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Hebrew and other Semitic Cognates

to the Lesson Vocabularies in A Grammar of Akkadian

John Huehnergard
The University of Texas at Austin

Presented here are Hebrew and other Semitic cognates to the words given in the lesson
vocabularies of my Grammar of Akkadian (2nd ed.; Harvard Semitic Studies 45; Winona Lake, IN:
Eisenbrauns; 2nd printing, 2008). Cognates are words in two or more languages that share a
related phonological shape and a similar meaning, indicating that they descend from a common
ancestor, for example, Akkadian kalbum ‘dog’ and Hebrew ‫ ֶלב‬Ôֶ keleb ‘dog’, which share the
underlying form kalb- (compare Hebrew ‫י‬Êִ ‫ ְל‬Ôַ kalb-î ‘my dog’). For the study of ancient languages,
especially incompletely documented languages such as biblical Hebrew, cognates may provide
additional evidence for a word’s meaning.
This set of cognates is intented primarily for students of Biblical Hebrew, who generally
constitute the largest group of learners of Akkadian. Thus, if an Akkadian word has an obvious
Biblical Hebrew cognate, that Hebrew cognate is always listed, and, usually, no additional
Semitic cognates are given. (Hebrew — and Aramaic — words are given in Hebrew/Aramaic
script for the bene!t of Hebrew students, but also in transliteration for the bene!t of those who
do not know Hebrew.) If there is no certain cognate in Biblical Hebrew, cognates in other
Semitic languages are given when known. Akkadian words that are loans from Sumerian are
noted as such, and of course those do not have Semitic cognates, although a few of them may in
turn have been loaned into other Semitic languages. Some Akkadian words that are not
Sumerian loans nevertheless also have no certain Semitic cognates, the word or root apparently
having been lost in West Semitic; these are noted below with a long dash (—).
This list includes only the Akkadian words that appear in the lesson vocabularies; thus, the
additional words that appear in the readings are not given. The words are listed in the order in
which they appear in the vocabularies. An alphabetical listing of these Akkadian words will be
found at the end of this document. Glosses are not given for the Akkadian words, since the
glosses are easily accessible in the Grammar. Likewise, no gloss is given for a Hebrew cognate if
the meaning is substantially the same as that of the Akkadian word. If the Hebrew word has a
di"erent meaning, it is glossed; in these cases, the siglum “cf.” is used, to indicate that the
Hebrew word does not have the same meaning as the Akkadian word. “Cf.” is also used when a
Hebrew cognate exhibits a di"erent pattern than the Akkadian word. Cognates in other Semitic
languages are glossed, and again “cf.” is used, in this case to indicate a form other than a
Hebrew cognate.
Many of the cognates listed below already appear in von Soden’s Akkadisches Handwörter-
buch (AHw). Other cognates have been suggested by other scholars, and these scholars have been
cited where appropriate (see the list of references at the end of this document). But it should be
noted that this list is not intended to be complete, and I have undoubtedly overlooked many
other proposals.
It is my pleasant duty to thank Aren Wilson-Wright, who both spotted many errors in an
earlier draft of this list, and also o"ered a number of important suggestions for improving it.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 2

Abbreviations
Akk.: Akkadian PN: personal name
Arab.: Arabic ptcpl.: participle
Aram.: Aramaic Sab.: Sabaic
BH: Biblical Hebrew Sem.: common Semitic
Cent. Sem.: Central Semitic Sum.: Sumerian
Eth.: classical Ethiopic (Gǝˤǝz) Syr.: Syriac
Hi: hipˤîl Ug.: Ugaritic
lw.: loanword WS: West Semitic
MH: Mishnaic Hebrew <: derived from
MSA: Modern South Arabian >: changed into
Ni: nipˤal ←: loaned from (language)
NWS: Northwest Semitic →: loaned into (language)
OSA: Old South Arabian *: unattested or reconstructed form
Phoen.: Phoenician [ ]: enclose pronunciation
Pi.: piˤēl —: no certain cognates

Comparative table of Akkadian, Proto-Semitic (PS) and Hebrew consonants


(See Grammar, pp. 586–87.)

Akk. PS Hebrew Akk. PS Hebrew

1 * ‫א‬  p *p ‫פ‬ p
2 *h ‫ה‬ h q *q ‫ק‬ q
3 *ḥ ‫ח‬ ḥ r *r ‫ר‬ r
4 *ˤ ‫ע‬ ˤ s *ts ‫ס‬ s
(5 *ǵ ‫ע‬ ˤ) ṣ *tṣ ‫צ‬ ṣ
b *b ‫ב‬ b or *ṣ́ ‫צ‬ ṣ
d *d ‫ד‬ d or *θ̣ ‫צ‬ ṣ
g *g ‫ג‬ g š *ś ‡ ś
ḫ *ḫ ‫ח‬ ḥ or *s › š
or *x̣ ‫ח‬ ḥ or *θ › š
(or *ǵ ‫ע‬ ˤ) t *t ‫ת‬ t
j/y *y ‫י‬ y ṭ *ṭ ‫ט‬ ṭ
k *k ‫כ‬ k w *w ‫ו‬ w
l *l ‫ל‬ l z *ð ‫ז‬ z
m *m ‫מ‬ m or *dz ‫ז‬ z
n *n ‫נ‬ n
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 3

