 1.00
2. Brutane 2.00 1.50 1.00
3. Pentane 2.50 1.80 1.00

It will be seen that the density of the undiluted gas from a product such as motor gasoline is likely
to be about twice that of air, and that from a typically crude oil about 1.5 times. These high
densities, are the layering effects that result from them, are only significant while the gas remains
concentrated. As it is diluted with air, the density of the gas/air mixture from all three types of cargo
approaches that of air and at the lower flammable limit is indistinguishable from it.
As a petroleum cargo has a potential for fire and explosion it is essential to have certain amount of
knowledge of petroleum product in regards to its characteristic which present the risk.
Petroleum product having flash point below 60°C is called volatile cargo. It gives off vapour at
certain temp and pressure. The volatility increases with temp and reaches maximum at the boiling
temp.
Explosive mixture is produced when hydrocarbon vapour is mixed with air and if it is within the
flammable limit this mixture will ignite and burn.
Inert gas can be used to keep the air content below the necessary level so that the flammable
mixture will not be produced.

25
FLAMMABLE COMPOSITION DIAGRAM : HYDROCARBON GAS/AIR/INERT GAS MIXTURE

Note: Thisdiagram is illustrative only and should not be used for deciding upon acceptable gas
composition in practical cases.
When an inert gas, typically flue gas, is added to a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture, the
result is to increase the lower flammable limit (hydrocarbon concentration) and to
decrease* the upper flammable limit concentration. These effects are illustrated in this
figure, which should be regarded only as a guide to the principles involved.
Note : Point C = L.F.L. (Lower Flammable limit). Insufficient hydrocarbon gas to support
combustion.
Point D = U.F.L. (Upper Flammable limit). Too rich in hydrocarbon gas to support
combustion.

Every point on the diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture, specified in terms of
its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents. This gas/air mixture without inert gas lie on the line AB, the
slope of which reflects the reduction in oxygen content as the hydrocarbon content increases. Points
to the left of AB represent mixtures with this oxygen content further reduced by the addition of inert
gas.
The lower and upper flammability limit mixtures for hydrocarbon gas in air are represented by the
points C & D. As the inert gas content increases, the flammable limit mixtures change as indicated
by the lines CE and DE, which finally converge at the point E. Only those mixtures represented by
points in the shaded area within the loop CED are capable of burning.
On such a diagram changes of composition due to the addition of either air or inert gas are
represented by movements along straight lines directed either towards the point A (pure air) or
towards a point on the oxygen content axis corresponding to the composition of the added inert gas.
Such lines are shown for the gas mixture represented by the point F,
it is evident from the figure that as inert gas is added to hydrocarbon gas/air mixture, the flammable
range progressively decreases until the oxygen content reaches a level, generally taken to be about
11 % by volume, when no mixture can burn. The figure of 8% by volume of oxygen specified in this
guide for a safely inserted gas mixture allows a margin beyond this value.
When an inserted mixture, such as that represented by the point F, is diluted by air, its composition
moves along the line FA and therefore enters the shaded area of flammable
mixture. This means that all inerted mixtures in the region above the line GA go through a flammable
condition as they are mixed with air, for example, during a gas freeing operation. Those below the line
GA such as that represented by point H, do not become flammable on dilutions. Note that it is possible
to move from a mixture such as F to one such as H by dilution with additional inert gas (i.e. purging to
remove hydrocarbon gas).
3. Vapour Pr:
. When a petroleum mixture is transferred to a gas free tank, it commences to vaporise i.e. it liberates
gas into the space above it. There is also a tendency for the gas to re-dissolve in the liquid and an
equilibrium is reached with a certain amount of gas evenly distributed throughout the space. The
pressure exerted by this gas is called vapour pressure. Here the vapour pressure depends upon its
temperature and the volume of gas space into which vaporization occurs.

TRUE VAPOUR PR : (TVP) is the equilibrium vapour pressure of a mixture when the gas/liquid ratio is
effectively zero as the temperature of petroleum mixture increases, its TVP also increases and it TVP
exceeds atmospheric pressure the liquid commences to boil. When pressure increases the boiling
point of a liquid rises. When pressure*decreases the boiling point falls. Boiling is a form of rapid
evaporation. When pr increases a liquid will stop boiling. Evaporation in oil cargo tank can be
completely prevented if sufficient pr could be exerted in ullage space. But tanks stand about 3.5 Psi
above atmospheric pressure. For safety 2.5 PSI should not be exceeded. But evaporation can be
reduced if some pressure is exerted. Such a pressure will be produced by the vapour pressure of the
cargp after loading is completed and tanks closed without PA/ valve, if oil vapour and air were allowed
to flow freely in and out of cargo tanks, cargo loss and emission of vapour to deck would not be under
control (Day time heat and nighttime cool).
Toxic component of flue Gas : The dilution of the toxic components of the gas during gas freeing
can be monitored by flammable gas indicator & oxygen analyser.

Toxicity of Petroleum : To be safe a reading of 1% L.F.L. must be obtained by combustible gas


indicator.

2.3. HEALTH HAZARD

1. Oxygen deficiency:
Exposure to an atmosphere with a low concentration of oxygen does not produce any
recognizable symptom before unconsciousness occurs, when the onset of brain damage and
risk of death can follow within a few minutes. If oxygen deficiency is not sufficient to cause
unconsciousness the mind is liable to become apathetic and complacent, and even if this
symptoms are noticed and escape is attempted, physical exertion will aggravate the weakness
of both mind and body.
2. Toxicity of flue gas:
The pressure of toxic gases such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide can be ascertained
only by measurement.
3. Electrostatic Hazard:
Small particulate matter carried in flue gas can be electrostatically charged. The level of
charge is usually small, but levels have been observed well above those encountered with
water mists formed during tank washing.
Because cargo tanks are normally in an inserted condition, the possibility of electrostatic
ignition has to be considered only if the oxygen content of the tank atmosphere rises as a
result of an ingress of air or if it is necessary to inert a tank which has a flammable
atmosphere.

2.4 TOXIC EFFECT : (POISONOUS)

(1) By Skin Contact:


Causes skin irritation, eye irritation use protective clothing especially use of gloves and
safety goggles is very important.
(2) Swallowing:
Significant quantity is of very slight chance. It causes discomfort & nausea (desire to
vomit)
(3) Breathing of petroleum gas :
comparatively small quantity cause symptoms of reduced sense of responsibility and
dizziness similar to drunkenness, with headache & irritation of eye. Inhalation of
significant quantity can be fatal and can lead to death.

NOTE: Careful while entry into Pump Room, cargo spaces etc. thorough ventilation required,
continuous monitoring of atmosphere in working space, (oxygen should be 21% by
volume), oxygen content may be reduced due to chemical reaction, burning, rusting,
paint drying.
CHAPTER-III

3. SAFETY

3.1 General Principles:


In order to eliminate the risk of fire and explosion on a tanker it is necessary to avoid a source of
ignition and a flammable atmosphere being present at the same place at the same time.
In the case of cargo compartment, pump room and at times the tank deck, flammable gases are to
be expected and the strict elimination of all possible sources of ignition in these locations is
essential.
Cabin, galleys and other areas within the accommodation block inevitably contains ignition sources
such as electrical equipment, matches and cigarette lighters. While it is a sound practice to minimize
and control such sources of ignition it is essential to avoid the entry of flammable gases.
In Engine and boiler rooms, ignition source such as those arising from boiler operations and
electrical equipment cannot be avoided. It is therefore essential to prevent the entry of flammable
gases into such compartments. The contamination of bunker fuel by volatile cargo through bulkhead
leaks, pipeline admixture or any other cause will introduce an additional danger. The routine
checking of bunker spaces for flammability by tanker and terminal personnel is therefore to be
encouraged.
The installation and the correct operation of an inert gas system provides an added measure of
safety, but it does not preclude the need for close attention to the precaution set out in this chapter
as follows.

SMOKING NAKED LIGHTS :

Smoking at Sea: While a tanker is at sea, smoking should be permitted only at times and in places
specified by the master.
Matches and lighters : The use of matches & lighters outside accommodation space should be
prohibited, except in places where smoking is permitted. Match lighters should not be taken outside
these spaces by personnel.
Naked lights (Open flame): Naked lights must be prohibited on the tank deck and in any other
place where there is a risk that petroleum gas may be present.
Portable and permanent notices prohibiting smoking and the use of naked lights, should be
displayed at the point of access of the vessel and at the exit from the accommodation area. Within
the accomodation area, instruction concerning smoking should be displayed.”

GALLEY
It is essential that gaJley personnel must be instructed in the safe operation of galley equipment.
Unauthorised and inexperienced persons should not be allowed to use such facilities.
A frequent cause of fire is the accumulation of unburnt fuel in galley uptakes and filters of galley
vents. Such areas require frequent inspection to ensure that they are maintained in a clean
condition.
Galley staff should be trained in handling fire emergencies. The appropriate fire extinguishers and
fire blankets should be provided.

PORTABLE LAMPS & ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS : All portable electrical equipments including
lamps should be approved by a competent authority and must be carefully examined for possible
defects before being used. The insulation should not be damaged and that cables should be
securely attached.
LAMPS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ON FLEXIBLE CABLES
The use of portable electrical equipments on flexible cables (Wandering leads) should be prohibited
with in cargo tanks and adjacent spaces and on deck. If at all they have to be used then (I) the
compartment within or over which the equipments are to be used is gas freed for hot
work.
(ii) the adjacent compartments are also gas freed or have been purged of hydrocarbon to less
than 1 % volume and inserted or are completely filled with ballast water.
(iii) all tank openings to other compartment not gas freed for hot work or not treated as above,
are closed.
(iv) the equipment including all wandering leads are intrinsically safe
(v) or the equipment is contained within an approved explosion proof housing. The cable will
have an earth conductor and be permanently attached to the explosion proof housing.

In addition there are certain types of equipments which are approved for use over the tank deck
only.
Air driven lamps of approved types can be used in non gas free atmosphere. To avoid
accumulation of static electricity the air supply should have a water-trap and the supply hose should
be of low electrical resistance.
Torches that have been approved for use in flammable atmosphere must be used.
Battery powered watch, hearing aids, pacemakers are not dangerous. Do not use portable radios,
tape recorder, electronic calculator, photographic flash in areas where flammable gas may be
encountered.
Fixed electrical Equipments must be of approved type where flammable gas is to be expected
frequently.
Medium and High frequency transmission should not be permitted as there is likely hood of
flammable gas being present around the transmitting antenna.
USEOFTOOLS:
Before any hammering, chipping is undertaken, or any power tool is used outside the boiler room,
engine room, accommodation, the responsible officer should satisfy himself that the area will remain
gas free throughout the period of working and that a hot work permit has been issued. Hand tools
should be used only for the purpose for which they are designed. Possibility of ignition of petroleum
gas by frictional sparks produced by metal to metal impact with correct and normal use is slight, but
care must be taken to prevent incorrect use. Non-ferrous so called non-sparking tools are not very
effective, use of non-ferrous tool are not recommended.
ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACE :
Because of the possibility of oxygen deficiency as well as the presence of hydrocarbon or toxic gas
in a cargo tank, cofferdam, double bottom tank or any enclosed space, it is the master's
responsibility to identify such space and to establish procedures for safe entry.lt is the duty of the
responsible officer to check the atmosphere in the compartment, ventilate the space, ensure the
appropriate procedures are followed, ensure the safety of the personnel concerned and issue an
entry permit.
PUMPROOMS :
Pump rooms by virtue of their location, design and operation, constitute a particular hazard and
therefore necessitate special precautions.
Pump room bilges should be kept clean and dry. To prevent hydrocarbon vapour into this
room, all pump seals, valve glands drain cocks and mud boxes should be maintained in
good order. In the event of a serious spillage the application of a layer of fire extinguishing
froth will help to control the generation of hydrocarbon vapour until the situation is brought
under control.
Pump room requires ventilation and regulation and require the mechanical expulsion of air
and any petroleum gas from the bottom of the pump rooms. Before any one enters a pump
room, it should be thoroughly ventilated and the atmosphere checked for petroleum gas.
Ventilation should be maintained until access to the pump room is no longer required.
Notices should be displayed at the pump room entrance prohibiting entry without prior
permission. The pump room life lines and harness should be rigged ready for immediate
rescue. Approved breathing apparatus and resuscitation apparatus should be available.
Care should be taken to ensure that the integrity of the approved lighting system is
maintained. If additional lighting is required, only approved equipment should be used.

3.4 COMBUSTABLE GAS INDICATOR :

This instrument is first charged with fresh air from the atmosphere using the rubber aspirator
bulb 'A'. On-off switch S2 is closed together with check switch S, and the compensatory
filament 'C and detector filament 'D‘ allowed to reach steady state working temperature. The
rheostat F can now be adjusted so that galvanometer 'G1 reads 21 % oxygen. Voltage is.
adjusted from battery 'B1 by the rheostat E by zero set control. Switch 'S2'is now opened.
The instrument is now charged from the suspect gas space and while operating the bulb, the
switch S2is again closed. If a flammable or explosive gas in present it will burn & cause the
detector filament to increase in temp. This disturbs the bridge balance and a current flows.
Galvanometer ‘G’ can be calibrated so that the scale is marked to read “% of lower limit of
explosive concentration of gas”,
This instrument is used for measuring hydrocarbon gas in air at concentration below the lower
flammable limit. Scale is graduated in % LFL. Not to be used in inert atmosphere.

Note:
Fixed installation have been employed to a limited extent in a few petroleum tankers to monitor
the flammability of the atmosphere in spaces such as pipe tunnels in double bottoms. Two
general arrangements have been developed.
In one arrangement a multiplicity of sensing devices is distributed throughout the space to be
monitored. Signals are taken sequentially from them by a central control.
The other arrangement incorporate the gas measurement system in the central control.
Sample of atmosphere to be checked are drawn sequentially, usually by vacuum Pump Room,
through sample lines to the central gas measurement system. It is important to ensure that
there is no leakage of air into the system which would dilute the samples and cause misleading
readings.
Note:
The ignition temp is different for the various hydrocarbon gases. While methane only ignites
at 600°C, the hexane ignites below 300°C.
(The temperature of a lighted match is over 1000°C)
Gases usually emitted from crude oil are methane, ethane, propane, butane, pantone and
hexane.
TOXIC GAS INDICATOR

Probably the most convenient and suitable equipment to use for measuring very low
concentrations of toxic gases on board tankers.
Testing for contaminants in space where the variety precludes the provision of special
detecting instruments, is made possible with the use of tubes packed at one end with chemical
granules that change colour on contact with a particular gas or vapour. There is a different tube for
each substances.

The pump has a long sample pipe on its suction side and the glass tube is fitted on discharge side.
After prescribed number of stroke on the P/P, chemical completely changes in colour, the result can
be read from a chart or directiy from the tube after prescribed number of pumping strokes.
It is important that all components should be from the same manufacturer.

Toxicity expressed as Threshold Limit Valve (TLV) some important TLV


Benzene 10 PPM Nitric oxide
Carbon monoxide 50 PPM Hydrogen Sulphide : 10 PPM
25 PPM. Nitrogen dioxide : 3 PPM
OXYGEN ANALYSER :

Paramagnetic Sensor
One physical property which distinguishes oxygen from most other common gases is its para-
magnetism (attracted by a magnetic field). A magnetic field is intensified by the presence of
O2 and its intensity will vary with the quantity of 02.
Most gases are slightly diamagnetic i.e. they are repelled by a magnetic field.
A glass sphere is filled with nitrogen and mounted like a dumb bell. It is suspended by a
platinum ribbon in the strong magnetic field. Being diamagnetic it takes up a position away from the
most intense part of the field.
The magnets and dumbbell are housed in a chamber which has an inlet and outlet for the
sample. When the surrounding gas contains 02, the dumb bell spheres are pushed further out of the
field due to the change produced by the paramagnetic Mflter oxygen. Torque acting on dumb bell is
proportional to the oxygen concentration & hence the restoring force to bring the dumb bell back to
zero position is also proportional to the 02 concentration.

The zero position of dumb bell is sensed by twin photo cells receiving light reflected from a
mirror. The output of the photo cell is amplified and fed back to a coil wound on the dumbbell, so that
the torque due to 02 in the sample is balanced by a restoring torque generate by a feed back current.
This is scaled to give 02% directly.
Accurate calibration is obtained by using pure nitrogen for zero and normal air for setting the
span at 21% oxygen.

34
3.5 FIRE

Burning is a rapid form of oxidation. When the rate of reaction is very slow, such as rusting, it is not
called a fire.
Fire is the result of combustion in which chemical reaction involving fuel & oxygen take place
producing heat and light.
Carbon is a combustible element. If subject to heat, carbon will combine with oxygen and heat
energy will be liberated.
Oil vapours are hydrocarbons and will ignite in presence of oxygen.

There are other gases which will support combustion such as chlorine, but we are usually working
in air of Heat which about 21% is oxygen &the rest inert gases, mainly Nitrogen. Oxygen itself will
not bum though other substances burn more violently in pure oxygen than In air.The three
basic requirements for a fire are Fuel, Heat and Oxygen. These can be represented by the fire
triangle. Bring these together in the right circumstances and you have a fire. To extinguish it
remove one side of the triangle. However it is not as simple as that as you will see if you look
closely at a flame. The incandescent part of the flame is where the chemical reaction is taking place
(oxidation). The luminosity is caused by carbon particles which are not combusted owing to lack of
oxygen. An aerated bunsen flame is pale blue.

The dark central area is where the vapour—air mixture is not yet heated to its ignition temperature.
Notice that the candle wax does not burn, nor the melted wax, and the vapours only burn when
heated above the ignition temp.Our fire triangle now looks like this.
The addition of "Molecular Chain Reaction" forms a square and represents continuous
burning fire. This reaction means: Molecules of flammable vapour can be mixed with air
& they will not ignite until a source of ignition is provided. What the
source of ignition does is to break up the vapour molecule into
radicals which then react with oxygen. The energy that is released,
by this reaction breaks up other molecule of flammable vapour into
radical, and the fire proceeds thus by a molecular chain reaction.
The chain reaction proceeds towards the f.uel at about the same
speed as the molecules themselves are coming away from the
fuel.
Feed back of radical heat from the flame to the fuel makes sure of a constant supply of vapour &
the fire is self sustaining once initiated.

Classification of Fires:
1. A Carbonaceous (Wood, Paper, Cloth, Plastic)

35
2. B Liquids (Paint, Oil, Spirit, Fuel)
3. C Gaseous (Methane, Propane, Butane)
Electrical
4. D Metals (Sodium, Magnesium, Alurninimum).

ADDITION TO FIRE FIGHTING:

EXTINGUISHING AGENT : (Cooling)


Water : This is the most common cooling agent. It possesses very good heat absorbing
qualities and is available in ample quantities.
A water jet, although excellent for fighting fires involving combustible material, should not
be used on burning oil or on burning cooking oil because of danger of spreading the fire.
Water spray and water may be used effectively against oil fires and for making a screen
between the fire-fighter and the fire.
Owing to the danger of electrical shock, water should not be directed towards any
electrical equipment.

EXTINGUISHING AGENT (Smothering)


FOAM:

This has a limited heat absorbing effect and should not normaly be used for cooling. Foam
is an aggregtion of small bubbles, of lower specific gravity than oil or water, which flows
across the surface of a burning liquid and forms a coherent smothering blanket. It will also
reduce the surface temperature of the liquid by the absorption of some heat. There are
different types of foam concentrates available. These include standard protein foam, fluoro-
protein foams, and synthetic concentrates. Generally the concentrations are 3% to 6% by
volume concentration in water.High expansion foam has an expansion ratio from about 150
:1 to 1500 :1. This is used to extinguish a fire in an enclosed space. The foam generator
(fixed or mobile) sprays the foam on to a fine mesh net through which air is driven by a fan.
Medium expansion foam has air expansion ratio from about 15:1 upto 150:1. It is made
from the same concentration as high expansion foam, but its aeration does not require a
fan. Portable applicators can be used.Low expansion foam has an expansion ratio from
about 3 : 1 upto about 15 : 1. It is made from protein based or synthetic concentrates and
can be applied to spill or tankfiresfrom monitors or portable applicators.

CARBONDIOXIDE :
Co2 is an excellent smothering agent for extinguishing fires, when used in condition where
it will not be widely diffused. C02 is therefore effective in enclosed areas. On an open deck
or jetty area it is comparatively ineffective. C02 does not damage delicate machinery and
can be used safely on electrical equipment. Due to the possibility of static electricity
generation this should not be injected into any space containing a flammable atmosphere
which is not on fire.

STEAM :
Steam is inefficient as a smothering agent because of the substantial delay that may occur
before sufficient air is displaced to render the atmosphere incapable of supporting
combustion. Steam is not to be injected in a space containing an ignited flammable
atmosphere due to the possibility of static electricity generation.

SAND
Sand is relatively ineffective as an extinguishing agent and is only useful on small fires on
hard surfaces. Its basic use is to dry up small spills.

36
FLAME INHIBITORS :
Flame inhibitors are materials which interfere chemically with the combustion process, and
thereby extinguish the flames. However cooling or removal of fuel is necessary if re-ignition
is to be prevented.

DRY CHEMICAL POWDER


This is discharged from an extinguisher as a free flowing cloud. It is most effective in
dealing initially with a fire resulting from an Electrical equipment / LNG. This can be used
in open space and also in confined spaces. It is non-conductor and can deal with
electrical tire. Certain types of dry chemical powder can cause a breakdown of a foam
blanket and only those labelled "foam compatible" should be used in conjunction with
foam.

TANKER FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT:


The requirements are laid down by the regulations of the particular country in which the
tanker is registered. These are generally based on the principles of the International
convention for the safety of life at sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended.

Tanker Fixed fire fighting Installation:


Cooling:
Consists of pumps, a fire main with hydrant points, fire hoses complete with couplings &
jet nozzles or preferably jet/spray nozzles. Equipment to ensure two jets of water can
reach any part of the ship. An international shore fire connection is to be provided.
Smothering:
One or more, or a combination of the different smothering systems listed below may be
installed.
Carbon dioxide Designed to fight fires in Engine room, boiler room, pump room.

Foam Extinguishers:
Premix foam appliances in the order of 100 the capacity are most effective for use.
These produce 1000 Itrs. of foam and it is desirable to have a jet length of about 10 mtrs.

Dry chemical extinguishers:


These are available in a range of capacities. The length of the application hose may
have to be limited, in accordance with the manufacturers recommendation, to maintain
nozzle velocity throughout total discharge.

3.6 PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS :


Compressed air breathing apparatus (CABA) compries a face mask supplied with air
from an air bottle carried by the user.

Automatic oxygen Ressuscitation Equipment comprises oxygen bottles with automatic


metering valves that will automatically supply a collapsed person with oxygen at the
correct rate. This equipment is a powerful item for rescue and should always be readily
available in case of mishap when work is carried out in enclosed spaces.

Rescue Equipment & Escape sets: (EEBD)


Escape sets consits of an air bottle and mask (hood type) and are kept in positions
where hydrocarbons may be released owing to operational failure, & they allow a person
sufficient air to effect an escape from the compartment.

37
3.7 ENTRY INTO AND WORK IN ENCLOSED SPACES
HAZARDS
Hydrocarbon Gas
During the carriage and after the discharge of volatile petroleum, the presence of petroleun gas
should be suspected in empty compartments for the following reasons:
Petroleum and vapours may have leaked into compartments, including pumprooms
cofferdams, permanent ballast tanks and tanks adjacent to those that have carriet cargo.
Petroleum and vapours may remain on the sides and bottoms of tanks that have been
discharged, even after cleaning & ventilation.
Sludge and scale in a tank which has been declared gas free may give off further gas if
distrubed or subjected to a rise in temperature.
Petroleum and vapours may remain in cargo and ballast pipelines and pumps which are
opened for renewal of gasket, glands, etc.
Similarly, the pesence of gas should also be suspected in empty tanks or compartments if non-
volatiie petroleum has been loaded into non-gas free tanks or if there is a common ventilation
system which could allow the free passage of petroleum gas from one tank to another.
OXYGEN DEFICIENCY
Lack of oxygen is always to be suspected in compartments that have been closed for some time,
particularly if they have contained water, have been subject to damp or humid conditions, have
contained inert gas or are interconnected with other inerted tanks.
Entry must never be permitted without breathing apparatus until such compartments have been
throughly ventilated and test readings indicate an oxygen level of 21% by volume throughout.

OTHER HAZARDS
These include toxic hazards due to the presence of e.g. benzene and hydrogen sulphide for which
appropriate tests and precautions should be taken. The risk of injury due to poor lighting, slippery
surfaces, unguarded openings, etc., should also be borne in mind and appropriate precautions
should be taken.

GAS TESTS FOR ENTRY OR WORK GENERAL


A decision to enter a compartment where there has been or could be gas should only be made
after investigation with approved gas testing equipment which has itself recently been checked.
It is essential the all gas testing equipment used is suitable for the test required, is of an approved
type, is correctly maintained and, where appropriate, is frequently checked against standard
samples. A record should be kept of all maintenance work and calibration tests carried out, and of
the period of their validity. Gas testing should be done only by personnel who have been trained in
the use of the equipment and are sufficiently knowledgeable to interpret the results correctly.
Care should be taken to obtain a representative cross-section of the compartment by sampling at
several points by sampling at several depths and through as many deck openings as practicable.
When tests are being carried out from deck level, ventilation should be stopped.
Even when tests have shown a tank or compartment to be safe for entry, pockets of gas, should
always be suspected. Hence descending to the lower part of a tanker compartment,

38
further gas tests should be made. Regeneration of gas should always be considered possible
even after loose scale has been removed.
While men remain in a tank or compartment, ventilation should be continued and frequent gas
tests appropriate to the work in hand or to any change in conditions should be made. In particular,
tests should always be made before each daily commencement of work after any interruption or
break in the work. Tests should also be so arranged that a result representative of the conditions
of the entire space is obtained.

HYDROCARBON GAS
To be safe for entry whether for inspections, cold work or hot work, a reading of not more than 1
% LFL must be obtained on a suitable combustible gas indicator.
Benzene
It is difficult to determine in practical terms the level at which benzene as a component of
petroleum products starts to present a hazard, but in the absence of statutory regulations or
advice concerning the specific cargo it is prudent to check for benzene vapour before entering
tanks which have contained petroleum products such as motor gasolines, special boiling point
products, solvents, etc. to ensure that the Thereshoil Limit Valve (TLV) is not exceeded.
Tests for benzene at this connection can only be made with a special indicator. A combustible gas
indicator is not suitable for this purpose.
Hydrogen Sulphide
Although a tank which has contained sour crude or sour products will cantain hydrogen sulphide,
general practice and experience indicate that the TLV for hydrogen sulphide of 10 parts per million
will probably not exceed in the tank atmosphere if the tank is washed and ventilated and tests for
hydrocarbgn gas show the quantity present to be not more than 1 % LFL. It would still be prudent,
however, to test the hydrogen sulphide content prior to entry. Hydrogen sulphide may also be
encountered in pumprooms and appropriate precautions should therefore be taken.
Oxygen Deficiency
Before entry is allowed into any compartment, tank or space which has been closed for any length
of time, the atmosphere should be tested with an oxygen analyser to check that the normal
oxygen in air of 21 % by volume is present.
On a vessel fitted with an inert gas system, the atmosphere of any space, tank or compartment
which has been previously inerted, or is adjacent to an inerted tank, or is interconnected in any
way with the inert gas system or an inerted tank, should always be tested with an oxygen analyser
before entry to check that there is no oxygen deficiency and interconnection with IG to be blanked
for the period tank atmosphere need to maintain 21 % oxygen.
Toxic Components of Fuel Gas
The dilution of the toxic components of fuel gas during gas freeing can be monitored by
Flammable gas indicator and Oxygen Analyser.
BREATHING APPARATUS
General
Breathing apparatus must always be used whenever emergency entry is made into a space which
is likely to contain toxic gas, smoke, or to be deficient in oxygen. It should also be used if there is
a possibility that any of these conditions may occur during the period of occupation.
Entry into an enclosed space under these conditions should, however, only be permitted in
exceptional circumstances and when there is no alternative.
Breathing apparatus is designed to provide the user with an adequate supply of air. The air can
either be carried by the user in portable cylinders or supplied through a hose from a source of
fresh air.
The type of gas masks and canisters, which depend on chemical absorbents to protect the user
from poisonous gases, do not give protection against petroleum gas high concentrations or
against oxygen deficiency. Gas masks do not manufacture or provide oxygen. They should never
be used in place of breathing apparatus.

FRESH AIR BREATHING APPARATUS


This breathing apparatus consists of a hose leading from a source of fresh air to the face mask.
Air is usually forced along the supply hose by bellows or a rotary pump.
When using this equipment the following precautions are necessary.
The air supply point must be in fresh air.
All hose couplings and terminal connections must be tight.
The face musk of helmet must be checked and adjusted to ensure that it is airtight.
The bellows or blower must be checked to ensure that it is delivering a positive pressure. A
positive pressure must be maintained to the mast or helmet through the period of use.
The total length of air hose used should not exceed 36 meters.

The user should keep his air line clear of projections.


If the user has reason to suspect the efficiency of the equipment he must leave the
compartment immediately.

This type is not used on board oil tankers.

SELF CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS


This consists of a portable supply of compressed air contained in a cylinder attached to a
carrying frame and harness worn by the user. Air is provided to the used through a face mask
which can be adjusted to give an airtight fit. A pressure gauge indicates the air pressures in the
cylinder and an audible alarm sounds when the supply is running low. Air is admitted to the face
mask through a demand valve which maintains positive pressure within the mask and also
ensure adequate supply when the user inhales. The demand valve can be by-passed giving an
additional flow of air into the face mask. The-use of this by-pass valve causes rapid depletion of
the air cylinder and on this type of equipment, it should normally be kept closed.
When using the equipment the following precautions are necessary.
The face mask must be checked and adjusted to ensure it is airtight.
The pressure gauge must be checked before use.
The audible low pressure alarm should be tested before use.
The pressure gauge should be read frequently during use to check the air supply.
Ample time should be allowed for getting out of the hazardous atmosphere. In any case the user
must leave immediately if the low pressure alarm sounds. It should be remembered that the
duration of the air supply depends on the weight of the user and the extent of his exertion.

If the user has reason to suspect the efficiency of the equipment he must leave the compartment.
MAINTENANCE
All types of breathing apparatus should be examined and tested by a responsible officer at
regular intervals. Defects should be made good promptly and a record kept of repair. Air bottles
must be refilled as soon as possible after use. Masks and helmets should be cleaned and
disinfected after use.
STOWAGE
Breathing apparatus should be stowed fully assembled in a place where it is readily accessible.
Air bottles should be fully charged and the adjusting straps kept slack. Units should be sited so
as to be available for emergencies in different parts of the ship of the jetty as appropriate.
TRAINING
Practical demonstrations and training in the use of breathing apparatus should be carried out to
give personnel experience in its use. Only trained personnel should use self-contained and fresh
air line breathing apparatus since incorrect dr inefficient use can endanger the user's life.

