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1 (2): 122–135

Research Article Open Access

Research Article

Jasim M. Abbas*, Zamri Chik, Mohd Raihan Taha

Max Musterman, Paul Placeholder

Modelling and Assessment

What Is Soof a Single

Different Pile

About

Neuroenhancement?

Subjected to Lateral Load

Was ist so anders am Neuroenhancement?

Journal xyz 2017; 1 (2): 122–135

Pharmacological and Mental Self-transformation in Ethic

Comparison1 Introduction

https://doi.org/10.2478/sgem-2018-0009

received December 14, 2017; accepted March 23, 2018.

The First Decade (1964-1972) Pharmakologische und mentale Selbstveränderung im

Abstract: A three-dimensional finite element technique In the design of pile subjected to lateral load, the lateral

ethischen Vergleich

Research Article

was used to analyse single pile lateral response subjected displacement at working loads should be within the

to pure lateral load. The main objective of thishttps://doi.org/10.1515/xyz-2017-0010

study is permissible limit [18,20,22]. In addition, the second main

MaxtoMusterman, Paul Placeholder

assess the influence of the pile slendernessreceived ratio February

on key element

9, 2013; accepted inMarch

the 25,

design of laterally

2013; published onlineloaded piles is the

July 12, 2014

the lateral behaviour of single pile. The lateral single determination of ultimate lateral resistance that can

pile response in this assessment considered both

Abstract: In the concept of the aesthetic formation of knowledge and its as soon

lateral and besuccess-oriented

exerted by soilapplication,

against the pile [25], particularly

withoutthe

Neuroenhancement?

as possible insights and profits the

pile displacement and lateral soil resistance. Asreference a result, ultimate

to the arguments soildeveloped

pressurearound

which 1900.

occurred in the

The main middle of the

investigation also

modified p-y curves for lateral single pile response

improved when taking into account the influence

includes

version.

were pile.between the entry into force and the presentation in its current

the period

lateral

Their functionTheasperformance of piles

part of the literary when

portrayal and subjected to lateral

narrative technique.

load magnitudes, pile cross sectional shape and flexural loads is responsive to soil properties

Keywords: Function, transmission, investigation, principal, period in the upper part

Pharmacological

rigidity of the pile. andTheMental Self-transformation

finite element method includes inof Ethic

soil layer [6,7]. As the surface layers may be subject

Comparison

linear elastic, Mohr-Coulomb and 16-nodes interface

Dedicated to to

Paul disturbance, practically, traditional soil parameters

Placeholder

models to represent the pile behaviour,

Pharmakologische und mentale Selbstveränderung im soil performance should be adopted in the calculation of lateral pile

and interface element, respectively. It can be concluded displacement. In the case of piles under lateral loading,

ethischen Vergleich

that the lateral pile deformation and lateral soil resistance 1 Studiesthe and Investigations

failure criterion of short piles under lateral loads

because of the lateral load are always influenced by lateral when compared to those of long piles varies and unlike

https://doi.org/10.1515/xyz-2017-0010 The main investigation alsoprocedure

includes theisperiod between the entrystudying

into forcethe

and

load intensity and soil type as well as a pile slenderness the design suitable. Therefore,

received February 9, 2013; accepted March 25, 2013; published online July 12, 2014

ratio (L/D). The pile under an intermediate and the presentation

large effect in itsofcurrent version. Their

slenderness on the function as single

lateral part of the literarypile

isolated por-

trayal and narrative technique.

amount

Abstract: In theof concept

loading of(inthecase of cohesionless

aesthetic formation ofsoil) has response

knowledge and its asissoon important and still needs more assessment.

more resistance

as possible (low lateral displacement)

and success-oriented than the

application, insights pileprofits without

and From Figure the 1, t can be observed that the pile in case

embedded

reference to the on the cohesion

arguments developedsoil. around

In addition, it can

1900. *Max

The mainbe of short

investigation pile failure

also

Musterman: Institute of Marine criteria

Biology, Nationaland

Taiwanfree head

Ocean condition

University, failed

2 Pei-Ning

observed that the square-shaped pile is able to resist the

includes the period between the entry into force and the presentation in its current

Road Keelung by

20224, full pile

Taiwan rotation

(R.O.C), around

e-mail: the

email@mail.com point near to the pile base.

loadTheir

by about 30% Paul Placeholder: Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning

version. function asmore

part ofthan the circular

the literary pile. and

portrayal On narrative

the Whilst in case of fixed head, the pile maybe fully moved

technique.

Road Keelung 20224, Taiwan (R.O.C), e-mail: email@mail.com

other hand, pile in cohesionless soil was less affected by and, at the same time, with small rotation near to the

Keywords: Function, transmission, investigation, principal, period Mustermann and Placeholder, published by De Gruyter.

the change in EI compared with that in cohesive soil. pile base. On the other hand, the long pile failureThis

Open Access. © 2017 occurs

work is

licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License.

near to the pile head by pile fracture and keeps the other

Dedicated to Paul Placeholder

Keywords: piles; lateral response; slenderness ratio; embedded length without failure. In the case of fixed

flexural rigidity; 3D FE analysis. head long pile, the failure occurred at the fracture point

as well as pile cap [6,7]. Real pile behaviour generally falls

1 Studies and Investigations somewhere between the free- and fixed-head conditions

because a small rotation of the pile head is expected, even

The main investigation also includes the period between the entrywhen the pile

into force and is connected to a cap [17].

the presentation in its current version. Their function as part of the literary Many researches

por- have also been performed to study

trayal and narrative technique. the response of laterally loaded piles in different types of

soil. A preliminary survey of the literatures available on

*Corresponding author: Jasim M. Abbas, Department of Civil this topic was given by [6,7,14], but little knowledge was

*Max Engineering, College of

Musterman: Institute ofEngineering, University

Marine Biology, of Taiwan

National Diyala, Ocean

Iraq, University,received

2 Pei-Ningregarding the influence of the pile slenderness

E-mail: jasimalshamary@yahoo.ccom

Road Keelung 20224, Taiwan (R.O.C), e-mail: email@mail.com ratio on the lateral pile response, in addition to the

Zamri Chik, Mohd

Paul Placeholder: Raihan

Institute Taha: Biology,

of Marine Department of Civil

National and Structural

Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei-Ning

Engineering,

Road Keelung 20224,Universiti

Taiwan Kebangsaan Malaysia

(R.O.C), e-mail: email@mail.com

Open Access.