Lesson 1
abum: BH ‫ ָאב‬āb.
ālum: cf. BH ‫ א ֶֹהל‬ōhel ‘tent’.
amtum: BH ‫ ָא ָמה‬āmā.
bēlum: BH ‫ ַעל‬Êַ baˤal.
ḫurāṣum: cf. BH ‫ץ‬Í‫ ָחר‬ḥārûṣ.
iltum: cf. Phoen. ‫ אלת‬lt, Ug. ilt.
ilum: BH ‫ ֵאל‬ēl.
kaspum: BH ‫ ֶסף‬Ôֶ kesep.
mārtum: cf. Aram. ‫ ָמ ְר ָתא‬mārǝtā ‘lady’, Arab. imraa (al-mara) ‘woman’.
mārum: cf. BH ‫ ְמ ִריא‬mərî ‘fatling’; cf. Aram. ‫ ָמ ָרא‬mārā ‘lord’, Arab. imru (al-mar) ‘man’.
qaqqadum: cf. BH ‫ ָק ְדקֹד‬qodqōd.
ṣābum: BH ‫ ָצ ָבא‬ṣābā.
šarratum: cf. BH ‫ ָ‡ ָרה‬śārā ‘princess’.
šarrum: cf. BH ‫ ַ‡ר‬śar ‘prince’.
wardum: —.
u: ְ‫ ו‬wə‑.

Lesson 2
aššatum: BH ‫ ִא ָ·ה‬iššā.
bītum: BH ‫יִ ת‬Êַ bayit.
emūqum: cf. BH ‫ ָעמֹק‬ˤāmōq ‘deep’.
īnum: BH ‫ ַעיִ ן‬ˤayin.
išdum: cf. BH ‫ יְ סֹד‬yəsōd.
libbum: BH ‫ ֵלב‬lēb (and ‫ ֵל ָבב‬lēbāb).
mutum: BH pl. cst. ‫ ְמ ֵתי‬mǝtê ‘men of’ (and the PNs ‫› ֵאל‬Í‫ת‬
ָ ‫ ְמ‬mǝtûšāēl and ‫› ַלח‬Í‫ת‬
ֶ ‫ ְמ‬mǝtûšelaḥ).
nārum: BH ‫ נָ ָהר‬nāhār.
šīpātum: Cf. MSA s/ṣawf, Arabic ṣūf, Amharic suf ‘wool’ (irregular sibilant correspondance)?
ṭuppum: Sum. lw.
ummum: BH ‫ ֵאם‬ēm.
uznum: BH ‫ אֹזֶ ן‬ōzen.
ana: perhaps originally *ha-na; cf. OSA, MSA h- ‘to’, enclitic -n on various Sem. prepositions.
ina: cf. Eth. ǝn‑ ‘via’.
ištu: cf. Eth. wəsta ‘in’.
itti: BH ‫ ֵאת‬ēt.
ša: cf. BH Í‫ ז‬zû ‘which’ (e.g., Exod 15:16; Old Akk. has *θū/θā/θī; Akk. *θ ~ WS *ð).

Lesson 3
damāqum: cf. Ug. goddess name dmqt.
danānum: cf. BH ‫ יָ דֹן‬yādôn Gen 6:3 (Hendel 1987); Ug. dn ‘strength’.
ḫalāqum: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ָח ַלק‬ḥālaq II ‘to be smooth slippery’, Arab. ḫaliqa ‘to be(come) smooth’.
kašādum: cf. Ug. kšd ‘to search, reach’ (1x).
maḫāṣum: BH ‫ ָמ ַחץ‬māḥaṣ.
maqātum: cf. Sab. mqṭt s2ms1 ‘sunset’ (for *ṭ > t in Akk. see Grammar, p. 588(i)).
marāṣum: BH Ni. ‫ נִ ְמ ַרץ‬nimraṣ ‘to be sore, sick’.
rapāšum: cf. perhaps BH ‡‫ ַר‬ıָ pāraś ‘to spread (out)’ (metathesis; J. Tropper, p.c.) or ‡‫ ָר ַמ‬rāmaś ‘to
creep, move about’ (m > p; Bonechi 2001).
ṣabātum: BH ‫ ָצ ַבט‬ṣābaṭ ‘to reach, hold’ (1x Ruth 2:14; for *ṭ > t in Akk. see Grammar, p. 588(i)).
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 4

šakānum: cf. probably BH hēkîn (Hi. of ‫ כון‬kwn) ‘to establish, set up’ (and Ug. š-kn).
šarāqum: cf. Arab., Eth. saraqa ‘to steal’.
awīlum: cf. perhaps BH ‫לי‬Í‫א‬ֵ ûlê ‘nobles of’ 2 Kgs 24:15 (kǝtîb); Arab. awwal ‘!rst’.
mātum: —; → Aram. ‫ ָמ ָתא‬mātā ‘land’.
qātum: —.
šarrāqum: from šarāqum, above.
eli: BH ‫ע ֵלי‬/‫ל‬
ֲ ‫ ַע‬ˤal/ˤălê.