CONDITIONS FOR ENTRY INTO ENCLOSED SPACES


Notices
Suitable notice should be prominently displayed to inform personnel of the precautions to be
taken when entering tanks or other enclosed spaces and of any restrictions placed upon the work
permitted therein.
CARGO TANKS
No one should enter cargo tanks unless an entry permit has been issued by a responsible officer
who has ascertained immediately before entry that the tank atmosphere is in all respects safe for
entry. Before issuing an entry permit the responsible officer should ensure that:
The appropriate atmosphere checks have been carried out.
Effective ventilation will be maintained continuously while men are in the tank.
Lifelines and harness are ready for immediate use.
Approved breathing apparatus and resuscitation equipment are ready for use at the
entrance to the tank.
A separate means of access is available where possible to use as an alternative means of
escape in an emergency.
A responsible member of the crew is in constant attendance outside the tank in the immediate
vicinity of the entrance and in immediate contact with a responsible officer. In the event of an
emergency, under no circumstances the attending crew should not enter the tank before help is
arrived. The lines of communication for dealing with emergencies should be clearly established
and understood by all concerned.

COFFERDAMS, DOUBLE BOTTOMS AND OTHER ENCLOSED SPACED


Before entry is allowed into cofferdams, double bottom or other enclosed spaces, they should be
thoroughly ventilated to ensure an adequate oxygen level, and tests should be carried out with an
oxygen analyser. An entry permit signed by a responsible officer should be issued.

Toxic gas should always be suspected in cofferdams and double bottoms into which volatile
petroleum may be leaked. The same precautions as for entry into cargo tanks should therefore be
observed.
EVACUATION FROM ENCLOSED SPACES
If any of the conditions stated, on the entry or work permit become unsafe after personnel have
entered the tank, space of compartment, they should leave immediately and not re-entered until
the safe conditions stated on the permit have been restored.

NON-GAS FREE AND SUSPECT COMPARTMENTS


It is stressed that entry into tanks which are known to be non gas-free or oxygen deficient ban
only be permitted in exceptional circumstances and when there is no other alternative. In this
highly hazardous situations, the personnel involved must be well trained in the use of breathing
apparatus and aware of the dangers of removing their breathing apparatus while in the hostile
atmosphere.
When it is necessary to enter a tank or compartment where it is suspected that the atmosphere
contains toxic gas or is deficient in oxygen, or that these conditions are likely to occur during the
period of occupation, and officer should be responsible for continuous supervision of the
operation and should ensure that.
A permit has been issued by the master stating that there is no other alternative to the proposed
method of entry and that such entry is essential to the safe operation of the ship.
Ventilation is provided where possible.
Personnel use breathing apparatus and lifeline.
The number of persons entering the tank is kept to minimum consistent with the work
to be performed.
Means of communication are provided and a system of signals is agreed and
understood by the personnel involved.
Spare sets of breathing apparatus and resuscitators are available outside the
compartment, and a standby party is in attendance in case of emergency
An essential work that is to be undertaken is carried out in a manner that will avoid
creating an ignition hazard.

W O R K I N E N C L O S E D S P AC E S
General Requirements
All conditions for entry, including the issue of an entry permit, or work permit if appropriate, must
be observed.
Before work is undertaken, a check should be made that there is no loose scale, sludge or
combustible material in the vicinity which, if disturbed or heated, could give off toxic or flammable
gases. Effectively ventilation should be maintained and where practicable, directed towards the
area concerned.

Opening Up Equipment and fittings


Whenever cargo pumps, pipelines, valves or heating coils are to be opened, they should first be
flushed with water. Even than there is a possible that some cargo may remain which may be a
source of further gas. Special care must therefore be taken whenever such equipment is opened
up, and additional gas tests should be made.

Use of Tools
Tools should not be carried into compartments by personnel but lowered in a canvas bag or
bucket to avoid the possibility of being dropped. Before any hammering or chipping is undertaken
or any power tool used, the responsible officer should be satisfied that there is no likelihood of
petroleum gas in the vicinity.
ELECTRICITY LIGHTS AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
Unless a compartment is gas free for hot work i.e. gas concentration is not more than 1 % LFL
and sludge, scale and sediment that might form a source of gas have removed, electric lights or
electrical equipment (other than approved air driven lamps) must not be taken into the
compartment unless the lights or equipment are intrinsically safe or are contained in an approved
explosion-proof housing.
In port, any local regulations concerning the use of electric light or electrical equipment should be
followed.

REMOVAL OF SLUDGE, SCALE AND SEDIMENT


Before removal of sludge, scale or sediment begins, tests with a combustible gas indicator should
give a reading of not more than 1% LFL. Periodic gas tests should be made and continuous
ventilation should be maintained throughout the period during which men are in the compartment.
There may be increase in gas concentration in the immediate vicinity of the work, and care should
be taken to ensure that the atmosphere remains safe throughout.

COLD WORK
To be safe for cold work, tests with a combustible gas indicator should give a reading of not more
than 1 % LFL and it is advisable to remove any sludge, scale or sediment from the area in and
around the work place.
When cold work is to be undertaken alongside a berth, the terminal representative should be
consulted as a work permit may need to be issued.

HOT WORK
Immediately before hot work is undertaken the compartment should be ventilated until tests with a
combustible gas indicator gives a reading of not more than 1 % LFL. All sludge, scale and
sediment should be removed from an area of at least 10 Meters around the location of hot work,
including reverse sides of frames, bulkheads etc. Other areas that may be affected by the hot
work is being undertaken.
Periodic gas tests should be made while the hot work is in progress and before the resumption of
work after a break. Continuous gas alarm detectors may be used as an Additional safeguard. A
suitably trained fire watcher should be in attendance in the compartment while any hot work is in
process.
Fire watch procedures should be established in empty, non-inserted, adjacent space where a
hazard resulting from the transfer of heat may be created.
All pipelines to a tank being worked on should be isolated, and adjacent tanks and spaces should
be rendered safe by gas freeing, inserting or filling with water. Other tanks which may not be gas
free should be closed. An adjacent bunker tank containing fuel may be considered safe as long
as tests on the ullage space in the bunker and tank with a combustible gas indicator give a
reading of not more than 1% LFL. Checks must be made to ensure that there is no ingress of
flammable gases or liquids, toxic gases or inert gas from adjacent tanks of spaces by leakage into
the working space. If the hot work could cause heat transfer through a common bulkhead, the
adjoining space should either be filled with water or fuel to well above the level at which work is
being done, or inserted, or gas freed with all combustible residues on the bulkhead removed.
All work on pipeline and valves should only be permitted when the appropriate section has been
detached from the system by cold work and the open ended sections of the remaining system
have been sealed off. Th6 section of pipe to be worked on should be gas free to a safe-for-hot
work standard. Heating coils should be flushed and opened to ensure that they are gas free.
Concurrent pumping of cargo or ballast, tank washing and any other operations utilizing the cargo
system should be stopped.
Adequate fire extinguishing equipment should be laid out ready for immediate use. When
alongside terminal, no hot work should be allowed until the terminal representative and, where
appropriate, the port authority have been consulted and approval obtained, as the issue of a
hot work permit may be required.
A similar system of hot permits should be adopted at sea.
INFLATABLE WORK BOATS
Only purpose-built inflatable work boats of an approved type are to be used for tank repair
work and tank inspections. Before and during their use the following precautions should be
taken:
if the tank is connected by a common venting system, or an IG system, the tank
in'which the boat is to be used be isolated to prevent a transfer of gas to or from
other
tanks.
The appropriate atmosphere checks should be carried out.
All tank washing aparture should be opened and effective ventilation maintained
continuously while men are in the tank.
Adequate lighting of an approved type, such as air driven lamps, should be available.
The work boat should only be used when the water surface in the tank is calm,
The work boat should only be used in tanks containing clean ballast water. The
water level in the tank should be either stationary of falling on no account must the
level of the water be rising while the boat is in use.
A responsible person should act as lookout at the top of the tank and, if the boat is
working at a point removed from the tank hatch, an additional lookout should be
positioned down the access ladder at a point where he has a clear view of the boat.
Approved breathing apparatus and resuscitation equipment should be ready to use
at the entrance to the tank.
All personnel working in the compartment should wear a buoyancy aid.
The lines of communication for dealing with emergencies should be clearly
established and understood by all concerned.
A tank entry permit should be issued.

OUTSIDE CONTRACTORS
The master or terminal operator should satisfy himself that whenever outside contractor or
work gangs are employed, arrangements are made to ensure their understanding and
compliance with all relevant safe working practices, and that they are effectively supervised
and controlled by a responsible officer.

RESCUE FROM ENCLOSED SPACES


When an accident involving injury to personnel occurs in an enclosed space, the first act must
be to raise the alarm. Although speed is often vital in the interest of saving life, rescue
operations should not be attempted until the necessary assistance and equipment have been
obtained. There are many examples of lives having been lost through hasty, ill-prepared
rescue attempts.
Preliminary organization is of great value if arranging a quick and effective response.
Lifelines breathing apparatus, resuscitation equipment and other items of rescue equipment
should always be kept ready for use and a trained emergency team should be available.
Whenever it is suspected than an unsafe atmosphere has been a contributory factor to the
accident, breathing apparatus and, where practicable, lifelines must be used by persons entering
the space. A code of signals should be agreed in advance.
The officer in charge of the rescue should remain outside the space, where he can exercise the
most effective control.
It is imperative that every member of a rescue team should know what is expected of him, and
regular drills and exercise in rescue from enclosed space should be carried out.

RESUSCITATION
All terminal and tanker personnel should be instructed in resuscitation techniques for the
treatment of persons who have been overcome by toxic gases or fumes, or whose breathing has
stopped from other causes such as electric shock or drowning.
Some tankers and terminals are provided with special apparatus for use in resuscitations. This
apparatus can be of different type. It is important that personnel are aware of the location of the
equipment and that instructions are posted clearly for efficient use.
The apparatus should be stowed where it is easily accessible and not kept locked up. The
instructions provided with it should be clearly displayed on board ship in the following places:

With the apparatus.


In the officer's accommodation.
In the hospital or medicine locker.
The apparatus and the contents of cylinders should be checked periodically. Adequate
spare bottles should be carried.
CHAPTER-IV

4. MARINE POLLUTION :
Previously it was prohibited to discharge oil or oil-water mixture in port, harboun within coasta!
limit of 80 km. These zones have been increased to include 160 km. coastal zones and more,
and to include whole sea as prohibited area. The legal maximum oil particle discharge quantity
is 15 ppm.

4.1 1. Retention system:


Simple & no maintenance required. Prolonged stay in port creates
problem."Vacuum transportation system" is useful as 1 Itr of water/ flush is used
compared to 10-12 Itrsl flush for ordinary type. This system use smooth, small bore
plastic pipes and uses F.W
With some retention system the sewage is first passed through a comminutor,
which macerates the solids giving greater surface area. This is then passed into a
chlorine contact tank where it remains for at least 20 minutes before discharge
overboard.
2. Biological treatment Plant:
Raw sewage passes through a comminuter into the collecting compartment. This
goes to the treatment aration compartment where the sewage is broken down by
aerobic activation. Fluid in this tank is continuously agitated by air which keeps the
bacteriologicly active sludge in suspension and supplies necessary oxygen for
purification. This finally goes to a compartment for chlorination before discharge
overboard.
Excess sludge builds up in the settlement chamber & this must be discharged at
regular interval, in port this may not be possible. So this is pumped to holding tank for
later disposal. By using an incinerator to deal with excess sludge, another holding tank
may not be required. This plant should be kept operational at all times.
3. Chemical treatment Plant:
These are recalculating system in which the sewage is macerated, chemically
treated, then allowed to settle. The clear, sterilized, filtered liquid is returned to the
sanitary system for further use and the solids are periodically discharged to a sullage
tank or incinerator

Advantage:
(I) No need to discharge at port,
(ii) Relatively small compact plant.
However chemical toilets are not always what they should be and with this relatively
complex system increased maintenance is not liked by engineers.

ODMCS:
(i) Have, a recording device to provide (a) a continuous record of the discharge of oil
in liters per nautical mile and total quantity discharged.(b) To monitor and control
the oif discharged In the flow through the O/B discharge line,
(ii) This record is to be identifiable as to time and date and to be kept on board fcr at
least three years,
(iii) The ODMCS to automatically stop the discharge when the rate of discharge of oil
exceeds that permitted.
(iv) Discharge to be stopped in case of system failure and notation to be made in the
oil record book.
(v) A manually operated alternative method is to be provided and may be used in the
event of such failure.
(vi) Compliance with the guidelines for design and installation of ODMCS.
In-machinery space the flow standards are ensured by discharging through approved oily-
water separator constructed and tested to this standard.

SHIPS PLYING IN ONLY SPECIAL AREAS PORT


(i) Holding- tank for oily bilge collection.
(ii) Retained oily bilge to give to reception facility.
(iii) IOPP certificate to be endorsed.
SAILING : Discharge through OWS of oil content less than 15 PPM only when ship is
moving. The rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres, per nautical mile. .
Regulation is flexible if discharge is
(i) Necessary for safety of the ship
(ii) Necessary for saving life
(iii) Damage to ship or equipment, where all precautions were taken.

4.2 REASONS FOR OIL POLLUTION:

OPERATIONAL:
(!) Bunkering
(ii) Tankwashing
(iii) De-balSasting

Accidential:
(!)Grounding
(ii) Collision
(iii) Fires and expiosions
(iv)Breakdowns
(v) Structural failure
(vi) Transfer spills.

Tankers must have


(i) I.O.P.P. Certificate
(ii) Oil record book.
also (i) ODMCS : Oil discharge monitoring and control system
(ii) OWS : Oily-water separating equipment.
(iii) Slop tank (with oil/water interface detectors)

4.3 WRITING OF OIL RECORD BOOK


(i) Loading oil cargo (ii) Transfer of oil cargo
(iii) Unloading oil cargo (iv) Ballasting cargo tank
(v) Cleaning cargo tank (vi) Discharge of ballast except SBT
(vii) Ballast from slop tank (vii!) Disposal of Residue
(ix) Bunkering of Fuel oil (x) Bunkering of lube oil
(xi) Disposal oily water from Engine Room
Tankers will have two oil record books, one for Cargo Operation and other one for Machinery
Space Operation. '

Entry in oil record book:

(I) Bilge discharge : (a) Quantity (b) Source (c) time (d) ships position (e) date (f)
sign
(ii) Bunkering : (a) Quantity (b) identify tank (c) time start (d) time stop (e) date (f) sign

4.4 Action to take in case of oil slick:


(I) Stop all operations (cargo etc.)
(ii) Sound alarm
(iii) Inform shore authorities
(iv) Check scupper plugs, check overboard discharge, contain further leakage
(v) Obtain sample
(vi) Investigate and record incident.

Effects of Pollution:
(i) It blankets the surface interfering with oxygen exchange between sea and atmosphere
(ii) Heavy constitunents will blanket the sea floor, interfering with the growth of marine life.
(iii) Oil on the beach interfere with recreational use
(iv) Oil sticks to wings of birds
(v) Interfere working with sea water distillation plant

Avoidance of Polluting while bunkering/loading cargo:


1. A system of signal {slowing down, completion emergency stop)
2. All personnel fuly conversant with tanks, pipes, valves
3. All deck scuppers are effetively plugged
4. Cargo manifold connections notto be used, are blank.
5. Drip trays are in positon below cargo manifold connection
6. The cargo hoses and loading arms are in good condition
7. Mooring do not stretch or crush the hose
8. Adequate supply of dry obsorbent material readily available
9. Air pipes should be clear
10. Proper sounding to avoid overflow & proper planning.

What is Marine Pollution :


The introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substance or energy into the marine
environment, including estuaries, which result or is likely to result in such effects as to harm
living resources and marine, life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities,
including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea-
water and reduction of amenities.

Notification Proceedures :
When to report:
(I) Discharge exceeds MARPOL LIMITS
(ii) Discharge to save life or property
(iii) Discharge resulting from damage
(iv) Threat or probability of discharge

Who to notify :
(i) Nearest coastal state (at sea)
(ii) Harbour and terminal authorities (in port)
(iii) Ships owner/manager: P & 1 insurer
(iv) Head charterer: cargo owner
(v) Refer contact list
How to nofity :

(1) By quickest available means to coastal radio station, designated ship movement

reporting station or Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC) at sea

(iii) By quickest available means to local authorities (in port).

What to nofity:
(i) Initial report (as per format)

(ii) Follow up reports

(iii) Characteristics of oil spilled

(iv) Cargo / ballast / bunker disposition

(v) Weather and sea condition

(vi) Slick movement

(vii) Assistance required (such as salvage or external strike team etc.).


Annexure - Regulation for the prevention of pollution by oil.
Regulation 9
Control of discharge of oil
(1) Subject to the provisions of regulations 10 and 11 of this Annex and paragraph (2) of this
regulation, any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from ships to which this Annex
applies shall be prohibited except when all the following conditions are satisfied:
(a)for an oil tanker, expect as provided for in subparagraph (b) of this paragraph:
(I) the tanker is not within a special area;
(ii) the tanker is more than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land;
(iii) the tanker is proceeding en route;
(iv) the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30
litres per nautical mile;
(v) the total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed for existing tankers
1/15,000 of the total quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a
part, and for new tankers 1/30,000 of the total quantity of the
particular cargo of which the residue formed a part; and
SEE INTERPRETATION 3.2
(iv) the tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring and control system ,
and a slop tank arrangement as required by regulation 15 of this Annex
(b) from a ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker and from
machinery space bilges excluding cargo pump-room bilges of an oil tanker unless
mixed with oil cargo residue;
(I) . the ship is not within a special area;
(ii) the ship is proceeding en route;
(iii) the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15
parts per million; and
(iv) the ship has in operation equipment as required by regulation 16 of this
Annex.
SEE INTERPRETATION 3.1
(2) In the case of a ship of less than 400 tons gross tonnage other than an oil tanker whilst
outside the special area, the Administration shall ensure that it is equipped as far as
practicable and reasonable with installations to ensure the storage of oil residues on board
and their discharge to reception facilities or into the sea in compliance with the requirements
of paragraph^ )(b) of this regulation.
(3) Whenever visible traces of oil are observed on or below the surface of the water in the
immediate vicinity of a ship or its wake, Governments which are of Parties to the Convention
should, to the extent they are reasonably able to do so, promptly investigate the facts bearing
on the issue of whether there has been a violation of the provisions of this regulation or
regulation 10 of this Annex. The investigation should include, in particular, the wind and sea
conditions, the track and speed of the ship, other possible sources of the visible traces in the
vicinity, and any relevant oil discharge records.
(4) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this regulation shall not apply to the discharge of clean or
segregated ballast or unprocessed oily mixtures which without dilution have an oil content
not exceeding 15 parts per million and which do not originate from cargo pump-room bilges
and are mixed with oil cargo residues.
(5) No discharge into the sea shall contain chemicals or other substances in quantities or
concentrations which are hazardous to the marine environment or chemicals or other
substances introduced for the purpose of circumventing the conditions of discharge specified
in this regulation.
(6) The oil residues which cannot be discharged into the sea in compliance with paragraphs
(1) (2) and (4) of this regulation shall be retained on board or discharged to reception facilities.
(7) In the case of a ship, referred to in regulation 16(6) of this Annex, not fitted with equipment as
required by regulation 16(1) or 16(2) of this Annex, the provisions of paragraph (1)(b) of this
regulation will not apply until 6 July 1998 or the date on which the ship is fitted with such
equipment, whichever is the earlier. Until this date any discharge from machinery spaces bilge
into the sea of oil or oily mixtures from such a ship shall be prohibited except when all the
following conditions are satisfied:
(a) the oily mixture does not originate from the cargo pump-room bilges;
(b) the oily mixture is not mixed with oil cargo residues;
(c) the ship is not within a special area;
(d)tfie ship is more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land;
(e)the ship is proceeding en route;
(f) the oil content of the effluent is less than 100 parts per million; and
(gf the ship has in operation oily-water separating equipment of a design approved by the
Administration, taking into account the specification recommended by the Organization.*

Regulation 10
Methods for the prevention of oil pollution from
ships while operating in special areas
1) For the purposes of this annex, the special areas are the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic
Sea area, the Black Sea area, the Red Sea area, the "gulfs area" the Gulf of Aden area and the
Antarctic area, which are defined as follows:
(a) The Mediterranean Sea area means the Mediterranean Sea proper including the gulfs and
seas therein with the boundary between the Mediterranean and the bSack Sea
constituted by the 41 °N parallel and bounded to the west by the Straits of Gibraltar at
the meridian of 5°36' W.
(b) The Baltic Sea area means the Baltic Sea proper with the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of
Finland and the entrance to the Baltic Sea bounded by the parallel of the Skew in the
Skagerrak at 57°44.8' N.
(c) The Black Sea area means the Black Sea proper with the boundary between the
Mediterranean and the Black Sea constituted by the parallel 41 °N.
(d) The Red Sea area means the Red Sea proper including the Gulf of Suez and Aqaba
bounded at the south by the rhumb line between Ras si Ane (12°28.5' N,_43°19.6' E)
and Husn Murad (12°40.4' N, 43°30.2' E).
(e) The Gulfs area means the sea area located north-west of the rhumb line between Ras al
Hadd (22°30‘ N, 59°48' E) and Ras al Fasteh (25°4' N, 61 °25" E).
(f) The Gulf of Aden area means that part of the Gulf of Aden between the Red Sea
and the Arabian Sea unbounded to the west by the rhumb line between Ras si Ane. ■
(12°28.5‘ N, 43°19.6'E) and Husn Murad (12°40.4' N, 43°30.2' E) and to the east by the
rumb line between Ras Asir (11°50' N, 51°16.9" E) and the Ras Fartak (15°35‘ N,
52°13.8'E) \
(g) The Antarctic area means the sea area south of latitude 60° S

Refer to the Guidelines and specifications for pollution prevention equipment for
machinery space bilges of ships adopted by the marine Environment Protection committee
of the organization by resolution MEPC.60(33); see IMO sales publication IMO-646E

(2) Subject to the provisions of regulation 11 of this Annex:


(a) Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from any oil tanker and any ship of
400 tons gross tonnage and above other than an oil tanker shall be prohibited while
in a special area. In respect of the Antarctic area, any diccharge into the sea of oil or
oily mixture from any ship shall be prohibited.
(b) Except as provided for in respect of the Antarctic area under subparagraph 2(a) of this
regulation, any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture from a ship of less than 400 tons
gross tonnage, other than an oil tanker, shall be prohibited while in a special, area, expect
when the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per million.
3.
(a) The provisions of paragraph (2) of this regulation shall not apply to the discharge of clean
orsegregated ballast.
(b) The provisions of subparagraph (2)(a) of this regulation shall not apply to the discharge of
processed bilge water from machinery spaces, provided that all of the following conditions are
satisfied:
(i) the bilge water does not originate from cargo pump-room bilges;
(ii) the bilge water is not mixed with oil cargo residues;
(iii) the ship is proceeding en route;
(iv) the oil content of the effluent without dilution does not exceed 15 parts per
million
(v) the ship has in operation oil filtering equipment complying with regulation 16(5) of
this Annex; and
(vi) the filtering system is equipped with a stopping device which will ensure that the
discharge is automatically stopped when the oil content of the effluent exceeds 15
parts per million.
SEE INTERPRETATION 3.4
(a) No discharge into the sea shall contain chemicals or other substances in quantities or
concentrations which are hazardous to the marine environment or chemicals or other
substances introduced for the purpose of circumventing the conditions of discharge specified
in this regulation.
(b) The oil residues which cannot be discharged into the sea in compliance with paragraph (2) or
(3) of this regulation shall be retained on board or discharged to reception facilities.
Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit a ship on a voyage only part of which is in a special area
from discharging outside the special area in accordance with regulation 9 of this Annex
Whenever visible traces of oil are observed on or below the surface of the water in the immediate
vicinity of a ship or its wake, the Governments of Parties to the Convention should, to the extent
they are reasonably able to do so, promptly investigate the facts bearing on the issue of whether
there has been a violation of the provisions of this regulation or regulation 9 of this Annex. The
investigation should include, in particular, the wind and sea conditions, the track and speed' of the
ship, other possible sources of the visible traces in the vicinity, and any relevant oil discharge
records.

Reception facilities within special areas:


(a) Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Baltic Sea areas:
(I) The Government of each Party to the convention the coastline of which borders on any
given special area undertakes to ensure that not later than 1 January 1977 all oil loading
terminals and repair ports within the special area are provided with facilities adequate for
the reception and treatment of all the dirty ballast and tank washing water from oil
tankers, In addition all ports within the special area shall be provided with adequate
reception facilities for the other residues and oily mixtures from all ships. Such facilities
shall have adequate capacity to meet the needs of the ships using them without causing
undue delay.
(ii) The Government of each party having under its jurisdiction entrances to sewage courses
with law depth contour which might require a reduction of draught bj the discharge of
ballast undertakes to ensure the provision of the facilities referred to in subparagraph
(a)(i) of this paragraph but with the proviso that ships required to discharge slops or dirty
ballast couid be subject to some delay.

(iii) During the period between the entry into force of the present convention (if earlier than 1
January 1977) and 1 January 1977 ships while navigating in the special areas shall comply with
the requirements of regulation 9 of this Annex. However, the Governments of Parties the coast
lines of which border any of the special areas under this sub-paragraph may establish a date
earlier than 1 January 1977, but after the date of entry in force of the present Convention, from
which the requirements of this regulation in respect of the area in question shall take effect:
(1) if all the reception facilities required have been provided by the date so established; and
(2) provided that the Parties concerned notify the Organization of the date so established at
least six months in advance, for circulation to other Parties.
(iv) After 1 January 1977, or the date established in accordance with sub-paragraph (a)
(iii) of this paragraph if earlier, each Party shall notify the Organisation for transmission to the
Contracting governments concerned of all cases where the facilities are alleged to be
indadequate.

Red Sea area, Gulfs area and Gulf of Aden area:

(i) The Government of each Party the coastline of which borders on the special areas
undertakes to ensure that as soon as possible all oil loading terminals and reparir ports within
these special areas are provided with facilities adequate for the reception and treatment of all
the dirty ballast and tank washing water from tankers, In addition all ports within the special
area shall be provided with adequate reception facilities for other residues and oily mixtures
from all ships. Such facilities shall have adequate capacity to meet the needs of the ships using
them without causing undue delay.
(ii) The Government of each Party having under its jurisdiction entrances to seawater
courses with low depth contour which might require a reduction of draught by the discharge of
ballast shall undertake to ensure the provision of the facilities referred to in subparagraph (b)(i)
of this paragraph but with the provision that ships required to discharge slops or dirty ballast
could be subject to some delay.
(ii) Each Party concerned shall notify the Organization of the measures taken pursuant to
provisions of subparagraph (b)(i) and (ii) of this paragraph. Upon receipt of sufficient
notifications the Organization shall establish a date from which the requirements of this
regulation in respect of the area in question shall take effect. The organization shall notify all
parties of the date so established no less than twelve months in advance of that date*.
(iv) During the period between the entry into force of the present convention and the date so
established, ships while navigating in the special area shall comply with the requirements of
regulation 9 of this Annex.
(v) After such date oil tankers loading in ports in these special areas where such facilities are not
yet available shall also fully comply with the requirements of this regulation. However, oil
tankers entering these special areas for the purpose of loading shall make every efforts to enter
the area with only clean ballast on board.
(vi) After the date on which the requirements for the special area in question take effect, each party
shall notify the organization for transmission to the parties concerned of all cases where the
facilities are alleged to be inadequate.
(vii) At least the reception facilities as prescribed in regulation 12 of this Annex shall be provided by
1 January 1977 or one year after the date of entry into force of the present, convention,
whichever occurs later.
Notwithstanding paragraph (7) of this regulation, the following rules apply to the Antarctic
area:
(a) The Government of each party to the convention at whose ports ships depart
en route to or arrive from the Antarctic area undertakes to ensure that as soon as practicable
adequate facilities are provided for the reception of all sludge, dirty ballast, tank washing water
and other oily residues and mixtures from all ships, without causing undue delay, and
according to the needs of the ships' using them.
(b) The Government of each party to the convention shall ensure that all ships entitled to
fly its flag, before entering the Antarctic area, are fitted with a tank or tanks of
sufficient capacity on board for the retention of all sludge, dirty ballast, tank washing
water and other oily residues and mixtures while operating in the area and have
concluded arrangements to discharge such oily residues at a reception facility after
leaving the area.

Regulation 11
Exceptions
Regulations 9 and 10 of this Annex shall not apply:

(a) The discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture necessary for the purpose of securing
the safety of ship or saving life at sea; or
(b) The discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture resulting from damage to a ship or its
equipment:
(i) provided that all reasonable precautions have been taken after the occurrence
of the damage or discovery of the discharge for the purpose of preventing or
minimizing the discharge, and
(ii) except if the owner or the master acted either with intent to cause damage, or
recklessly and with knowledge that damage would probabiy result or
© the discharge into the sea of substances containing oil, approved by the
Administration, when being used for the purpose of combating specific pollution
incidents in order to minimise the damage from pollution. Any such discharge
shall be subject to the approval of any Government in whose jurisdiction it is
contemplated the . discharge will occur.

Regulation 12
Reception facilities:

(1) Subject to the provisions of regulation 10 of this Annex, the Government of each party
undertakes to ensure the provision at oil loading terminal, repair ports, and in other ports in
which ships have oily residues to discharge,\of facilities for the reception of such residues
and oily mixtures as remain from oil tankers and other ships adequate to meet the needs for
the ships using them without causing undue delay to ships.

(2) Reception facilities in accordance with paragraph (1) of this regulation shall be provided in:
(a) all ports and terminals in which crude oil is loaded into oil tankers where such tankers
have immediately prior to arrival completed a ballast voyage of not more than 72 hours
or not more than 1,200 nautical miles:
(b) all ports and terminals in which a oil other than crude oil in bulk is loaded at an
average quantity of more than 1,000 metric tons per day;
(c) all ports having ship repair yards or tank cleaning facilities.
(d) all ports and terminals which handle ships provided with the sludge tank(s)
required
by regulation 17 of this annex;
e) all ports in respect of oily bilge waters and other residues, which cannot discharge in
accordance with regulation 9 of this annex; and
(f) all loading ports for bulk cargoes in respect of oil residues from combination carriers which
cannot be discharged in accordance with regulation 9 of this annex.

SEE INTERPRETATION 3.5


(3) The capacity for reception facilities shall be as follows.
(a) Crude oil loading terminals shall have sufficient reception facilities to receive oil and oily
mixtures which cannot be discharged in accordance with the provisions of regulation9(1)
(a) of this annex from all oil tankers on voyages as described in paragraph
(2) (a) of this regulation.
(b) Loading ports and terminals referred to in paragraph (2)(b) of this regulation shall have
sufficient reception facilities to receive oil and oily mixtures which cannot be discharged in
accordance with the provisions of regulation 9(1) (a) of this annex from oil tankers which
load oil other than crude oil in bulk.
(c) All ports having ship repair yards or tank cleaning facilities shall have sufficient reception
facilities to receive all residues and oily mixtures which remain on board for disposal from
ships prior to entering such yards or facilities.
(d) All facilities provided in ports and terminals under paragraph (2)(d) of this regulation shall
be sufficient to receive all residues retained according to regulation 17 of this annex from
all ships that may reasonably be expected to call at such ports and terminals,
© All facilities provided in ports and terminals under this regulation shall be sufficient to
receive oily bilge waters and other residues which cannot be discharged in accordance
with regulation 9 of this annex.
(f) The facilities provided in loading ports for bulk cargoes shall take into account the special
problems of combination carriers as appropriate.
(4) The reception facilities prescribed in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this regulation shall be
made available no later than one year from the date of entry into force of the present
convention or by 1 st January 1997, which occurs later.
(5) Each party shall notify the organisation for transmission to the parties concerned of all
cases where the facilities provided under this regulation are alleged to be inadequate.