Open Access. © 2017© 2018 Jasimand

Mustermann M. Placeholder,

Abbas et al.,published

publishedbyby

DeSciendo.

Gruyter. This workisis licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-

This work

licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives

NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. 4.0 License.

pile slenderness ratio on the lateral pile response, in addition to the influence of lateral load magnitudes,

cross

66 sectional shape

Jasim M. Abbasof the pile and flexural rigidity of the pile.

et al.

H H H H

e1 e1

e1

e1

Fracture

L L L L Fracture

Rotatio

n point

Free-head Fixed-head

Free-head Fixed-head

(a) (b)

Figure

Figure 1. Failure

1: Failure modes ofmodes of vertical

vertical pile pileload

under lateral under lateral

(Broms, load(a)(Broms,

1964a&b): short pile1964a&b): (a) and

under lateral load short pilepile

(b) long under

underlateral

lateral load.

load and (b) long pile under lateral load

influence of lateral load magnitudes, cross sectional problem to be solved. The finite element mesh used in the

shape of the pile and flexural rigidity of the pile. simulation of single pile analysis (shown in Fig. 2) consists

It is generally accepted that the finite element method is the major technique used in numerical

It is generally accepted that the finite element of 15-nodes wedge element (1,134), including (1,099) soil

analysis of geotechnical problems, particularly piles and soil consolidation. As reported by Poulos and

method is the major technique used in numerical element and (35) pile elements. The lateral load is applied

Davis (1980), the first attempt to study the lateral behaviour of piles includes a two-dimensional (2D) finite

analysis of geotechnical problems, particularly piles at the tip of the pile that is found on the ground surface

element model in the horizontal plane. Anagnostopoulos and Georgiadis (1992) attempted to explain the

and soil consolidation. As reported by [20], the first in the x-direction and at y-direction when axial loads are

lateral pile response through an experimental model supported by a 2D finite element analysis. Other

attempt to study the lateral behaviour of piles includes applied. Plain and 3D view for the finite element mesh

investigations have attempted to study the lateral response of pile under pure lateral load using the finite

a two-dimensional (2D) finite element model in the of single pile and surrounded the soil mass is given in

element approach (Muqtadir & Desai 1986, Trochanis 1991, Yang & Jeremic 2005, Johnson et. al. 2006,

horizontal plane. Anagnostopoulos and Georgiadis (1992) Figure 2. The outer boundaries of soil body of cubic shape

Kahyaoglu 2009 and Taha 2018). In addition, the influence the lateral pile response in 3D finite element

attempted to explain the lateral pile response through are extended to 10D on the sides and 5D at the bottom of

approach when the pile carried both axial and lateral loads was studied by Karthigeyan et al. (2006 & 2007)

an Abbas

and experimental modeland

et al. (2015 2017). by a 2D finite element pile base.

supported

analysis. Other investigations have attempted to study the Analyses were performed with several trail meshes

lateral response of pile under pure lateral load using

Therefore, in this study, the importance of conducting the with increasing mesh refinement

a fundamental studyuntil the displacement

is discussed. A

finite element approach [9,11,16,23,24]. In addition, the changes to very

fundamental study of the lateral pile response under pure lateral load was conducted by varying a minimal with more refinement. The aspect

influence parameter

simulation the lateral of piletheresponse in 3D (i.e.

pile material finitethe

element

geometric ratio of elementsofused

dimension the in thesuch

pile meshas is slenderness

small and closed to the

ratio,

approach when the pile carried both axial and lateral pile body near to the

D, flexural rigidity of the pile, EI) and soil properties (i.e. cohesionless soil and cohesive soil). pile top and base. All the nodes of the

loads was studied by [12,13] and [1,2]. lateral boundaries (right and bottom) are restrained from

Therefore,

Analysis in this study,

Methodology andthe importance of conducting moving in the normal direction to the respective surface.

Layout

a fundamental study is discussed. A fundamental study The finite element simulation includes the following

of theelement

Finite lateral pile response

analyses wereunder pure lateral

performed usingloadthe was

softwareconstitutive

PLAXIS 3D relationships

Foundation. for Inpile, surrounded

the finite elementsoil

conducted by varying a simulation parameter of the pile and interface element.

method, a continuum is divided into a number of (volume) elements. Each element consists of a number The finite element includes

of a

material

nodes. (i.e.node

Each the geometric

has a number dimension of the pile

of degrees such as that

of freedom linear elastic model

correspond to simulate

to discrete valuesstructural part of the

of the unknowns

inslenderness

the boundary value

ratio, problem

D, flexural to be ofsolved.

rigidity the pile,TheEI)finite

and element

problemmesh (e.g. used

pile), inMohr-Coulomb

the simulationmodel of single pile

to represent

analysis (shown(i.e.

soil properties in cohesionless

Fig. 2) consists of 15-nodes

soil and wedge element

cohesive soil). (1,134), including

the surrounded (1,099) interface

soil and 16-node soil element and to

elements

(35) pile elements. The lateral load is applied at the tip ofrepresent the pile that is foundelement.