Lesson 4
balāṭum: cf. BH ‫ נִ ְמ ַלט‬nimlaṭ and ‫ ַלט‬ıָ pālaṭ ‘to escape’ (assimilation of initial *p to l).
gamārum: BH ‫ָ ַמר‬Á gāmar ‘to end, complete’.
kanākum: —.
maḫārum: cf. Sab. mḫr ‘to face, oppose, !ght’.
šalāmum: BH ‫ ָ› ֵלם‬šālēm.
aḫum: BH ‫ ָאח‬āḥ.
alpum: BH ‫ ֶא ֶלף‬elep.
eṭlum: —.
kakkum: —.
napištum: cf. BH ›‫ נֶ ֶפ‬nepeš.
šamnum: BH ‫ ֶ› ֶמן‬šemen.
šikarum: BH ‫ ֵ› ָכר‬šēkār.
nakarum: cf. BH ‫ נֵ ָכר‬nēkār, ‫ נָ ְכ ִרי‬nokrî ‘foreign’.
ṭābum: BH ‫ ט˚ב‬ṭôb.
ul(a): probably from u+lā, and thus corresponds to BH Ä‫ וְ ל‬wǝ-lō; but cf. also BH ‫ ַאל‬al.

Lesson 5
nadānum: cf. BH ‫ נָ ַתן‬nātan (voicing of *t to d in Akk.).
naqārum: cf. BH ‫ נָ ַקר‬nāqar ‘to bore, dig, pick’.
nasāḫum: cf. BH ‫ נָ ַסח‬nāsaḥ ‘to pull, tear away’.
naṣārum: BH ‫ נָ ַצר‬nāṣar.
paqādum: cf. BH ‫ ַקד‬ıָ pāqad ‘to muster, inspect, instruct, call to account’.
pašāšum: no cognates except in Eblaite, which indicates that the root was originally *pθθ.
qatānum: BH ‫ק ַטן‬/‫ֹן‬
ָ ‫ ָקט‬qāṭōn/qāṭan (for *ṭ > Akk. t see Grammar, p. 588(i)).
rakābum: BH ‫ ָר ַכב‬rākab.
ḫarrānum: — (cf. BH place name ‫ ָח ָרן‬ḥārān).
kalbum: BH ‫ ֶלב‬Ôֶ keleb.
kišādum: cf. Eth. kəsād ‘neck’.
narkabtum: BH ‫ ָבה‬Ôָ ‫ ֶמ ְר‬merkābā (for *m > n in Akk. see Grammar, p. 379)
šēpum: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ַ‡ע‬ıֶ peśaˤ ‘step’ (1 Sam 20:3; metathesis); MSA Mehri śaf ‘trace, track’,
Jibbāli śɛf ‘track, foot’.
mādum: cf. BH ‫ ְמאֹד‬məōd.
kīma: cf. BH ‫י‬Ôִ kî, ˚‫מ‬Ôְ kəmô.

Lesson 6
nasākum: cf. BH ‫ נָ ַס‬nāsak ‘to pour out'.
naṭālum: cf. BH ‫ נָ ַטל‬nāṭal ‘to lift’.
parāsum: BH ‫ ַרס‬ıָ pāras.
šaṭārum: cf. BH ‫ › ֵֹטר‬šōṭēr ‘o(cial’.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 5

ṭarādum: cf. MH ‫ ָט ַרד‬ṭārad, Ug. ṭrd, Syr. ṭrad, Arab. ṭarada, all ‘to drive away, expel’; cf. perhaps
also BH ‫ ָט ַרד‬ṭārad ‘to drip continually’.
dayyānum: BH ‫ָ ן‬ÌËַ dayyān.
ekallum: Sum. lw.; → BH ‫יכל‬ ָ ‫ ֵה‬hêkāl.
kussûm: cf. BH ‫א‬Ûֵ Ôִ kissē.
purussûm: from parāsum, above.
rubātum: from rabûm (7).
rubûm: from rabûm (7).
šadûm: cf. BH ‫ ָ‡ ֶדה‬śāde ‘!eld’.
annûm: cf. perhaps BH de!nite article ‫ ַה־‬ha(n)‑.
šaplûm: cf. BH ‫ ָ› ָפל‬šāpāl ‘low’.
šū, etc.: BH ‫א‬Í‫ ה‬hû, etc. (Sem. initial *s > *h in certain WS pronominal and other forms).

Lesson 7
banûm: BH ‫נָ ה‬Êָ bānā.
ḫadûm: BH ‫ ָח ָדה‬ḥādā.
leqûm: BH ‫ ָל ַקח‬lāqaḥ.
malûm: BH ‫ ָמ ֵלא‬mālē.
rabûm: BH ‫ ָר ָבה‬rābā.
šemûm: BH ‫ ָ› ַמע‬šāmaˤ.
zakûm: BH ‫ זָ ָכה‬zākā.
bēltum: BH ‫ ֲע ָלה‬Êַ baˤălā.
eqlum: cf. Aram. ‫ ַח ְק ָלא‬ḥaqlā, Arab. ḥaql ‘!eld’.
mû: BH ‫ ַמיִ ם‬mayim.
narûm: Sum. lw.
qīštum: from qiāšum (9).
ṣibittum: from ṣabātum (3).
ṭēmum: cf. BH ‫ ַט ַעם‬ṭaˤam ‘taste, discernment’.
ṣeḫrum: from ṣeḫērum (33).