Regulation 13C
Existing tankers engaged in specific trades
SEE INTERPRETATION 4.6
(1) Subject to the provisions of the paragraph (2) of this regulation, regulation 13(7) to
(10) of this Annex shall not apply to an existing oil tanker solely engaged in specific trades
between:
(a) ports or terminals within a State Party to the present convention; or
(b) ports or terminals of States Parties to the present convention, where;
(I) the voyage is entirely within a special area as defined in regulation 10(1) of this
Annex; or
(ii) the voyage is entirely within other limits designated by the organisation.
(2) The provisions of paragraph^) of this regulation sha|l only apply when the ports or
terminals where cargo is loaded on such voyages are provided with reception facilites
adequate for the reception and treatment of all the ballast and tank washing water from oil
tankers using them and all the following conditions are complied with :
(a) subject to the exceptions provided for in regulation 11 of this Annex, all ballast
water, including clean ballast water, and tank washing residues are retained on
board and transferred to the reception facilities and the appropriate entry in the Oil
Record Book referred to in regulation 20 of this Annex is endorsed by the competent
port State authority;
(b) agreement has been reached between the Administration and the Governments of
the port States referred to in subparagraph (1)(a) or (b) of this regulation concerning
the use of an existing oil tanker for a specific trade;
(c) the adequacy of the reception facilities in accordance with the relevant provisions of
this Annex at the ports or terminals referred to above, for the purpose of this
regulation, is approved by the Governments of the States Parties to the present
Convention within which such ports or terminals are situated; and
(d) the International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate is endorsed to the effect that the
oil tanker is solely engaged in such specific trade.

Regulation 13D
Existing oil tankers having special ballast arrangements

1) Where an existing oil tanker is so constructed or operates in such a manner that it


complies at all times with the draught and trim requirements set out in regulation 13(2) of
this Annex without recourse to the use of ballast water, it shall be deemed to comply with
the segregated ballast tank requirements referred to in regulation 13(7) of this Annex,
provided that all of the following conditions are complied with:
(a) operational procedures and Ballast arrangements are approved by the
Administration;
(b) agreement is reached between the Administration and Governments of the port
StatesParties to the present Convention concerned when the draught and trim
requirements are achieved through an operational procedure; and
(c) the International oil Pollution Prevention Certificate is endorsed to the effect that
the oil tanker is operating with special ballast arrangements.
(1) In no case shall ballast water be carried in oil tanks except on those rare voyages
when weather conditions are so severe that, in the opinion of the master, it is necessary
to carry addtional ballast water in cargo tanks for the safety of the ship. Such additional
ballast water shall be processed and discharged in compliance with regulation 9 of this
Annex and in accordance with the requirements of regulation 15 of this Annex, and entry
shall be made in the Oil Record book referred to in regulation 20 of this Annex.
(2) An Administration which has endorsed a Certificate in accordance with subparagraph
(1) (c) of this regulation shall communicate to the Organization the particulars thereof
for circulation to the Parties to the present convention.

Regulation 15

Retention of oil on board


(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (6) of this regulation, oil tankers of 150 tons
gross tonnage and above shall be provided with arrangements in accordance with the
requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of this regulation, provided that in the case of existing
tankers the requirements for oil discharge monitoring and control systems and slop tank
arrangements shall apply three years after the date of entry into force of the present
convention.
(2) (a) Adequate means shall be provided for cleaning the cargo tanks and transferring
the dirty ballast residue and tank washings from the cargo tanks into a slop tank
approved by the administration. In existing oil tankers, any cargo tank may be
designated as a slop tank.
(b) In this system arrangements shall be provided to transfer the oily waste into a slop
tank or combination of slop tanks in such a way that any effluent discharged into the
sea will be such as to comply with the provisions of regulation 9 of this annex
(c) The arrangements of the slop tank or Combination of slop tanks shall have a capacity
necessary to retain the slop generated by tank washing, oil residues. The total
capacity of the slop tank or tanks shall not be less than 3% of the oil carrying capacity
of the ship, except that the Administration may accept:
(I) 2% for such oil tankers where the tank washing arrangements are such
that once the slop tank or tanks are charged with washing water, this water is
sufficient for tank washing and, where applicable, for providing the driving
fluid for eductors, without the introduction of additional water into the system;
(ii) 2% where segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks are
provided in accordance with regulation 13 of this annex, or where a cargo
tank cleaning system using crude oil washing is fitted in accordance with
regulation 13B of this annex. This capacity may be further reduced to 1.5% for
such oil tankers where the tank washing arrangements are such that once the
slop tank or tanks are charged with washing water, this water is
. sufficient for tank washing and, where applicable, for providing the driving fluid
for eductors without the introduction of additional water into the system;
(iii) 1% for combination carriers where oil cargo is only carried in tanks with
smooth walls. This capacity may be further reduced to 0.8% where the tank
washing arrangements are such that once the slop tank or tanks are
‘ charged with washing yvater, this water is sufficient for tank washing and,
where applicable, for providing the driving fluid for eductors, without the
introduction of additional water into the system.
SEE iNTERPRETATION 6.2
New oil tankers of 70,000 tons deadweight and above shall be provided with at least
two slop tanks.
(d) Slop tanks shall be so designed particularly in respect of the position of inlets, outlets
baffles or weirs where fitted, so as to avoid excessive turbulence and entrainment of
oil or emulsion with the water.
SEE INTERPRETATION 6.1
(3) (a) An oil discharge monitoring and control system approved by the Administration
shall be fitted. In considering the design of the oil content meter to be incorporated in
the system, the Administration shall have regard to the specification recommended by
the Organization. The system shall be fitted with a recording device to provide a
continuous record of the discharge in liters per nautical mile and total quantity
discharged, on the oil content and rate of discharge. This record shall be identifiable as
to time and date and shall be kept for at least three years. The oil discharge monitoring
and control system shall come into operation when there is any discharge of effluent
into the sea and shall be such as will ensure that any discharge of oily mixture is
automatically stopped when the instantaneous rate of discharge of oil exceeds that
permitted by regulation 9(1 )(a) of this annex. Any failure of this monitoring and control
system shall stop the discharge and be noted in the oil record book. A manually
operated alternative method shall be provided and may be used in the event of such
failure, but the defective unit shall be made operable as soon as possible. The port
state authority may allow the tanker with a defective unit to undertake one ballast
voyage before proceeding to a repair port. The oil discharge monitoring and control
system shall be designed and installed in compliance with the guidelines and
specifications for oil discharge monitoring and control systems for oil tankers developed
by the organization. Administrations may accept such specific arrangements as detailed
in the Guidelines and specifications.
(b) Effective oil/water interface detectors** approved by the administration shall be
provided for a rapid and accurate determination of the oil/water interface in slop
tanks and shall be available for use in other tanks where the separation of oil and
water is effected and from which it is intended to discharge effluent direct to the sea.

SEE INTERPRETATIONS 6.1 AND 6.3


(c) Instructions as to the operation of the system shall be in accordance with an
operational mannual approved by the Administration. They shall cover manual as
well as automatic operations and shall be intended to ensure that at no time shall oil
be discharged except in compliance with the conditions specified in regulation 9 of
this annex.***

(4) The requirements of paragraphs (1), (2) and (3) of this regulation shall not apply to oil
tankers of less ttian 150 tons gross tonnage, for which the control of discharge of oil under
regulation 9 of this annex shall be effected by the retention of oil on board with subsequent
discharge of oil and water used for washing and returned to a storage tank shall be
recorded in the oil record book. This total quantity shall be discharged to reception
facilities unless adequate arrangements are made to ensure that any effluent which is
allowed to the discharged into the sea is effectively monitored to ensure that the provisions
of regulation 9 of this annex are complied with.

(5) (a) The administration may waive the requirements of paragraph (1), (2) and (3) of this'
regulation for any oil tanker which engages exclusively on voyages both of 72 hours

For oil content meters installed on takers build prior to 2nd October 1986 refer to the
recommendation on international performance and test specifications for oily-water separating
equipment and oil content meters adopted by the organization by resolution A.393(X). For oil
content meters as part of discharge monitoring and control systems installed on takers built on
or after 2 October 1986, refer to the guidelines and specifications for oil discharge monitoring
and control systems for oil tankers, adopted by the organisation by resolution A.393(x). for oil
content meters as part of discharge monitoring and control system installed on tankers built on
or after 2 October 1986 refer to the guidelines and specifications for oil discharge monitoring
and control systems for oil tankers, adopted by the organization by resolution A.586(14); see I
MO sales publications IMO-6O8E, respectively.
** Refer to the specifications for oil/water interface* detectors adopted by the Marine
Environment Protection committee of the organisation by resolution MEPC.6(XIil), see IMO
sales publication IMO-646E.
""Refer to clean seas guide for oil tankers, published by the international chamber of shipping
and the Oil Companies international Marine Forum.
of less in duration and within 50 miles from the nearest land, provided that the oil
tanker is engaged exclusively in trades between ports or terminals within a state
party

to the present convention. Any such waiver shall be subject to the requirement that the oil
tanker shall retain on board all oily mixtures for subsequent discharge to reception facilities and
to the determination by the administration that facilities available to receive such oily mixtures
are adequate.
(b) The administration may waive the requirements of paragraph (3) of this regulation for
oil tankers other than those referred to in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph in cases
where:
(i) the tanker is an existing oil tanker of 40,000 tons deadweight or above, as
referred to in regulation 13C(1) of this annex, engaged in specific trades, and the
conditions specified in regulation 13C(2) are complied with; or

(ii) the tanker is engaged exclusively in one or more of the following categories of
voyages:
(1) voyages within special areas;
(2) voyages within 50 miles form the nearest land outside special areas where
the tanker is engaged in:
,(aa) trades between ports or terminals of a state party to the present
convention; or
(bb) restricted voyages as determined by the administration, and of 72
hours or less in duration;

provided that al! of the following conditions are complied with:


(3) all oily .mixtures are retained on board for subsequent discharge to
reception facilities;
(4) for voyages specified in sub paragraphs (b) (ii) (2) of this paragraph, the
administration has determined that adequate reception facilities are
available to receive such oily mixtures in those oil loading ports or
terminals the tanker calls at;
(5) the International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate, when required, is- .
endorsed to the effect that the ship exclusively engaged in one or more of
the
categories of voyages specified in sub paragraphs (b)(ii)(1) and (b)(ii)(2)
(bb) of this paragraph; and
(6) the quantity, time and port of discharge are recorded in the Oil Record
‘Book.
SEE INTERPRETATION 6.4
(6) Where in the view of the organization equipment required by regulation 9(1 )(a)
(vi) of this annex and specified in subparagraph(3)(a) of this regulation is not
obtainable for the monitoring of discharge of light refined products (white oils),
the Administration may waive compliance with such requirement, provided that
discharge shall be permitted only in compliance with procedures established by
the Organization which shall satisfy the conditions of regulation (6)(1) (a) of this
annex except the obligation to have an oil discharge monitoring and control
procedures established by the Organization which shall satisfy the conditions of
regulation (6)(1) (a) of this annex except the obligation to have an oil discharge
monitoring and control system in operation. The organisation shall review the
availability of equipment at intervals not exceeding twelve months.

(7) The requirements of paragraphs (1), (2) and (3) of this regulation shall not apply to oil
tankers carrying asphalt or other products subject to the provisions of these annex,
which through, their physical properties inhibit effective product/water separation and
monitoring, for which the control of discharge under regulation 9 of this annex shall be
effected by the retention of residues on board with discharge of all contaminated
washings to reception facilities.

SEE INTERPRETATION 6.5

Regulation 20 Oil
Record Book

(1) Every tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above and every ship of 400 tons gross tonnage
and above other than an oil tanker shall be provided with an Oil Record Book Part I
(Machinery Space Operations). Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above shall
also be provided with an Oil Record Book Part II (Cargo/Ballast Operations). The Oil Record
Book(s) , whether as a part of the ship's official log-book or otherwise, shall be in the form(s)
specified in appendix III to this Annex.

(2) The Oil Record Book shall be completed on each occasion, on a tank-to-tank basis if
appropriate, whenever any of the following operations take place in the ship:

(a) for machinery space operations (all ships): (i)

ballasting or cleaning of oil fuel tanks;


(ii) discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from tanks referred to under (i) of the
subparagraph;

(iii) disposal of oily residues (sludge)

(iv) discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water which has accumulated
in machinery spaces;
REPRODUCED FROM MARPOL 73/78
Appendix III
Form of Oil Record Book

OIL RECORD BOOK


. PART 1 -Machinery space operations {All ships)

Name of ship:

Distinctive number
of letters:

Gross tonnage:

Period from : to :

Note : Oil Record Book Part 1 shall be provided to every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage
and above and every ship of 400 tons gross tonnage and above. Other than oil tankers, to
record relevant machinery space operations. For oil tankers, Oil Record Book Part II shall
also be provided to record relevant cargo/ballast operations.

Introduction:

The following pages of this section show a comprehensive list of times of machinery space
operations which are, when appropriate, to be recorded in the Oil Record Book in
accordance with regulation 20 of Annex I of the International convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL
73/78). The items have been.grouped into operational sections, each of which is denoted by
a letter code*.

When making entries in the OIL Record Book, the date, operational code and item number
shall be inserted in the appropriate columns and the required particulars shall be recorded
chronologically in the blank spaces.

Each completed operation shall be signed for the date by the officer or officers in charge.
Each completed page shall be signed by the master of the ship.

The Oil Record Book contains many references to oil quantity. The limited accuracy of tank
measurement devices, temperature variations and clingage will affect the accuracy of these
readings. The entries in the Oil Record Book should be considered accordingly.
LIST OF ITEMS TO BE RECORDED
(A) BALLASTING or cleaning of oil fuel tanks
1. Identity of tank(s) ballasted.
2. Whether cleaned since they last contained oil and, if not, type of oil previously carried
3. Cleaning process:
.1 Position of ship and time at the start and completion of cleaning :
.2 Identify tank(s) in which one or another method has been employed (rinsing
through steaming, cleaning with chemicals, type and quantity of chemicals
used); .3 Identity of tank(s) into which cleaning water was transferred.
.4 Ballasting :
.1 Position of ship and time at start and end of ballasting;

.2 Quantity of ballast if tanks are not cleaned.

(B) Discharge of dirty ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks referred
to under section (A)
5. Identity of tank(s)
6. Position of ship at start of discharge.
7. Position of ship on completion of discharge.
8. Ship's speed(s) during discharge.
9. Method of discharge :
.1 Through 100 ppm equipment;
.2 Through 15 ppm equipment; .3
To reception facilities.
10. Quantity Discharged.

(C) Collection and disposal of oil residues (sludge)

11. Collection of oil residues.


Quantities of oil residues (sludge) retained on board at the end of a voyage, but not
more frequently than once a week. When ships are on short voyages, the quantity
should be recorded weekly:1
.1 separated sludge resulting from purification of fuel and lubricating oils)
and other residues, if applicable;
- identity of tank(s)
- capacity of tank(s)
- total quantity of retention
2 other residues (such as oil residues resulting from drainage, leakages, exhausted oil, etc., in
the machinery spaces). If applicable due to tank arrangement in addition to 1:
identity of tank(s)……………………………………………. m3
capacity of tank(s)………………………………………….m3

Only in tanks listed in item 3 of Form A and B of the Supplement to the IOPP Certificate
12. Methods of disposal of residue.
State quantity of oil residues disposed of, the tank(s) emptied and the quantity of contents
retained:
.1 to reception facilities (identify port)2;
.2 transferred to another (other) tank(s) indicate tank(s) and the total content of tank(s);
.3 incinerated indicate total time of operation);
.4 other method (state which)

D) Non-automatic discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of blige water


which has accumulated in machinery spaces
13. Quantity discharged or disposed of.
14. Time of discharge or disposal (start and stop)
15. Method of discharge or disposal;
1. Through 15 ppm equipment (state position at start and end);
2. To reception facilities (identify port)2
3. Transfer to slop tank or holding tank (indicate tank(s); state quantity
transferred and the total quantity retained in tank(s).

(E) Automatic discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water .which


has accumulated in machinery spaces
16. Time and position of ship at which the system has been put into automatic mode of
operation for discharge overboard.
17. Time when the system has been put into automatic mode of operation for transfer of
blige water to holding tank (identify tank)
18. Time when the system has been put into manual operation.
19. Method of discharge overboard:
1. Through 100 ppm equipment. 2. Through 15 ppm equipment.

(F) Condition of oil discharge monitoring and control system


20. Time of system failure
21. Time when system has been made operational.
22. Reasons for failure.
(G) Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil
23. Time of occurrence.
24. Place or position of ship at time of occurrence.
25. Approximate quantity and type of oil.
26. Circumstances of discharge or escape, the reasons therefore and general remarks.
(H) Bunkering of fuel or bulk lubricating oil
27. Bunkering:
.1 Place of bunkering.
.2 Time of bunkering.
.3 Type and quantity of fuel oil and identity of tank(s) (state quantity added and total -
content of tank(s).
2
ships masters should obtain from the operator of the reception facilities, which include barges and tank trucks, a receipt or
certificate detailing the quantity of tank washings, dirty ballast, residues or oily mixtures transferred, together with the time and
date of the transfer. This receipt or certificate, if attached to the Oil Record Book, may aid the master of the ship in proving that his
ship was not involved in an alleged pollution incident. The receipt or certificate should be kept together with the Oil Record Book.

.4 Type and quantity of lubricating oil and indentity of tank(s)


(State quantity addes and total content of tank(s))
(I) Additional operational procedures and general remarks Name of

the ship ................................................................................. ……………


(Official Number)...............................................................................

CARGO/BALLAST OPERATIONS (OIL TANKERS) /


MACHINERY SPACE OPERATIONS (ALL SHIPS)

Date Code Item Record of operations/signature of officer in


(letter) (number) charge

Signature of master.

Delete as appropriate

64
OIL RECORD BOOK
PART II - Cargo/ballast operations (Oil tankers)

Name of ship:

Official Number :

Gross tonnage :

Period from : to :

Note : Every oil tanker of 150 tons gross tonnage and above shall be provided with Oil
Record Book Part il to record relevant cargo/ballast operations, such a tankers shall also
be provided with oil Record Book Part 1 to record relevant machinery space operations.

65
Name of ship

Official Number

PLAN VIEW OF CARGO AND SLOP TANKS


(to be completed on board)

Identification Capacity
of the tanks

Depth of slop
tank (s)

(Give the capacity of each tank


and the depth of slop tanks(s)

66
Introduction:
The following pages of this section show a comprehensive list of times of machinery space
operations which are, when appropriate, to be recorded in the Oil Record Book in accordance with
regulation 18 Annex I of the International convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships,
1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78). The items have been
grouped into operational sections, each of which is denoted by a letter code.

When making entries in the OIL Record Book, the date, operational code and item number shall
be inserted in the appropriate columns and the required particulars shall be recorded
chronologically in the blank spaces.
Each completed operation shall be signed for the dated by the officer or officers in charge. Each
completed page shall be signed by the master of the ship. In respect of the oil tankers engaged in
specific trades in accordance with regulation 13C of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78, appropriate entry in
the Oil Record Book shall be endorsed by the competent port State authority.2
The Oil Record Book contains many references to oil quantity. The limited accuracy of tank
measurement devices, temperature variations and clingage will affect the accuracy of these
readings. The entries in the Oil Record Book should be considered accordingly.

This sentence should only be inserted for the Oil Record Book of a tanker engaged in a specific
trade
LIST OF TIMES TO BE RECORDED

(A) loading of oil cargo -


1. Place of loading.
2. Type of oil loaded and identity of tank(s)
3. Total quantity of oil loaded (state quantity added and the total content of tank(s).

(B) Internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage


4. Identity of tank(s):
1. from :
2. To : (state quantity transferred and total quantity of tank(s)
5. Was (were) the tank(s) in 4.1 emptied? (If not, state quantity retained.)

(C) Unloading of oil cargo


6. Place of unloading.
7. Identity of tank(s) unloaded.
8. Was (were) the tank(s) emptied? (If not, state quantity retained.)

(D) Crude oil washing (COW tankers only)


(To be completed for each tank being crude oil washed)

9. Port where crude oil washing was carried out or ship's position if carried out
between two discharge ports.
10. Identity of tank(s) washed
11. Number of machines in use.
12.. Time of start of washing
13. Washing pattern employed.2
14. Washing line pressure.
15. Time washing was completed or stopped.
16. State method of establishing that tank(s) was (were) dry.
17. Remarks3

(E) Ballasting of cargo tanks


18. Position Of ship at start and end of ballasting.
19. Ballasting process;
1. Identity of tank(s) ballasted;
2. Time of start and end;
3. Quantity of ballast received, Indicate total quantity of ballast for each tank
involved in the operation.
1
When an individual tank has more machines than can be operated simultaneously, as described in the Operations and Equipment
Mannual, then the section being crude oil washed should be identified, e.g. No. 2 Centre, forward section.

2
ln accordance with the Operations and Equipment Mannual, enter whether single-stage or multistage method of washing is employed. If
multi-stage method is used, give the vertical arc covered by the machines and the number of times that arc is covered for that particular
stage of the programme.

3
lf the programme given in the Operations and Equipment Mannual are not followed, then the reasons must be given under Remarks. .
(F) Ballasting of dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT tankers only)

20. Identity of tank(s) ballasted.


21. Position of ship when water intended for flushing, or port ballast wastaken to
dedicated clean ballast tank(s).
22. Position of ship when pump(s) and lines were flushed to slop tank.
23. Quantity of the oily water which, after line flushing, is transferred to the slop tank(s)
or cargo tank(s) in which slop is preliminarily stored (identify tank(s). State the total
quantity.
24. Position of ship when additional ballast water was taken to dedicated clean ballast
tank(s).
25. Time and position of ship when valves separating the dedicated clean ballast tanks
from cargo and stripping lines water closed.
28. Quantity of clean ballast taken on board.

(G) Cleaning of cargo tanks


27. Identity.oftank(s) cleaned.
28. Port or ship's position.
29. Duration of cleaning.
30. Method of cleaning.4
31. Tank washings transferred to:
1, Reception facilities (state port and quantity)5
2. Slop tank(s) or cargo tank(s) designated as slop tank(s) (identify tank(s); state
quantity transferred and total quantity

(H) Discharge of dirty ballast


32. Identity of tank(s).
33. Position of ship at start of discharge into the sea.
34. Position of ship on completion of discharge into the sea.
35. Quantity discharged into the sea.
36. Ship's speed(s) during discharge.
37. Was the discharge monitoring and control system in operation during the discharge?
38. Was a regular check kept on the effluent and the surface of the water in the locality
of the discharge?
39. Quantity of oil water transferred to slop tank(s) (identify slop tank(s)). State total quantity.
40. Discharged to shore reception facilities (identify port and quantity involved *

'ships' master should obtain from the operator of the reception facilites, which inciude bags and tank trucks, a receipt
or certificate detailing the quanitytof tank washings dirty ballast, residues or oily mixtures transferred, togeher wih the
time and date of the transfer,, this receipt or certificate, if attached to the Oil Record Book, may aid the master of the
ship in proving that his ship was not involved in an alleged pollution incident, the receipt or certificage whould be kept
together with the oil record book.
(I) Discharge of water from slop tanks into the sea
41. Identity of slop tank(s)
42. Time of settling from last entry of residues, or
43. Time of settling from last discharge.
44. Time and position of ship at start of discharge.
45. Ullage of total contents at start of discharge.
46. Ullage of oil/water interface at start of discharge.
47. Bulk quantity discharged and rate of discharge
48. Final quantity discharged and rate of discharge.
49. Time and position of ship on completion of discharge.
50. Was the discharge monitoring and control system in operation during the discharge?
51. Ullage of oil/water interface on completion of discharge.
52. Ship's speed(s) during discharge.
53. Was a regular check kept on the effluent and the surface of the water in the locality of the
discharge? -
54. Confirm that all applicable valves in the ship's piping system have been closed on
completion of discharge from the slop tanks.

(J) Disposal of residues and oily mixtures not otherwise dealt with
55. Identity of tank(s)
56. Quantity disposed of from each tank. (State the quantity retained.)
57. Method of disposal;
1. To reception facilities (identify port and quantity involved)4
2. Mixed with cargo (State quantity)
3. Transferred to (an) other tank(s) identify tank(s); state quantity transferred and total
quantity in tank(s).
4. OtheKmethod (state which) state quantity disposed of.

(K) Discharge of clean ballast contained in cargo tanks


58. Position of ship at start of discharge of clean ballast.
59. Identity of tank(s) discharged.
60. Was (were) the tank(s) empty on completion?
61. Position of ship on completion if different from 58.
62. Was a regular check kept on the effluent and the surface of the water in the locality of the
discharge?

(L) Discharge of ballast from dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT tankers only)
63. Identity of tank(s) discharged.
64. Time and position of ship at start of discharge of clean ballast into the sea.
65. Time and position of ship on completion of discharge into the sea

4
ships' master should obtain from the operator of the reception facilities, which include bags and tank trucks, a receipt
or certificate detailing the quantity of tank washings dirty ballast, residues or oily mixtures transferred, together with
the time and date of the transfer, this receipt or certificate if attached to the Oil Record Book, may aid the master of
the ship in proving that his ship was not involeved in an alleged pollution incident, the receipt or certificate should be
kept together with the Oil record Book.
66. Quantity discharged.
1. Into the sea; or
2. To reception facility (identify port)
67. Was there any indication of oil contamination of the ballast water before or during
discharge into the sea?
68. Was the discharge monitored by an oil content meter?
69. Time and position of ship when valves separating dedicated clean ballast tanks from the
cargo and stripping lines were closed on completion of deballasting.

(M) Condition of oil discharge monitoring and control system


70. Time of system failure.
71. Time when system has been made operational
72. Reasons for failure.

(N) Accidental or other exceptional discharges of oil


73. Time of occurrence.
74. Port or ship's position at time of occurrence.
75. Approximate quantity and type of oil.
76. Circumstances of discharge of escape, the reasons therefore and general remarks.

(0) Additional operational procedures and general remarks.


TANKERS ENGAGED IN SPECIFIC TRADES

(P) loading of ballast water


77. Identity of tank(s) ballasted.
70. Position of ship when ballasted
79. Total quantity of ballast loaded in cubic metres.
80. Remarks.

(Q) Reallocation of ballast water within the ship.


81. Reasons for re-allocation.

(R) Ballast water discharge to reception facility


82. Port(s) where ballast water was discharged.
83. Name or designation of reception facility
84. Total quantity of ballast water discharged in cubic metres.
85. Date, signature and stamp of port authority official.
5. TANKER ARRANGEMENT

1. Peak Tanks: Used for ballast. Fore & Aft. & Tank.
2. Pump room : Located at the after end of the cargo tank area. Cargo pipe lines from the tank
lead to cargo oil pumps in the pump room. This room has efficient forced ventilation. Cargo,
ballast & stripping pumps are placed here, also main suction and delivery valves.
3. Cargo Tanks : The tanks are located aft of the forepeak tank and forward of the pump room.
Here we have longitudinal and transverse oil tight bulk heads. The cargo tanks are provided with
very small openings and prepared with oil tight closing appliances. Tanks are provided with
heating arrangements tanks are longitudinally divided in three parts port- centre and starboard. 1
across will mean 1 p, 1c & 1s. The number of across depends on the size of the ship. There are
5 to 8 across tanks found on present day tankers. To make loading & discharging plan easier,
tanks are again divided into groups, like:

No 1 group: 1 across, 3 across, 5 across No 2 group: 2 across, 4 across, 6 across


Groups are used to load different grades of oil on same voyage with complete segregation to
avoid contamination with one cargo pump for each group of tanks.
4. Deep Tanks : Tankers are provided with deep tanks forward and aft for fuel oil. Fuel transfer
by forward fuel pump of ford deep tank and this pump is at forward. For aft deep tank, the
transfer pump is in the E. R. They are fitted with heating coils.
Cofferdams : This is an empty compartment between oil tanks and other compartment.
Cofferdams are fitted at each end of the cargo area. These are provided to prevent ingress or
flooding of one space from the adjacent spaces.

Slop Tank: Oil tankers are required to wash their cargo tanks in order to prepare the tank for
carriage of a new grade of cargo to remove sludge, to prepare tank for man entry and repairs
and prior entry into dry dock. Tank washings, oily water, required to, be retained on board and is
retained in slop tank.

5.2 IMPORTANT POINTS REGARDING CARGO PUMPS :


(I) Although large quantities of liquid can be handled by centrifugal pumps, it cannot handle gas or
gas mixture. So prime the pump before starting.
(iii) Centrifugal pump run by electric motor or diesel engine must be started with the delivery valve
closed so as to keep prime mover load to minimum.

70
(iv) Running in parallel the pump discharge pressure must be same.
(v) Where powered valves are employed, their closing period may be so adjusted that the velve
do not close too quickly.

(vi) While starting a pump the flow rate should be increased gradually, similarly while stopping a
pump the flow rate should be reduced gradually before stopping the pump.
(vii) The capacity of a positive pump is almost constant and independent of the head (slight
decrease in capacity is due to small internal leakage).
The capacity of a centrifugal pump varies much with the head. If the head is very low (when
pumping just over rail for example) the capacity is large. If the head is very high the capacity
reaches zero.

SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITION

(1) Brake Horse Power/Flow Rate relationship


It is interesting to note that the horsepower requirements INCREASE as the back
pressure falls. This is simply accounted for by the fact that the volume of liquid being moved is
the dominate factor in the equation for power required to drive the pump. The power required
of the driver is dependant on S.G., the greater the S.G. the more power required. The power
absorbed by the pump shaft is expressed in the following formula:
Q x H x s.g.
N= ---------------------------
270 x TT
N = power absorbed in horse power
H = Head in metres
Q• = Flow in m3/hour
s.g. =specific gravity of liquid pumped
TT = efficiency of pump
The above relation is important for the supervision the discharge operation. If shore facilities
are good, the working point of the pump moves to the right of the curve. At a certain moment
so much liquid is moved that all the available power to drive the pump, is consumed. In spite of
the low discharge pressure, it is impossible to bring the pumps to the specified maximum
revolutions.
Certain viscous cargoes impede the pump's efficiency considerably (i.e. Boscan Crude), from
the formula it can be seen that the power requirement increases and again it may well prove
impossible to raise pump revolutions to the maximum.

(2) Efficiency
The symbol TT stands for efficiency and is given as a %, in the formula:
power used to move liquid TT X
------------------------------------------------- 100%
power fed into the pump shaft

it is common to refer to the above as

Water horse power


Tt ---------------- ----------- -------------- X 100%
brake horse power
The difference between brake and water horse power is lost in the shape of heat, generated by
friction both in the bearings and the fluid.
For various operational conditions, the efficiency is determined and plotted in a curve, showing
the pump efficiency at varying flow rates.
The point of maximum efficiency must coincide with designed duty point of the pump.

