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S.

Chand’s
PROBLEMS IN
ENGINEERING PHYSICS
For the First Year Students of B.E. / B.Tech. / B. Arch. and
also useful for Competitive Examinations

Dr. M.N. AVADHANULU


M.Sc., Ph.D.
Principal, Om College of Engineering
Wardha
Formerly Professor & Head Department of Physics
Kavikulguru Institute of Technology and Science
Ramtek - 441106, Dist. : Nagpur (M.S.)

S.R. CHOUBEY
M.Sc., B.Ed., DCA,
Lecturer
Department of Applied Physics
Smt. Rajshree Mulak College of Engineering
(KDK Group of Colleges), Nagpur

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© 2012, Dr. M.N. Avadhanulu and S.R. Choubey


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any material form (including photo
copying or storing it in any medium in form of graphics, electronic or mechanical means and whether or not
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Any breach of this will entail legal action and prosecution without further notice.
Jurisdiction : All desputes with respect to this publication shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts,
tribunals and forums of New Delhi only.

First Edition 2012

ISBN : 81-219-3899-6 Code : 16 387


PRINTED IN INDIA
By Rajendra Ravindra Printers Pvt. Ltd., 7361, Ram Nagar, New Delhi -110 055
and published by S. Chand & Company Ltd., 7361, Ram Nagar, New Delhi -110 055.

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Books are not paper and words
but interaction with thinkers on a
one-to-one basis, not of one
generation but separated by
hundreds and thousands of years
—Thomas Carlyle

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Preface
The authors are pleased to bring out S. Chand’s Problems in Engineering Physics,
designed to serve as a textbook for the Course of the first year B.E. students of all
Universities of Engineering in India. The authors had again and again interacted with the
students over the years and his colleagues in different institutions and the present version of
the book is based on the feedback received. In view of the limited time that the students can
devote to Physics, an attempt is made to focus on essential points and the details that are not
of immediate relevance are not discussed. The requirement of the students is given top priority
and the material is moulded in a more student-friendly style. However, the spirit of physics is
not sacrificed at any stage and the expectations of teachers are held high at every step. It is
generally felt that Physics is one more body of facts thrust on engineering students who are
already burdened with a heavy syllabus. Physics evolved through the efforts of rational thinkers
who have been interested to know the why, what and how of natural phenomena. Technology
is an outcome of the application of their understanding for the benefit of human society at
large. Therefore, Physics serves as the foundation on which the elaborate structure of
technology stands. The main purpose of teaching Physics to Engineering undergraduates is
to acquaint the budding engineers with the thread of development, so that they can apply this
knowledge beneficially in their later pursuits. It is this urge that underlies the presentation of
the material in this book.
The philosophy of presentation of the material in the book is based upon decades of
classroom interaction of the author. In each chapter, the fundamental concepts pertinent to
the topic are highlighted and the in-between continuity is emphasized. The book satiates
the thirst of the inquisitive student and at the same time it provides material to such students
who are concerned mainly with getting through the examinations. Throughout the book
attention is given to the proper presentation of concepts and practical applications are cited
to highlight the engineering aspect. A number of problems are solved. New problems are
included in order to expedite the learning process of students of all hues and to improve
their academic performance. The author sincerely hopes that this book will assist the student
in learning the principles of physics more effectively.
The fundamental concepts are emphasized in each chapter and the details are developed
in an easy-to-follow style. Each chapter is divided into smaller parts and subheadings are
provided to make the reading a pleasant journey from one interesting topic to another
important topic.

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Enough care is taken to eliminate printing mistakes. However, some mistakes might
have crept in inadvertently. The author appeals to the readers to point out such left-out
mistakes.
It is a fact of satisfaction that book is receiving warm response from faculties and
students of different Engineering colleges in all over India. The book is included as reference
text book in various universities throughout the counter due to its usefulness.
The authors are highly indebted to teachers of various Engineering colleges who have
been extending unstained support to the book. They wishes thanks to Principal
Dr. Devanani (SRMCEW), Vice Principal Mrs. Sudha Srikanth (SRMCEW), Director (KDK
Group of Colleges), Mr. Rajendra Mulak for their timely help & giving moral support for
writing this book.
We are thankful to the Management Team and the Editorial Department of S.Chand &
Company Ltd. for all help and support in the publication of this book.