Lesson 8
aḫāzum: BH ‫ ָא ַחז‬āḥaz.
alākum: BH ‫ ָה ַל‬hālak.
amārum: cf. BH ‫ ָא ַמר‬āmar ‘to say’.
arākum: BH ‫ ָא ַר‬ārak.
epēšum: cf. perhaps BH ‡‫ ָח ַפ‬ḥāpaś ‘to search’, Aram. ‫ ֲח ַפס‬ḥăpas ‘to dig’, Arab. ḥafaša ‘to gather’,
Eth. ḥafaśa ‘to rake up, carry away’.
erēbum: cf. BH ‫ ָע ַרב‬ˤārab ‘to set (of sun)’; cf. Ug. ˤrb ‘to enter’.
ešērum: BH ‫ יָ ַ›ר‬yāšar.
ezēbum: BH ‫ ָעזַ ב‬ˤāzab.
ak(a)lum: cf. BH ‫ א ֶֹכל‬ōkel.
awātum: cf. Ug. hwt (pronounced [huwātu]) ‘word’.
dīnum: BH ‫ין‬Ëִ dîn.
epištum: from epēšum, above.
puḫrum: cf. Ug. pḫr ‘totality’; Phoen. ‫ מפחרת‬mpḥrt ‘assembly’; MSA faḫ(ə)rəh ‘together’ (Huehner-
gard 1991).
qarrādum: —.
šumum: cf. BH ‫ ֵ›ם‬šēm; Aram. ‫ ›˚ם‬šom.
ūmum: BH ‫ י˚ם‬yôm.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 6

Lesson 9
agārum: cf. BH ‫ג˚רה‬ ָ ‫ ֲא‬ăgôrā ‘payment’ (1x 1 Sam 2:36); → Aram. → Arab.
enēšum: BH Ni. › ַ‫ נֶ ֱאנ‬neĕnaš ‘to be sick’, ›Í‫ ָאנ‬ānûš ‘incurable’.
kânum: cf. BH ‫ נָ כ˚ן‬nākôn (Ni. of ‫ כון‬kwn) ‘to be !rm’.
miādum: cf. BH ‫ ְמאֹד‬məōd.
nêrum: cf. MH ‫ נָ ַחר‬nāḥar, Aram. ‫ נְ ַחר‬nəḥar ‘to puncture, pierce’.
qiāšum: Von Soden (AHw) compares Arab. qāsa ‘to measure’.
šâmum: cf. OSA, MSA śm ‘to buy’.
šatûm: BH ‫ ָ› ָתה‬šātā.
târum: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ָ˙ר‬tār (root ‫ תור‬twr) ‘to explore’.
ṭiābum: BH ‫ ט˚ב‬ṭôb.
ummānum: cf. perhaps Cent. Sem. *ˤamm‑, BH ‫ ַעם‬ˤam ‘clan, people, kin(sman)’.

Lesson 10
akālum: BH ‫ ָא ַכל‬ākal.
babālum: cf. BH ‫ה˚ביל‬ ִ hôbîl (Hi. of ‫ יבל‬ybl) ‘to conduct’, ‫ל‬Í‫ יְ ב‬yəbûl ‘produce’.
edēšum: BH ›‫ ָח ַד‬ḥādaš.
labārum: —.
mâtum: BH ‫ ֵמת‬mēt.
šiābum: BH ‫ ִ‡יב‬śîb, ‫ ֵ‡ ָבה‬śēbā.
wašābum: BH ‫ יָ ַ›ב‬yāšab.
watārum: cf. BH ‫נ˚תר‬ ַ nôtar (Ni. of ‫ יתר‬ytr) ‘to be left (over)’.
karānum: cf. BH ‫ ֶרם‬Ôֶ kerem (irregular Akk. n ~ WS *m).
nišū: cf. BH ‫ נָ ִ›ים‬nāšîm ‘women’ (Sem. *nis‑ ‘people’).
šattum: BH ‫ ָ›נָ ה‬šānā.
lemnum: perhaps *lā+imnu = ‘not right’? imnu = WS *ymn ‘right (hand)’ (BH ‫ יָ ִמין‬yāmîn); or =
WS *mn ‘!rm, secure, true’ (BH ‫ ָא ֵמן‬āmēn).

Lesson 11
kaṣārum: BH ‫ ָק ַצר‬qāṣar ‘to reap’ (for *q > k in Akk. see Grammar, p. 588(i)).
nakāsum: cf. MH ‫ נָ ַכס‬nākas, Aram. ‫ נְ ַכס‬nəkas ‘to slay’.
paḫārum: from puḫrum (8); cf. also Qatabanic (OSA) ftḫr ‘to associate with’.
rašûm: cf. perhaps Ḥaḍramitic (OSA) causative s1rθy ‘to acquire?’, Eth. rassaya ‘to establish’.
ṭeḫûm: —.
walādum: BH ‫ יָ ַלד‬yālad.
iṣum: BH ‫ ֵעץ‬ˤēṣ.
nēmettum: from emēdum (14).
sinništum: —.
ṣuḫārum: from ṣeḫērum (33).
kalûm: cf. BH ‫ֹל‬Ô kōl (WS *kull‑; Sem. roots *kll and *kly).
adīni: literally ‘up to us’; see adi (13).

Lesson 12
ḫepûm: cf. Arab. ḫafaa ‘tear o", destroy’.
kanāšum: perhaps a biform of kamāsum with similar mng; Ug. tkms ‘to prostrate oneself’.
pašāḫum: cf. Eth. tafaśśəḥa ‘to rejoice’, Sab. hfs2ḥ ‘to cause to rejoice’ (Huehnergard 1991).
saḫāpum: BH ‫ ָס ַחף‬sāḥap ‘to throw down’.
birītum: AHw derives from barûm ‘to see’ (29); → BH ‫ ִרית‬Êְ bərît ‘covenant’.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 7

ḫubullum: from ḫabālum ‘to wrong’; cf. BH ‫ ָח ַבל‬ḥābal ‘to act corruptly’.
maḫrum: from maḫārum (4).
muḫḫum: cf. BH ‫ מַֹח‬mōaḥ ‘marrow’.
pānum: cf. BH ‫נִ ים‬ıָ pānîm.
pûm: BH ‫ה‬ıֶ pe.
ṣērum: cf. BH ‫ צ ַֹהר‬ṣōhar ‘roof’ (Cent. Sem. *θ̣ ahr‑ ‘back’ (also *ṣ́ahr‑ ?)).
šiprum: from šapārum ‘to send’ (15); → NWS *tsipr‑ ‘missive, document’ (Ug., Aram., BH ‫ֵס ֶפר‬
sēper) → BH denominative verb ‫ ָס ַפר‬sāpar ‘to count’, Pi. ‘to recount, relate’.