71
(3) Nett Positive Suction Head
The lower curve, labelled NPSH, is of more interest to the operator. It concerns the suction side
of the pump. A pressure head is required to overcome the friction losses in the suction pipe system
to provide the energy in the moving liquid, and in some cases, to lift the liquid to the pump inlet. This
pressure head can only be supplied by the head of liquid above the pump inlet (if available) and
atmospheric pressure. Unfortunately the full pressure differential between absolute zero and
atmospheric is not available since all liquids or reaching a certain pressure below atmospheric, will
boil and become unpumpable by gassing up the pump. The pressure at which this occurs called the
vapour pressure of the liquid, represents the lowest absolute pressure which can exist at the pump
inlet for an ideal pump. However, no pump is ideal and some head greater than that at which the
liquid boils is required in practice to overcome internal friction in the pump. This head is termed the
Nett Positive suction Head and is represented by the NPSH curve. Note that it does, fairly logically
require a greater NPSH as the flow rate increases, and similarly better suction conditions are created
if the flow rate is decreased (by throttling the discharge valve or reducing the pump revolutions).
(4) Cavitation
If the pump carries on without attention, the pressure at the inlet to the impeller will fall below the
vapour pressure of the liquid and, at first, bubbles of gas will be formed. When the bubbles are
carried through to a higher pressure section of the pump, they collapse and if they collapse on the
actual metal of the pump the impact on the surface can be quite high. This phenomenon is known as
"cavitation" and the damage due to the impact of the bubbles is called "cavitation erosion”. In actual
practice it is not too common in pumps but can usually be seen near the tip of the back, or non-
driving side, of a propeller blade. If the pressure at the pump suction continues to fall, so much gas is
produced that eventually the flow pattern breaks down the pump "gasses up" losses it bite on the
liquid and runs away. The most common time to identify the sound of the cavitation is when pumping
is ballast. Unless the pump discharges are throttled to put some back pressure on the pumps, the
operating point will be well to the right on the QH curve and a NPSH requirement correspondingly
high. Under these circumstances the pumps frequently cavitate and the characteristic rattling roar is
well known. It can be influenced by throttling the discharge and the loss of throughput will be
insignificant.

Types of pumps
There are several types of cargo pumps used on modern tankers.
(i) Reciprocating pump
(ii) Centrifugal pump
(Hi) Rotary Displacement pump
(iv) Screw displacement pump.

Reciprocating Pump

Reciprocating pumps are motivated by steam at working pressure from 100 to 250 lbs/ sq. inch. They
can be simplex (single acting) or duplex (double acting) type.

72
The double acting one is more in use. Both horizontal and vertical versions are produced. Each
pump is fitted with three gauges. One shows the steam pressure., another the delivery head or the
back pressure, the third shows vacuum or pressure condition atthe pump suction.
Large steam reciprocating pumps are often compound, which means that the steam passes through
a HP and LP Cylinder in turn, thereby giving increased economy in operation.
Air vessels are fitted to reciprocating pump discharge side to ensure uniform flow velocity in
discharge lines so reducing inertia head required, it is a cylinder forming an air space damping
cushion with fluid entry at one side and discharge via an internal pipe.
These pumps were common in all types of oil tankers upto 1950. Since then they have been largely
relocated to a secondary roll as stripping pumps etc.

Fundamental principle of pumping

(i) To move liquid to the pump : depends solely on the natural factors of liquid level and
atmospheric pressure.
(ii) To generate pressure in and to import movement to the liquid in order to move it to the
destination: this is a matter of mechanics depending on the technical properties of the pump. In
tanker the basic requirement of a pump is of a disch pressure at a designed throughput in the range
7-15 bar and good suction performance.

Centrifugal Pump
These pumps can be driven by steam turbines or by diesel and electric motors. This is not a positive
displacement pump and use centrifugal force to transfer oil from the pump into the discharge pipe. In
theory, this pump can be operated with the discharge valve closed. The impeller will be churning in
the liquid. But the clearances are generally so small that the pump would rapidly grow hot and
damage might result.

In conjunction with cargo system, This pump seedom has more than two stages, and in order to start
it, oil must be present at the first stage. The pump can be constructed with a vertical or driving shaft
according requirements.

When driving by a steam turbine, the pump can generally be run at variable speed to suit the
73
discharge facilities of the particular port. The speed is regulated in direct proportion to the amount of
steam that is admitted to the turbine. Reduction in the discharge head means automatic increase in
output. Turbine driven pumps are generally fitted with governors to prevent over speeding thereby
making their operation easier and safer.

Electrically driven centrifugal pumps are sometimes designed to run at a constant speed, the electric
motor automatically compensating or adjusting itself to the load. Trip gear is generally provided to
guard the motor from harm as a result of too big or too small a load.

Centrifugal pumps are generally provided with all the gauges associated with reciprocating pumps.
In addition, however, the turbine driven pump generally has a tachometer to check pump and turbine
revs white the electrically driven pump will have a volt and amp. meter to indicate the power load
respectively.

These pumps will generally have a capacity of 2000-5000 cu Mtr/Hr, and a pressure of about 7-15
Bar.

Screw Displacement Pump.:

The basic elements of design in this particular type of pump are three screws, consisting of a central
power rotor and two idle rotors. The thread surfaces are so shaped that they form a tight seal both in
relation to themselves and the sleeve.

As .the screw rotate, the seal formed by the threads moves axially and quiet uniformly, thus acting as
a piston moving continuously in one direction. This pump is self priming and it does not set up
vibration even at high speed.

So far very few tankers, other than lubricating oil ships or vessels carrying vegetable oils, utilise this
or any other type of screw pump in their cargo system. The reason is that the makers of such pumps
design the pumps to handle liquids free from abrasive and having definite lubricating qualities, a type
of duty for which this pump is particularly suitable.

Rotary pumps
This is a positive displacement pump, which is driven in the same manner as a centrifugal pump.
There are several different types in use, but the general principle is the same in all of them. One
simple type has a driving shaft which is slightly off the centre line of the pump. The pump chamber is
fitted with a single drum, which has a number of vanes attached to it. These vanes are not fixed but
can move in and out of the slots into which they are fitted.
When the pump is in motion, centrifugal force throws the vanes out and away from the centre of the

74
DRAINING AND STRIPPING :

shaft. As the shaft rotates, the casing forces the vanes back into their slots whenever they are on the
side of the shaft which is closest to the casing, centrifugal force throws them out again as the distance
increases.
The oil enters the pump and is trapped between the vanes as they rotate, and thrown out under
pressure via the delivery outlet. I n actual fact the vanes squeeze the oil out of the pump.
This is not a very popular pump, and where it is to be found, is generally regulated to the status of a
stand by or additional stripping pump. The reasons are that the" moving parts are subjected to a great
deal of wear, and the pump has a tendency to loose suction if used for prolonged period.

EDUCTOR :
Used for draining and stripping. (Venturi Effect)
The driven liquid is accelerated to a very high velocity due to construction of the inside nozzle causing
a very low absolute pressure and making a high suction capability.

A certain quantity is loaded, and the same quantity will have to be drained and stripped thoroughly.
Also it is easier to clean the tanks, pipe lines and pumps if other kind of cargo is being loaded.

SUBMERGED CARGO PUMP :


Used for chemical tanks, LPG, Multi product etc.
Separate pump is linked in each tank. Pumps are
driven through line shafting coupled to hydraulic motor
on deck-or driven electrically.
This pump eliminates line shaft bearing and gland
problem, but can cause hydraulic fluid leek into the
cargo and vice versa.
GEAR PUMP :
Usually Motor Driven: can deal with large volume of air, Good
for Tank draining.
Requires minimum maintenance as no moving part. These p/ps
can even suck solid particles. With sufficient driving liquid it will
not loose suction.

CARGO PIPE LINE ARRANGEMENT :


It is essential that a person serving abroad an oii carrying vessel should be thoroughly
conversant with the pipe line system of his ship. To this end, it is recommended that on joining he
should obtain a copy of the pipe line diagram and draw up a small personal copy which he can
carry about the deck, he should then go out on deck, preferably with a senior officer, trace out the
various cargo lines and learn the operating positions of the respective cargo valves. A visit to the
pump room would also be desirable although most modern ships have a pump room valve
control board in the cargo control room on which the pipeline arrangement is shown. In a modern
sophisticated tanker, it is all too easy for a mistake to be made when line setting and working
cargo, and such mistakes can only be prevented by cargo officers having a thorough knowledge
of the cargo system.
There are four systems existing of piping arrangement in tankers,
(i) Ring main system • (ii) Direct line system
(iii) Combined system (iv) Free flow system.

(i) RING MAIN SYSTEM :

Provides for handling several grade of oils simultaneously. The main pipe line, in the tanks are
laid in a right format. Each cargo tank can be pumped out through one direct suction line or
through system of cross over valves and master valves by an indirect suction line. The system is
very versatile, generally found on old product carriers. Advantages :
(i) Can carry several grades of oil
(ii) High standard of tank cleaning due to better line/tank washing from
segregation of lines & valves
(iii) Pipe line leakage can be controlled, effectively due to number of valves.
Disadvantages:
(i) Expensive to construct, due to long length.
(ii) Increased maintenance .work due to more number of joints and bends.
(iii) Slow pumping rate due to round about line & frictional losses.
(iv) Line washing takes longer time due to large number of pipes.

DIRECT LINE SYSTEM :

Consists of longitudinal lines in the centre tanks branching to duct/filling bell mouth in the cargo oil
tanks. Faster loading and discharge rates. Better suction due to lack of many bends. Popular in
crude oil carrier.

Advantage: (i) Quick loading & discharging rate


(ii) Shorter pipe length.
(iii) Less maintenance due to few pipe bends / joints.
(iv) Better suction
(v) Cheaper to construct
(vi) . Line washing time is shortened.
Disadvantage: (i) Line washing not efficient
(ii)' Pipe line leakage difficult to control

COMBINED SYSTEM :
It employees advantages of both direct and ring main system. It gives superior segregation of
cargo and greater availability of pumps and lines.

FREE FLOW SYSTEM:


Large sliding valves are set at the bottom of the tank bulk head. With valve open oil from the tank
runs freely through valves to the cargo oil pump. Reduces the need for stripping.

A separate line runs from each pump along the bottom of the tank range to the tanks in its system.
The purpose of the master and cross over valves is to isolate sections of the line. The valves can
be manually operated or from a central control room.
VLCC PIPING SYSTEM

VLCC piping system often resemble those used on smaller tanker, pipelines, valves, pumps and
the tank themselves are bigger. The system is more automated.
Some systems are unique to VLCC's. For example, a member of those big ships are fitted with a
single pipeline, common to all tanks, which runs the length of the tank range. All of the pumps take
suction through the line. Such arrangement is possible because cargo separation is not critical
factor on crude carrier.
On some VLCC's the main cargo piping can be by-passed. These ships make use of free flow
consisting of sliding gates provided at each tank bulk head. When these gates are opened, the
usual trim of the ship causes oil to flow aft by gravity. Since the cargo pumps are located at the aft
end of the tank range, this arrangement allow efficient draining of the tanks with little or no need for
stripping.
TANK VALVES :
The main pipe line carries oil along the bottom of the tank range. Along the way it connects to
branch lines. At the end of each branch line the piping spreads into a bell-mouth. This allows the
duct to be to be taken close to the bottom of the tank.
Also a tank valve is fitted near the end of the branch lines. This valve is operated in one of two
ways
(i) automatically from the cargo control rooms or (ii) manually from the deck above.
Cargo is loaded through filling lines called drops. Then are located on each line in the pump room
and at various locations on main deck. Each drop is equipped with a valve. This valve must be
opened when loading through that line. While discharging, drop valves are closed to prevent cargo
from recirculating to the tanks.

STRIPPING SYSTEM :
Many ships use a separate stripping system to pump out the last few barrels from each tank. Such
system generally employes reciprocating or rotary pumps or eductors. Because they handle a
relatively small amount of cargo, stripping lines are considerably smaller than those used on the
main system.
As a rule, main and stripping systems are kept separate, but crossovers make it possible to
connect them if desired. Stripping pumps can therefore discharge or take suction through the main
lines whenever necessary.
TYPES OF VALVES:

The cargo piping system incorporates valves of various designs.


Gate v/v: This type employs a metal gate fitted in grooves which slides across the valves opening.
The gate is fitted with a threaded spindle which connects to the valve stem. When turned by
means of a hand wheel, the spindie edges the gate slowly upward to open or downward to close.
The advantage is that, when fully open, the valve offers no resistance to the flow of oil.
Butterfly valves : On tankers with automatic valve control butterfly valves are commonly used
instead of gate valves. These valves operate easily & quickly. But they fail to provide precious
adjustment to cargo flow, and when fully open the valve remains in the centre of flow thus offering
resistance and slowing the rate.
Globe valves: are not so common on cargo lines, but are favoured on some vessels. Globe valves
tend to be difficult to operate in large sizes and at high pressure because drop may occur on the
control of pressure.

77
Angle valves are basically glove valves in which the inlet & outlet flanges are at 90° angle to
each other.
Check valves : To prevent oil from back flowing into the tanks, a check v/v is generally
installed on discharge side of each centrifugal p/p.
Relief valves : Each cargo pump is equipped with a relief valve and a short re circulating line.
Whenever the pressure becomes excessive on the discharge side of the pump the relief valve
opens and allows oil to re-circulate to the discharge side, thereby relieving the pressure.
Note : Majority of oil tankers which are equipped with power-operated valves utilize a hydraulic
system. The valve is opened and closed by hydraulic fluid pressure generated by a pump.
Most hydraulically operated valves and the associated hydraulic system are fitted with
pressure monitors and valves which allow faults to be detected, and leaking hydraulic lines to
be isolated so that the loss of hydraulic fluid is kept to a minimum.
5.3 HEATING OF CARGO :
The heating arrangement in the actual cargo tanks consists of a system of coils which are
spread over the bottom of the tank at a distance of 6" to 18" from the bottom plating. In wing
tanks it is the usual practice to extend the coil system as far as the turn of the bilge but not up
to the ship side.
When heating required, the steam is turned on the individual tank. The coils at the bottom of
the tank become hot, heating the oil in the immediate vicinity. The warm oil rises slowly and is
replaced by colder oil, thus setting up a gradual circulation system in each tank. The wing
tanks insulate the centrie tanks on both sides, while they are subject themselves to the cooling
action of the sea, not only through the bottom plating but also through the ship's side. It is
advisable to set the steam valves so that the wing tanks obtain a larger share of the steam.
Bitumen cannot normally be carried in ordinary ships, as it requires for more heat, than the
normal cargo system is capable of. For this reason the bitumen ships are generally designed
so that the cargo tanks are insulated by wing tanks which are reserved for ballast and by
double bottoms under the cargo tank. This compiled with extra coils arranged on platforms at
different levels, helps to keep the bitumen heated.
Heating coils made from cast iron or alloy, as ordinary steel pipes does not stand up to the
corrosion action so well.
As soon as steam has been supplied to a section of heating coils and before the return water
is passed to the observation tank, the return water must be examined by opening the test
cocks and check. If. any oil is found in the water, steps must at once be taken to ensure that
such oil is not transferred to the observation tank and oily return water must not in any
circumstance be fed to the boilers.
HEATING OF CARGO :
Heating of fuel oil and certain oil cargoes are normally required to ensure suitable viscosity.
When loading part cargo which has to be heated, the centre tanks should preferably be used in
order to reduce heat loss to the sea The cargo should be so placed that as few tanks as
possible are slack.
Heating of the cargo is an operation common to the deck and engine departments. Careful
plans shall be made to ensure that the heating procedure and control of heating is arranged in
the most practical and economical manner. For all heated cargoes temperature shall be
checked throughout the voyage and a record made there of in the temperature book. On those
voyages where heating of the cargo is required, the charter party will contain provisions about
the extent to which heating is to be undertaken. The nature of the cargo and the weather
conditions on the voyage may be such that the temperature with advantages can be reduced
to the minimum allowed for the particular cargo. At a suitable time before arrival at the port of
the discharge steps shall be taken to begin raising the temp to that required for discharge. The
aforesaid procedure may not be used except by arrangement of the company.

To supplement the heating instructions, the master shall on arrival at the loading port try to obtain
directions from the shippers about heating of the cargo. Such directions should indicate the minimum
temperature to which the cargo may be allowed to 78 fall on the voyage. The direction shall be
communicated to the company which in turn will inform the master whether or not the cargo
temperature may be allowed to drop on the voyage to the minimum indicated.
STEAM FOR HEATING COILS :
When steam is admitted to heating coils, the admission shall commence at a slow rate to avoid
shocks in the pipe lines and consequent risk of bursting of packings of pipes. Heating coils are
divided up in several sections in each tank, and each section is provided with a water separator and
an inlet and outlet v/v. When a heating coil section is in use both inlet and outlet valve shall be fully
open so that the water separator governs the flow of steam in the heating coil section. Adjustment of
cargo temp is carried out by opening or closing one or more sections. In order to utilise the heating
surface to the full and thereby achieve a fair economy during cargo heating, it is important that the
water separator functions correctly and care must be taken to ensure that the valve and the filter
incorporated in the water separator are clean.

VENTILATION:
When subject to heat, oil not only expands but gives off vapour and loss through evaporation if
natural ventilation were allowed. On the other hand if the cargo tanks were sealed and then
subjected to a rise in temperature, the cargo would gradually give off more and more vapour, until
the vapour exerted a pressure on the liquid surface of the argo compartment. If the temperature
should increase further, eventually the pressure would release itself by fracturing the weakest portion
of the cargo tank. Oil tanker ventilation system must aim at

(1) The controlled escape of any excessive pressure


(2) Safe disposal of dangerous vapours in the atmosphere
(3) The provision of air to replace any partial vacuum caused by a contraction of the oil in
the tank.

DESIGN OF VENT: .

Unhindered vertical outlet with high velocity is apparently the most effective way to obtain a quick
scattering of the gas. It has now become a SOLAS requirement that tankers are fitted with
approved gas outlet valves. The velocity of the gas at the outlet must be at least 30 m/s. during
loading and 20 m/s. during gas freeing. The high velocity at the outlet means that such valves need
no flame screen, as the velocity of the flame is much lower than the mentioned 20m/s. The
discharge valve is normally fitted with a vacuum valve, the later equipped with a flame screen.
The "Free Flow" outlet is allowed, but the outlet shall not be less than 6M above cargo tank deck.
All the outlets must be designed on the basis of 125% of the maximum designed loading rate.

DANGER OF VENTING :
When loading, oil vapour will be continuously displaced through gas venting system. Oil vapour is
heavier than air and may accumulate around the deck. This is especially likely in still weather
condition. The danger lies not only in the fire risk but also because of the toxic effects of such
vapour.
Pockets of gas may also get into accommodation or ER byway of ventilation system,

79
ports or doors which have not been closed. This can result in fire. The resultant flame may flash
back through heavy vapour lying about the deck and pass into cargo tanks with even more
serious consequences.
DESIGN OF TANK VENTS :
Outlets from cargo tanks should be designed to encourage gas to disperse as rapidly as
possible. The best type is a simple open pipe. As oil vapour leaves the mouth of pipe, air is
sucked into the plume of vapour and quickly dilutes it to non-flammable concentration. Gas will
leave the pipe more rapidly if the loading speed is increased. The effect will be to increase the
rate at which air is drawn into the plume. The dilution will be more rapid.
When loading is slow, the gas flows feebly and little or no air is drawn into the mixture and the
undiluted vapour will sink down to the deck.
5.5 THE LEVEL OF CARGO in the tank is determined by sounding or by measuring ullage.
Sounding is the depth of liquid in the tank, measured from the bottom of the tank to the surface
of the liquid. Ullage is the measurement of the empty space in the compartments, measured
from the surface of the liquid to the deck at an ullage point.
There are many devices used for measuring the cargo levsl:
(1) flexible steel tapes (2) float indicator
(3) Pneumatic or hydraulic guages using principle of change of pressure of liquid
which is transmitted to the indicator
(4) Electrical capacitance gauges - measure the liquid level by composing
capacitance of immersed elements.
(5) Sonic gauges measure the liquid level from the surface by measuring the time difference
between the transmission and receiving of signals.
(6) Radar gauges also measure the ullage by the method of radar signal.
(7) Multifunction unit measures uilage-temperature-interface.
Each of the above type has its advantages and disadvantages, but where high precision
necessary, we are at present limited to mechanically operated float gauges & electric powered
seryo operated gauges.
Change in product density, affect many types of gauge. Float guage will require correction.

LEVEL GAUGES
Level gauges have important safety, environmental and commercial effects on oil tanker
operations. A description is given here to the different types commonly in use on oil tankers and
terminals.

(1) MECHANICALLY OPERATED FLOAT GAUGES

In this type of gauges, the detecting element is a float. The power to actuate the mechanism comes
partly from the movement of the float and partly from the balancing mechanism.
The float is connected to the mecha- n i s m by means of a tape or other m e c h a n i c a l o r
magnetic linkage. The fig. shows float is connected to the measuring tape, which runs over a pulley
system to enter the gauge head.
Inside the gauge head the tape passes over a sprocket wheel driving a counter mechanism,
and hence on to a storage drum. A spring which winds off a storage drum onto a power drum
keeps the tape under tension without lifting the float clear off

80
the product. As the liquid level in the container rises, the spring takes up the slack on the tape. The
spring tension increases as the liquid levei falls in order to compensate for the additional weight of
tape used.

BUBBLER GUAGES:

In this type of gauge, th§ head of a liquid of known density is derived by measuring the back pressure generated
by the injection of a gas or vapour. This pressure is normally displayed at the required position on a manometer
calibrated directly in level units.
The figure shows the diagram of one type of bubbler gauge. In will be noted that manometer must be
compensated for the tank pressure, otherwise level reading will be completely erroneous.

81
Electric Powered Servo Operated Gauges :
With this kind of gauge the detecting element is a surface seaming device, which follows the
variation of level by means of a servo mechanism. Indication of level can be by various electrical
or mechanical methods.

The sensing head is usually designed to sense the liquid surface and to indicate to the control
unit the distance from the surface. The control unit endeavours to keep the head at a fixed
distance above the product by controlling the drive motor.

POSITION OF THE FLAME ARRESTROS:


Flame speed resulting from a fire inside a pipe will be greater than if combustion occurred in a
less restricted place. This is due to expansion. For this reason a flame arrestor fitted inside a pipe
rather than at its mouth may be ineffective, because when a flame reaches it the flame speed
may be so great that the arrestor is unable to dissipate the heat fast enough. Fiame may
therefore pass straight through. Flame arrestor should befitted only at the mouth of a pipe.
Flame Speed through petroleum vapour/air mixture is about 3 Mtrs/s.

FLAME ARRESTOR:

82
This fig. shows a section through a gas line, in the mouth of which is fitted a fine wire gauge screen
to act as a flame arrestor. If the gas outside the pipe is ignited, flame will be unable to pass into the
pipe without passing through heating the wire screen. The screen if correctly designed may be able
to absorb sufficient heat form the flame to prevent it form acting as a source of ignition for the gas
below it. As temperature of the screen increases, the heat which it has acquired will spread into the
pipe and so will.dissipate into the ship's structure.
.•

If the gaps in a flame arrestor through which the gas passes are too large, the arrestor will not
work. If the gaps are too small, the flow of gas will be impeded and may give rise to an
unacceptably high pressure in cargo tank. Because of this, cleaning regularly of flame arrestors
should be done.

Note:

FLAME SCREEN:

A portable or fitted device incorporating one or more wire woven fabrics of very small mesh used
for preventing sparks from entering a tank or vent opening for a short time preventing the passage
of flame. (Not to be confused with flame arrestor)

83
CHAPTER-VI

6. OIL TANKER* OPERATION : GENERAL PRECAUTIONS :


6.1 During oil-tanker operations like loading, discharging, ballasting, deballasting, tank
cleaning, purging, gas-freeing, slop tank operations or any other in which it is likely for the
hydrocarbon gas to emit out of the tank, certain precautions not limited to fire-fighting, anti-
pollution are needed to be observed in connection with superstructure, Pump-rooms, cargo
hoses etc.

6.2 LOADING AND DISCHARGING OPERATIONS :


Vessel is to be prepared for loading discharging in a port prior to her arrival.
Exchange of certain informations is to take place. Ship/shore safety check list is to be
complied with. Emergency shut down procedure, must be agreed upon. Initial loading
should always be done by gravity. Certain checks to be carried out after pumps have been
started.

When discharging is about to begin, the shore valves to receiving tanks must be opened
before the tanker's manifold valve's are opened.
In the oil-industry the following units are commonly used for cargo calculation —

—for volume, (i) Cubic feet

(ii) Cubic metre,

(iii) Barrels (of 42 us gallon)

—for weight, (i) tonne, of 1000 kgs.

(ii) tons of 2000 lbs

(iii) tons of 2240 lbs.


However, there are many tables available for converting the different units in order to
calculate weights. Volume of oil on board can be determined by means of sounding, or
ullage measurement and thereafter checking with the tank calibration table, available on
board. In order to calculate the cargo lifted, the oil volume is now to be converted to weight
by its specific gravity (relative density). Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume.
In MKS system, unit of density is expressed as grams per cubic centimetre, gm./cc.
Relative density is the ratio between the mass of a given volume of liquid and the mass of
same volume of pure water and it depends on temperature.
While calculating cargo quantities, informations on relative density used are based on the
standard temperature of 60°F or 15°C. In the oil-industry an alternative scale of the weight/
volume ratio known as API scale is used. This API scale is derived from the formula
141.5
API= 131 5
R.D. at 60°F ' ’
Here, note that API goes up as the R. D. goes down.

84
85
BALLASTING AND DEBALLAST1NG :
Ballasting and deballasting operations often take place in stages, like —
(a) at the discharging terminal
(b) during sea passage
(c) when heavy weather is expected
(d) prior to arrival in the loading port
(e) atthe loading terminal
Quantity of ballast to be taken on board is at the discretion of the master. Master, no doubt,
considers many factors prior to taking a decision on quantity and also about the tanks to be used-:
— consideration of proper submersion of vessels propeller
— whether, heavy weather is expected during the passage
— consideration of stress forces during on board operations
— vessels voyage particulars
— whether any lightening operations to be carried out
— whether vessel is to pass under a bridge

— any constraint at the berth


— any draft requirement for fairway/channel
— vessel to maintain good stability
— required trim to be maintained for sailing
— whether vessel has SBT system or operating on CBT system
On some tanker specially new tanker, a number of tanks are solely designed for ballast only.
These tanks are called segregated ballast tanks (SBT). The segregated ballast system is
completely separated from the cargo system to avoid any chance of contamination of the ballast
system. When due to any reason it becomes imperative to take additional ballast on the ship
(when segregated becomes insufficient), this additional ballast is taken in dirty cargo tanks. Such
ballast is heavily contaminated with residual oil in the tanks.
No port authority allows any ship to discharge any oil or oily water in the port and thereby every
ship must arrive in the ioading port with clean or segregated ballast on board. For changing the
dirty ballast into clean ballast, another set of cargo tanks is to be cleaned properly and to be made
free of any oil residue. The dirty tank is cleaned with water, hot or cold, through tank washing
machines using water pressure of about 6 to 8 kgs./ cm2. Once these tanks are cleaned, clean
ballast is taken and then the dirty ballast is discharged. Generally, CBT operations appropriate to
a ship are contained in an approval Dedicated Clean Ballast Tank Operation Manual.
The clingage from the tank cleaning is transferred to the slop tank. But the slop tank may not be
able to hold the whole amount of clingage in it due to its limited capacity. In such case, the slop
tank has to be emptied partially at certain interval to accommodate the remaining oily water
mixture/slop without releasing major amount of oil into sea. This is done by decanting procedures
subject to following various discharge provisions as per Marpol 73/78. Thus the water from bottom
rs reduced in the slop tank. If loading same cargo or compatible cargo, it may be loaded in slop
tank also on top of the oil remained after decanting. This is called as load on top (L.O.T.).
It should be born in mind that on ships equipped with COW system, ballast should not be put into
cargo tanks unless these have been crude oil washed.

86
TANK CLEANING

87
Tank cleaning is carried out due to various reasons such as —
— for the next cargo
— for clean ballast .
1
— for sludge control
— for tank entry view repairs
— for dry docking
Tank cleaning or washing of tanks may be carried out with the help of cold water or hot water or
chemicals or even a combination of water wash as well as chemical-wash. Whatever is the
means of wash, tank cleaning produces large quantities of oil contaminated water. This
contaminated water may be reduced in volume if the tanks have first been crude oil washed.
Tank cleaning on board tankers is done with portable and fixed machines. The basic working
principles of these machine, is that the liquid is passed through gear system which turn the
machine horizontally and the nozzles vertically. The liquid passes through the nozzles as high
speed jets which clean the surface to the tank when it comes into contact. This washing may be
done with open cycle or closed cycle mode.
Tank cleaning on tanker is one of the critical operations which involves risk of explosion due to
the reason that it stirs up oily residues within in tank, thereby generating hydrocarbon gas. Tank
cleaning aiso causes electrostatic hazards as a result of water mist, and the introduction into the
tanks of portable tank washing machines. It should therefore be carried out in non-explosive
atmosphere. Such atmosphere may be an inert or too lean or too rich atmosphere, if the ship is
so equipped, tank washing should be done in an inert atmosphere. An inert atmosphere is
imperative of using high capacity washing machines, C.O.W. or washing in recirculation made.
But in case, the inert gas system is not operational then the tank washing should be carried out
in too lean atmosphere. On such ship gas freeing should be continued during tank washing to
maintain the too lean atmosphere in the tank. The tank washing water should be transferred to
the slop tank. On completion of tank washing, all the cargo lines below the deck and on deck to
be flushed with water.

6.5 SLOP TANK OPERATIONS :

L.O.T. has been discussed under section 6.3. There we have seen that slop tanks are
essential for effective L.O.T.

88
Depending on the size of the tanker, there may be one or two slop tanks on board. During changing
of ballast (from dirty ballast to clean ballast), this slop tank receives the oily part of the dirty ballast.
Slop tank fills rapidly during open-cycle tank washing, but during closed-cycle tank washing the level
of the slop tank also rises. If L.O.T. procedures have been properly executed, the slop tank should
contain oil, emulsion and water upon arrival in the loading port.
It is important to note that decanting operations come under the discharge requirements (MARPOL
73/78, Reg. 9). Heating of slops may be done sometimes for better separation of oil and water.

6.6 PURGING AND GAS FREEING :


Purging is the process to replace hydrocarbon gas by inert gas. Gas freeing is the process to
replace hydrocarbon gas or inert gas, present in the compartment, by air. Gas freeing in done to
make the tank suitable for entry or to make the atmosphere too lean for tank washing or tank repairs.
Gas freeing is usually done by mechanical means. Portable fans, water-driven or air driven are used
for gas-freeing. Sometimes fixed system is used. On completion of cargo discharge, hydrocarbon
vapours remain inside the tank. Hydrocarbon vapours are mixed with inert gas where IG system is
fitted or mixed with air in the tank where IG system is not fitted. When tank is inerted, there is no
explosive atmosphere; Proper, care must be taken so that the tank atmosphere does not come
within flammable range during gas freeing. Soot particles, from the flue gas may create an additional
ignition hazard in a tank with explosive atmosphere. As purging is done with inert gas which contains
less than 5% oxygen, this will prevent the development of an explosive atmosphere in a cargo tank
with hydrocarbon vapour. But as the gas freeing is done with air, it will bring the atmosphere in the
tank, which is non-inerted, within the flammable range for sometime. The reason behind this is that
when a tank is empty after discharge the atmosphere remains too rich due to presence of high
amount of hydrocarbon gas and make it non-explosive. But when it is mixed with air, during gas
freeing, atmosphere becomes explosive, till it is converted to too lean by replacing hydrocarbon
vapour. On oil tankers there are different types of measuring instruments for checking oxygen
content, hydrocarbon content and toxic content. It must be clearly understood that the tank
atmosphere may become dangerous again, if ventilation is discontinued. Inert gas supply must also
be blanked off or the valve closed in the branch piping to a gas-free tank.