Dr. M.N. AVADHANULU


mna2005@rediffmail.com

S.R. CHOUBEY
choubey.sureshkumar@gmail.com
Cell : +91-9822703025

Disclaimer : While the authors of this book have made every effort to avoid any mistake or omission and have used their skill,
expertise and knowledge to the best of their capacity to provide accurate and updated information. The author and S. Chand does
not give any representation or warranty with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this publication and are
selling this publication on the condition and understanding that they shall not be made liable in any manner whatsoever. S.Chand
and the author expressly disclaim all and any liability/responsibility to any person, whether a purchaser or reader of this publication
or not, in respect of anything and everything forming part of the contents of this publication. S. Chand shall not be responsible for any
errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in this publication.
Further, the appearance of the personal name, location, place and incidence, if any; in the illustrations used herein is purely
coincidental and work of imagination. Thus the same should in no manner be termed as defamatory to any individual.

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Acknowledgements
There is no claim or pretence for any originality either in the content or in the method
of presentation of this work. The numerical problems are drawn from various sources over
the past few years. We are benefited through working out the problems and want the student
community also to derive the benefits. We record here our deep indebtedness to the authors
and publishers of those works.
We sincerely acknowledge and moral support exteneded by our colleagues in various
colleges who admired this work. Our thanks are in particular due to Prof. V.K. Deshpande,
VNIT, Nagpur, Prof. G.S. Sahasrabudhe, RKNEC, Nagpur, Dr.J.R. Ghulghule, YCCE,
Nagpur, Dr. Mrs. S.P. Wankhede, K.D.K. Engg. College, Nagpur, Prof. V.P. Dhomne,
M.P.I.E.T., Gondia, Prof. P.G. Hagone, College of Engg., Chandrapur, Prof.(Mrs.) S.A.
Fulambarkar, B.D.C.O.E., Sewagram, Dr. Mrs. B.P. Butey, G.H. Raisoni College of Engg.,
Nagpur, Dr. (Mrs.) Anagha Kulkarni, Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur, Dr. C.S.
Prakash, Filolex Academy of Management and Technology, Ratnagiri, Prof. D.G. Krishnan
Raju and Mr. V. Seetha Ramaiah, S.R.K.R. Engg. College, Bhimavaram (A.P., Dr. M.L.
Khare, Mualana Azad College of Technology, Bhopal (M.P.), Dr. M. Krishnaiah, College
of Engg., Tirupathi, Prof. (Mrs.) S.A. Pandey, N.Y.S.S. College of Engg., Nagpur, Prof.
Debashish Bhowmick, Nuva College of Engg., Nagpur, Dr. V.M. Nanoti, Dr. Mrs. A.A.Dani
Priyadarshini College of Engg., Nagpur, Prof. Nitin Dhanvijay, Umrer College of Engg,
Umrer, Prof. P.M. Pokley, Mrs. Reena Bakale, KITS, Ramtek, Dr. S.D. Jain, Mrs. S. Cherian,
G.H. Raisoni Institute of Engg. & Technology, Women’s Nagpur, Dr. K.K. Sugandhi, Govt.
Engg. College, Bilaspur, Dr.R.N. Baghel, B.I.T., Bhilai, Prof. M.V. Prabhakar, College of
Millitary Engg., Pune, Prof. Kshirsagar, College of Engg., Karad, Dr. D.N. Shrivastava,
H.B.T.I., Kanpur, Dr. V.B. Saran, K.N.I.S.T., Sultanpur, Prof. Mathur, I.I.T., Kharagpur,
Dr.K. Subha Rao, R.E.C., Warangal, Dr. K.M. Khanna, N.I.F.F.T., Hatia-Ranchi, Dr. Lalita
Jayaram, M.I.T., Crompet, Chennai, Dr.S. Iyyengar, Deccan Engg. College, Hyderabad.