Lesson 13
ragāmum: cf. Ug. rgm ‘to speak, say’; perhaps also Eth. ragama ‘to curse’, Arab. rajama ‘to curse,
cast stones’, and BH ‫ ָרגַ ם‬rāgam ‘to stone’ (or is rgm ‘to stone’ a separate root? cf. Eth. wagara
‘to stone’); or BH ‫ ָרגַ ן‬rāgan ‘to murmur,whisper’ (Leslau 1987: 465; Huehnergard 1991).
tamûm: secondary root from earlier wamûm; cf. Aram. ‫ימא‬ ִ ‫ יְ ִמ‬yəmi/imā ‘to swear’.
ָ ‫א‬/‫י‬
zâzum: —.
bābtum: derived from bābum (14).
ebūrum: BH ‫ר‬Í‫ ָעב‬ˤābûr ‘produce, yield’ (Josh 5:11, 12); also Aram., Ug.
nīšum: derived from nêšum ‘to live’ (no certain cognates).
rēšum: cf. BH ›Ä‫ ר‬rō()š.
šamšum: BH ›‫ ֶ› ֶמ‬šemeš.
šamû: BH ‫ ָ› ַמיִ ם‬šāmayim.
tappûm: Sum. lw.
ûm: if correctly read (and not a Sum. lw. šeum), cf. perhaps BH ‫ ַחי‬ḥay ‘alive’ (root originally
*ḥyw; Cavigneaux 1989).
adi: BH ‫ע ֵדי‬/‫ד‬
ֲ ‫ ַע‬ˤad/ˤădê.

Lesson 14
apālum: — (unless related to apālum II ‘to be late, delayed’; cf. BH ‫ ָא ִפיל‬āpîl ‘late in season’).
dâkum: BH Ëָ dāk (root ‫ דוך‬dwk) ‘to pound, crush’ (1x Num 11:8); also Aram., Ug., Arab.
diānum: BH dān (root ‫ דין‬dyn).
emēdum: cf. BH ‫ ָע ַמד‬ˤāmad ‘to stand’.
qabûm: cf. Ug. qb ‘to summon; to invoke’.
sadārum: cf. ‫ ֵס ֶדר‬sēder ‘arrangement’ (Job 10:22).
bābum: —; → Aram. ‫ ָבא‬Êָ bābā → Arab. bāb; perhaps also → BH ˚‫ ַבת ֵעינ‬Êָ bābat ˤênô ‘pupil, apple of
his eye’ (Zech 2:12).
bēlūtum: from bēlum (1).
itûm: —.
kirûm: Sum. lw.
mārūtum: from mārum (1).
šērtum: —.
warkītum: from *warkûm (30); see warkatum (16).
ayyum: cf. BH ‫ ֵאי־זֶ ה‬ê-ze ‘which?’.
mamman, mannum: cf. Aram. ‫ ַמן‬man, Arab. man ‘who?’.
mimma, mīnum/minûm: cf. Ug. mn, Eth. mənt ‘what?’.
aššum: < an(a) šum ‘for the name of’.
lā: BH Ä‫ ל‬lō.
Bābilim: — (bāb ilim ‘god’s gate’ is probably a folk etymology); → BH ‫ ֶבל‬Êָ Bābel.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 8

Lesson 15
madādum: BH ‫ ָמ ַדד‬mādad.
šapārum: cf. perhaps Arab. sāfara ‘to travel’ (→ NWS see šiprum, lesson 12).
warādum: BH ‫ יָ ַרד‬yārad.
waṣābum: AHw compares BH ‫ יָ ַסף‬yāsap (also Aram., OSA ws3f; irregular Akk. ṣ, b ~ WS *ts, p).
abullum: —; → Aram. ‫לא‬Í‫ב‬ ָ ‫ ֲא‬ăbul(l)ā.
eleppum: —; → Syr. elp̄ ā.
erṣetum: cf. BH ‫ ֶא ֶרץ‬ereṣ.
ṣibtum: from waṣābum, above.
elûm: from verb elûm ‘to go up’ (21).
pānûm: from pānum (12).
kiam: see kīma (5).
umma: earlier (Old Akk.) en-ma; cf. perhaps BH ‫ ֵהן‬hēn, ‫ֵ ה‬Ú‫ ִה‬hinnē.
‑mi: cf. various WS enclitic ‑m particles.