Ship/Shore Liaison:
Ship shore liaison is extremely important during any operation to be carried out on board a tanker or
ashore while the tanker is at a terminal. For loading and for discharging certain information as
required by the tanker are to be provided by the terminal should also be provided by the tanker. It's
better, to have the operational agreement in writing before loading or discharging. Loading plan or
discharging plan is also one such liaising factor. Generally, there is always a tank inspection prior
loading. Limitation regarding entry into cargo tanks to be well explained to the surveyors as per the
condition of the tank atmosphere atthattime.
Communication plays a vital role in any operation. Reliable ship/shore communication is essential.
Both parties should therefore establish, agree in writing and maintain reliable primary and stand by
communication-system. A ship/shore safety check list should be completed jointly by ship and shore
staff.

7.1. PUMPING ARRANGEMENT

Strictly speaking a pump does not draw up a liquid but creates a vacuum on the suction side,
allowing atmospheric pressure to push the liquid into the pump.
In theory a pump could therefore draw up a liquid column corresponding to the atmospheric
pressure, which equals 10.3 Mtr 1.013 Bar - 760 mm Mercury ~ 10.3 M water. Oil below
density 1 will be capable of being lifted a greater amount. Also the fluid pumped should be
cold, as warm fluid tends to vaporise and destroy the vacuum. In practise a good pump will lift
cold water from about 8 Meters due to various losses. Theoretically suction height is influenced
in a positive way by atmospheric pressure, inert gas pressure and the height of the liquid in the
tank. It is negatively influenced by the Nett Positive Suction piping head of the pump, friction
losses in the pipe, true vapour pressure of the liquidate being pumped and the height of pump
and suction piping above the tank bottom. All this can be expressed in Mtrs liquid column.
Positive forces should be more than negative forces so that the suction condition at the pump
might be thought to be adequate. NPSH of a pump is a combination of friction and vacuum loss
associated with a particular pump.
The summation of all this forces is known as available NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head).

89
7.2 A PUMP is said to cavity when the pressure at the pump suction has fallen to such an extent
that bubbles of vapour are formed in the fluid being pumped.
Vapour bubbles can form with great rapidity at the p/p suction and may be carried away to
regions of high pressure within the pump. They collapse, and in the process of collapsing a
hammer effect is created. This causes vibration and erosion on metallic surface. Cavitation
may also occur in pipelines and associated fillings like bends and valves. Cavitation can be
avoided by throttling the discharge v/v or by reducing the pump speed.
Incipient Cavitation can occur when suction lift capability cannot meet supply requirement
and the output reduce until the two coincide.
Super Cavitationoccurs when the vapour bubbles collapse within the liquid offer the
impeller.

8.1 TANKER EMERGENCY PLAN


Planning & preparations are essential if personnel are to deal successfully with emergencies
on ship. The master and other officers should consider what they would do in the event of
various types of emergency.
It is not possible to foresees in details what might actually happen —but advanced planning will
result in quicker & better approach to any situation.
The following information should be readily available:
(i) Type of cargo, amount & disposition
(ii) Where about of other hazardous substances.
(iii) General arrangement plan.
(iv) Damage stability plans.
(v) Fire fighting equipment plans. •

8.2 GENERAL EMERGENCY ALARM:

Min7 short blasts followed by 1 long blast on ship whistle or electric bell.
Fire alarm : Usually Continuous ringing of the electric be followed by the general
emergency alarm signal.
Abandon ship : Verbal order from master
Safety Aspects of electrical system .
General : All portable electrical equipment including lamps should be approved by a competent
authority and must be carefully examined for possible defects before being used. Special care
should be taken to ensure that the insulation is undamaged and that cables are securely
attached and will remain so while the equipment is in use. Special care should be taken to
prevent mechanical damage to flexible cables (wandering leads).

8.3 EMERGENCY ORGANISATION


This organisation will come into operation in the event of any emergency. They should (I)
Raise the alarm, (ii) Locate and assess the incidents possible dangers, (iii) Organise
manpower & equipment.
8.4 The following suggestion are for guidance in planning an emergency organisation which
should cover the following four elements.
1. Command Centre :
There should be one group in control of the response to the emergency with the master or
senior officer in charge. The command centre should have means of internal and external
communication.

2. Emergency Party:
This group should be under the command of a senior officer and should assess the
emergency and report to the command centre on the situation, advising what action should
be taken and what assistance should be provided either from ship or shore.

3. Back Up Party:
Under the command of an officer should st by to assist the emergency party as instructed by
the command centre & to provide back up service, (equipment, stores, medical services, CPR
etc.)
4. Engineering Group:

90
This under the command of C/E should provide emergency assistance as instructed by the
command centre. The prime responsibility for dealing with any emergency in the main
machinery spares will probably rest with the group. It may be called on to provide additional
manpower elsewhere.

BOILER COMBUSTION CONTROL :


Auxiliary boiler require an automatic control system to enable them to operate unattended

91
for reasonable periods of time. An auxiliary boiler on a diesel engine vessel may be required to cut- in to assist a
waste heat boiler when the vessel is at sea or may operate alone when the vessel is in port. Steam demand may
vary considerably and on occasion perhaps be zero. The boiler may then be arranged to dump steam or the burner
management system may shut down the boiler.

92
An on-off system will now be described which uses a burner with a fixed capacity. When light-up is
required the closure of the mains switch energizes the fuel oil pump and the heater, see Figure
9.12(a). The oil recirculates back to the pump suction due to the position of the solenoid operated
changeover valve. The high temperature cut-out will disconnect the heater circuit should the oil
become too hot. When the fuel oil reach a suitable temperature the low temparature cut-out will
close the circuit and provide a supply to the forced draught fan. After a period of purging the boiler
with air the delay switch will operate to close the circuit and provide a supply to the solenoid-
operated changeover valve. Fuel oil will now be supplied to the burner and simultaneously a spark
will be created at the burner Igniter. The timer in this circuit will disconnect the spark after a
reasonable time and the light-up procedure will then have to be respected. If a flame is
established, however, this is sensed by a photoelectric cell and spark^circuit is disconnected by a
solenoid-operated switch. A photoelectric cell will de-energize the changeover valve solenoid in the
event of flame failure. A number of safety trips are also provided which operate to stop the forced
draught fan and change over the fuel to recirculating. These are flame or combustion air failure,
high steam pressure and low water level. A time delay exist in theflamefailure shutdown circuitto
enable initial lighting-up of the boiler.
A variation on the above, system makes use of a burner with a spring-loaded piston valve'
and two flame spill valves, see Figure 9.12(b). When heating and circulating, the oil does
not reach the burner swirl chamber. Access to this chamber is blocked by the spring-
loaded piston valve. When the changeover valve operates and directs oil to the burner the
oil now recirculates through either a low flame spill or a high flame spill valve. A solenoid-
operated flame change valve determines which is used. At initial light-up the oil passes to
the low flame spill valve. A pressure now builds up in the fuel supply pipe and burner which
is sufficient to open the piston valve and admit oil to the swirl chamber. The atomized oil is
ignited by a spark and the flame is established. A boiler steam pressure operated switch
then acts to control the flame change valve. When steam pressure is low the high flame
spill will be in use, when high the low flame spill will be used. The steam pressure operates
switch also provides forced draught fan flap movements to the air quantities necessary for
combustion. This arrangement will reduce the number of shutdown and lighting-up
sequences that must be performed by the control system.

10. INERT GAS


10.1 Inert gas means a gas or a mixture of gases, such as flue gas, containing insufficient oxygen
to support the combustion of hydrocarbon.
Inert condition means a condition in which the oxygen content throughout the atmosphere of
a tank has been reduced to 6% or less by volume(new Tanker) and 8% or less by volume
(Existing tanker) by addition of inert gas.
Inerting means the introduction of inert gas into a tank with the object to attaining the inert
condition.
Gas freeing means the introduction of fresh air into a tank with the object of removing
toxic, flammable and inert gases and increasing the oxygen content to 21 % by volume.
Purging means the introduction of inert gas into a tank already in the inert condition with the
object of (1) Further reducing the existing oxygen content or (2) Reducing the existing
hydrocarbon gas content to a level below which combustion can not be supported if air is
subsequently introduced into a tank.
Topping up means the introduction of inert gas into a tank which is already in the inert
condition with the object of raising the tank pressure prior to prevent any ingress of air.

FLAMMABLE LIMITS
(1) A mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air cannot ignite unless its composition lies with in range
of gas in air concentration known as "the flammable range". The lower limit of this range
known as the 'lower flammable" limit is any hydrocarbon concentration below which there is
insufficient hydrocarbon gas to support combustion. The upper limit of the range, known as
the "upper flammable limit" is any hydrocarbon concentration above which there is

93
(2) The flammable limits vary for different pure hydrocarbon gases and for the gas mixtures devised
from different petroleum liquids. In practice, however, the lower and upper flammable limits of oil
cargo carried in the tankers found to be within 1%and 10% hydrocarbon by volume,
respectively.

SOURCE:
Possible source of inert gas on tankers are generally.
(1) The uptake from the ship's main or auxiliary boilers.
(2) An independent inert gas generation.
Good combustion control in ships boilers is necessary to achieve inert gas with in an oxygen
content of 5% by volume. In order to obtain this quality, it may be necessary to use automatic
combustion control.

METHODS OF GAS REPLACEMENT


There are three operations which involve replacement of gas in cargo tanks, namely
i) Inerting 2) Purging 3) Gas-freeing.
In each of this replacement operation, one of two processes can predominate.
(A) Dilution, which is a mixing process. (B) Displacement, which is a layering process.

(A) DILUTION

This theory assume that the incoming gas mixes with the original to form a homogenous mixture
through out the tank. The result is that the concentration of the original gas decreases
exponentialy. In practice of actual rate of gas displacement depends upon the volume flow of the
incoming gas, its entry velocities, and the dimensions of the tank . For complete gas
replacement it is important that the entry velocity of the incoming gas is high enough for the gas to
reach the bottom of the tank. It is therefore important to confirm the ability of every installation
using this principle to achieve the required degree of gas replacement throughout the tank .

Fig 1) Shows an inlet and out let configuration for the dilution process and illustrates the
turbulent nature of the gas flow within the tank.

Fig 2) Shows typical curves of gas concentration against time from different sampling position.

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B) DISPLACEMENT

Ideal displacement requires a stable horizontal interface between the lighter gas entering of the
top of the tank and gas being displaced from the bottom of the tank through some suitable piping
arrangement. This method requires a relatively low entry velocity of gas and in practice more
than one volume change is necessary.

Fig 3) Shows an inlet and outlet configuration for the displacement process, and indicates the interface
between the incoming and out going gases.

GENERAL POLICY OF CARGOTANK


Tankers fitted with an inert gas system should have their cargo tanks kept in a nonflammable
condition at all times.
Tanks should be kept in the inert condition whenever they contain cargo residues or ballast. The
oxygen content should be keep at 6% or less by volume (New tanker) 8% or less by volume
(Existing tanker) with a positive gas pressure in all the cargo tanks.

The atmosphere within the tank should make the transition from the inert condition to the gas free
95
condition without passing through the flammable condition. In practice this means that before any
tank is gas freed, it would be purged with inert gas until the hydrocarbon content of the tank
atmosphere is below the critical dilution line.
When a ship is in a gas free condition before arrival at a loading port, tanks should be inerted
priorto loading.
In order to maintain cargo tanks in a non-flammable condition the inert gas plant will be required
to :-
(1) Inert empty cargo tanks.
(2) Be operated during cargo discharge, deballastirig and necessary in tank operation (Crude oil
washing, Ballast condition, tank cleaning)

3) Purge tanks prior to gas freeing.


4)Top up pressure in the cargo tanks when necessary during other stage of voyage (Loaded
condition, Ballast condition)

10.2. INERT GAS SYSTEM

Gas from boiler uptake passes through two pneumatically remote controlled high temp valve. This
passes the scrubber, where Sea Water is sprayed for cooling and scrubbing

soot particles and most of sulphur dioxide. This now passes to the demister. Now
composition is Co2; 13%, O2:4%, sulphur dioxide-nitrogen and water vapour where water
vapour is removed.
The supply of clean dry inert gas at pressure 2 to 6 KN/m2 is regulated by the by pass valve
which is automatically controlled.

96
Advantage: (1) No explosive mixture can be formed in the tank.
(2) Reduces corrosion.
(3) Voyage cleaning of tank not necessary.
(4) Reduces pumping time because of positive pressure.
Safety: (1) Temp high : Blower stops, delivery v/v closes.
(2) Low water flow
2
(3) High 0 in gas
(4) Deck seal water level

Note : Cargo tanks can stand about 3.5 PSI above atmospheric pressure. For safety 2.5 PSI
should not be exceeded.

97
This was originally developed to supplement CO2 flooding. A water cooled direct engine drives a fuel
p/p, air blower and a generator. This generator gives power to a motor which runs cooling water
pump. The control, panel incorporates a CO2 recorder, water of oii fuel alarms and pressure
gauges.
Controls: (1) Temp high the blower stops & DELIVERY V/V CLOSES.
(2) Low water flow: Gives alarm
* (3) High O2 in gas : Gives alarm

SPECIAL NOTES ON INERT GAS PLANT :

SCRUBBER :
(1) The performance of the scrubber at full gas flow should be such as to remove at least
90% of sulphur dioxide and to remove solids effectively.
(2) Adequate opening to sight gases should be provided in the sake for inspection,
cleaning purpose.

BLOWERS :
(1) Regulation requires that at least two blowers shall be provided which together shall be
capable of delivering inert gas to the cargo tanks at a rate of 125% of the maximum
rate of cargo discharge capacity.
(2) Means should be provided such as F.W washing to remove the build up of deposits.

SEALS AND N/R VALVES :


The deck water seal and mechanical N/R valve together form the means to prevent back
flow of cargo gas even when the plant is shut down.

98
They are of three different type :
(1) Wet type:
This is the simplest type of water seal. While normal operation, the gas bubbles through the water
from the submerged inert gas inlet pipe.
In case of back flow the water is pressed up into the inlet pipe of prevent back flow.The draw back of
this seal in that water droplets may be carried over with the inert gas, and this could cause
corrosion. A demister is fitted in the gas outlet from the water seal to reduce carry over.

(3) Semi-dry-type :
Instead of bubbling through the water trap, the inert gas flow draws the sealing water into a separate
holding chamber by venturi action thus avoiding or at least reducing the amount of water droplets
being carried over. Otherwise it is functionally the same as wet type.

(4) Dry type:


In this type the water is drained when the inert gas plant is in operation .(gas flowing to the tanks)
and filled with water when the inert gas plant is either shut down or the tank pressure exceeds the
inert gas blower discharge pressure. Filling and draining are performed by automatically depending
on the state of the blower. The advantage of this type is that water carry over is prevented. The
drawback could be the risk of failure of the automatically controlled valves which may render the
water seal ineffective.

99
NON-RETURN-VALVE
As a further precaution to avoid any back flow regulation requires a mechanical non-return
valve or equipment. This should be fitted forward of the deck water seal and should operate
automatically at all times.
This v/v should be provided with a positive means of closure or alternatively a separate
deck isolating v/v fitted forward of the N/R valve.
The separate isolating valve has the advantage of enabling maintenance work to be carried
out on the non-return valve.
Note: The water in the deck seal should be maintained by a regulating flow of clean water through
the deck seal reservoir.

INERT GAS LINE &GAS REGULATING VALVE TO MAST RAISER


A vent line to atmosphere, with shut off valve, must be fitted in the gas line at some point
between the gas regulating valve and the deck main NR valve. This vent must be open
when I.G. plant is not in use.
A N/R valve with a positive means of closure must be fitted in the gas main after the deck
Seal

System to have adequate number of drain valves are fitted at suitable points. A suitable
number of inspection door should also be fitted, manometer tapping points should be fitted
at strategic points, all cargo tanks are to be fitted with an approved tank isolating device to
that individual tanks can be isolated from the deck main. The mast riser should be fitted with
suitable inspection & drainage arrangement.
The gas entry line to the P.V. breakers to rise from the deck main so that no liquid traps
occur which would effect the operation of P.V. breaker
The P.V. breaker should be set to blow at tank test pressure or less for positive pressure
and no more than 700 mm w.g. vacuum for sub-atmosphere tank pressure.
Typical valve setting as follows
(1) P.V. Breather v/v setting: 1400 mm w.g. (tank)
(2) P.V. Breather v/v setting: 1250 mm w.g. (mast riser)
(3) P.V. Breaker v/v setting: 1600 mm w.g.

100
CARGO COOLING SYSTEM :
All mineral oils are subject to expansion and contraction with the rise and fall of temperature
The coefficient of expansion of heavy oil at 60°F is in the region of .00035, whilst the lighter
oil have coefficient of expansion of approx. .00070 at the same temperature
As a rule there is little or no trouble in loading a vessel with the heavier type of oil. There is
generally plenty of room for expansion. But where the lighter products are concerned this is
a matter of major importance.
Normal practice is to load tanker cargo tank to 98% of their capacity, 2% being allowed for
normal expansion & contraction. This is experienced due to change of daily fluctuation of
temperature.
Vessel loading very light products have necessity to be very accurate about ullages. It is
often very difficult, and on short voyages often impossible to put the vessel down to her
marks. It is therefore vary important to be able to estimate correctly what the vessel may
experience in the way of high temperature, and to make extra allowance for cargo
expansion where necessary.
To keep the temperature of the cargo in reasonable limits and also to avoid excessive loss
through evaporation, some vessels are fitted with sprinkler system.
A sprinkler system is merely a number of fine nozzle or water hoses, which are sanctioned
at intervals throughout the length of the vessel in the immediate vicinity of her cargo tanks.
The sprinkler are connected to the deck service line, through which sea water is pumped to
counteract the effect of the sun on the ship's steel deck plating.

11. CRUDE OIL WASHING (COW) :

11.1 INTRODUCTION :
Crude oil washing is the washing of cargo tanks on board crude oil ships with the help of .
crude oil itself. There are many advantages of C.O.W. over water washing of cargo tanks and
few disadvantages as well.
Under International Pollution Regulations (Marpol 73/78 Annex 1, Reg. 13) COW is
mandatory for new crude oil tankers. International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP)
Certificate of the ship indicates if COW is mandatory. By not carrying out COW operation
when so required, it becomes, contravention of international rules and may lead to fines
and detention of the ship.

11.2 DESIGN OF COW SYSTEMS :


Design of COW Systems must comply with International specifications (IMO published
"Crude Oil Washing Systems" booklet). The system consists of (a) Pumps (b) Piping (c)
Fixed wishing machines and (d) Stripping system.
A ship effecting COW operations, must have an operational inert gas system (Marpol 73/
78, Annex 1, Reg. 13B). Number and location of washing machines is governed by the tank
size & construction. The length of the jet of crude oil being used for tank cleaning depends
on the washing pressure and on the nozzle diameter. Therefore a relationship does exist
between the diameter of the COW piping, the number of washing machines served by the
piping and the fluid velocity in the piping. Too many washing machines operating on a
given pipe line may lead to low pressure at the washing machine, thereby decreasing the
effectiveness of COW.
Every oil tanker operating with crude oil washing systems is provided with an Operations
and Equipment Manual detailing the system and equipment and specifying operational
procedures. Such a manual approved by the Administration should always be followed for
the effectiveness of crude oil washing.

101
11.3 COW PIPING :
In the design of COW system it is already stated that the system should comply with
International specifications. This system consists of permanent pipe work. Exceptions are
allowed is the case of combination carriers where tank washing machines are located in the
hatch covers. To prevent over-pressure in the system, some provisions are always made.
Piping for water washing system as well as for COW system may be a combined one, but the
hydrants in such combined systems must be blanked off during C.O.W. operations.
COW piping needs to be well connected (bonded) to the ship structure to prevent
development of any static charges, common piping is used for COW and water washing, such
piping if. passing through a heater, must be effectively blanked off from the COW supply
during COW operation. Again, oil should be drained from the line before such piping is used
for water washing.

11.4 TANKWASHING MACHINES :


Tank washing,machines used for COW operations are of fixed type. These machines may be
deck mounted, or mounted inside the tank in which case they are known as submerged
machines. Washing machines are either single or multi-nozzle machines. For COW
operations, these tank washing machines are used with high pressure jets of crude oil from
the cargo.
The basic washing principles of these machines is the same as described under sec. 6.4. Only
thing is that the driving liquid is nothing but crude oil itself. The single nozzle machines may be
of programmable type and for a particular type of wash a programme can be set, meaning of
which is that with a set programme of washing between 0° to 60° (say) angle of the nozzle to
the vertical, the machine will be continuously and automatically working within this sector for
the wash of the tank.
For each machine, there is always a stop valve on the branch line of the main piping and
therefore any machine can be isolated from its supply line by means of this stop valve. Due to
any reason (say, maintenance) if a washing machine is to be removed, the supply line to the
machine must be blanked off and also the tank-washing opening must be closed. This is for
prevention of pollution and also for prevention of an accident.

11.5 PUMPS :
Pumps used for COW operations may be either cargo pumps or dedicated tank cleaning
pumps. When COW is done during discharging operation by the cargo pumps, part o'the cargo
is bled off the discharge piping to enter tank cleaning piping for working of the machines. A
separate cargo pump orthe dedicated tank cleaning pumps can also be used for sending
crude oil through the tank cleaning piping to drive the machines. In the case when part of the
cargo Is bled off the discharges line, it is very important to ensure that there is sufficient
pressure in the COW piping if terminal presents too little back pressure,

11.6 STRIPPING SYSTEMS :


For good COW results an effective stripping is essential. For effective stripping a positive trim
is important. To avoid accumulation of oil or its sediment at the tank bottom it is necessary that
the stripping system must be capable of removing oil at a rate 1.25 time, of the total
throughput of all washing machines.
Remote read-out facility must be provided in the cargo control room for monitoring the
efficiency of stripping system. Level gauges, hand dipping are used for checking that the tank
bottoms are dry after COW operations.
Vessel should have the stripping system which can drain cargo lines and pumps after

102
discharge and a special small diameter line is provided to discharge those stripping
ashore.

11.7 OPERATIONS :
A ship which is under obligation to use COW is provided with a COW operations and
Equipment Manual approved by the Administration and this Manual in various sections detail
the system and equipment also specify operational procedures with safety measure, (Marpol,
Annex 1, Reg. 13B).
Tankage to be washed depends on whether cargo tanks are used for ballast or not. If cargo
tanks are only used for ballasting, sufficient cargo tanks must be crude oil washed prior to each
ballast voyage in order, that, taking into account the tanker's trading pattern and expected
weather conditions, ballast water can be put only into cargo tanks which have been crude oil
washed. For sludge^ontrol purposes no tank need be washed more than once in every four
months.
Prior arrival in a discharging port, the COW system should be examined whilst under pressure
and faults (leakages etc.) made good well in time. In port, COW should be carried out in
accordance with the parameters set out in the COW operations and Equipment Manual for:
— number of washing machines
— pressure of washing fluid
— duration of washing'
— programme of washing machine
— trim of the ship
— stripping requirements
For carrying out COW operations, washing fluid may be obtained from the discharge line or
from the slop tank is which case this can be effected by the re-circulation method. In this case
level of slop tank must be constantly watched, (Crude oil used for COW operation must be dry
crude only).
Before crude oil washing a tank, the oxygen content in the tank should be measured at various
heights : say, 1 metre below deck, in the middle of the ullage space etc. and oxygen content
should not exceed 8% by volume at any point. If the oxygen content in the tank rises above 8%
by volume the COW and cargo operations must be stopped till the time reduction in oxygen
content below or equal to 8% by volume is achieved. The !n-charge for COW operation must
be a suitably qualified person having various experiences and knowledge including the
following.
— ability to programme and monitor tank washing machines.
— ability to calibrate the oxygen meter and to measure the oxygen content of a cargo tank
During the COW Operations certain checklists have to be filled such as —
— pre-arriva! check list
— check list before crude oil washing
— checklist during crude oil washing
— checklist after crude oil washing
Fact is that the effectiveness of COW can be checked by measuring the amount of oil floating
on top of the departure ballast. To prevent marine pollution during ballasting and tank washing
operations, measures must be taken and its important to note that all crude oil washing should
be completed before the ship leaves its final port of discharge. At times after lighterage
operation (discharging of part crude) crude oil washing may have to be carried out at sea.
Whenever or wherever the COW operation is carried out, it should be recorded in the Oil
Record Book in accordance with the coded list of items.
There are some crude oils not suitable for COW operations. Unsuitable crude may not be
carried in a tanker under obligation to carry out COW unless the tanker is provided with SBT of
sufficient capacity.
Maintenance of,COW and Inert Gas System are very important, because —
— failure of equipment may lead to COW not being effected
— COW not being effected may lead to delays of the ship

103
— I. G. supply not functioning properly results in cargo operations being suspended.

104
Plan of COW operations is to be incorporated in the sequence of Discharging plan and
discussed with the terminal representative. Inspector from the Port may visit the ship to
inspect COW operations.
12. BILGE WATER SEPARATOR & ODMCS :
12.1 BILGE WATER SEPARATOR
Centrifugal pump is used to draw only water from bilges. Sometimes in suction mode (p/p
after the sepr.)
1st stage : This compartment is first filled with clean water and as water starts coming out,
vent is shut. Now oily water is delivered and as pressure reaches 2 bar the water discharge
valve opens.The mixture circulates & flows across weirs & perforated baffles which assist in
separating oil & water. Oil accumulates at top & as the interface moves down the oil discharge
valve is open.

2nd & 3rd stage : are


coalescers (There are inorganic fibre unit. The molecular attraction between the water droplet & the
inorganic fibres is greater than that between the oil & the fibres. When the water globules are large
they will move with the steam out of the coalescing unit.)
The separator has cylindrical oil coalescing cartridge through which oil water mixture is drawn.

12.2 OIL DISCHARGE MONITORING ANDCONTROL SYSTEM :


The discharge provisions as per MARPOL 73/78 Annex-1 limit both the total quantity of oil
that may be discharged into the sea from the cargo tank area and the instantaneous rate of
discharge of oil. For oil tankers to comply with the provisions, this monitoring equipment is
provided on board. The discharging provisions also stipulate that the equipment should be in
operation when oil and water mixtures are being discharged into the sea. International
specifications for the equipment have been established, and only approved types should be
used on board. The equipment must come into operation whenever a discharge takes place.
The discharge of segregated (clean) ballast (except from CBT tankers) need not be monitored.
The equipment must halt the discharge automatically when the permitted quantity of oil or the
permitted number of litres of oil per mile has been reached.
The task to be performed requires complicated equipment. Not only must the oil content of the
effluent be measured, a difficult enough task, but the discharge rate of the pumps over a wide
range of output and the speed of the ship must also be recorded. A computer is needed to
transfer input into output, i.e. total quantity of oil and instantaneous rate of discharge (litre of oil
per mile) must be identified.
Any failure of this monitoring and control system shall stop the discharge and be as-well noted
in the Oil Record Book. A manually operated alternative method should be provided and may
be used in the event of such failure, but the defective unit must be made operable as soon
possible. The port state authority may allow the tanker with defective unit to undertake one
ballast voyage before proceeding to repair port.

105
Whether on Oily Water Separator a an Oil Water Discharge Monitoring and Control System,
there are a number of makes in the market and most large and effective ones are extremely
expensive. In practical terms, a ship fitted with separator/ODMCS cannot afford to disregard
L.O.T. practices. In handling the slop tank, the amount of free water left in the tank may be
reduced considerably, thus helping to justify the cost of the equipment by increasing the actual
quantity of oil which can be loaded.
(Reference may be further made to MARPOL 73/78, Annex-1, Reg. 9, 15 & 16 for discussion)

13. HELICOPTER OPERATIONS :


The fact that a large number of helicopters operations take place daily through out the world,
underlines the inherent safety and usefulness of the helicopter today. Also the number of
helicopter-ship services have been increased substantially during recent years. At many ports
the pilot will board the ship by helicopter, crew members are shifted and ' stores delivered to
the ship by helicopter.
Guide to helicopter / ship operations published by iCS to be referred prior helicopter
operations.

Transfer of personnel or stores to and from ships by helicopter must be conducted according
to the safety standards published by International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).
The aim of the procedure in this guide is to specify the minimum requirements for the
maintenance of the necessary standards of safety, which would be adhered to at all times for
routine operation.
The most important factor is full understanding and agreement on a clear plan both prior to
and during operation between the ships master and the helicopter pilot.

TANKER TERMINOLOGY :

(1) Approved Equipment: Equipment of a design that has been tested and approved by an
appropriate authority such as a government or classification society for.use on board a
tanker
(2) Bonding : The connecting together of metal parts to ensure electrical continuity.
(3) Cold Work: Work which cannot create a source of ignition.
(4) Dangerous Area : An area on a tanker which for the purpose of the installation, and use
of electrical equipment is regarded as dangerous.
(5) Earthing : The electrical connection of equipment to the main body of the earth to ensure
that it is at earth potential. On board ship the connection is made to the main metallic
structure of the ship which is at earth potential because of the conductivity of the sea.

106
107
(6) COMMERCIAL
17.2 Entry Permit :ASPECTS
A document issued by a responsible person permitting entry to a space of
compartment during a specific time interval.
(7) Explosion Proof (Flame proof) : Electrical equipment defined and certified as explosion proof,
when it is enclosed in a case which is cpapble of withstanding the explosion within it of a
hydrocarbon gas/air mixture or other specified flammable gas mixture. The equipment must
operate at such an external temperature that a surrounding flammable atmosphere will not be
ignited thereby.

SHIP TO SHIP TRANSFER


In ship to ship transfer both tankers should comply fully with the safety precautions required for
normal cargo operations. If the safety precautions are not being observed on either vessel, the
operations must not be started or, if in progress, must be stopped.
Ship to ship transfer undertaken in port or at sea may be subject to approval by the port or local
marine authority and certain conditions relating to the conduct of the operation may be attached to
such approval. Before starting the transfer, we recommend, both the ships should make positive
reference to the safety aspects of transfer operations contained in the ICS/OCIMF "Ship to ship
Transfer Guide (Petroleum)".
The rate of pumping from one ship must be controlled according to the size and nature of the
receiving ship. Communication procedures, emergency shut down procedures must be understood,
established and maintained. If there is a large difference in freeboard between the two ships, the
ship with the lower freeboard must make allowance for the contents of the hose on completion of the
transfer. After completion of the transfer of volatile petroleum, ships should be separated from each
other as soon as possible.
To avoid any hazard associated with vapour emission during the transfer, vapour balancing
techniques should only be undertaken between inerted vessels.
Where a tanker at a berth is transferring cargo to a tanker at another berth through the shore
manifolds and pipelines, the two tankers and the terminal should comply with all regulations relating
to ship to ship transfers including written operating arrangements and communication procedures.
The co-operations of the terminal in establishing these details is essential.