Authors

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SUGGESTIONS TO THE STUDENTS
1. Read carefully the given problem.
2. Find out what exactly is to be calculated.
3. List out the data and express all quantities in SI units.
4. Identify the formula to be used and write it down.
5. Examine whether the formula can be used directly. If it is to be transformed, do
it.
6. Substitute the numerical data in the formula along with units.
7. Compute the numerical value. Simultaneously work out the units and obtain
the units of the ultimate quantity.
8. Round off your answer to one doubtful digit.
All orderly procedure aids clear thinking, helps to avoid errors and saves time.

SI BASE UNITS

Quantity Unit Symbol


Length, L Meter m
Mass, m Kilogramme Kg
Time, t Second s
Temperature, T Kelvin K
Electric current, t Ampere A
Amount of substance Mole Mol

SI SUPPLEMENTARY UNITS
Plane angle radian rad
Solid angle steradian sr

GENERALLY USED NON-SI UNITS


Length angstrom Å
Energy electron volt eV
Temperature degree (Celsius) °C

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SI DERIVED UNITS
Physical Symbol Name of SI Symbol for Immediate Definition in
Quantity Unit Unit definition of terms of
unit basic units
Velocity v — — ms–1 ms–1
Acceleration a — — ms–2 ms–2
Density d — — kgm–3 kgm–3
Force F Newton N kgms–2 kgms–2
Work of energy W Joule J N.m kgm2s–2
Pressure Pa — — Nm–2 kgm–1s–2
Frequency f Hertz Hz s–1 s–1
Angular Freq.  — — rad s–1 rad s–1
Intensity I — Wm–2 Nm–1 s–1 kg s–3
Resistance R Ohm  VA–1 kgm2s–3A–2
Resistivity  Ohm.meter m VA–1 m kgm3s–3A–2
Conductance G Siemens S –1 kg–1m2s3A2
Conductivity  Siemens/meter Sm–1 –1 m–1 kg–1m–3s3A2
Potential Difference V Volt V JC–1 kgm2s–3A–1
Electrical Charge Q Coulomb C As As
Current I Charge/sec Cs–1 A A
Power P Wait W Js–1 kgm2s–3
Electrical field E — NC–1 kgm3A–1 kgm–3A–1
Capacitance C Farad F CV–1 A2s4kg–1m–2
Inductance L Henry H WbA–1 kgm2s–2A–2
= VA–1 S
Free Space 0 Farad/meter Fm–1 C2N–1m2 kg–3m–7s10A4
Permittivity
Mobility  — m2V–1s–1 kg–1s2A1 kg–1s2A1
Magnetic flux  Weber Wb Tm2 kgm2s–2A–1
Magnetic flux B Tesla T NA–1 m–1 kgs–2A–1
density
Magnetic field M Oersted Oe Am–1 Am–1
strength
Free space 0 — W TmA–1 kgms–2 A–2
permeability
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SOME IMPORTANT PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

1. Velocity of light (c) = 2.998 × 108 ms–1


2. Electron charge (e) = 1.602 × 10–19 C
3. Electron rest mass (m0) = 9.109 × 10–31 kg
4. Atomic mass unit (amu) (1 amu) = 1.660 × 10–27 kg
5. Avogadro’s Constant (NA) = 6.023 × 1023 mol–1
= 6.023 × 1026/k.mol
6. Boltzmann’s Constant (k) = 1.380 × 10–23 JK–1
= 8.61 × 10–5 eVK–1
7. Planck’s Constant (h) = 6.626 × 10–34 Js
8. Bohr magneton (B) = 9.273 × 10–24 Am2
9. Permittivity of free space (0) = 8.854 × 10–12 Fm–1
10. Permeability of free space (0) = 4 × 10–7 Hm–1
= 12.57 × 10–7 Hm–1

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Contents
1. BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 – 35
Coulomb’s law, Electric field, Superposition principle, Electric flux, Gauss law,
Electric potential, Magnetic field, Biot- Savart’s law, Ampere’s law.