an interface on the ground surface in models

These constitutive the

x-direction and at y-direction when axial loads are applied. Plain and 3D view

are illustrated as follows: for the finite element mesh

of2single

Analysis

pile andMethodology

surrounded the soiland mass Layout

is given in FigureStructural

2. The outer boundaries

Members Model: The of soil body

use of of cubic

the linear elastic

shape are extended to 10D on the sides and 5D at the bottom modelof pile base.

is quite common to model massive structures in the

Finite element analyses were performed using the software soil or bedrock layers that include piles and so on [5]. This

PLAXIS Analyses

3D Foundation.were In performed

the finite with

elementseveral

method,traila meshes

model with increasing

represents Hooke’smesh law ofrefinement untilelasticity

isotropic linear the

displacement changes to very minimal with more refinement. The aspect ratio of elements

continuum is divided into a number of (volume) elements. used for modeiling the stress–strain relationship of the used in the mesh

isEach

smallelement

and closed

consists to the

of a pile bodyofnear

number nodes. to Each

the pile

node top pile

and material.

base. All The the model

nodes of the lateral

involves boundaries

two elastic stiffness

(right

has aand bottom)

number are restrained

of degrees fromthat

of freedom moving in the normal

correspond direction namely,

to parameters, to the respective

the effective surface.

Young’s modulus, E’,

discrete values of the unknowns in the boundary value and the effective Poisson’s ratio, ν’.

2

Unauthentifiziert | Heruntergeladen 13.10.19 08:46 UTC

consist of eight pairs of nodes, compatible with the eight-noded quadrilateral side of a soil element. Along

the degenerated soil elements, interface elements are composed of six-node pairs, compatible with the

triangular side of the degenerated soil element. Each interface has a virtual thickness assigned to it, which

is an imaginary dimension used to obtain the stiffness properties

Modelling of the interface.

and Assessment ThePile

of a Single virtual thickness

Subjected is Load

to Lateral 67

defined as the virtual thickness factor multiplied by the average element size.

H

5D + (10D, 15D, 20D, 25D)

Single pile

5D

15-node

wedge element

z Soil under

pile base

20D x

20D

y

Figure 2 Three dimension of finite element mash for single pile and surrounded soil mass

Figure 2: Three dimension of finite element mash for single pile and surrounded soil mass,

Soil Model: The surrounding soil is represented by and field tests are used to identify the soil profiles and soil

This section used to assess the accuracy of the finite element approach in analysing laterally loaded piles

Mohr–Coulomb’s model. This elasto-plastic model is properties that are well instrumented.

and to verify certain details of the finite element such as pile displacement. The comparative case includes

based onlateral

full-scale soil parameters

load tests that are known

reported in most

by Ismael The resultsThe

practical

(1998). case studyand

of laboratory deals

fieldwith

testslateral load

are used to in which the

situations.

identify Theprofiles

the soil modelandinvolves two main

soil properties that parameters, deflection response of bored piles in cemented sand was

are well instrumented.

namely, the cohesion intercept, c’, and the friction examined by field test on a single pile under lateral load

angle, f’.

TheIncase

addition three with

study, deals parametersnamely, Young’s

lateral load in which [10]. All piles

the deflection wereof0.3

response m inpiles

bored diameter and had a length of

in cemented

sand was examined

modulus, by field

E’; Poisson’s testν’;on

ratio, a single

and pile under

the dilatancy lateral 3load

angle, (Ismael,

or 5m. 1998).

The site All load

of this pilestest

werewas

0.3inmKuwait.

in The soil

ψ’ – are needed to calculate the complete stress-strain (σ, profile consists of a medium dense cemented silty sand

e) behaviour. The failure envelope as referred by [21] and layer to a depth of 3 m. This is underlain by a medium

[9] only depends on the principal stresses (σ1’, σ3’) and is dense to very dense silty sand with cemented 3 lumps to the

independent of the intermediate principle stress (σ2’). bottom of the borehole. The same load sequence as pile

Interface Elements Model: Interfaces are modeiled as tests was applied to the pile after completing the whole

16-node interface elements. Interface elements consist geotechnical model for lateral pile tests. The properties of

of eight pairs of nodes, compatible with the eight-noded soil in the both cases are listed in Table 1.

quadrilateral side of a soil element. Along the degenerated The comparison between the finite element results

soil elements, interface elements are composed of six- and field test data is shown in Figure 3. The numerical

node pairs, compatible with the triangular side of the simulation is reasonably accurate for the problem of

degenerated soil element. Each interface has a virtual laterally loaded piles and pile-soil interaction over a

thickness assigned to it, which is an imaginary dimension wide range of deformation for 3 and 5m long piles. The

used to obtain the stiffness properties of the interface. The pile with a length of 5m is highly resistance to the lateral

virtual thickness is defined as the virtual thickness factor load from the second pile length value. Comparable data

multiplied by the average element size. were obtained between the experimental results of the

three piles and the present simulation model. The results

obtained from the numerical simulation for a pile of 5 m

3 Validation of numerical model is relatively closed with the results obtained from the field

test. Whilst the result from the numerical simulation is not

This section used to assess the accuracy of the finite too closed in case of 3-m long pile, it may be due to non-

element approach in analysing laterally loaded piles and homogeneous soil around the pile in field.

to verify certain details of the finite element such as pile

displacement. The comparative case includes full-scale

lateral load tests reported by [10]. The results of laboratory

experimental results of the three piles and the present simulation model. The results ob

numerical simulation for a pile of 5 m is relatively closed with the results obtained fro

Whilst the result from the numerical simulation is not too closed in case of 3-m long pile,

68 Jasim M. Abbas et al.

non-homogeneous soil around the pile in field.