CHAPTER - VI

15. Oil Pollution Liabilities & Compensation :


108
Marine pollution is nothing but the introduction by men, directly or indirectly, of harmful
substances or energy into the Marine Environment. Marine pollution results in harm to living
resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities like fishing and reduction of
ammenities. (Losses due to effects of oil pollution on marine environment is discussed under
section 4 of this hand out).
The Torrey Canyon disaster in March, 1967 at the entrance of English Channel provided a
major stimulus to the development of two voluntary agreements and two international
conventions through which compensation is available to those who incur clean-up costs or
suffer pollution damage as a result of a spill from a tanker.
The voluntary agreements of TOVALOP (Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement Concerning
Liability for Oil Pollution) and CRYSTAL (Contract Regarding a Supplement to Tanker Liability
for Oil Pollution) were established by the tanker and oil industries, in the late 1960 as interim
arrangements pending the widespread ratification of the two international conventions. The
voluntary arrangements lasted for longer than anyone expected although their relevance was
progressively eroded as countries around the world ratified the equivalent conventions. In view
of this and the entry into force in 1996 of Protocol which updated the original Conventions, the
voluntary arrangements of TOVALOP and CRYSTAL were terminated on 20th February 1997.
The International Conventions were developed under auspices of the International Maritime
Organization (IMO). The Original Conventions were the 1969 International Convention on Civil
Liability for oil Pollution Damage ("1969 CLC") and the 1971 International Convention on the
Establishment of an International Fund for compensation for Oil Pollution Damage ("1971 Fund
Convention or 1971 FC"). This old regime was amended in 1992 by two Protocol which
increased the compensation limits and broadened the scope of the original conventions. The
amended Conventions are known as the 1992 Civil Liability Convention ("1992 CLC") and the
1992 Fund Convention ("1992 FC").
Over 100 countries have ratified one or a combination of the Convention and compensation
totalling many hundreds of millions of US dollars has been paid to the victims of oil spills without
the need in the vast majority of cases for litigation. The system can therefore truly be viewed as
highly successful, even if it has limitations in the eyes of some claimants. After of the entry into
force on 30th May 1996 of the 1992 CLC and 1992 Fund Convention, the 1969 CLC and 1971
Fund Convention are being denounced by states as they ratify or accede to 1992 Conventions.
The original conventions are therefore rapidly losing significance.
The 1992 CLC and 1992 Fund Convention provide a straight forward mechanism whereby the
cost of clean up measures and pollution, damage can be recovered on a strict liability basis
from the individual tanker owner and P & I club involved in an accident and from the 1992 IOPC
Fund, where the contributors are the receivers of crude oil and heavy fuel oil located in States
that are Party to the 1992 Fund conventions So long as the clean up measures, taken in
response to an accident and the associated costs are "reasonable" in the particular
circumstances, and the claims for compensation are well presented and supported by relevant
documentation and evidence, few difficulties should be encountered. The total amount of
compensation available under the 1992 Conventions (approx. $ 180 million) should be more
than adequate to deal with the vast majority of cases.

109
16. TANKER MOORING :

Mooring and unmooring operations, including tug-line handling are dangerous operations. It
is important that everybody concerned realises this and takes appropriate precautions to
prevent accidents.
During the exchange of information between the terminal and the tanker prior to the tanker's
arrival in port, generally the terminal informs the vessel to have available required number of
mooring lines and accessories and details of shore moorings which may be provided. If the
adjustable ends of shore moorings are on board the tanker, these moorings should be
tended by the tanker's personnel in conjunction with its own moorings. It should be realised
that mooring conditions and regulations may differ from port to port.
Responsibility for the adequate mooring of a tanker rests with the Master, but sometime the
terminal has an interest in ensuring that vessels are secured and safely moored. Cargo
hoses or arms should not be connected until both the terminal representative and the master
are satisfied that the ship is safely moored.
Type and quality of mooring lines are very important. Mooring composed entirely of high
elasticity ropes are not recommended as they can allow excessive movement of the vessel at
berth due to various reasons. Self tensioning winches fitted with automatic rendering and
hauling capability should not be used in automatic mode while the vessel is mooring because
they may not always hold it in position at berth. Regarding self stowing mooring winches
ships personnel must clearly understand their operating procedures, brake holding capacity
and maintenance, when such winches are fitted on board.
Many a times a tanker vessel finds her loading/discharging point at conventional, Multi Buoy
Moorings or at single point Moorings. When berthing at a buoy mooring ail ihe normal
precautions which are taken during berthing alongside a jetty, should also be taken here. At
terminals with buoy moorings for ocean going tankers, it is desirable to have professional
advice on those aspects of safety related to the marine operations. Means should be
provided, in all types of mooring arrangements, to permit the quick and safe release of the
ship, in case of an emergency.

17. TRANSPORTATION LOSSES & COMMERCIAL ASPECTS OF TANKER


OPERATIONS: 17.1 TRANSPORTATION LOSSES :—
Transportation losses do occur on board a tanker. Amount of loss of cargo may depend on
the following factors:
— Volatility of the grade of oil
— Loading temperature of the oil
— Temperature to be maintained during the voyage
—. Change in atmospheric temperature during the voyage
— Nature of-inside construction of the tank (with regard to structural members etc.)
— Effectiveness of C.O.W. operation (if any)
— Effectiveness of pumps and operators
— Draining, stripping of tanks, line, ducts, pumps etc.
— Number of tanks used for loading
— Recovery of usable quantity of oii (if any) after, tank cleaning operation.
With the introduction and compliance of MARPOL 73/78 conventions, I.M.O. has not only
tried to reduce down pollution considerably, but also has reduced down transportation losses,
of oil cargo on board tankers.

110
17.2 COMMERCIAL ASPECTS :

The ownership of the world tanker fleet falls into three broad categories:
(a) Tankers owned by the Oil Industry
(b) Ships owned by companies and private individuals not associated with the oil industry.
These vessels carry oil and are paid freight for the service rendered.
(c) Nationally owned or controlled ships which operate commercially under subsidy.
Most large companies study the transportation requirements on a short as well as long term
basis. It is normal practice for such companies to own a percentage of the ships they require
and to obtain the balance by chartering. •
The oil business like many other business has its ups and downs; market forecasts can be
wrong and economic and political emergencies can upset the most careful planning. Against
this background a lot of money can be lost by having too many ships when their freights are
low, or alternatively having too few ships when freight are high.
Ideally the combination carrier whether it be oil-ore or OBO, carries, coal or ore one way
and oil the other way, thus eliminate, the ballast passage. A minority of such vessels are
fortunate to be fixed in such trades. More frequently a vessel engaged in carrying solid as
well as liquid cargo, will make a triangular voyage with a short ballast voyage between
longer-loaded passages.
product carriers when she loads a single grade of refined oil for disposal at coastal depots
and when some of these local depots are not capable of taking the full cargo of any one
grade, then the vessel has to proceed to two or three ports. This is not very economic method
of distributing the oil. Therefore, ships carrying refined oil from a refinery to coastal depots
generally carry two or more grades of oil. In this manner they supply the needs of any one
depot, and become cost effective.

18. DOUBLE HULLTANKERS :


The 1992 amendments to the MARPOL introduced a new regulation:
Reg 13F: Prevention of oil pollution in the event of collision or stranding.
This regulation applies to all oil tankers of 600 tons deadweight and above, the keels of which
are laid on or after 6th January 1994 or the delivery of which is on or after 6th July 1996.
Under this regulation the entire cargo tank length shall be protected by ballast tanks or
spaces other than cargo and fuel tanks. The wing tanks or spaces shall extend either for the
full length of the ship's side or from the top of the double bottom to the uppermost deck.
The width of the wing tank shall be, w = 0.5 + DW/20000 or 2.0 mtrs whichever is lesser
(0.76m for tankers less than 5000 tons dwt) however the minimum value of w=1.0 m. The
height of the double bottom tank shall be, h = B/15 m or 2.0mtrs. whichever is lesser,
howeverthe minimum value of h -1.0 m.
Tankers of 5000 tons dwt and above may, as an alternative to the double bottom, incorporate
a 'mid-deck' concept under which the pressure within the cargo tank does not exceed the
external hydrostatic pressure. Such tankers will have double sides, but not a double bottom.
Instead, another deck is installed inside the cargo tank with the venting arrangement in such
a way that there is an upward pressure on the bottom of the hull.
Tankers that are 25 years old and which were not constructed according to the

111
requirements of the 1978 Protocol to the MARPOL 73/78 have to be fitted with double sides and
double bottoms. The Protocol applies to tankers whose keels were laid on or after 1 st Jan 1980 or
completed on or after 1 st June 1982. Tankers built according to the standards of the Protocol are
exempt until they reach the age of 30.
The double hull requirement is a result of the Exxon Valdez which ran aground on Bligh Reef off
Alaska, spilling nearly 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound. A second hull
between the tanker's oil and the reef might have prevented or reduced the spill.
The major advantage of the doublo hull design is the prevention of oil pollution in case of a collision
or grounding. Studies commissioned by the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC)
indicate the double hull tankers are four to six times less likely than single hull tankers in the case of
a collision or grounding. Further, expected or average outflow is three to four times less with a
double hull compared to a single hull tank vessel.
Further double hull tankers have their cargo tanks free of framing, stiffenings etc, leaving a smooth
side resulting in easier and faster discharging & cleaning of cargo tanks. This also increase the out
turn of cargo as less oil.
Lastly due to the presence of a double bottom, these tankers have cargo hold bilge wells, resulting
in faster cargo discharge and good cargo out-turn.
The double hull design has its share, of disadvantages too.
The major concern in double hull tankers is the loss of intact stability as compared to single hull
vessels. This is due to the increased height of the centre of gravity of a double hull vessel because
the double bottom raises the centre of gravity of the cargo Thus certain double hull tankers,
specially those with single tank-across designs become unstable during cargo and ballast
operations, due to the large free surface moments generated in these tanks. Thus the stability has
to be very carefully monitored at all times during cargo and ballast operations to ensure that the
vessel does not become unstable. Retaining 2% of ballast in all DB tanks susbstantially increase the
stability and this can be resorted during cargo and ballast operations to ensure adequate positive
stability at all times.
Corrosion is another major concern in the ballast spaces of double hull vessels. This is due to the
high moisture content within the wing tanks coupled with high temperatures generated by the above
water portion of these tanks. This leads to a rapid breakdown of the coating giving rise to more
corrosion. This is compounded by the fact that due to the narrow size of these side tanks and the
obstacles raised by the structural members within these tanks become practically inaccessible for
routine maintenance. Even inspections of these tanks pose a major problem due to the restricted
space available and the general lack of ventilation within these tanks.
This corrosion and coating breakdown will result in a reduction in the strength of the structural
members and thus these spaces must be regularly monitored to check for corrosion and structural
integrity. *
Lastly, construction costs and times for double hulled vessels are substantially higher than for single
hull vessels.
Studies reveal that construction costs are on the average almost 15% higher while construction time
is almost 1 to 2 months more for a double hull tanker of 200,000 to 350,000 tons DWT.
However these disadvantages are offset by the single most important advantage of the double hull
vessels - prevention of oil pollution in case of a collision or a grounding.

112
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships, 1973, modified by the Protocol
of 1978. •
Annex I - Regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil : 2nd Oct. 1983(Revised 1 st Jan
Annex II - Noxious Liquid in bulk 2007)
Annex III - Harmful Substances in Packaged form : 6th April, 1987(Revised 1st Jan
Annex IV - Sewage 2007) : 1st July,1992 : 27th
Annex V - garbage Sept,2003(Revised 2004)
Annex VI - Air Pollution : 31st Dec. 1988 : 19 May, 2005
Date of Enforcement (1st July,2010)

Annex I : From page 48 to 69 of Mannual Annex II : Reg. for the control of


pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk
Noxious Liquid substances carried in bulk form are divided into four categories. Tank
washings, cargo residues etc. shall be discharged into shore reception facilities. The under
mentioned conditions are for subsequent washings, ballast water etc.

Category A: Those which pose a serious harm to the environment


-Discharge prohibited uniess :
-Ship moving at least at 7 kts
- Discharge is below the waterline
- Ship not less than 12 NM from land, depth not less than 25 m
- Residual concentration not more than 0,1 % by weight (0.05% within special areas)

Category B : Those which pose a hazard to the environment -


Discharge prohibited unless the above criteria met with except
- Quantity of cargo disch from each tank shall not exceed the greater of 1 cbm or 1/30000 of
tank capacity. (For special areas, the concentration and rate of discharge! shall be such that
the concentration of the substance at the wake astern shall not exceed one part per million.)

Category C : Those which pose a minor hazard


Discharge prohibited unless the above criteria met with except
Quantity of cargo disch from each tank shall not exceed the greater of 3 cbm
1/1000 of the tank capacity (1 cbm or 1/3000 within special areas)
The concentration and rate of discharge of the effluent is such that the concentration of
the substance in the wake astern ot the ship does not exceed 10 parts per million (One
part per million within special areas)

113
Category D: Those which pose a recognizable hazard .
Discharge prohibited unless
. Ship moving at least at 7 kts
. Ship not less than 12 NM from land
. such mixtures are of a concentration not greater than 1 part in ten parts of water.

Special areas : Baltic sea, Black sea, Antarctic area


Annex III : Reg. for the prevention of pollution by Harmful substances carried by
sea in Packaged form

Harmful substances - those substances identified as 'marine pollutants' in IMDG code


. Package shall be adequate to minimize the hazard to the marine environment having regard to
their specific contents.

. They shall be durably marked and labeled with the correct technical name and to indicate that
the substance is a marine pollutant. Such marking and labeling shall survive atJeast three months
immersion in the sea.

- They shall be properly stowed and secured so as to minimize pollution hazards without
impairing the safety ofthe.ship or persons.
. Jettisoning of such substances prohibited except for safety of the ship or saving life at sea.

. Measures taken to regulate the washing of leakages overboard.

. Properdocumentation is required as follows :


. Signed certificate by the shipper that it has been properly packed, marked & labeled as
appropriate and in a proper condition for carriage to minimize pollution hazards
. Special list or manifest setting forth those substances and their location. A detailed stowage plan
may be used instead.

Annex IV: Reg for prevention of pollution by sewage from ships


1. Applies to the following ships

. New ships 200 grt & above (keel laid afterthe date of entry into force of this annex)

. New ships certified to carry more than 10 passengers.

. Existing ships 10 years afterdate of entry into force


. Existing ships certified to carry more than 10 passengers 10 years after date of entry into force

114
2. Discharge of sewage prohibited unless :

- Ship is en route.
- Ship more than 12 nautical miles from nearest land.
- Sewage from holding tanks discharged at a moderate rate and not instantaneously.
- If comminuted and disinfected using a sewage treatment plant then more than 4 nautical miles
from nearest land.
- Such sewage treatment plant shall have been certified by the administration and effluent shall
not produce visible floating solids in, nor cause discoloration, of the surrounding water.
3. The Government of each party to the Convention shall ensure provision of facilities at ports and
terminals for the reception of sewage.

4. Both ship and shore sewage lines shall be fitted with standard discharge connections.

Annex V : Reg. for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships


1. Outside Special Areas
- Disposal of plastics is prohibited.
- Discharge of dunnage, lining and packing material that float is prohibited if ship is less than 25
nautical miles from nearest land
- For food wastes and all other garbage including paper products, rags, glass metal,
bottles, crockery and similar refuse, discharge prohibited if ship is less than 12 nautical
miles from nearest land.
- if such garbage has been comminuted and is capable of passing through a screen not greater
than 25 mm.

2. Within SpecialAreas
- Only disposal of food wastes permitted as far away from land as practicable, bu
not less than 12 nautical miles from nearest land.

3. Above requirements shall be. displayed on every ship more than 12 m in length
Every ship of 400 tons gross and above and certified to carry 15 persons or more
shall carry a garbage management plan.

Annex VI : Reg. for the prevention of air pollution from ships

Reg. 12 : Ozone depleting substance


1. Any deliberate emission of ozone depleting substance shall be prohibited.
2. New installations containing ozone; depleting substances shall be prohibited on all ships, except
that new installations containing Hydro Chloro Flouro Carbons (HCFCs) are permitted till 1st
Jan. 2020.

Reg. 13 : Nitrogen oxide (NOx)


1. Applies to each diesel engine with a power output of more than 130 kw installed
on a ship constructed on or after 1st Jan. 2000.
2. Above also applicable in case of a major conversion.

115 *
3. Emission of Nitrogen Oxide shall be within the following limits:
- 17.0 g/kw when rated engine speed (n) is less than 130rpm
- 45 x n( 02) g/kw when 'n' is 130 or more, but less than 2000 rpm
- 9.8 g/kw when 'n' is more than 2000 rpm
Reg. 14 : Sulphur Oxides (SOx)
1. Sulphur content of any fuel used on ships shall not exceed 4..5% m/m.
2. Sox emission control areas shall be - Baltic sea - Any other sea, including port
areas designated by the Organisation
3. Within Sox emission control areas at least one of the following conditions shall be fulfilled:
- Sulphur content of fuel used shall not exceed 1.5% m/m
- An exhaust gas cleaning system, (or other technological method)approved by the
Administration is applied to reduce the total emission from ship to 6.0 gSOx/kwh or
less calculated as the total weight of sulphur dioxide emission.
Reg, 16 : Shipboard Incinerati
1, Each incinerator installed on board a ship after 1st Jan. 2000 shall meetthe requirements
of Annex V!
2. Shipboard incineration of the following substances shall be prohibited :
- Annex i, II and III cargo residues and related contaminated packing material
- Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
- Garbage as defined in Annex V containing more than traces of heavy metals.
- Refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds.
- Polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) except in those incinerators where-IMO Type Approval
Certificates have been issued.
- Incinerator should possess an operator manual.
- Operating personnel shall be trained and capable of implementing the guidelines
provided in the manual.
- Monitoring of combustion flue gas outlet temp shall be required at ail times and waste shall
not be fed into a continuous - fed shipboard incinerator when the temp is below the minimum
allowed temp of 850°C.
Reg. 17: Reception Facilities
I. The Govt, of each party undertakes to ensure the reception facilities for :
- Ozone depleting substances and equipment containing such substances when removed
from ships.
- Exhaust gas cleaning residues from an approved exhaust gas cleaning system when
discharge of these residues into the environment is not permitted.

116
Proposed Annex VII : Reg. For The Control And Management of Ships Ballast Water
To Minimise The Transfer Of Harmful Aquatic Organism And Pathogens
1. Applies to ail ships
2. Master & crew to be provided appropriate training
3. Every ship to be provided with a ballast water management plan specificto each
ship. Such plan should address :

- Relevant part of these guidelines


- Approval documentation relevant to treatment equipment
- An indication of records required
- The location of possible sampling points

4. Adequate reception and treatment facilities should be made available for safe disposal of
ballast sediments.

5. Master to report Port state if ballast water procedure has not been undertaken due to
weather/operational impracticability prior entering seas under its jurisdiction.
6. To appoint responsible officer to follow procedure and maintain record. .
7. Loading of ballast to be avoided in following areas :
- Areas identified by Port state
- In darkness when bottom-dwelling organisms may rise up
- In very shallow water
- Whenever propellor may stir up sediments
8. Master to ensure removal of ballast sediment on timely basis by routine cleaning of
the ballast tank.
9. Avoid unnecessary discharge of ballast water
10. Ballast water exchange : Near coastal; organisms released in midocean and Oceanic
organisms released in coastal water generally do not survive.
- Conduct ballast water exchange in deep sea (Beyond 200m from shore). To be discharged
until suction is lost and stripped.
- Overflow method - at least three times the tank volume should be pumped through
the tank.

- Where exchange not possible, baliast exchange may be accepted by Port State in
designated areas.
11. Port state consideration
12. Enforcement & Monitoring by Port States.

117
Proposed Annex VIII : Reg. To Prevent Pollution By Organotin -Based Self-
Polishing Copolymer Anti-Fouling Paints
Organotin-based self-polishing copolymer anti-fouling based paints have been highly successful in
reducing hull corrosion to large degree. These paints are designed to release (leach) a certain
amount of toxin into the sea to eliminate all aquatic life attached to the ships hull.
It was soon realized that this leaching had a devastating effect on the entire marine ecological
system. Studies have shown that these chemicals, particularly Tributyltin can be toxic at minute
concentrations of 1-2(mg/litre)
Such chemicals were found in fresh and salt water sediments bludder liver and kidney of marine
mammals including killerwhales and common dolphins, thickening of oyster shells and imposed in
female dog whelks and other gastropids.
Many countries banned the use of TBT containing anti-foulings on vessels less than
25 m in length. The use of organotin compound paints with a leaching rate of more than 4mg/cm5
tributyltin per day was also prohibited.
The MEPC working group will prepare a draft assembly resolution urging member states to
encourage the use of alternatives to organotin antifouling systems pending -the entry into force of a
mandatory instrument- a new annex to the MARPOL.

Alternatives to TBT
1. Controlled Depletion Polymer Paints - These are TBT free, using copper oxide and other
booster biocides to increase efficiency against algae. It requires the physical erosion of the paint
film before it releases the biocides.
Thus a thick leached layer can form on the paint surface relatively quickly and this layer may prove
difficult to remove in the drydock, creating hull roughening during repainting. Further, these paints
contain the copper or zinc metal oxide based Irgorol 1051 which may result in toxic concentrations
in coastal waters.

2. Copper Acrylate Polymers - These use similar acrylic backbone polymer to that used in TBT
SPC systems, but are TBT free. These paints undergo hydrolysis and once they have been
hydrolysed, they will act in the same way that CDPs do.

3. Probably the most eco-friendly commercially available alternative is the foul release 'non-stick
ship' system. This is a non-biocide self polishing silicon based system, which provides an extremely
smooth, low energy surface to the hull, reducing the ship clinging ability of aquatic organisms.

Although organisms can still settle on coating when static, they are washed off by the time a vessel
reaches 18 -20kts.
However it is more expensive than other coating systems, but offers protection more than 5 years.

i.
118
APPENDIX B

SOLAS -CHAPTER ii - 2 PART D

FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR TANKERS


(The requirements of this part are additional to those of part C except for regulations 53 and 54
which do not apply to tankers and except as provided otherwise in regulations 57 and 58).

Regulation 55

Application
1. Unless expressly provided otherwise, this part shall apply to tankers carrying crude oil and
petroleum products having a flashpoint not exceeding 60°C (closed cup test), as determined
by an approved flashpoint apparatus, and a Reid vapour pressure which is below atmospKeric
pressure and other liquid products having a similar fire hazard.

2. Where liquid cargoes other than those referred to in paragraph I or liquefied gases which
introduce additional fire hazards are intended to be carried, additional safety measures shall
be required to the satisfaction of the Administration, having due regard to the provision of the
international Bulk Chemical Code, the Bulk Chemical Code, the International Gas Carrier
Code and the Gas Carrier Code as appropriate.

3. This paragraph applies to all ships which are combination carriers. Such ships shall not carry
solid cargoes unless all cargo tanks are empty of oil and gas-freed or unless the
arrangements provided in each case are to the satisfaction of the Administration and in
accordance with the relevant operational requirements contained in the Guidelines for Inert
Gas Systems*.

* Refer to the Revised Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems, adopted by the Maritime Safety
Committee at its forty-eighth session in June 1983 (MSC/Circ. 353).

4. Tankers carrying petroleum products having a flashpoint exceeding 60°C (closed up test) as
determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus shall comply with the provisions of part C,
except that in lieu of the fixed fire extinguishing system required in regulation 53 they shall be
fitted with a fixed deck foam system which shall comply with provisions of regulation 61.

5. The requirements for inert gas systems of regulation 60 need not be applied to :

1. chemical tankers constructed before, on or after 1 July 1986 when carrying cargoes
described in paragraph 1, provided that they comply with the requirements for inert
gas systems on chemical tankers developed by the organization;* or

* Refer to the Regulation for Inert Gas Systems on Chemical tankers,


adopted by the Organization by resolution A. 567 (14).
** Refer to the Interim Regulation for Inert Gas Systems on Chemical Tankers Carrying
Petroleum Products, adopted by the Organization by resolution A. 473 (XII).

119
3. gas carriers constructed before, on or after 1 July 1986 when carrying cargoes described
in paragraph 1, provided that they are fitted with cargo tank inerting arrangements equivalent
to those specified in paragraph 5.1 or5.2 ;or

4. chemical tankers and gas carriers when carrying flammable cargoes other than crude oil
or petroleum products such as cargoes listed in chapters VI and VII of the Code for the
Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk or chapters 17
and 18 of the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk ;

4.1 if constructed before 1 July 1986 ; or


4.2 if constructed on or after 1 July, 1986, provided that the capacity of tanks used for their
carriage does not exceed 3,000 m3 and the individual nozzle capacities of tank washing
machines do not exceed 17.5 m3/h and the total combined throughput from the number of
machines in use in a cargo tank at any one time does not exceed
110m3/h.

6. Chemical tankers and gas carriers shall comply with the requirements of this part except
where alternative and supplementary arrangements are provided to the satisfaction of the
Administration having due regard to the provisions of the Internal Bulk Chemical Code, the
Bulk Chemical Code, the International Gas Carrier Code and the Gas Carrier Code as
appropriate.

Regulation 56

Location and Separation of Spaces

(This regulation applies to ships constructed on or after ; February 1992)


Machinery spaces shall be positioned aft of cargo tanks and stop tanks. They shall also be
situated aft of cargo pump-rooms and cofferdams, but not necessarily aft of the oil fuel
bunker tanks. Any machinery space shall be isolated from cargo tanks and slop tanks by
cofferdams, cargo pump-rooms, oil fuel bunker tanks or ballast tanks.Pump rooms
containing pumps and their asscessories for ballasting those spaces situated adjacent to
cargo tanks and slop tanks and pumps for oil fuel transfer shall be considered as equivalent
to a cargo pumproom within the context of this regulation provided that such pumprooms
have the same safety standard as that required for cargo pump rooms. However, the; lower
portion of t h e pumproom may be recessed into machinery spaces of category A to
accommodate pumps, provided that the deck head of the recess is in general not more than
one third of the moulded depth above the keel except that in the case of ships of not more
than 25,000 tonnes deadweight, where it can be demonstrated that for reasons of access
and satisfactory piping arrangements this is impracticable, the Administration may permit a
recess in excess of such height, but not exceeding one half of the moulded depth above the
keel.

2. Accommodation spaces, main cargo control stations, control stations and service spaces
(excluding isolated cargo handling gear lockers) shall be positioned aft of all cargo tanks, slop
tanks and spaces which isolate cargo or slop tanks from machinery spaces but not
necessarily at of the oil fuel bunker tanks and ballast tanks, but shall be arranged in such a
way that a single failure of a deck or bulkhead shall not permit

120
the entry of gas or fumes from the cargo tanks into an accommodation space, main cargo *
control stations, control station, or service spaces. A recess provided in accordance with
paragraph I need not be taken into account when the position of these spaces is being
determined.

However, where deemed necessary, the Administration may permit accommodation spaces,
main cargo control stations, control stations, and service Spaces forward of the cargo tanks,
slop tanks and spaces which isolate cargo and slop tanks from machinery spaces, but not
necessarily forward of oil fuel bunker tanks or ballast tanks. Machinery spaces, other than
those of category A, may be permitted forward of the cargo tanks and slop tanks provided they
are isolated from the cargo tanks and slop tanks by cofferdams, cargo pump-rooms, oil fuel
bunker tanks or ballast tanks. All of the above spaces shall be subject to an equivalent
standard of safety and appropriate availability of fire-extinguishing arrangements being
provided to the satisfaction of the Administration. Accommodation spaces, main cargo control
spaces, control stations and service spaces shall be arranged in such a way that a single
failure of a deck or bulkhead shall not permit the entry of gas or fumes from the cargo tanks
into such spaces. In addition, where deemed necessary for the safety or navigation of the ship,
the Administration may permit machinery spaces containing internal combustion machinery not
being main propulsion machinery having an output greater than. 375 kw to be located forward
of the cargo area provided the arrangements are in accordance with the provision of this
paragraph.

3. in combination carriers only :


1. The slop tanks shall be surrounded by cofferdams except where the boundaries of the slop
tanks where slop may be carried on dry cargo voyages are the hull, main cargo deck, cargo
pump-room bulk-head or oil fuel bunker tank. These cofferdams shall not be open to a double
bottom, pipe and tunnel, pump-room or other enclosed space. Means shall be provided for
filling the cofferdams with water and for draining them. Where the boundary of a slop tank is
the cargo pump-room bulkhead, the pump-room shall not be open to the double bottom, pipe
tunnel or other enclosed space; however, openings provided with gastight bolted covers may
be permitted.

2. Means shall be provided for isolating the piping connecting the pump-room with the slop
tanks referred to in paragraph 4.1. The means of isolation shall consist of a valve followed by a
spectacle flange or a spool piece with appropriate blank flanges. This arrangement shall be
located adjacent to the slop tanks, but where this is unreasonable or impracticable it may be
located within the pump-room directly after the piping penetrates the bulkhead. A separate
pumping and piping arrangement incorporating a manifold shall be provided for discharging the
contents of the slop tanks direct to the open deck for disposal to shore reception facilities when
the ship is in the dry cargo mode.

3. Hatches and tank cleaning opening to slop tanks shall only be permitted on the open deck
and shall be fitted with closing arrangements. Except where they consist of bolted plates with
bolts at watertight spacing, these closing arrangements shall be provided with locking
arrangements which shall be under the control of the responsible ships officer.

4. Where cargo wing tanks are provided, cargo oil lines below deck shall be installed inside these
tanks. However, the Administation may permit cargo oil lines to be placed in special ducts
which shall be capable of being adequately cleaned and ventilated and be to the satisfaction of
the Administration. Where cargo wing tanks are not provided cargo oil lines below deak shall
be placed in special ducts;.

121
Where the fitting of a navigation position above the cargo area is shown to be necessary, it shall
be for navigation purposes only and it shall be separated form the cargo tank deck by means of
an open space., with a height of at least 2m.The fire protection of which a navigation position
shall in addition be as required for control spaces in regulation 58.1 and 58.2 and other
provisions, as applicable, of this part.

Means shall be provided to keep deck spills away form the accommodation and service .areas.
This may be accomplished by provision of a permanent continuous coaming of a suitable height
extending from side to side. Special consideration shall be given to the arrangements
associated with stern loading.

Exterior boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses enclosing accommodation and including


any overhanging decks which support such accommodation, shall be insulated to "A
- 60" standard for the whole of the portions which face the cargo area and for 3m from the end
boundary facing the cargo area. In the case of the sides of those superstructures and
deckhouses such insulation shall be carried as high as is deemed necessary by the
Administration.

8.1. Except, as permitted in paragraph 8.2 below, access doors, air inlets and openings to
accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations and machinery spaces shall not
face the cargo area. They shall be located on the transverse bulkhead not facing the cargo
area or on the outboard side of the superstructure or deckhouse at a distance of at least 4%
of the length of the ship but not less than 3m from the end of the superstructure or
deckhouse facing the cargo area. This distance need not exceed 5m.