2. ELECTRON BALLISTICS 36 – 108


Homogeneous electric field, Electron volt, Motion of an electron in a longitudinal
electric field, Electron motion in a transverse electric field, Electrostatic deflection,
Electron motion in a longitudinal and in a transverse magnetic field, Helical motion,
Magnetostatic deflection, Effect of crossed electric and magnetic fields, Velocity
selector, e/m of electron.

3. ELECTRON EMISSION 109 – 113


Electron gas, Work function, Thermoric emission, Photoelectric emission,
Secondary emission, field emission, Richardson Dushman equation.

4. ELECTRON OPTICS 114 – 141


Bethe’s law, Electron lens, Electron gun, Cathode ray tube, CRO, Momentum
selector, Cyclotron, Bainbridge mass spectrograph.

5. WAVE MOTION 142 – 186


Oscillations, Simple harmonic motion, Free oscillations, Natural frequency, Wave
equation, Superposition principle, Standing waves, Resonance, Interference, Beats,
Lissajous figures.

6. PROPERTIES OF LIGHT 187 – 203


Electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Huygens principle, Specular
and diffuse reflections, Refractive index, Snell’s law, Apparent depth, Optical path,
Critical angle, Total internal reflection, Dispersion, Reflectivity, Transmissivity,
Coherence length, Coherence time.

7. INTERFERENCE 204 – 227


Interference of light, Conditions of interference, Order of interference fringes,
Division of wave front, Division of amplitude, Interference due to thin parallel
film, Wedge shaped thin film, Newton’s rings, Antireflection coatings.

8. DIFFRACTION 228 – 236


Fraunhofer differaction, Diffraction grating.

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9. POLARIZATION 237 – 252
Plane polarization, Brewster’s law, Malus law, Double refraction, Quarter wave
plate, Half wave plate, Optical rotation.

10. ATOMIC PHYSICS 253 – 310


Planck’s hypothesis, Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, X-rays, Moseley’s law,
de Broglie hypothesis, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave
equation.

11. LASERS 311 – 331


Principle of lasers, Characteristics, Population inversion, Optical cavity.

12. STRUCTURE OF SOLIDS 332 – 365


Space lattice, Unit cell, Effective number of atoms, Co-ordination number, Miller
indices, Bragg’s law.

13. SEMICONDUCTORS 366 – 420


Conductivity, Energy gap, Classification of solids, Fermi - Dirac distribution, Fermi
level, Intrinsic semiconductor, Intrinsic density, Extrinsic semiconductor, Law of
mass action, Drift current, Diffusion current, Hall effect, pn-junction, Rectifier
equation, Reverse saturation current, Transistor.

14. FIBRE OPTICS 421 – 443


Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Acceptance angle, Numerical aperture,
Modes of propagation, V-number, SI fibres, GRIN Fibres, Signal attenuation,
Propagation delay,

15. NUCLEUS AND NUCLEAR ENERGY 444 – 464


Atomic mass unit, Binding energy, Half - life, Activity, Nuclear reaction, Q-value,
Energy calculations in fission and fusion reactions.

16. THERMOELECTRICITY 465 – 474


Contact potential, Seebeck effect, Thermocouple, Inversion temperature, Neutral
temperature, Law of intermediate metals, Law of intermediate temperatures, Peltier
effect, Thomson effect.

17. RELATIVITY 475 – 482


Frames of reference, Galileo’s principle of relativity, Einstein’s principle of
relativity, Length contraction, Time dilation, Variation of mass, Rest energy, Mass
- energy equivalence.