Table 1 Geotechnical properties of the soil layers

Table 1: Geotechnical properties of the soil layers. Saturated Young’s Poisson’s Cohesion

soil weight modulus ratio intercept

Saturated Young’s

(kN/m3) Poisson’s

(kPa) Cohesion Friction (kPa)

soil weight modulus ratio intercept angle

Medium dense cemented silty sand 18 1.3x104 0.3 20

(kN/m3) (kPa) (kPa)

layer

Medium dense cemented silty sand layer 18 1.3x104 0.3 20 35

Medium dense to very dense silty 19 1.3 x104 0.3 1

Medium dense to very dense silty sand

sand with

withcemented lumps

cemented lumps 19 1.3 x104 0.3 1 45

Pile Pile - -

2.0 x109 0.15 2.0 x109

- 0.15

- -

soil soil

Unit weight, γ’ kN/m3 20.0 18.0

Young’s modulus, E’ MPa 1.3 × 104 1.0 × 104

Poisson’s ratio, ν’ - 0.3 0.35

Cohesion intercept, c’ MPa 0.1 5.0

Angle of internal friction, ø’ - 30 25

The study includes the lateral pile response (i.e. lateral

pile displacement and lateral soil pressure) under pure

lateral load. Two types of soil were used (i.e. cohesionless

Figure 3 Comparison Figure 3:ofComparison

finite element resultsresults

of finite element with with

fieldfield

test data

test data of

of Ismael (19

and cohesive soils). Lateral load intensity H ranged (5-45)

Ismael (1998).

{γw D3}. Slenderness ratio, L/D, was 10, 15, 20 and 25. Pile

Result and Discussion

shape and soil type (cohesionless soil and cohesive soil)

are detailed in this section. The baseline soil parameters the base, respectively. Finally, for the long pile (L/D = 25),

The study includes the lateral pile response (i.e. lateral pile displacement and lateral soil

used for the analysis of laterally loaded pile group are the point of inflection (fracture point) is (7/10)L from the

illustrated in Table 2.

pure lateral load. Two types of soil were used (i.e. cohesionless and cohesive soils). Lateral

base. This is due to the slenderness of the pile that carry

3

ranged (5-45) {γw D }. Slenderness ratio, L/D, was 10, 15, 20 and 25. Pile shape and soil ty

the load along the pile length in the case of short piles,

soil and cohesive soil) are detailed in this section. The baseline soil parameters used for

but the upper part of pile carry applied load in the case

laterally loaded

4.1 Influence of lateral load intensities pile group are illustrated in Table 2.

of long piles. In the case of short pile, the pile body tends

to rotate around the inflection point and produce a small

The lateral pile deformation Table

and 2lateral

Soil parameters for analysis

soil resistance negative of pile group

deflection closed to the pile base. The negative

Parameters

because of the lateral load are always influenced by deflection occurred in the opposite Unit

direction of the Cohesionless

load.

the lateral load intensity and soil type as well as a pile The maximum negative deflection occurred exactly at the soil

3

Unit 4weight,

slenderness ratio (L/B). Figure presentsγ’ the effect of base of the pile. kN/m 20.0

Young’s modulus,

lateral load intensity and soil type on the deformation E’ MPa

In general, the lateral pile responded closely in cases 1.3 × 014

behaviour of pile along the Poisson’s ratio,forν’ four pile of both cohesionless and cohesive

pile length - soils when small 0.3

Cohesion

slenderness ratio under lateral load showintercept, c’ (a) amounts of loading were applied toMPa

circular pile: all cases of slenderness 0.1

the short pile (L/B = 10) gives a small amount of lateral ratio. As shown in the results, the pile under low and a

tip deflection for the same amount of loading than the large amount of loading (in the case of cohesionless soil)

piles that have the slenderness ratio more than 10; (b) the presented more resistance (low lateral displacement) than

deflection along the pile is always in the direction of load the pile embedded in the cohesion soil. This is possibly

(assumed negative). These values change to positive and due to high soil stiffness.

pass through zero, depending on the slenderness ratio. Lateral soil pressure (p) in soil resulting from the

For the short pile (L/D = 10), the point of inflection is 1/5 lateral loads is shown in Figure 4. It can be observed

from the base of the pile, whilst for the long pile (L/D = 15) that the pressure increased with depth. Higher values of

and (L/D = 20), the point position is (1/2)L and (3/5)L from pressure occurred in the position of L/D between 6 and 8

Modelling and Assessment of a Single Pile Subjected to Lateral Load 69

when lateral loads of 250 and 450 kN were applied. Also at Pile deflection change depends on the pile load increment.

L/D = 2, which is the point of rotation, near the values of In the first stage of load, the pile response was uniform,

lateral soil pressure can be observed. As a conclusion from which means that the pile deflection improves linearly.

the results, the pile in cohesionless soil is less safe against But the square-shaped pile shows more resistance than

ultimate soil pressure failure and has less resistance a circular pile, because of the high contact surface area

against lateral pile displacement failure. The location between the pile and surrounding soil.

(zero lateral pressure) was also indicted [6,12,13] who The results (Fig. 7) show distribution of the soil

respectively studied only on pure lateral load (no vertical resistance along the pile depth under 450 kN load for two

load) and with the application of axial loads. Thus, the types of soil. As concluded from this and the previous

position of the maximum lateral soil pressure changes section, the soil resistance for different pile shapes

with vertical load intensity. does not significantly change at low load level. It can

The influence of the pile slenderness ratio on the be observed that the cross section of square-shaped

lateral pile tip displacement is assessed by fixed pile pile has high amount of lateral soil pressure than those

diameter and increase in the pile length (i.e. L = 10, 15, 20 observed from the circular pile. This happened possibly

and 25 m). During this study, the soil and pile parameters due to a large contact surface area of the square-shaped

were kept unchanged. The influence of the pile slenderness pile compared with the circular pile. This assumption is

ratio L/D on the lateral pile tip displacement is presented supported by [15].