Lesson 16
etēqum: BH ‫‘ ָע ַתק‬ātaq.
palāḫum: cf. Aram. ‫ ַלח‬ıְ pəlaḥ ‘to serve; to work’ (also MH; → Arab.); cf. perhaps BH ‫ ַלח‬ıָ pālaḥ ‘to
split, pierce’ < ‘to work’?.
petûm: BH ‫ ַתח‬ıָ pātaḥ.
redûm: from 2 or 3 roots; cf. BH ‫ ָר ָדה‬rādā ‘to trample, rule’; also *rdy in Arab., OSA, Eth. ‘to
increase, pay interest’; *rd in Arab. radaa, Eth. rada ‘to support, help’ (Huehnergard 1991).
šaqālum: BH ‫ ָ› ַקל‬šāqal (originally *θql).
takālum: secondary root from earlier wakālum; cf. Arab. wakala, OSA wkl, Eth. tawakkala ‘to
(en)trust’.
tebûm: cf. Ug. tbˤ ‘to leave, depart’, Arab. tabiˤa ‘to follow’, Aram. ‫ ְ˙ ַבע‬təbaˤ ‘to look for, require’.
ilkum: from alākum (8).
šarrūtum: from šarrum (1).
têrtum: derived from wârum (29).
warkatum: cf. BH ‫יָ ֵר‬/‫ יֶ ֶר‬yerek/yārēk ‘thigh; side’.
šanûm: derived from šinā ‘two’; cf. BH ‫ ֵ›נִ י‬šēnî.
lū: BH Í‫ ל‬lû.
ū: BH ˚‫ א‬ô.

Lesson 17
kalûm: BH ‫ ָלא‬Ôָ kālā.
paṭārum: BH ‫ ַטר‬ıָ pāṭar.
aḫum b: —.
lētum: cf. BH ‫ ְל ִחי‬lǝḥî, Arab. laḥy ‘jaw’; see Militarev–Kogan 2000: 159–62, no.s 176–178.
mišlum: from mašālum ‘to be(come) similar, equal’; cf. BH Ni. ‫ נִ ְמ ַ›ל‬nimšal ‘to be like, similar’.
pīḫātum: from D puḫḫum (pw/yḫ) ‘to exchange’ (no cognates); → Aram., BH ‫ ָחה‬ıֶ peḥā ‘governor’.
rittum: cf. BH ‫ ַר ַחת‬raḥat ‘shovel’; Ug. rḥt ‘palm of hand’, Arab. rāḥa ‘(palm of) hand’.
ṣimdatum: from ṣamādum (35).
šīmum: from šâmum (9).
anumma: —.
inanna: see ina (2), annûm (6).
warki: see warkatum (16).
šumma: see šumum ‘name’; cf. BH ‫ ִאם‬im (with Sem. *s > *h > ).
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 9

Lesson 18
baqārum: also pāqarum; cf. Arab. faqura ‘to be(come) poor, needy’, Eth. afqara ‘to love’.
kabātum: cf. BH ‫ ֵבד‬Ôָ kābēd (and *kbd elsewhere in WS; irregular Akk. t ~ WS d).
nasāqum: —.
palāšum: cf. Syr. pəlaš ‘to break, dig through’, MH Pi. ›‫ ֵלּ‬ıִ pillēš ‘to penetrate, perforate’.
riābum: cf. Arab. raaba ‘to repair, rectify’, OSA hrb ‘to make a contract’ (Huehnergard 1991).
šarākum: cf. Ug. šrk ‘to associate with’, Arab. šarika ‘to share’, Aram. sǝrak (Syr. srek) ‘to adhere’;
connection with BH Pi. śērēk (Jer 2:23) uncertain (see also HALOT 1357b for conjectured Qal
yiśrǝkû Jer 5:26).
zaqāpum: BH ‫ זָ ַקף‬zāqap (Pss 145:15, 146:8).
asûm: Sum. lw.; → Aram. ‫ ָא ְסיָ א‬āsəyā ‘physician’.
makkūrum: from makārum ‘to trade’ (rare); cf. BH ‫ ָמ ַכר‬mākar ‘to sell’.
muškēnum: from šukênum (38); → Aram., BH ‫ן‬Ôֵ ‫ ִמ ְס‬miskēn ‘poor’.
simmum: —.
šīmtum: from šiāmum ‘to establish’; cf. BH ‫ ָ‡ם‬śām (root ‫ ‡ים‬śym).
terḫatum: cf. Ug. trḫ ‘to marry a wife’ (← Akk.?).
zīttum: from zâzum (13).
mitḫāriš: from maḫārum (4).

Lesson 19
erēšum: cf. BH construct ‫ ֲא ֶר ֶ›ת‬ărešet ‘desire’ (1x Ps 21:3).
pašārum: cf. Aram. ‫ ַ›ר‬ıְ pəšar, MH ‫ ַ›ר‬ıָ pāšar ‘to melt, dissolve (intr.)’; Aram. ‫ ַ›ר‬ıְ pəšar ‘to inter-
pret’, ‫ ְ›רא‬ıִ pišrā ‘interpretation’ (→ BH ‫ ֶ›ר‬ıֶ pešer Eccl 8:1) in+uenced by Akk., similarly BH
‫ ַתר‬ıָ pātar ‘explain, interpret’.
râmum: cf. Arab. raima ‘to love’.
zakārum: BH ‫ זָ ַכר‬zākar.
bašītum: from bašûm (23).
idum: cf. BH ‫ יָ ד‬yād ‘hand’.
immerum: cf. BH ‫* ִא ֵמּר‬immēr (Gen 49:21, perhaps Hab 13:2), Aram. ‫ ִא ַמּר‬immar, Ug. imr.
kanīkum: from kanākum (4).
maḫīrum: from maḫārum (4); → Aram. ‫ ְמ ִח ָירא‬məḥirā → BH ‫ ְמ ִחיר‬mǝḥîr.
šamallûm: Sum. lw.
tamkārum: from makārum ‘to trade’ (rare); cf. BH ‫ ָמ ַכר‬mākar ‘to sell’; → Aram., MH ‫ָ ר‬Á˙ַ taggār,
Arab. tājir ‘merchant’.
warḫum: BH ‫ יֶ ַרח‬yeraḥ, ‫ יָ ֵרַח‬yārēaḥ.
mala: originally in!nitive (malā) of malûm (7).