EXCERCISE PROBLEMS 483 – 490

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CHAPTER
1
BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRIC
AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
1.1 Describe the important properties of electric charges.
Ans.
(i) Basically, there are two kinds of electric charges which are given the names positive and
negative charges.
(ii) Unlike charges attract one another and like charges repel one another.
(iii) Electric charge is always conserved. The algebraic sum of charges in any electrically
insulated system does not change.
(iv) Electric charge is quantized. Any charge Q is some integral multiple of the electronic
charge “e”.
(v) The force between charged particles varies as the inverse square of their separation.
(vi) Any charged body modifies the region of space around it in some way and is said to set up
an electric field.
1.2 A metal sphere has a charge of – 2C. How many excess electrons are there on the sphere and
what is the total mass of the excess electrons?
Given: Electric charge on the metal sphere, Q = –2C.
Formula: The fundamental smallest charge found in nature is the charge of an electron e. All other
charges are integral multiples of e.
 Any charge Q =  Ne ...(1.1)
–19
The value of e is 1.602  10 coulombs. It is positive for proton and negative for electron.
The mass of an electron, m = 9.11  10–31 kg.
The mass of N electrons, M = Nm
Solution :Q = – Ne
Q – 2C
 N=  19
 12.4 1018
– e – (1.602 10 C)
Mass of n electrons, M = Nm
= (12.4  1018) (9.1110–31 kg)
M = 11.2 × 10–12 kg.
1.3 Describe Coulomb’s Law.
Ans: Coulomb’s law states that the electrostatic force between two stationary, charged particles
separated by a distance “r” has a magnitude given by
Qq
F= ...(1.2)
40 r r 2
where 0 = 8.85 × 10–12 C2 /Nm2 is called the permittivity of free space and r is the relative
permittivity of the medium surrounding the charges.

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2 S. CHAND’S PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING PHYSICS

The ratio ¼ 0 has a value 9 × 109 N-m2/C2. Thus


Qq
F = 9  109 Newtons
r r 2
In the vector form F, the force on charge q due to the charged body Q is written as
Qq
F= ...(1.3)
40 r r 2
where r is the vector displacement from Q to q. r = 1 for a vacuum and r > 1 for any medium.
Therefore, when the charges are located in a homogeneous medium., the coulomb force between the
charges reduces.
1.4 Two point charges 1C each are separated by a distance of 1m in a vacuum.
(a) What is the force of their interaction?
(b) What will be the force if the medium between the charges is water?
Given : Magnitude of the charges q1 and q2 = 1C
Distance of separation, r = 1 m.
Formula: The force of interaction of electrical charges is given by Coulomb’s law. When the medium
is a vacuum, the force
q1q2
F=
4 0 r 2
When the medium surrounding the charges is other than a vacuum, Coulomb force between the
charges is given by
1 qq
F= . 1 22
4 0  r r
For water r = 80
Solution:
q1q2 Nm 2  1C  1C 
(a) F = = 9 109  
4 0 r 2 C2  1m 2 
F = 9 × 109 N
1 qq  9 109 N.m 2   1C 1C 
(b) F = . 1 22   . 2  
40  r r  80 C   1m 2 

F = 1.1 × 108 N
It is seen that the action of a dielectric medium is to weaken the force of interaction between
the charges.
1.5 Two identical charges separated by a distance 20 cm in a vacuum interact with the same force
as in transformer coil with a distance of separation 14 cm. if the force of electrostatic interaction
in a vacuum is 90 N, what is the relative permittivity of the oil? What is the magnitude of the
charges?
Given: Let the magnitude of charges be q1 and q2.
It is given that q1 = q2 = q(say)
The separation of charges in a vacuum, r1 = 20cm = 0.20 m
Coulomb force in vacuum, F1 = 90N
Separation of charges in oil, r2 = 14 cm = 0.14 m
Let the Coulomb force in oil be F2 and it is given that

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