in Figure 5. The study compared both types of soil under The maximum tip deflections of two shapes of pile are

three load intensities (i.e. 50, 250 and 450kN). At the detailed in Figure 8. In general, for the low values of load,

low load magnitude, very little changes were observed the lateral pile response was closed for the cross section of

in the lateral pile displacement with respect to the pile two shapes of pile and always near to the linear behaviour.

slenderness ratios for both cohesionless and cohesive Whilst, at higher loads, the piles behaved non-uniformly

soils. Whilst the displacement at the loads 250 and 450 kN resulting from the non-linear response of soil around the

increased to 20% and 35%, respectively. pile, and this is supported [9]. From these results, it was

The p-y curve predicted from finite element at two mainly observed that the square-shaped pile is able to

depths (z=0 and z=L/5D from ground surface) for both resist the load by about 30% more than the circular pile.

cohesionless and cohesive soils is shown in Figure 6. The The p–y curve predicted from finite element at

initial values of the computed p-y curves are insensitive two depth (z=0 and z=L/5D) for both cohesionless and

to the soil type and pile diameter. The result from this is cohesive soils is shown in Figure 9. The p–y curves were

closed to the assumption by Fan and Long (2005). From predicted for two shapes of the pile (i.e. square shaped

this figure, it can be observed that the behaviour of p–y and circular). From this figure, it can be observed that

curves was non-linear which results from the non-linear different behaviours of pile with different shapes translate

relationship of ultimate lateral soil pressure with respect to into different design values, if necessary, to design pile

pile slenderness ratio; this also supported the assumption under lateral load. Therefore, it can be concluded that

[25] and unsupported the assumption proposed [6,7], the pile is more sensitive to the pile shape as well as pile

which observed linear relation of the ultimate lateral soil slenderness ratio.

pressure with respect to pile slenderness ratio.

4.2 Influence of pile shape

In this study, the flexural rigidity (EI) change in three

One of the main advantages of the 3D finite element magnitudes was analysed; the values of EI were

simulation is the personification of the shape effect. The calculated by choosing various value of modulus of

previous investigations show that the response of pile to elasticity E and by keeping the magnitude of the moment

lateral load is moderately affected by the shape of cross of inertia I constant. The effect of the EI on the lateral pile

section [15]. Therefore, this study includes mainly the displacement, lateral soil pressure and corresponding

effect of pile shape on the lateral pile response on both p–y curve illustrated are discussed in this section. The

cohesionless and cohesive soils. pile slenderness ratios (L/D) are 10, 15, 20 and 25. The

The lateral pile displacement of two pile shapes is behaviours of lateral pile displacement with pile depth for

shown in Figure 7, which detailed the increase in lateral two types of soil are given in Figures 10 and 11. For lateral

deflection response with an increased amount of loading. load of 450 kN at the pile tip, the lateral pile displacement

70 Jasim M. Abbas et al.

H = 50 kN H = 250 kN H = 450 kN

10 10

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -200 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

15 15

12 12

9 9

Pile depth (L/D)

6 6

3 3

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure (kN/m2)

20 20

16 16

12 12

Pile depth (L/D)

8

4 4

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -200 -150 -100 -50 0

2

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m )

25

25

20 20

15

Pile depth (L/D)

15

Pile depth (L/D)

10 10

5 5

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil Pressure ( kN/m2)

Figure 4 Influence of lateral load intensities on the lateral soil pressure distribution of pile embedded on

both cohesionless

Figure 4: Influence and cohesive

of lateral load intensities soils:

on the lateral(a) L pressure

soil (b) L=15m,

= 10m, distribution pile L

of (c) = 20 m and

embedded L = 25 m and cohesive

(d)cohesionless

on both

soils: (a) L = 10m, (b) L=15m, (c) L = 20 m and (d) L = 25 m.

Modelling and Assessment of a Single Pile Subjected to Lateral Load 71

H = 50 kN CohesionlessH soil

= 250 kN Cohesive Hsoil

= 450 kN

H = 50 kN 0.04 H = 250 kN H = 450 kN

0.04

0.035

0.035

0.03

0.03

0.025

( δ /D)

0.025

0.02

( δ /D)

0.02

0.015

0.015

0.01

0.01

0.005

0.005

0

10

0 15 20 25

10 15

Slenderness ration (L/D) 20 25

Figure 5 Predicted lateral tip displacement versus pile slenderness

Slenderness ration (L/D) ratio under the influence of lateral

Figure 5 Predicted lateral tip displacement versus

load pile slenderness ratio under the influence of lateral

intensities

load intensities

Figure 5: Predicted lateral tip displacement versus pile slenderness ratio under the influence of lateral load intensities.

200 Cohesionless soil 160 Cohesive soil

z=0 z=0

200 z =z 2D 160

=0 z =z 3D

=0

160

z = 2D 120 z = 3D

160

120 120

p (kN/m2 )

p ( kN/m )

2

120 80

p (kN/m2 )

p ( kN/m )

2

80 80

80

40

40

40

40

0 0

00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 00 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035

y/D y/D

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035

y/D

(a) (b) y/D

z=0 z=0

160 z =z 4D 160

=0 z =z 5D

=0

120 z = 4D 120

z = 5D

120 120

p ( kN/m2)

p ( kN/m2)

80 80

p ( kN/m2)

p ( kN/m2)

80 80

40 40

40 40

0 0

00 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 00 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035

y/D y/D

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035

y/D

(c) (d) y/D

(c)

Figure 6 p-y curves predicted under the effect of lateral load intensities and pile (d) slenderness ratio:

Figure 6: p-y

Figure 6 p-y

curves curves

predicted (a)predicted

underL the

= 10 under

effect

m, of Lthe

(b)lateral effect

load

= 15 of lateral

m,intensities

(c) L = 20 load

andmpileintensities

andslendernessandmpile

ratio:

(d) L = 25 (a) Lslenderness

= 10 m, (b) L ratio:

= 15 m, (c) L = 20 m

and (d) L = 25 m. (a) L = 10 m, (b) L = 15 m, (c) L = 20 m and (d) L = 25 m

for EI magnitudes of EI= 1.4 × 105 kN m2, EI = 1.4 × 106 more than 70% in the case of pile in cohesive soil. Thus

kN m2 and EI = 1.4 × 106 kN m2. It can be observed that the pile in cohesionless soil is safer regarding the change

an increase in lateral pile displacement occurred when in EI than that in cohesive soil.

there is a decrease in pile flexural rigidity EI. It can also be The distribution of lateral soil resistance with pile

observed that the pile with low amount of EI (e.g. 1.4 × 105 depth embedded on two types of soil is illustrated in

kN m2) behave as a most flexible element, whilst, the pile Figures 10 and 11. For the same lateral load condition,

with high amount of EI (e.g. 1.4 × 107 kN m2) tend to behave the pile with low value of EI (first case) deflects higher

as rigid element. The pile in cohesionless soil can also be and more critical than the pile having high amount of EI

seen as less affected by the change in EI compared with (second case). Therefore, the pile in the first case receives

that in cohesive soil. For example, increase in lateral pile more soil pressure than the pile in the second case.

displacement in cohesionless soil was around 30–50% The influence of the pile slenderness ratio L/D on

between lowest and highest EI, whilst the values were the lateral pile tip displacement is shown in Figure 12.

7

7

72 Jasim M. Abbas et al.

Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil

10 10

8 8

6

6

4

4

2

2

0

0

-200 -150 -100 -50 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01

Lateral pile displacement ( δ

/D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

15 15

12 12

Pile depth (L/D)

9 9

6 6

3 3

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

20 20

16 16

Pile depth (L/D)

12 12

8 8

4 4

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -200 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

25

25

20 20

Pile depth (L/D)

15 15

Pile depth (L/D)

10 10

5 5

0 0

-0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

Figure 7 Influence of pile shape on the lateral soil pressure distribution of pile embedded on both

cohesionless

Figure 7: Influence and cohesive

of pile shape soils:

on the lateral soil(a) L = 10

pressure m, (b) L of

distribution = pile

15 m, (c) L = on

embedded 20both

m and (d) L =25and

cohesionless mcohesive soils:

(a) L = 10 m, (b) L = 15 m, (c) L = 20 m and (d) L =25 m.

Modelling and Assessment of a Single Pile Subjected to Lateral Load 73

H = 50 kN H = 250 kN H = 450 kN

0.04

H = 50 kN H = 250 kN H = 450 kN

0.03

0.04

0.025

0.035

0.02

0.03

0.015

0.025

0.01

0.02

0.005

0.015

0

0.01

10 15 20 25

0.005 Slenderness ratio (L/D)

0 (a)

10 15 20 25

Slenderness ratio (L/D)

0.04

0.035 (a)

/D)

0.03

δ

0.04

Pile tip displacement (

0.035 0.025

/D)

0.03 0.02

δ Pile tip displacement (

0.025 0.015

0.02 0.01

0.015 0.005

0.01 0

0.005 10 15 20 25

Slenderness ratio (L/D)

0

(b) 20 25 10 15

Slenderness ratio (L/D)

Figure 8 Predicted lateral tip displacement versus pile slenderness ratio under the influence of lateral load

Figure 8: Predicted lateralintensities

tip displacement versus (b)

pile slenderness ratio under

and pile shape: (a) cohesionless soilthe influence

and of lateral

(b) cohesive load intensities and pile shape: (a)

soil

Figure 8 Predicted lateral tip displacement versus pile slenderness ratio under the influence of lateral load

cohesionless soil and (b) cohesive soil

intensities and pile shape: (a) cohesionless soil and (b) cohesive soil

Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil

z = 0 (circle shape)

Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil z = L/5D (circle shape)

z = z0 = 0 (square

(circle shape)shape) z = L/5D

z =(circle

L/5Dshape)

(square shape)

z = 0 (square shape)

160

200 160 z = L/5D (square shape)

160

200 160

160

120

120

160

120

120

2 )2)

120

kN/m

p ( kN/m )

2

pp ((kN/m

80

80

2 )2)

120

kN/m

p ( kN/m )

2

pp ((kN/m

80 80

80

80

40

40 40

40

40 40

00

0

00 00 0.005 0.010.01 0.015

0.02 0.02 0.025

0.03 0.03 0.04

0.035 0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035

00 0.005 0.01

0.01 0.02 y/D

0.015 y/D 0.025

0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04

0.035

y/D

y/D 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 y/D

0.025 0.03 0.035

y/D

(a) (b)

(a) (b)

160 160

160 160

120 120

120 120

p ( kN/m2)

p ( kN/m2)

p ( kN/m2)

p ( kN/m2)

80 80

80 80

40 40 40 40

0 0 0

0

0 0 0.0050.0050.01 0.01

0.0150.015

0.02 0.02

0.025 0.025

0.03 0.03

0.035 0.035 0 0.005 0.01 0.02

0.015 0.025

0.02 0.025 0.035

0.03 0.035

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.03

y/D y/D y/D y/D

Figure

Figure9 p–-y

9 p–-y

curves predicted

curves under

predicted the effect

under of pile

the effect of shape and pile

pile shape andslenderness ratio ofratio

pile slenderness pile of

embedded

pile embedded

Figure on both

9:on

p–y cohesionless

curves

both predictedand

cohesionless cohesive

under

andthe soils:

effect

cohesive ofsoils:

pile L/D

(a)shape

(a) = 10,pile

L/D

and =(b) L/D

(b)=L/D

15, =(c)

slenderness

10, L/D

ratio

15, = L/D

of(c) 20

pile and

embedded

= 20 L/D

(d)and = 25

on (d)

bothL/D

cohesionless

= 25 and

cohesive soils: (a) L/D = 10, (b) L/D = 15, (c) L/D = 20 and (d) L/D = 25.