8.2 The Administration may permit access doors in boundary bulkheads facing the cargo area or
within the 5m limits specified in paragraph 8.1, to main cargo control stations and to such
service spaces as provision rooms, store-rooms and lockers, provided they do not give
access directly or indirectly to any other space containing or provided for accommodation,
control stations or service spaces such as galleys, pantries or workshops, or similar spaces
containing sources of vapour ignition. The boundary of a such a space shall be insulated to
"A-60" standard with the exception of the boundary facing the cargo area. Bolted plates for
removal of machinery may be fitted within the limits specified in paragraph 8.1. Wheelhouse
doors and wheelhouse windows may be located within the limited specified in paragraph 8.1
so long as they are designed to ensure that the wheelhouse can be made rapidly and
efficiently gas and vapour tight.

8.3 Windows and sides cuttles facing the cargo area and on the sides of the superstructures and
deckhouses within the limit specified in paragraph 8.1 shall be of the fixed (nonopening)
type. Such windows and sides culltes in the first tier on the main deck shall be fitted, with
inside covers of steel or other equivalent material.

Regulation 57
Structure. Bulkneads within Accommodation and Service Spaces and details of Construction
1. For the application of the requirements of regulations 42,43 and 50 to tankers only method IC as
defined in regulation 42.5.1 shall be used.
2. Skylights to cargo pump-rooms shall be of steel, shall not contain any glass and shall be
capable of being closed from outside the pump-room.
Regulation 58
Fire Integrity of Bulkheads andDecks

(Paragraphs 2.2 (5) and 2.2 (9) of thisregulation apply to ships constructed onor after 1 February
1992)
1. In lieu of regulation 44 and in addition to complying with thespecific provision for fire
integrity of bulkheads and decks mentioned elsewhere in this part, the minimum fire

122
integrity of bulkheads and decks shall be as prescribed in tables 58.1 and 58.2.

2. Thefollowing requirements shall govern application of the tables*:

TABLES 58.1 - FIRE INTEGRITY OF BULKHEADS SEPARATING ADJACENT SPACES

Spaces (1) (2) (3). (4) '(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (1
0)
Control Stations (1) A-0 A-60 A-0 A-15 A-60 A-15 A-60 A-60 *

Corridors (2) C B-0


B-0
B-0 A-60 A-0 A-60 A-0 *

A-0
a

Accommodation (3) C B-0 B-0 A-60 A-0 A-60 A-0


A-0
a

Stairways (4) B-0 B-0


A-60 A-0 A-60 A-0 *

A-0 A-0
a a

Service Spaces (5) C A-60 A-0 A-60 A-0 *


(Low Risk) I
d

Machinery Spaces (6) A-0 A-0 A-60 *


of Category A

b
Other Machinery (7) A-0 A-0 A-0 *
Spaces
Cargo Pump-Room (8) * A-60 *

* b
Service Spaces High (9) A-0 *
Risk

Open Decks (10)

Notes: To be applied to tables 58.1 and 58.2 as appropriate.


For clarification as to which applies see regulations 43 and 16 of this chapter. Where spaces
are of the same numerical category and superscript be appears bulkhead or deck of the rating
shown in the tables is only required when the adjacent spaces are for a different purpose, e.g.
in category (9). A galley next to a galley does not
require a bulkhead but a galley next to a paint room required an "A-0" bulkhead. Bullheads
separating the wheelhouse, chartroom and radio room from each other may be"B-0" rating.
Bulkheads and decks between cargo pump-rooms and machinery spaces of category A may
be penetrated by cargo pump shaft glands and similar glanded penetrations provided that
gaslight seals with efficient lubrication or other means of ensuring the permanence of the gas
seal are fitted in way of the bulkhead or deck.
Fire insolation need not be fitted if the machinery space in category (7), in the opinion of the
Administration has little or no fire risk.

123
Where an asterisk appears in the tables the division is required to be of steel or outer
equivalent material but is not required to be a "A" class standard.
1. Tables 58.1 and 58.2 shall apply respectively to the bulkhead and decks separating
adjacent spaces.
2. For determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to divisions between
adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in categories
(1) to (10) below. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The
number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row in the
tables.
(1) Control Stations
Space containing emergency sources of power a lighting.

TABLE 58.2 - FIRE INTEGRITY OF DECKS SEPARATING ADJACENT SPACES.


Speces space (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (3) (9) (10)

Below above

Control Stations (1) A-0 A-0 A-0 A-0 A-60 A-0 - A-0 *

Corridors (2) A-0 * * A-0 * A-60 A-0 - A-0 *

Accommodation (3) . A-60 A-0. •• A-0 * A-60 A-0 - A-0 •


Spaces
Stairways (4) A-0 A-0 A-0 * A-0 A-60 A-0 - A-0 *
(5) A-15 A-0 A-0 * A-60 A-0 - A-0 * -
Service Spaces
(Low Risk)
A-60 A-60 A-60 A- A-60 ♦
A- A-0 A- *
Machinery Spaces (6) of 60 60 60
e
Category A

Other Machinery (7) A-15 A-0 A-0. A-0 A-0 A-0 « A-0 A-0 *
Spaces

Cargo Pump-Room (8) _ _ . T|It d A-0 •


. *

A-0

Service Spaces (9) . A-60 A-0 A-0 A-0. A-60 A-0 - b *


A-0
(High Risk)

Open Decks (10) .* * * * * * * tr * ♦

See notes under table 58.1.


1) Wheelhouseandchartroom,
Spaces containing the ship's radio equipment.
Fire-extinguishing rooms, tire control rooms and fire-recording stations.
Control room for propulsion machinery when located outside the machinery space.
Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.
(2) Corridors Corridors and
lobbies.
(3) Accommodation spaces
• Spaces as defined in regulation 3.10 excluding corridors.
(4) Stairways
Interior stairways, lifts and escalator (other than those wholly contained within the
machinery spaces) and enclosures thereto.
In this connection, a stairway which is enclosed only at one level shall be regarded as

124
part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.
(5) Service spaces (Low Risk)
Lockers and store-rooms not having provisions for the storage of flammable liquids and
having areas of less than 4m2 drying rooms and laundries.
(6) Machinery spaces of category A Spaces a‘s
defined in regulation 3.19.
(7) Other machinery spaces
Spaces as defined in regulation 3.20 excluding machinery spaces of category A.
(8) Cargo pump-rooms
Spaces containing cargo pumps and entrances and trunks to such spaces.
(9) Service spaces (High Risk)
Galleys, pantries containing cooking appliances, paint and lamp rooms, lockers and
store-rooms having an area of 4m2 or more, spaces for the storage of flammable liquids
and workshops other than those forming part of the machinery spaces.
(10) Open decks
Open decks spaces and enclosed promenades having no fire risk. Air spaces (the space
outside superstructures and deckhouses).
3. Continuous "B" class ceilings or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads,
may be accepted as contributing, wholly or in part, to the required insulation and integrity of a
division.
4. External bounderies which are required in regulation 57.1 to be of steel or other equivalent
material may *be pierced for the fitting of windows and sidescuttles provided that there is no
requirements for such boundaries to have "A" class integrity elsewhere in this part. Similarly, in
such boundaries which are not required to have "A" class integrity, doors may be of materials
to the satisfaction of the Administration.

5. Permanent approved gastight lighting enclosures for illuminating cargo pump-rooms may be
permitted in bulkheads and decks separating cargo pump-rooms and other spaces provided
they are of adequate strength and the integrity and gastightness of the bulkhead or deck is
maintained.
Venting. Purging. Gas-Freeing and Ventilation
Paragraph 2 of this regulation applies to ships constructed on or after 1 February 1992) Cargo
TankVenting
1.1 The venting systems of cargo tanks are to be entirely distinct from the air pipes of the
other compartment of the ship. The arrangements and position of openings in the cargo
tank deck from which emission of flammable vapours can occur shall be such as to
minimize the possibility of flammable vapours being admitted to enclosed spaces
containing a source of ignition or collecting in the vicinity of deck machinery and
equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard. In accordance-with this general
principle the criteria in paragraphs 1.2 to 1.10 will apply.

1.2 The venting arrangements shall be so designed and operated as to ensure that neither
pressure nor vacuum in cargo tanks shall exceed design parameters and be such as to
provide for :

1. the flow of the small volumes of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures caused by thermal
variations in a cargo tank in all cases through pressure/vacuum valves; and

2. the passage of large volumes of vapour, air or inert gas mixtures during cargo loading
and ballasting, or during discharging.

125
1.3. The venting arrangements in each cargo, tank may be independent or combined with
other cargo tanks and may be incorporated into the inert gas piping. Where the
arrangements are combined with other cargo tanks, either stop valves or other
acceptable means shall be provided isolate each cargo tank. Where stop valves are
• fitted, they shall be provided with locking arrangements which shall be under the control
of the responsible ship's officer. Any isolation must continue to permit the flow caused by
thermal variations in a cargo tank in accordance with paragraph 1.2.1

1.4 The venting arrangements shall be connected to the top of each cargo tank and shall be
self-draining to the cargo tank and shall be self-draining to the cargo tanks under all
normal conditions of trim and list of the ship. Where it may not be possible to provide self-
draining lines permanent arrangements shall be provided to drain the vent lines to a
cargo tank.

1.5 The venting system shall be provided with devices to prevent the passage of flame into
the cargo tanks. The design, testing and locating of these devices shall comply with the
requirements established by the Administration which shall contain at least the standards
adopted by the Organization. *

Refer to the Revised standards for the design, testing and locating of devices to prevent the
passage of flame into cargo tanks in oil tankers, adopted by the Maritime
• Safety Committee at its fifty-fifth session (MSC/Circ. 373/Rev. I), and to MSC/Circ.
450/Rev. 1. Revised factors to be taken into consideration when designing cargo tank
venting and gas-freeing arrangements.

126
1.6 Provision shall be made to guard against liquid rising in the venting system to
a height which would exceed the design head of cargo tanks.This shall be accomplished by
high-level alarms or' overflow control system or other equivalent means, together with
gauging devices and cargo tank filling procedures.

1.7 Openings for pressure release required by paragraph 1. 2. 1 shall :


1. have as great a height as is practicable above the cargo tank deck to obtain
maximum dispersal of flammable vapours but in no case less than 2m above the'cargo tank
deck ;

2. be arranged at the furthest distance practicable but not less than 5m from the nearest air
intakes and opening to enclosed spaces containing a sources of ignition and from deck
machinery and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard.

1.8 Presure / vacum valves required by paragraph 1. 2. 1 may be provided with


a by-pass arrangement when they are located in a vent main or masthead riser. Where such
an arrangement is provided there shall be suitable indicator to show whether the by-pass is
open or closed.

1.9 Vent outlets for cargo loading, discharging and ballasting required by paragraph
1. 2. 2 shall :

1.1 permit the free flow of vapour mixtures; or


1.2 Permit the throttling of the discharge of the vapour mixture to achieve a velocity of not
less that 30m/sec;

.2 be so arranged that the vapour mixture is discharged vertically upwards.


.3 where the method in by free flow of vapour mixtures, be such that the outlet shall be not
less that 6m above the cargo tank deck or fore and aft gangway if situated within 4m of the
gangway and located not less than 10m measured horizontally from the nearest air intakes
and opening to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition and from deck machinery and
equipment when may constitute an ignition hazard.

.4 where the method is by high velocity discharge, be located at a height not less than 2m
above the cargo tank deck and not less than 10m measured horizontally from the nearest air
intakes and openings to enclosed spaces containing a source of ignition and from deck
machinery and equipment which may constitute an ignition hazard. These outlets shall be
provided with high velocity devices of an approved type;

.5 be designed on the basis of the maximum designed loading rate multiplied by a factor of at
least 1.25 to take account of gas evolution, in order to prevent the pressure in any cargo tank
from exceeding the design pressure. The master shall be provided with information regarding
the maximum permissible loading rate of cargo tanks.

1.10 In combination carriers, the arrangement to isolate slop tanks containing oil or oil residues
from the other cargo tanks shall consist of blank flanges which will remain in position at all
times when cargoes other than liquid cargoes referred to in regulation 55.1 are carried.

127
CargoTank Purging and/or Gas-Freeing*
Refer to the Revised standards for the design, testing and locating of devices to prevent the
passage of flame into cargo tanks in oil tankers, (MSC/Circ. 373/ Rev.1) and to the Revised
factors to be taken into, consideration when designing cargo tank venting and gas-freeing
arrangements (MSC/Circ. 450/Rev. 1)
Arrangements for purging and / or gas freeing shall be such as to minimize the hazard due to the
dispersal of flammable vapours in the atmosphere and to flammable mixture in a cargo tank.
Accordingly :
.1 When the ship is provided with an inert gas system the cargo tanks shall first be purged in
accordance with the provisions of regulation 62.13 until the concentration of hydrocarbon
vapours in the cargo tanks has been reduced to less than 2% by volume. Thereafter, gas-
freeing may be at the cargo tank deck level.
.2 When the ship is not provided with an inert gas system, the operation shall be such that
the flammable'vapour is initially discharged :
.2.1 through the vent outlets as specified in paragraph 1.9; or
.2.2 through outlets at least 2m above the cargo tank deck level with a vertical efflux velocity
of at least 30m/s maintained during the gas-freeing operation; or
.2.3through outlets as least 2m above the cargo tank deck level with a vertical efflux velocity
of at least 20m/s and which are protected by suitable devices to prevent the passage of
flame.
When the flammable.vapour concentration in the outlet has been reduced to 30% of the lower
flammable limit the discharge of the vapour mixture may be at the cargo tank deck level.
Ventilation
3.1 Cargo pump-room shall be machanically ventilated and discharges from the exhaust fans
shall be led to a safe place on the open deck. The ventilation of these rooms shall have
sufficient capacity to minimize the possibility of accumulation of flammable vapours. The
number of changes of air shall be at least 20 per hour, based upon the gross volume of the
space. The air ducts shall be arranged so that all of the space is effectively ventilated. The
ventilation shall be of the suction type using fans of the non-sparking type.
3.2 The arrangement of ventilation inlets and outlet other deckhouse and superstructure
boundary space openings shall be such as to complement the provisions openings shall be
such as to complement the provisions of paragraph 1. Such vents, especially for machinery
spaces, shall be situated as far aft as practicable. Due consideration in this regard should be
given when the ship is equipped to load or discharge at the stern. Sources of ignition such as
electrical equipment shall be so arranged as to avoid an explosion hazard.
3.3 In combination carriers all cargo spaces and any enclosed spaces adjacent to cargo spaces
shall be capable of being mechanically ventilated. The mechanical ventilation may be
provided by portable fans. An approved fixed gas warning system capable of monitoring
flammable vapours shall be provided in cargo pump-rooms and pipe ducts and cofferdams
referred to in regulation 56.4 adjacent to slop tanks. Suitable arrangements shall be made to
facilitate measurement of flammable vapours in all other spaces within the cargo area. Such
measurements shall be made possible from open deck or easily accessible positions.

128
Regulation 60
Cargo Tank Preiection
1. For tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards the protection of the cargo tanks
deck area and cargo tanks shall be achieved by a fixed deck foam system and a
fixed inert gas system in accordance with the requirements of regulations 61 and 62,
except that, in lieu of the above installations, the Administration, after having given
consideration to the ship's arrangement and equipment, any accept other combinations of
fixed installations if they afford protection equiveient to the above, in accordance with
regulation I/5.
2. To be considered equivalent, the system proposed in lieu of the deck foam system shall :
1. be capable of extinguishing spill fires and also, preclude ignition of spilled oil not
ignited; and
2. be capable of combating fires in ruptured tanks.
3. To be considered equivalent, the system proposed in lieu of the fixed inert gas system
shall :
1. be capable of preventing dangerous accumulations of explosive mixtures in intact cargo
tanks during normal service throughtout the ballast voyage and necessary in-tank
operations ; and
2. be so designed as to minimize the risk of ignition from the generation of static
electricity by the sytem itself.
4. Tankers of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards constructed before 1 September 1984
which are engaged in the trade or carrying crude oil shall be fitted with an inert gas system,
complying with the requirements of paragraph 1, notlaterthan.
1. for a tanker of 70,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards September 1984 or the date of
delivery of the ship, whichever occurs later ;and
2. for a tanker of less than 70,000 tonnes deadweight I May 1985 or the date of delivery of
the ship, whichever occurs later except that for tankers of less that 40,000 tonnes
deadweight not fitted with tank washing machine having an individual through put of
greater the 60rrfVhour the Administration may exempt such tanker from the
requirements of this paragraph, if it would be unreasonable and impracticable to apply
them requirements, taking into account the ship's designe characteristics.
5. Tankers of 40,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards constructed before 1 September 1984
which are engaged in the trade carrying oil other than crude oil and any such tanker 20,000
tonnes deadweight and upward engaged in the trade of carrying oil other than crude oil fitted
with tank washing machines having an individual throughput of greater than 60m3//h shall be
fitted with an inert gas system, complying with the requiremetns of paragraph 1, notlaterthan :
.1 for a tanker 70,000 tonnes deadweight and upwards 1 September 1984 or the date
of delivery of the ship, whichever occurs later ; and •
.2 fora tanker of less than 70,000 tonnes deadweight 1 May, 1985 or the date of delivery
ofthe ship, whichever occurs later.
6. All tankers operating with a cargo tank cleaning procedure using crude oil washing shall be
fitted with an inert gas system complying with the requirements of regulation 62 and with
fixed tank washing machines.
7. Ail tankers fitted with a fixed inert system shall be provided with a closed ullage system.
8. Tankers of less than 20,000 tonnes deadweight shall be provided with a deck foam
system complying with the requirements of regulation 61.

129
Regulation 61
Fixed Deck Foam Systems

1. The arrangements for providing foam shall be capable of delivering foam to the entire
cargo tanks deck areas as well as into any cargo tank, the deck of which has been ruptured.
2. The deck foam system shall be capable of simple and rapid operation . The main control
station for the system shall be suitably located outside the cargo area, adjacent to
the accommodation spaces and readily accessible and operable the event of fire in the areas
protected.
3. The rate of supply of foam solution shall be not less than greatest of the following:
.1 0.61 /min per square metre of cargo tanks deck area, here cargo tanks decks area
means the maximum breadth of the ship multiplied by the total longitudinal extent of the
cargo tank spaces:
.2 6l/min per square metre or he horizontal sectional area of the single tank having
the largest such area; or
.3 3i/min per square metre of the area protected by the largest monitor, such area
being entirely forward of the monitor, but not less than 1250 L/min.
14. Sufficent foam concentrate shall be supplied to ensure at least 20 min of foam generation
in.tankers fitted with an inert gas installation or 30 min of foam generation in tankers not fitted
with an inert gas installation when using solution rates stipulated in paragraphs 3.1,
3.2 or 3.3, whichever is the greatest. The foam expansion ratio (i.e. the ratio of the volume of
foam produced to the volume of the mixture of water and foam-making concentrate supplied)
shall not generally exceed 12 to 1. Where systems essentially produced low expansion foam
but an expansion ratio slightly in excess of 12 to 1', the quantity of foam solution available
shall be calculated as or 12 to 1 the quantity of foam solution available shall be calculated as
for 12 to 1 expansion ratio systems. When medium-expansion ratio foam (between 50 to 1
and 150 to 1 expansion ratio) is employed, the application rate of the foam an the capacity of
a monitor installation shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.
5. Foam from the fixed system shall be supplied by means of monitors and foam applicators. At
least 50% of the foam solution supply rate required in paragraphs 3.1. and 3.2 shall be
delivered from each monitor. On tankers of less than 4.000 tonnes deadweight the
administration may not require instllation of monitors but only applicator. However, in such a
case the capacity of each applicator shall be at least 25% of the foam solution supply rate
required in paragraphs 3.1 or 3.2.
6.1 The number and position of monitors shall be such as to comply with paragraph
1. The capacity of any monitor shall be at least >3 Lt /min of foam solution per square metre of
deck are protected by that monitor such area being entirely forward of he monitor. Such
capacity shall be not less than 1250L/min.
6.2 The distance from the monitor to the farthest extremity of the protected area forward of
that monitor shall not be more than 75% of the monitor throw in still air conditions.
7. A monitor and hose connection for a foam applicator shall be situated both port and starboard at
the front of the poop or accommodation spaces facing the cargo tanks deck. On tankers of less
than 4,000 tonnes deadweight a hose connection for a foam applicator shall be suituated both
port and starboard at the front of the poop or accommodation spaces facing the cargo tanks
deck.
8. Applicators shall be provided to ensure flexibility of action during fire fighting operations and to
cover areas screened from the monitors. The capacity of any applicator shall be not less than

130
400 L/min and the applicator throw in still air conditions shall be not less than 15m. The number
of foam applicators provided shall not be less than four. The number and disposition of foam
main outlets shall be such that foam from at least two applicators can be directed on to any part
of the cargo tanks deck area.
9. Valves shall be provided in the foam main, and in the fire main when this is an integral part of
the deck foam .system, immediately forward of any monitor position to isolate damaged
sections of those mains.
10. Operation of a deck foam system at its required output shall permit the simultaneous
use of the minimum required number of jets of water at the required number of jets of water at
the required pressure from the fire main.
Regulation 62 v
Inert Gas Systems
(Paragraphs 19.1 and 19.2 of this regulation apply to ships constructed on or after 1 February 1992)
1. The inert gas system referred to in regulation 60 shall be designed, constructed and tested to
the satisfaction of the Administration. It shall be so designed* and operated as to render and
maintain the atmosphere of the cargo tanks* * non-flammable at all times, except when such
tanks are required to be gas free. In the event that the inert gas system ; is unable to meet the
operational requirement set out above and it has been assessed that it is impractical to effect a
repair, then cargo discharge, deballasting and necessary tank cleaning shall only be resumed
when the "emergency conditions" laid down in the Guidelines on Inert Gas System are
complied with.
Refer to MSC/Circ. 450/Rev. 1 : Revised factors to be taken into consideration when
designing cargo tank venting and gas-freeing arrangements, MSC/Circ. 485: Clarification of
inert gas system requirement under SOLAS 1974, as amended, and to MSC/Circ. 387 :
Revised Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems.
2, The system shall be capable of :
.1 inerting empty cargo tanks by reducing the oxygen content of the atmosphere in each tank to
a level at which combustion cannot be supported ;
.2 maintaining the atmosphere in any part of any cargo tank with an oxygen content not
exceeding 8% by volume and at a positive pressure at all times in port and at sea except when
it is necessary for such a tank to be gas free ;
.3 eliminating the need for air to enter a tank during normal operation except when it is
necessary for such a tank to be gas free ;
.4 purging empty cargo tanks of a hydrocarbon gas, so that subsequent gas freeing operations
will at no time create a flammable atmosphere wiihin the tank.
3.1 The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas to the cargo tanks at a rate of at least
125% of the maximum rate of discharge capacity of the ship expressed as a volume.
.2 The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas with an oxygen content of not more
than 5% by volume in the inert gas supply main to the cargo tanks at any required rate of
flow.
The inert gas supply may be treated flue gas from main or auxiliary boilers. The administration may
accept systems using flue gases from one or more separate gas generators or other sources or
any combination thereof, provided that an equivalent standard of safety is achieved. Such systems
should, as far as practicable, comply with the requirements of this regulation. Systems using stored
carbon dioxide shall not be permitted unless the administration is satisfied that the risk of ignition
from generation of static electricity by the system itself is minimized.

131
Flue gas isolating valves shall be fitted in the inert gas supply mains between the boiler uptakes
and the flue gas scrubber. These valves shall be provided with indicators to show whether they are
open or shut, and precautions shall be taken to maintain them gastight and keep the seatrings k
clear of soot. Arrangements shall be made to ensure that boiler soot blowers cannot be operated
when the corresponding flue gas valve is open.
6.1 A flue gas scrubber shall be fitted which will effectively cool the volume of gas specified in
paragraph 3 and remove solids and sulphur combustion products. The cooling water
arrangements shall be such that an adequate supply of water will always be available without
interfering with any essential sen/ices on the ship. Provision shall also be made for an
alternative supply of cooling water.
6.2 Filters or equivalent devices shall be fitted to minimize the amount of water carried over to the
inert gas blowers.
6.3 The scrubber shall be located aft of all cargo tanks cargo pump-rooms and cofferdams
separating these spaces from machinery spaces of category A.
7.1 At least two blowers shall be fitted which together shall be capable of delivering to the cargo
tank at least the volume of gas required by paragraph 3. In the system with gas generator
the Administration may permit only one blower that system is capable of delivering the total
volume of gas required by paragraph 3 to the protected cargo tanks, provided that sufficient
spares for the blower and its prime mover are carried on board to enable any failure of the
blower and its prime. Mover to be rectified by the ship's crew.
7.2 Two fuel oil pumps shall be fitted to the inert gas generator. The administration may permit
only one fuel oil pump on condition that sufficient spares for the fuel oil pump and its prime
mover are carried on board to enable any failure of the fuel oil pump and its prime mover to
be rectified by the ship's crew.
7.3 The inert gas system shall be so designed that the maximum pressure which it can exert on
any cargo tank will not exceed the test pressure of any cargo tank. Suitable shutoff
arrangements shall be provided on the suction and discharge connections of each blower.
Arrangements shall be provided to enable the functioning of the inert gas plant to be
stabilized before commencing cargo discharge. If the blowers are to be used for gas-
freeing, their air inlets shall be provided with blanking arrangements.
7.4 The blowers shall be located aft of all cargo tanks, cargo pump rooms and cofferdams
separating these spaces from machinery spaces of category A.
8.1 Special consideration shall be given to the design and location of scrubber and blowers with
relevant piping and fittings in orderto prevent flue gas leakages into enclosed spaces.
Specialised Training Programme on Oil Tanker Operations
8.2 To permit sate maintenance, an additional water seal or other effective means of preventing flue
gas leakage shall be fitted between the flue gas isolating valves and scrubber or incorporated
in the gas entry lo the scrubber.
9.1 A gas regulating valve shall be fitted in the inert gas supply main. This valve shall be
automatically controlled to close as required in paragraphs 19.3 and 19.4. It shall also be
capable of automatically regulating the flow of inert gas to the cargo tanks unless means are
provided to automatically control the speed of the inert gas blowers required in paragraph 7.
92 The valve referred to in paragraph 9.1 shall be located at the forward bulkhead of the
forwardmost gas-safe space* through which the inert gas supply main passes.
* A gas-safo space is a space in which the entry of hydrocarbon gases would produce
hazards with regard to flammability or toxicity,
10.1 At least two non return devices one of which shall be a water seal, shall be fitted in the inert
gas supply main, in order to prevent the return of hydrocarbon vapour to the machinery space

132
uptakes or to any gas-safe spaces under all normal conditions of.trim, list and motion of the
ship. They shall be located between the automatic valve required be paragraph 9.1 and the
aftermost connection to any cargo tank or cargo pipeline.
10.2 The devices referred to in paragraph 10.1 shall be located in the cargo area on deck.
10.3 The water seal referred to in paragraph 10.1 shall be capable of being supplied by two
separate pumps, each of which shall be capable of maintaining an adequate supply at all
times.
10.4 The arrangement of the seal and its associated fittings shall be such that it will ensure the
proper functioning of the seal under operating conditions.

10.5 provision shall be made to ensure that the water seal is protected against freezing in such a
way that the integrity of seal is not impaired by overheating.
10.6 A water loop or other approved arrangement shall also be fitted to each associated water
supply and drain pipe and each venting or pressure-sensing pipe leading to gas-safe spaces.
Means shall be provided to prevent such loops from being emptied by vacuum.
10.7 The deck water *seal and all loop arrangements shall be capable of preventing return of
hydrocarbon vapours at a pressure equal to the test pressure of the cargo tanks.
10.8 The second device shall be a non return valve or equivalent capable of preventing the return
of vapours or liquids and fitted forward of the deck water seal required in paragraph 10.1. It
shall be provided with positive means of closure. As an alternative to positive means of
ctosure, an additional valve having such means of closure may be provided forward of the non
return valve to isolate the deck water seal from the inert gas main to the cargo tanks.
10.9 As an additional safeguard against the possible leakage of hydrocarbon liquids or vapours
back from the deck main, means shall be provided permit this section of the line between the
valve having positive means of closure referred to in paragraph 10.8 and the valve referred to
in paragraph 9 to be vented in a safe manner when the first of these valves is closed.
11.1 The inert gas main may be divided into two or more branches forward of the non return
devices required by paragraph 10.
11.2.1 The inert gas supply main shall be fitted with branch piping leading to each cargo tank.
Branch piping for inert gas shall be fitted with either stop valves or equivalent means of
control for isolating each tank. Where stop valves are fitted, they shall be provided
with locking arrangements, which shall be under the control of responsible ship's
officer.
11.2.2 In combination carriers, the arrangement to isolate the slop tanks containing oil or oil
residues frdm other tanks shall consist of blank flanges which will remain in position at
all times when cargoes other than oil are being carried except as provided for in the
relevantsection of the Guidelines on Inert Gas Systems.
1.3 Means shall be provided to protect cargo tanks against the effect of overpressure on vacuum
caused by thermal variations when the cargo tanks are isolated from the inert gas mains.
1.4 Piping systems shall be so designed as to prevent the accumulation of cargo or water in the
pipelines under all normal conditions.
1.5 Suitable arrangements shall be provided to enable the inert gas main to be connected to an
external supply of inert gas.
12. The arrangements for the venting of all vapours displaced from the cargo tanks during
loading and ballasting shall comply with regulation 59.1 and shall consist of either one or
more mast risers, or a number of high-velocity vents. The inert gas supply mains may be
used for such venting.
13. The arrangements for inerting, purging or gas-freeing of empty tanks as required in
paragraph 2 shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration and shall be such that the
accumulation, of hydrocarbon vapours in pockets formed by the internal structural members
in a tank is minimized and that:
.1 on individual cargo tanks the gas outlet pipe, if fitted, shall be positioned as far as
133
practicable from the inert gas/air inlet and in accordance with regulation 59.1. The
inlet of such outlet pipes may be located either at deck level or at not more than 1 m
above the bottom of the tank;
.2 the cross-sectional area of such gas outlet pipe referred to in paragraph 13.1 shall
be such that an exit velocity of at least 20m/s can be maintained when any three
tanks are being simultaneously supplied with inert gas. Their outlets shall extend not
less then 2m above deck level;
.3 each gas outlet referred to in paragraph 13.2 shall be fitted with suitable blanking
arrangements;
4.1 if a connection is fitted between the inert gas supply mains and the cargo piping
system arrangements shall be made to ensure an effective isolation having regard to
the large pressure difference which may exist between the systems. This shall
consist of two shutoff valves with an arrangement to vent the space between the
valves in a safe manner or an arrangement consisting of a spool piece with
associated blanks;
.4.2 the valve separating the inert gas supply main from the cargo main and which is on the cargo
main side shall be a nonreturn valve with a positive means of closure.