Lesson 20
šadādum: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ָ› ַדד‬šādad ‘to devastate’, Ug. šdd, Eth. sadada ‘to banish, pursue’.
šapākum: BH ‫ ָ› ַפ‬šāpak.
agûm: Sum. lw.
aḫātum: BH ‫ ָאח˚ת‬āḥôt.
aplum: see perhaps apālum (14).
gagûm: Sum. lw.
imērum: BH ‫ ֲחמ˚ר‬ḥămôr.
nadītum: from nadûm (21).
rēdûm: from redûm (16).
šāpirum: from šapārum (15).
wardūtum: from wardum (1).
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 10

Lesson 21
elûm: BH ‫ ָע ָלה‬ˤālā.
lawûm: cf. BH ‫ ָלוָ ה‬lāwā ‘to join’; ‫ ִלוְ יָ ָתן‬liwyātān ‘serpent’.
leûm: cf. Ug. lw/y ‘to conquer, prevail’.
naādum: —.
nadûm: cf. BH Pi. ‫ה‬Ëָ ִ‫ נ‬niddā ‘to push’, Ug. ndy/ydy ‘to throw; to remove’.
nakārum: cf. BH ‫ נֵ ָכר‬nēkār, ‫ נָ ְכ ִרי‬nokrî ‘foreign’.
našûm: BH ‫ נָ ָ‡א‬nāśā.
qerēbum: BH ‫ ָק ַרב‬qārab.
waṣûm: BH ‫ יָ ָצא‬yāṣā.
dūrum: cf. BH ‫ר‬ÍË dûr ‘circle, ball’.
kiṣrum: from kaṣārum (11).
meḫrum: from maḫārum (4).
šībūtum: from šiābum, šībum (10).
šinnum: BH ‫ ֵ›ן‬šēn.

Lesson 22
maṣûm: cf. BH ‫ ָמ ָצא‬māṣā ‘to !nd’; Sem. *mθ̣ /*mṣy ‘to come, proceed, be able’ (Leslau 1987:
370a).
saḫārum: BH ‫ ָס ַחר‬sāḥar.
šebērum: BH ‫ ָ› ַבר‬šābar (root originally *θbr).
tabālum: secondary root from w/babālum (10).
amūtum: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ֵמ ִעים‬mēˤîm ‘internal organs’ (B. Spencer p.c.)
bāerum: from baārum ‘to catch !sh, animals’ (no cognates).
imittum a: cf. BH ‫ יָ ִמין‬yāmîn.
imittum b: from emēdum (14).
martum: cf. BH ‫ ַמר‬mar ‘bitter’.
maṣṣartum: from naṣārum (5).
pūḫum: see pīḫātum (17).
riksum: from rakāsum ‘to bind’ (27).
šumēlum: BH ‫ל‬Ä‫ ְ‡מ‬śəmō()l.
balum: cf. BH ‫ל‬Êַ bal, ‫ ִלי‬Êְ bəlî.
Adad: cf. BH names with ‫ ֲה ַדד‬Hădad.

Lesson 23
bašûm: derived from Semitic *bi- ‘in’ (cf. BH ‫־‬Êְ bǝ-) and *šu ‘it’; cf. Eth. bo ‘in it, there is/are’;
colloquial Arab. fī(h) ‘in it, there is/are’.
išātum: cf. BH ›‫ ֵא‬ēš.
izbum: from ezēbum (8).
kurrum: Sum. lw.; → Aram., BH ‫ֹר‬Ô kōr.
manûm: from verb manûm ‘to count’ (24); → Aram., BH ‫ ָמנֶ ה‬māne.
pagrum: BH ‫גֶ ר‬ıֶ peger.
qablum: cf. Arab. qalb ‘heart’ (metathesis).
sūtum: —; → Aram., BH ‫ ְס ָאה‬səā ‘seah’.
šiqlum: BH ‫ ֶ› ֶקל‬šeqel (originally *θiql-).
šūt-rēšim: from ša (2) and rēšum (13).
ṭupšarrum: Sum. lw.; → BH ‫ ִט ְפ ַסר‬ṭipsār ‘(an o(cial)’ (Jer 51:27; also  ִ‫ ַט ְפ ְס ַרי‬ṭapsǝrayik Nah 3:17).
ubānum: cf. BH ‫ ֶֹהן‬Ê bōhen.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 11

Lesson 24
ḫiārum: cf. Arab. ḫāra, Eth. ḫaraya (with metathesis) ‘to choose’; Arab. ḫayr, Eth. ḫer ‘good’.
kullumum: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ִה ְכ ִלים‬hiklîm (Hi. of ‫ כלם‬klm) ‘to shame’.
lamādum: BH ‫ ָל ַמד‬lāmad.
manûm: BH ‫ ָמנָ ה‬mānā.
appum: BH ‫ ַאף‬ap.
bulṭum: from balāṭum (4)
dārum: cf. BH ‫˚ר‬Ë dôr ‘generation’.
eṣemtum: cf. BH ‫ ֶע ֶצם‬ˤeṣem.
lišānum: cf. BH ‫ ָל›˚ן‬lāšôn.
šulmum: from šalāmum (4).
tībum: from tebûm (16).