10 10

74 Jasim M. Abbas et al.

10 10

8 8

6 6

4 4

2 2

0

0

-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure (kN/m2 )

15 15

12 12

9 9

Pile depth (L/D)

6 6

3 3

0 0

-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

20 20

16 16

Pile depth (L/D)

8 8

4 4

0 0

-0.025 -0.02 -0.015 -0.01 -0.005 0 0.005 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

25 25

20 20

Pile depth (L/D)

15

Pile depth (L/D)

15

10 10

5 5

0 0

-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

Figure 10 Influence of pile stiffness, EI, on the lateral soil pressure for cohesionless soil, (a) L/D = 10,

Figure 10: Influence of pile stiffness, EI,(b)

on the

L/Dlateral

= 15,soil

(c)pressure

L/D = for

20cohesionless

and (d) L/Dsoil,

= 25(a) L/D = 10, (b) L/D = 15, (c) L/D = 20 and (d) L/D = 25.

12

Modelling and Assessment of a Single Pile Subjected to Lateral Load 75

10 10

8

8

6

4

4

2

2

0

-0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0

-400 -300 -200 -100 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

15 15

12 12

9

Pile depth (L/D)

6

6

3

3

0

-0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0

-300 -200 -100 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

20 20

16 16

12 12

Pile depth (L/D)

8 8

4 4

0

0

-0.1 -0.05 0 0.05

-300 -200 -100 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

25 25

20 20

Pile depth (L/D)

15 15

Pile depth (L/D)

10 10

5 5

0 0

-0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 -150 -100 -50 0

Lateral pile displacement ( δ /D) Lateral soil pressure ( kN/m2 )

Figure 11 Influence of pile stiffness, EI, on the lateral soil pressure for cohesive soil, (a) L/D = 10, (b)

L/D

Figure 11: Influence of pile stiffness, EI, on the=lateral soilL/D

15, (c) = 20 for

pressure and (d) L/D

cohesive = 25

soil, (a) L/D = 10, (b) L/D = 15, (c) L/D = 20 and (d) L/D = 25.

13

76 Jasim M. Abbas et al. Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil

EI= 1.4 x 105 kN m2 EI= 1.4 x 106 kN m2 EI= 1.4 x 107 kN m2

0.12

Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil

2 2

EI= 1.4

0.1x 105 kN m EI= 1.4 x 106 kN m EI= 1.4 x 107 kN m2

0.08

0.12

Pile tip displacement ( δ /D)

0.06

0.1

0.04

0.08

0.02

0.06

0

0.04

10 15 20 25

0.02 Pile slenderness ratio (L/D)

0

Figure 12 Predicted lateral tip displacement versus pile slenderness ratio under influence of lateral load

10 15 20 25

intensities

Pile slenderness ratio (L/D)

Figure lateral tip

12 Predicted displacement

lateral versus pileversus

tip displacement slenderness ratio under influence

pile slenderness of lateral

ratio under load intensities.

influence of lateral load

intensities

z = 0 (EI= 1.4 x 105 kN m2) z = 2,3,4,5D (EI= 1.4 x 105 kN m2)

z = 0 (EI= 1.4 x 106 kN m2) z = 2,3,4,5D (EI= 1.4 x 106 kN m2)

z = 0 (EI= 1.4 x 107 kN m2) z = 2,3,4,5D (EI= 1.4 x 107 kN m2)

Cohesionless soil Cohesive soil

300

500 z = 0 (EI= 1.4 x 105 kN m2) z = 2,3,4,5D (EI= 1.4 x 105 kN m2)

z = 0 (EI= 1.4 x 106 kN m2) 250 z = 2,3,4,5D (EI= 1.4 x 106 kN m2)

400

z = 0 (EI= 1.4 x 107 kN m ) 2

200

z = 2,3,4,5D (EI= 1.4 x 107 kN m2)

kN/m2 )

300

p ( kN/m )

2

300

500 150

200

p(

250

400 100

100 200

50

kN/m2 )

300

p ( kN/m )

2

0 150

0

200 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

p(

y/D 100 y/D

100

(a) 50 (b)

0 300 160

0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

250 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

y/D y/D

120

200

(a) (b)

p (kN/m )

p ( kN/m )

2

300150 160 80

250100

120 40

200 50

p (kN/m )

p ( kN/m )

2

150 0 80 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

y/D

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

100

y/D

40

50

(c) (d)

Figure

0 13 p–y curves predicted under the effect of pile stiffness,

0

EI, and pile slenderness ratio of pile

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

Figure 13: p–y curves predicted under

y/D the effect of pile stiffness, EI, and pile slenderness ratio of pile embedded on both cohesionless and

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12

y/D

cohesive soils.

(c) (d)

Figure 13 p–y curves predicted under the effect of pile stiffness, EI, and pile slenderness ratio of pile 14

14

Modelling and Assessment of a Single Pile Subjected to Lateral Load 77

three amounts of EI. High lateral tip displacement can

be observed in the case of low EI of the pile in cohesive [1] Abbas Al-Shamary, J.M., Chik, Z. & Taha, M.R. 2018. Modeling

soil. This was possibly due to the surrounded soil the lateral response of pile groups in cohesionless and

cohesive soils. International Journal of Geo-Engineering, 9(1),

failure occurred. In addition, it can be observed that low

1-17.

increment in lateral pile displacement appeared in case of [2] Abbas, J.M., Chik, Z. & Taha, M.R. 2017. Lateral Pile Response

cohesionless soil. Subjected to Different Combination of Loadings. Journal of

The p–y curve predicted from finite element at two Engineering Science and Technology Review 10 (6), 195- 202

depths (z = 0 and z = L/5D) for both cohesionless and [3] Abbas, J.M., Chik, Z. & Taha, M.R. 2015. Influence of axial

load on the lateral pile groups response in cohesionless and

cohesive soils is shown in Figure 13. From this figure, it

cohesive soil. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng, 9(2): 176–193.

can seem that different behaviour of pile with different EI [4] Anagnostopoulos, C. and M. Georgiadis, 1993. Interaction

values translates into different design values, if necessary, of axial and lateral pile responses. J. Geotech. Eng. Division,

to design pile under lateral load. Therefore, it can be 119(4): 793–798.

concluded that the pile is sensitive to the EI values as well [5] Brinkgreve, R.B.J. & Broere, W. (2004) “PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION

as a pile slenderness ratio. - version 1” Netherlands.