1.1 One or more pressure/vacuum-breaking device shall be provided to prevent the cargo tanks
from being subject to:
.1 a positive pressure in excess of the test pressure of the cargo tank if the cargo were to be
loaded at the maximum rated capacity and all other outlets are left shut; and
.2 a negative pressure in excess of 700mm water gauge if cargo are to be discharged at the
maximum rated capacity of the cargo pumps and the inert gas blowers were to fail.
Such devices shall be installed on the inert gas main unless they are installed in the venting
system required by regulation 59.1.1 or an individual cargo tanks. «
14.2 The location and design of the devices referred to in paragraph 14.1 shall be in accordance
with regulation 59.1.1
15. Means shall be provided for continuously indicating the temperature and pressure of the inert
gas atthe discharge side of the gas blowers, whenever the gas blowers are operating.
16.1 Instrumentation shall be fitted for continuously indicating and permanently recording, when the
inert gas is being supplied:
.1 the pressure of the inert gas supply mains forward of the nonreturn
devices required by paragraph 10.1; and

.2 the oxygen content of the inert in the inert gas supply mains on the
discharge side of the gas blowers.

16.2 The devices referred to in paragraph 16.1 shall be placed in the cargo control room where
provided. But where no cargo control room is provided, they shall be placed in a position
easily accessible to the officer in charge of cargo operations.

16.3 In addition, meters shall be fitted:


.1 in the navigating bridge to indicate at all times the pressure referred to in
paragraph 16.1.1 and the pressure in the slop tanks are isolated from the inert gas
supply main and;

.2 in the machinery control room or in the machinery space to indicate the oxygen
content referred to in paragraph 16.1.2.

17. Portable instruments of measuring oxygen and flammable vapour concentration shall be
134
provided. In addition, suitable arrangement shall be made on each cargo tank such that the
condition of the tank atmosphere can be determined using these portable instruments.

18. Suitable means shall be provided for the zero and span calibration of both fixed and portable
gas concentration measurement instruments, referred to in paragraphs 16 and 17.

19.1 For inert gas systems of both the flue gas type and the inert gas generator type, audible
and visual alarms shall be provided to indicate:

.1 low water pressure or low water flow rate to the flue gas scrubber as referred to in
paragraph 6.1;

.2 high water level in the flue gas scrubber as referred to in paragraph 6.1;

.3 high gas temperature as referred to in paragraph 15;

.4 failure of the inert gas blowers referred to in paragraph 7;

.5 oxygen Content in excess of 8% by volume as referred to in paragraph 16.1.2;


.6 failure of the power supply to the automatic control system for the gas regulating
valve and to the indicating devices as referred to in paragraph 9 and 16.1;

.7 low water level in the water seal as referred to in paragraph 10.1;


.8 gas pressure less than 100mm water gauge as referred to in
paragraph 16.1.1. The alarm, arrangement shall be such as toensure that the
pressure in slop tanks in combination carriers can be monitored at all times; and

.9 high gas pressure as referred to in paragraph 16.1.1.

135
19.2 For inert gas system of the inert gas generators type, audible and visual alarms shall be
provided to indicate:
.1 insufficient fuel oil supply;
.2 failure of the power supply to the generator;
.3 failure of the power supply to the automatic control system for the generator.
9.3 Automatic shutdown of. the inert gas blowers and gas regulating valve shall be arranged on
predetermined limits being reached in respect of paragraphs 19.1.1, 19.1.2, and
19.1.3.
19.4 Automatic shutdown of the gas regulating valve shall be arranged in respect of paragraphs
19.1.4.
19.5 In respect of paragraph 19.1.5, when oxygen content of the inert gas exceeds 8% by volume,
immediate action shall be taken to improve the gas quality. Unless the quality o f the gas
improves, all cargo tank operation shall be suspended so as to avoid air being drawn into the
tanks and the isolation valve referred to in paragraph 10.8 shall be closed.
19.6 The alarms required in paragraphs 19.1.5,19.1.6 and 19.1.8 shall befitted in the machinery
space and cargo control room, where provided, but in each case in such a position that they
are immediately received by responsible members of the crew.
19.7 In respect of paragraph 19.1.7 the Administration shall be satisfied as to the maintenance of
the arrangements to permit the automatic formation of the water seal when the gas flow
ceases. The audible and visual alarm on the low level of water in the water seal shall operate
when the inert gas is not being supplied.
19.8 An audible alarm system independent of that required in paragraph 19.1.8 or automatic
shutdown of cargo pumps shall be provided to operate on predetermined limits of low
pressure in the inert gas mains being reached.
20. Tankers constructed before 1 September 1984 which are required to have an inert gas
system shall at least comply with the requirements of regulation 62 of chapter II-2 of the
International Convention for the safety of Life at Sea, 1974.* In additional they shall comply
with the requirements of this regulation, exceptthat:
The text as adopted by the International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea, 1974.
.1 inert gas systems fitted on board such tankers before June 1981 need not comply with the
following paragraphs:

3.2,6.3,7.4,8,9.2,10.2,10.7,10. and 19.8; ■


.2 inert gas systems fitted on board such tankers on or after 1 June 1981 need not comply
with the following paragraphs: 3.2,6.3,7.4,12,13.1,13.2, and 14.2.
21. Detailed instruction manuals shall be provided on board, covering the operations, safety and
maintenance requirements and occupational health hazards relevant to the inert gas system
and its application to the cargo tank system.** The manuals shall include guidance on
procedures to be followed in the event of a fault or failure of the inert gas system.
Refer to the Revised Guidelines for Inert Gas Systems, adopted by the Maritime safety
committee at its fortieth session in June 1983 (MSC/Circ. 353).

136
Regulation 63 Cargo
Pump-Rooms

1. Each cargo pump-room shall be provided with one of the following fixed fire-extinguishing
systems operated from a readily accessible position outside the pump-room. Cargo pump-
rooms should be provided with a system suitable for machinery spaces of category A.

1.1 Either a carbon dioxide or a halogenated hydrocarbon system complying with the
provisions of regulation 5 and with the following:
.1 alarms referred to in regulation 5,1.6 shall be safe for use in a flammable
cargo mixture;
.2 a notice shall be exhibited at the controls stating that due to the electrostatic
ignition hazard, the system is to be used only for fire extinguishing and not
for inerting purposes.
1.2 A high expansion foam system complying with the provision of regulation 9, provided that the
foam concentrate is suitable for extinguishing fires involving the cargoes carried.
1.3 A fixed pressure water spraying system complying with the provisions of regulation 10.
2. Where the extinguishing medium used is the cargo pump-room system in also used in
systems serving other spaces, the quantity of medium provided of its delivery rate need not
be more than the maximum required for the largest compartment.
APPENDIX - C
DEFINITIONS

137
1. ACIDITY OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS : (NEUTRALISATION VALUE)
(i) Total Acidity:
It is a measure of the combined organic and Inorganic acidity-
(ii) InorganicAcidity
(iii) OrganicAcidity
It is the acidity due-to organic acid constituents and is measured by deducting the
inorganic acidity from the total acidity.
Method:
For total acidity the sample is extracted with neutral alcohol and is then titrated with 0.1 N
alcoholic potash. The inorganic acidity is determined by extracting the sample with warm
water and titrating the extract with 0.1 N alkali.
Significance:
It is an indication of corrosive properties of the products.

2. ANILINE POINT:
Aniline Point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil is completely miscible with
an equal volume of aniline.
Method:
Equal volumes of the sample and aniline (5ml each) are heated or cooled with stirring in a
jackated test tube and temperature at which complete miscibility occurs is noted.
Significance:
High aniline point indicates that the fuel is highly paraffinic and hence has a high diesel
index and very good ignition quality. In case of aromatics the aniline point is low and
ignition quality poor.

3. ASH :
The ash from a sample is the percentage by weight of the inorganic residue left after
ignition of the sample under prescribed conditions.
Method:
Known amount of sample is ignited and the carbonaceous residue left is heated to 925 @
+25°C in a muffle furnace, cooled and weighed as ash.
Significance:
This gives an idea of the ash forming impurities in the oil, mostly metallic or inorganic
contaminants.

4. CALORIFIC VALUE
A weighed quantity of the sample is burned in Oxygen in a bomb calorimeter under
controlled conditions. The calorific valve is calculated from the weight of the sample and
the rise in temperatures. It can also be calculated from the formula.
Qv =12400-2100 d2
Where Qv = Calorific valve, gross Kcal/ gm
d = Density at 15°c Significance:
It is measure of the heat producing capacity of the fuel.
5. BURNING TEST 24 HRS.
The kerosene is burnt for 24hrs. in a specified lamp, the flame conforming to a specified size
and shape, At the end of the test period the consumption of kerosene and the amount of char
formed on the wick are measured, and a qualitative assessment made of the appearance of
the glass chimney.
Significance:
This method is intended to evaluate the burning properties of kerosene that may be used as an
illurninant fuel for cookers signal lamps etc,

138
6. CLOUD POINT: .
Cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud or haze of wax cystals appears at the bottom of
the test jar when the oil is cooled under prescribed conditions.
Significance:
It gives a rough idea of the temperature above which the oil can be safely handled without any
fear of congealing Or filter clogging.

7. COLD TEST : (FREEZING POINT)


The freezing point is the temperature at which crystals of hydrocarbons formed on cooling
disappear when the temperature of the fuel is allowed to rise.
Significance:
This method covers a procedure for the detection of separated solids in aviation reciprocating
Engine and Turbine Engine fuels at any temperature likely to be encountered during flight or on
the ground.

8. COLOUR :
This is determined either by Saybolt chronometer, Lovibond Tintometer or ASTM colorimeter. -
Significance:
It is an indication of the degree of refining of the products.

9. CARBON HYDROGEN RATIO :


Carbon hydrogen ratio can be calculated by the following formula.
74 + 15d
CH Ratio =
26 - 15d
Where d is sp. gr. at 15°C/15°C.'
10. CETANE NUMBER :
The Cetane Number of a diesel fuel is the percentage by volume of normal cetane in a blend
with hepta methylnonane that matches the ignition quality of the fuel when compared by this
method, This is always expressed as a whole number.
The Cetane Number is determined in a single cylinder CFR engine by comparing its ignition
quality with that of reference blends of known cetane number, The reference fuels used for this
purpose are normal, cetane (100 C.N) and hepta methyl nonane which has a cetane number of
45.
This is done by varying the compression ratio for the sample and each reference fuel to obtain
a fixed delay period that is the time interval between the start of injection and ignition.
Significance:
Cetane Number is the index of ignition quality of a fuel. High cetane number fuel will facilitate
easy starting of compression ignition engines and lessen engine roughness. In the absence of
an Engine, the cetane number can be roughly assessed by the formula, C.N.= 0.72 Diesel
Index x10. The above formula will not hold good when ignition improvers are added to the
diesel fuel . In such cases the engine testing will only give the true ignition quality of the fuel.
11. COPPER CORROSION TEST
A cleaned and smoothly polished copper strip is immersed in the sample. Which is then
maintained at the specified temperature for the specified length of time. This strip is removed
from the sample, washed with aromatic free petroleum spirit and diethyl either and examine for
evidence of etching pitting or discoloration. It is then compared with the ASTM copper strip
Corrosion standard.
Significance:
This test serves as a measure of possible difficulties with copper, brass or bronze parts of the
fuel system.
12. CARBON RESIDUE
Carbon residue can be defined as the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation and
pyrolysis of an oil and is intended to provide some indication of relative coke -forming
properties.
Method:
This can be determined either by (i) Conradson method or by (ii) Ramsbottom method.

139
(i) Conradson Method:
A Weighed quantity of sample is placed in crucible and subjected to destructive distillation The
residue undergoes cracking and coking reactions during a fixed period of severe heating. At the
end of the specified heating period the test crucible containing the carbonaceous residue is
cooled in a desiccator and weighed. The residue remaining is calculated as a percentage of the
original sample and reported as conradson carbon residue,
(ii) Ramsbottom Method:
The sample after being weighed into a special glass bulb having a capillary opening is placed in
a metal furnace maintained at 550°c. The sample is thus quickly heated to the point at which all
volatile matter is evaporated out of the bulb with or without decomposition while the heavier
residue remaining in the bulb undergoes cracking and coking reactions After a specified 20
minutes heating period the bulb is removed from the bath cooled in a desiccator and again
weighed. The residue remaining is calculated as a percentage of the original sample and
reported as Ramsbottom carbon residue.
Significance:
It gives an indication of the coke forming tendency of the fuel. The Board of Revenue utilises
this property for classification of fuels for excise duty purposes. It is also used in design
calculations of cokers.

13. DENSITY:
(i) Density of Solids and Liquids :
Is defined as the mass of the substance occupying unit volume at a stated temperature
(ii) Density of Gases:
The density of gaseous substances is defined as the mass substance occupying unit volum- at
a stated temperature and a stated pressure. When reporting the density of a gas, the units of
mass and volume used and the temperature and pressure of the determination must all be
explicitly stated, i.e. grams per litre at T° and P mm pressure.
Significance:
It is used for calculating the mass when volume of the bulk is known : (volume x Density =
Weight)

A.P.I. GRAVITY
A.P.I. Gravity (American Petroleum Institute Gravity) is an expression of the density or weight
of a unit volume of material Mathematically it is given by

Degree A.P.I. = ^ -131.5


Sp. Gr. at 60°F
Significance :
Weight is important in determining freight rates. Tanker cargoes and the power required in
pumping. Gravity or weight determines whether a product will sink or float in water or will
separate from water. API Gravity has importance over Sp. Gravity as it is a whole number and
hence easy to remember whereas the Sp. Gravity is in decimal.
14 DIESEL INDEX :
The diesel index is an indication of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. This determined by
calculation from the specific gravity and the aniline point of the sample. Although it is of the
same order as the cetane number, it may differ widely from it. Higher the diesel index, better is
the ignition quality. It is normally used as a guide to ignition quality of the diesel fuel in the
absence of an engine for testing cetane number. When ignition improvers are used to boost the
cetane number of the fuel, diesel index will not indicate any change and hence can not be
taken as a guide in place of cetane number. Mathematically diesel index is calculated as
follows
... Aniline Point °F x °API
Diesel Index .. ..............................................
100
15. DISTILLATION :
100 ml of the sample is distilled in a distillation flask under prescribed conditions, systematic

140
observations of temperatures against volume of recovery are made and from these data results
are calculated and reported.
Definitions :
(i) Initialing Boiling Point:
The thermometer reading observed at the instant the first drop of condensate falls from the
lower end of the condenser tube.
(ii) Final Boiling Point:
The maximum thermometer reading attained during the test, which usually occurs after the
evaporation of all liquid from the bottom of the flask.
(iii) Dry Point:
The thermometer reading which is observed at the instant the last drop of evaporates from the
lowest point in the flask. Any drops of films of liquid on the side of the flask or on the
thermometer disregarded. Dry points are normally noted for solvent and light napthas.
Significance:
Then ASTM distillation test provides a measure in terms of volatility of the relative proportions
of all the hydrocarbon components of a product.
Significance of this test varies from product to product. In case of crude oil, the ASTM
distillation data gives some idea of the fractions that could be collected below 300°C. If it is a
true boiling point distillation (TBP) the TBP curve reveals a lot of characteristics that are the
basis for the design of a refinery.
The 10%v distillation for motor spirit is an indication of the case with which the engine can be
started. It should be high enough to produce enough light ends for easy starting under normal
temperature conditions but not so high that vapour lock may be experienced. Good warm up
and acceleration properties can be assured by specifying in addition, a suitable maximum limit
for the 50 percent evaporated temperature. The 90 percent evaporated temperature should be
low enough to preclude excessive dilution of the crankcase lubricating oil.
16. DUCTILITY:
This is an important characteristic of bitumen. Asphalt cements possessing more ductility are
more cementation than Asphalt cements lacking this characteristic. Asphalt having high
ductility may be more temperature susceptible. Ductility is an extension type of test. A briquette
of bitumen is cast under condition to specified dimensions, it is then brought to standard
temperature and pulled or extended at specified rate of speed until the thread of asphalt
connecting the two ends breaks. The length of pull in centimetres at which the thread material
bread breaks is designated as ductility.

17. FLASH POINT


Flash point is the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame causes the vapour
and air mixture above the sample to ignite.

18. FIRE POINT


Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the oil ignites and continues to burn for 5 seconds.
Significance of flash point and fire point:
These are not directly related to engine performance. They are, however, of importance in
connection with legal requirements and safety precautions involved in fuel handling and storage
and are normally specified to meet insurance and fire regulations.

.GUM TEST
(i) Existent Gum:
This is the amount of qon-volatile heptane insoluble residue left when the sample is evaporated
in a jet of hot air at 160°C. For jet fuels. The evaporation is carried out in a jet of super heated
steam at 232°C.
(ii) Potential Gum:
This is the amount of gum formed after the sample is aged in a oxidation stability bath and
evaporated under specified conditions.
Significance :-

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Gum is always troublesome in any fuel and it may cause piston ring sticking and form deposits in
engines. The amount of gum indicates the presence of defines which have very poor storage
stability.
A measured volume of the gas sample is introduced into a chromatographic column and
transported through it by a carrier gas on passing through the column the sample is split into its
various components either by absorption or partition, depending on the column packing.
The composition of the sample is determined from the chromatograms by measuring the area
under the peaks identification of the component is done by noting the elusion time.

21. INDUCTION PERIOD OF GASOLINE (OXIDATION STABILITY DEFINITION)


(i) Induction period is the time elapsed between the placing of the bomb in the bath and the
break point at 100°C.
(ii) Break Point: It is the point in the pressure time curve that is preceded by a pressure drop
of exactly 2 psi within 15 minutes and succeeded by a drop of not less than 2 psi in the
next 15 minutes.
Method:
50 ml of the sample is enclosed in a bomb with oxygen at 100 psi and heated in a water bath at
100°C. The pressure is then recorded either on a chart or read every 15 minutes. The test is
continued until the break point is reached.
The stability of the motor spirit in storage is assessed by this test and the test result is reported
as induction period in minutes.
significance:
This test indicates the presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the fuel and hence its gum
forming tendency. Higher the induction period better is the stability of the fuel. An induction period
of 360 minutes under laboratory conditions ensures storage stability of at least six months.
However, this correlation may vary with different gasolines under different conditions.
22. LEAD IN GASOLINE
Method:
The lead alkyl is converted to lead chloride and extracted from the gasoline by refluxing with
concentrated hydrochloric acid. The acid extract is evaporated to dryness, any organic material
present is removed by oxidation with Nitric acid and the lead is determined gravimetrically as lead
chromate.
The method covers the gravimetric determination of the total lead content of gasoline and other
volatile distillates blended with lead alkyls (Tetra ethyl lead or Tetra methyl lead etc.)
Significance :
TEL is added in gasoline to improve the octane number but it is highly poisonous. Hence its
concentration in gasoline is restricted and its handling is done with utmost precaution.
23. OCTANE NUMBER
ASTM motor octane number of a fuel is the whole number nearest the percentage by volume of
iso-octane 2.2.4. tri-methyl pentance (Octane number =100) in a blend with normal heptane
(Octane No. = 0) that matches the knock characteristics of the fuel when compared by this
method.
This is an important test for rating the anti knock property of the motor fuels. The knocking of the
fuels is compared using blends of iso-octane and normal heptane in a single sylinder C.F.R.
engine. This is done by varying the compressing ratio for the sampie to obtain the standard knock
intensity as defined by a guide curve and as measures by an electronically controlled knockmeter.
The rating can be done either Research Method or Motor Method. The differences in the methods
are as follows. Research

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Research Motor
rpm 600 900
Spark advance 13° Variable
Mixture heating No Yes.

Significance :
Octane number requirements of gasoline depend on their compression ratio and if the fuel meets
the minimum requirements in respect of octane number it ensures trouble fee operation. Apart
from being a nuisance. The knocking in an engine may result the loss of energy and at time may
cause severe damage to the engine.

24. PENETRATION TEST :


Several standard grades of bitumen are commercially available which are normally classified into
different grades by penetration test. The other important tests are softening and ductility. The
sample is placed in a suitable container and brought to a temperature 25°C in a water bath. The
weighted needle is brought to the surface and at the end of 5 seconds interval, the penetration of
the needle into the bitumen, in units of 1/10 mm is termed the "Penetration" of the bitumen.

25. REFRACTIVE INDEX OF HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS:


Refractive index is defined as the ratio of the velocity of the right (of specified wave length) in air
to its velocity in the substance under examination. It may also be defined as the sine

143
of the angle of incidence divided by the sine of the angle of refraction, as light passes from air into
the substance. This is the relative index of refraction. If absolute refractive index (that is referred to
vacuum) is desired, their value should be multiplied by the factor 1.00027, the absolute refractive
index of air. The refractive index of liquids varies inversely with both wave length and temperature.

Refractive Index = n - d/2


.Where n = refractive index at 20°C and
d = density © 20°C
Significance:
(I) Napthene content percent by volume in napthas can be easily calculated by knowing the
refractive index and density of the saturates fractions as determined by the refractivity intercept
method.
(ii) There is a relation between molecular weight, aromatics and refractive index of hydrocarbon
and hence determination of refractive index gives an indication of the content of aromatics in the
hydrocarbon fractions. .

26. RESIDUE ON EVAPORATION (GUM TEST)

(i)Existent Gum : This is the amount of nonvolatile heptane insoluble resoluble residue left when
the sample is evaporated in a jet of hot air at 160°C. For jet fuels, the evaporation is carried out in
jet of super heated steam at 232°C.
(ii) Potential Gum : This is the amount of gum formed after the sample is aged in a oxidation
stability bath and evaporated under specified conditions.
Significance:
Gum is always troublesome in any fuel and it may cause piston ring sticking and deposits on
engines. The amount of gum points to the presence of olefins which have very poor storage
stability.

27. SMOKE POINT:


Smoke point is the maximum flame height in mm at which the fuel will burn without smoking when
determined in a smoke point apparatus under specified conditions.
The sample is burned in a standard lamp with a specified wick for five minutes. The height of the
flame is then adjusted and read when it leaves no smoky tail.
Significance:
It is an important test for kerosines for evaluating their ability to burn without producing smoke.
Higher the smoke point better, it is for domestic use and railway signal lamps, it also serves as a
guide to assess the aromatic content of kerosines,

28. SILVER CORROSION TEST FOR AVIATION TURBINE FUELS (CL-1 RATING) Method
A polished silver strip is completely immersed in ATF at 45°C ±1 °C for a period of 16 hrs. At the
end of this period the silver strip is removed from the sample, washed and evaluated for corrosion
against set standards.
Significance
Since some parts of the fuel pumps in aircraft are made of silver the corrosive tendency of the fuel
for this metal assumes special significance. The cumulative effect of corrosion on such a vital
component in the aircraft is hazardous.
>

144
29. SOFTENING POINT
Bituminous materials do not. change from the solid state to the liquid state at any definite
temperature, but gradually become softer and less viscous as the temperature rises. For this
reason, the determination of the softening point must be made by a fixed arbitrary and closely
defined method. Softening point is the temperature at which a substance attains a particular
degree of softness under specified conditions of test. A steel ball of specified weight is placed
upon a disc of sample contained within a metal ring of specified dimensions. The assembly is
heated at a constant rate and the softening point is taken at the temperature at which the sample
becomes soft enough to allow the ball, enveloped in bitumen, to fall to the specified distance.

30. SULPHUR CONTENT :


This is determined by lamp method or wickbold procedure for volatile petroleum products and by
bomb method for heavier products Sulphur in the sample is oxidised by combustion and is
estimated volumetrically after absorption in H202 or by gravimetric method after converting to
barium sulphate.
Significance
Sulphur in any from creates corrosion problems and hence its tolerance is limited.
31. SMOKE VOLATILITY INDEX (S.V.I.)
S.V.I. = Smoke Pt. ±0.42 x recovery @ 204°C
Significance:
Smoke volatility index gives a good indication of the smoking tendency of jet propulsion fuels. It
has been found that there is a good correlation between S.V.I, and carbon deposition in jet engine
combustion chambers.

32. THERMAL STABILITY OF JET FUELS


This method for measuring the high temperature stability of gas turbine fuels is the jet fuel thermal
oxidation tester (JFTOT) which subject the test fuel to conditions which can be related to these
occurring in gas turbine engine fuel systems. The fuel is pumped at fixed volumetric flow rate
through a heater after which if enters the precision stainless steel filter where fuel degradation
products may become trapped. The apparatus requires 600 ml. of test fuel for a 21/2 hrs. The
essential data derived are amount of deposits on an aluminium heater tube and rate of plugging of
a 17 mm nominal porosity precision filter located just down stream of the heatertube.

Significance:
The test results are indicative of fuel performance during gas turbiine operation and can be used
to assess the level of deposits that form when liquid fuel contacts a heated surface that is at
specified temperature.

33. VAPOUR PRESSURE:


Vapour pressure of volatile nonviscous petroleum products is determined by Reid method. This
the pressure exerted by the vapour when it is in equilibrium with the liquid under the conditions of
test. For liquified petroleum gas the procedure is different and the determination should be done
at 65°C.

Significance:
High vapour pressure entails loss of the product in storage and transportation, in case of motor
spirit it may cause vapour lock in the gasoline engines.
34. VISCOSITY :
Viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is expressed either in Redwood and
saybolt seconds or in centistrokes (kinematic viscosity). In the first two methods, the time taken
for a fixed volume of liquid to flow through a jet is measured and expressed as viscosity in
seconds. In the case of Kinematic viscosity time is measured for a fixed volume of liquid to flow
through the capillary viscometer under an accurately reproducible head and closely controlled
temperature. The kinematic viscosity is then calculated from the flow time and the calibration
constant of the viscometrer.

145
Significance:
Viscosity is an important characteristic of a fuel and it is used for the pump design. Pump
clearances are adjusted according to the viscosity and if it is out of the range, it will result in pump
seizure.

35. VISCOSITY INDEX


The viscosity index in an empirical number indicating the effect of change of temperature on the
viscosity of the oil and is calculated from the viscosities of the oil at 37.8 & 98.9°C. A high
viscosity index relatively low change of viscosity with temperature and is of important significance
in lubricating oils.

6. WATER AND SEDIMENT BY CENTRIFUGE


This method is intended for the determination of water and sediment in crude oil and fuel oil by
means of the "centrifuge"
Equal volumes of the material and toluene are thoroughly mixed in a graduated tube any insoluble
matter is collected at the base of the tube by centrifuging until a constant volume of water and
sediment is obtained.
Significance:
Appreciable quantities of water and sediment in crude are undesirable in the refinery and the
quantities present must be known when the oil is being bought or sold or is liable to royalty or
customs duty.
If the water and sediment content of crude oil is high it will effect processing the crude by the
following ways: (1) The water when heated it evaporates leaving the chlorides deposit on the
furnace tubes, which causes corrosion (2) !f ths sediment content of crude is high, the sediments
will deposit inside the exchangers, condensers, columns etc. and will form scale, This will reduce
efficiency of heat transfer, sediments contain chlorides of Na. Mg. Ca. etc. and they will from
hydrochloric acid and will ultimately corrode the plant, ash content of residue orfuel oil will
increase.

37. WATER SEPAROMETER INDZX(MODIFIED)


The test is carried out with a water separometer manufactured by Ms. Emcee Electronics U.S.A. It
measures the water separation characteristies of fuels expressed in terms of WSIM.
Method:
An emulsion of water and fuel is prepared and passed through a cell containing a standardized
"Fibre Glass" coalescer. The effluent from the cell is examined from entrained water by light
transmission. A numerical scale (0-100) rates the case with which the fuel releases emulsified
water. A higher WSIM rating indicates that the fuel is cleaner relative to surfactant materials.
Significance:
It is a measure of fuel cleanliness relative to its freedom from sucrfactant materials.
38. WEATHERING TEST OF L.P.G.
The product is refrigerated by means of a cooling coil, and 100 ml. of the liquid is collected in a
weathering tube. The liquid is allowed to weather under specified conditions, and the temperature
is observed when 95 percent of the initial quantity has evaporated.
Significance :
The method is intended to determine the volatility of the various types of liquefied petroleum
gases. Presence of hydrocarbon compounds (less volatile than those of which the L.P.G. product
is primarily composed) is indicated by an increase in the temperature at the 95% evaporated point.
1. Particulars of ship
1.1 Name of ship .............................................................
1.2 Distinctive number or letters .........................................

146
1.3 Port of registry ...........................................
1.4 Gross tonnage...........................................
1.5 Carrying capacity of ship .......................................... (m3)
1.6 Deadweight of ship ........................ ... (metric tons) (regulation 1(22))
1.7 Length of ship.......................................... (m) (regulation 1(18))
1.8 Date of build : •
1.8.1 Date of building contract .........................................
1.8.2 Date on which keel was laid or ship was at a similar stage of construction
1.8.3 Date of delivery ............................ ............
1.9 Major Conversion (if applicable):
1.9.1 ......................................................................................Date of conversion contract
1.9.2 Date on which conversion was commenced................... ....................
1.9.3 Date of completion of conversion..........................................
1.10 Status of ship :
2. Equipment for the control of oil discharge from machinery space bilges and oil fuel
tanks
(regulation 10 and 16).
2.1 Carriage of ballast water in oil fuel tanks:
2.1.1 The ship may under normal conditions carry ballast water in oil fuel tanks
22 Type of oil filtering equipment fitted:
2.2.1 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment (regulation 16(4))
2.2.2 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment with alarm and automatic stopping device (regulation 16(5))
2.3 The ship is allowed to operate with the existing equipment until 6 July 1998 (regulation 16(6))
and fitted with:
2.3.1 Oily-water separating (100 ppm) equipment
2.3.2 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment without alarm
2.3.3 Oil filtering (15 ppm) equipment with alarm and manual stopping device
2.4 Approval Standards:
2.4.1 The separating/filtering system;
1. Has been approved in accordance with resolution A.393(X)
2. Has been approved in accordance with resolution A.233(VII)
3. Has been approved in accordance with national standards not based upon resolution
A.393(X) or A.333(VII)
4. Has not been approved
2.4.2 The process until has been approved in accordance with resolution A.444(XI)
Volatile gas Gasoline Kerosene Gas & Diesel Oil Fuel Oil

Crude Lub Oil Diesel Oil Heavy


(1) The centre of an atom consists of a positively (+ve) charged body called nucleus. All the
protons & . neutrons are present in this nucleus. It is very heavy due to the presence of all
protons and neutrons in it.
(2) The electrons keep revolving in orbit around the nucleus at extremely high speed and at
great distance from the nucleus as the planets revolve round the sun.
Since the atom is neutral, the number of electrons which are negatively charged particles
are equal to the number of protons in the nucleus, in other wards the atom will be

147
electrically balanced.
(iii) Always match your "manifold curve" against the "shore curve" to get the duty point for that
particular port.
(iv) Do not run the pump below its NPSH required, or else cavitation will be severe, (v) Two
centrifugal pumps run in parallel to same line increases the frictional losses.
(vi) Last part of discharging is more effective with pump running at low rpm and against a throttled
delivery valve.
(1) MINIMUM EFFLUX VELOCITY VALVE :
This valve will ensure that dilution and dispersion of hydrocarbon vapour is effective when
loading slowly.
These valves have an orifice of variable diameter controlled by the pressure in the ullage
space. During quick loading the relatively high pressure opens the valve full. When loading
slowly the valve is partially closed and the reduced flow of gas passes through at sufficient
velocity for rapid dispersion. At very slow loading the valve remains closed until there is
sufficient pressure to produce an acceptable efflux velocity through the valve.

148