[6] Broms B. B. 1964a . Lateral resistance of Piles in Cohesive Soils

. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE,

90(2): 27-63.

Soils . Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division,

ASCE, 90(3): 123-156.

The lateral pile deformation and lateral soil resistance [8] Davisson, M.T. and Gill, H.L. 1963. Laterally loaded piles in

because of the lateral load is always influenced by the layered soil system. Journal of Soil Mechanics Foundation

lateral load intensity and soil type as well as a pile Division. ASCE, 89(3): 63-94.

[9] Johnson, K., Lemcke, P., Karunasena, W., Sivakugan, N. 2006.

slenderness ratio (L/D). For the pile of L/D = 10, the point

Modelling the load – deformation response of deep foundation

of inflection is 1/5 from the base of the pile, whilst the pile under oblique load. Environment Modelling and Software, 21:

with a slenderness ration of L/D = 15 and L/D = 20, the 1375-1380.

point position is 1/2 and 3/5 from the base, respectively. [10] Ismael, N. F. (1998) “Lateral loading tests on bored piles

Finally, for the pile of L/D = 25, the point of inflection in cemented sands”. Proceedings of the 3rd International

(fracture point) is 7/10 from the base. The pile under Geotechnical Seminar on Deep Foundation on Bored and Auger

Piles, Ghent, Belgium pp.137-144.

an intermediate and large amount of loading (in case

[11] Kahyaoglu, M. R., Imancli, G., Ozturk A. U., and Kayalar, A.

of cohesionless soil) has more resistance (low lateral S. 2009. Computational 3D finite element analyses of model

displacement) than that embedded on the cohesion soil. passive piles. Computational Materials Science. (In press)

The pressure increased with depth. Higher values of [12] Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna, V. V. G. S. T. , and Rajagopal K.

pressure were occurred in the position of L/D between 6 2006 . Influence of vertical load on the lateral response of piles

in sand . Computer and Geotechnics, 33: 121-131.

and 8 when lateral loads of 250 and 450 kN were applied.

[13] Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna, V. V. G. S. T. , and Rajagopal

Non-linear relationship between ultimate lateral soil K. 2007. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Vertical Load

pressure and the pile slenderness ratio was observed for on the Lateral Response of Piles . Journal of Geotechnical and

different load magnitude and soil type. Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(5): 512-521.

The square-shaped pile has more resistance compared [14] Matlock, H. and Reese, L.C. 1960. Generalized solution

with a circular pile. The square-shaped pile is able to resist for laterally loaded piles. Journal of Soil Mechanics and

Foundations Division, ASCE, 86, (SM5): 63- 91.

the load by about 30% more than the circular pile. The

[15] Mroueh, H. and Shahrour, I. 2009. Numerical analysis of

cross section of square-shaped pile has high amount of the response of battered piles to inclined pullout loads.

lateral soil pressure compared with those observed from International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in

the circular pile. Therefore, the p–y design curve is more Geomechanics. 33 (10): 1277 – 1288.

sensitive to the pile shape as well as a pile slenderness [16] Muqtadir, A., and Desai, C. S. 1986. Three-dimensional analysis

of a pile-group foundation. International Journal of Numerical

ration. A pile in cohesionless soil was less affected by

and Analytical Methods Geomechanics 10: 41–58.

the change in EI compared with that in cohesive soil. The [17] Ooi, P. S.K, Chang, B. K.F. and Wang, S. 2004. Simplified

different p–y behaviour of pile with different EI values Lateral Load Analyses of Fixed-Head Piles and Pile Groups.

mean different design values, if necessary, to design pile Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,

under lateral load. Therefore, the pile is sensitive to the EI 130(11): 1140–1151.

values as well as pile slenderness ration.

78 Jasim M. Abbas et al.

of Pile Groups in Sand, Journal of Geotechnical and

Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(6): 481-487.

[19] Pise, P. J. 1982. laterally loaded piles in a two-layer soil system.

Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 108(9): 1177-1181.

[20] Poulos H. G., and Davis E. H. 1980 . Pile Foundation Analysis

and Design . John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[21] Potts, D. M., and Zdravkovic, L. 1999. Finite element analysis in

geotechnical engineering: theory. Thomas Telford. Heron Quay,

London.

[22] Reese, L.C. & W.F. Van Impe 2011. Single Piles and Pile Groups

Under Lateral Loading, 2nd Edition. London: Taylor & Francis

Group.

[23] Trochanis, A. M., Bielak, J. and Christiano, P. 1991. Three-

dimensional nonlinear study of piles. Journal of Geotechnical

Engineering, ASCE, 117(3): 429.447.

[24] Yang Z. and Jeremic B. 2002 . Numerical Analysis of Pile

Behavior under Lateral Loads in Layered Elastic-Plastic Soils .

International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in

Geomechanics, Vol 26, 1385–1406.

[25] Zhang, L., F. Silva and R. Grismala, 2005. Ultimate lateral

resistance to pile in cohesionless soils. J. Geotech. Geoenvir.

Eng. ASCE., 131(1): 78-83

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