Lesson 25
ebēbum: cf. WS *bb ‘to blossom?’, BH ‫ ָא ִביב‬ābîb ‘young barley’?
erēšum b: BH ›‫ ָח ַר‬ḥāraš (root originally *ḥrθ).
esērum a: cf. BH ‫ ָא ַסר‬āsar ‘to tie, bind’.
esērum b: cf. BH ‫ יָ ַסר‬yāsar ‘to instruct, discipline’.
gerûm: cf. BH Pi. ‫ֵ ָרה‬Á gērā ‘to stir up strife’.
lapātum: cf. BH ‫ ָל ַפת‬lāpat ‘to grasp, twist’.
sanāqum: cf. MH ‫ ָסנַ ק‬sānaq ‘to press’? (AHw); Ḥarsūsi (MSA) sǝnoḳ ‘to reach’.
(w)uššurum: cf. perhaps Egyptian Aram. ‫ הושר‬hwšr ‘to send’; connect with ešērum (8)?
lītum: cf. BH PN ‫ ֵל ָאה‬lēā; cf. Arab. laāt ‘wild cow’.
našpakum: from šapākum (20).
qibītum: from qabûm (14).
šubtum: from wašābum (10); cf. BH ‫ ֶ› ֶבת‬šebet.
ummiānum: —; → Aram., BH ‫ ָא ָמּן‬ommān ‘artist’ (1x Song 7:2).
zērum: BH ‫ זֶ ַרע‬zeraˤ.
zikarum: BH ‫ זָ ָכר‬zākār.

Lesson 26
edûm/idûm: BH ‫ יָ ַדע‬yādaˤ.
elēlum: cf. BH Pi. ‫ ִח ֵלּל‬ḥillēl ‘to profane’; cf. Aram. ‫ ַח ֵלּל‬ḥallel ‘to purify’, Arab. ḥalla ‘to be(come)
free, lawful’.
išûm: cf. BH › ֵ‫ י‬yēš ‘there is’ (cf. also Eblaite [yiθāwum] ‘to be (present)’).
zêrum: —.
andurārum: cf. BH ‫ר˚ר‬Ëְ dǝrôr ‘freedom’.
ašrum: cf. BH ‫ ֲא ֶ›ר‬ăšer relative particle (‘which’ < ‘place which’ < ‘place’); cf. Arab. aθar,
Aram. ‫ ַא ְת ָרא‬atrā ‘trace, place’.
kallatum: BH ‫ ָלּה‬Ôַ kallā.
ṣītum: from waṣûm (21); BH ‫ ֵצאת‬ṣē()t.
šammum: —; → BH ‫ ַס ִמּים‬sammîm ‘spices’.
ēma: cf. BH ‫ ֵאי‬ê ‘where? which?’.

Lesson 27
egûm: cf. BH ‫ יָ גַ ע‬yāgaˤ ‘to be(come) weary’.
enûm: cf. BH ‫ ָענָ ה‬ˤānā ‘to answer’.
rakāsum: BH ‫ ָר ַכס‬rākas.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 12

reûm: BH ‫ ָר ָעה‬rāˤā.
tarāṣum: cf. Aram. ‫ ְ˙ ַרץ‬tǝraṣ ‘to direct, straighten’.
entum: Sum. lw.
migrum: from magārum (30).
narāmum: from râmum (19).
ṣēnum: BH ‫ן‬Ä‫ צ‬ṣō()n.
šamaššammum: from šaman-šammim ‘plant-oil’, šamnum (4), šammum (26); cf. Aram. ‫מ ְ› ָמא‬Í›
ְ
šumšǝmā, Arab. simsim, Ug. ššmn.
tarbaṣum: from rabāṣum ‘to lie down’; cf. BH ‫ ָר ַבץ‬rābaṣ.

Lesson 28
ekēmum: —.
esēḫum: perhaps a biform of esēkum ‘to assign’; cf. Eth. wassaka ‘to add’.
abnum: BH ‫ ֶא ֶבן‬eben.
kibsum: from kabāsum ‘to step, tread, trample’; cf. BH ‫ ַבס‬Ôָ kābas ‘to wash’ (MH ‘to tread’).
kīdum: —.
pāṭum: —.
pītum: from petûm (16); cf. BH ‫ ַתח‬ıֶ petaḥ.
rabiānum: from rabûm (7).
wēdum: cf. BH ‫ יַ ַחד‬yaḥad ‘unity’, ‫ יָ ִחיד‬yāḥîd ‘solitary’.
arḫiš: from arāḫum ‘to hurry’ (no cognates).
elēnum: from eli (3).
šaplānum: see šaplûm (6).
ullânum: from ullûm ‘that, distant’ (see Grammar §6.3, end; related to BH ‫ ֵא ֶלּה‬ēlle ‘these’).

Lesson 29
bârum: cf. BH Pi. ‫ ֵאר‬Êִ biēr ‘to make plain, distinct’ (Akk. bwr < *br).
kullum: cf. BH Pilpel ‫ל‬Ôֵ ‫ ְל‬Ôִ kilkēl, Hi. ‫ ֵה ִכיל‬hēkîl (root ‫ כול‬kwl) ‘to contain, hold’.
raḫāṣum: cf. BH ‫ ָר ַחץ‬rāḥaṣ ‘to wash’ (Huehnergard 2003).
riāqum: cf. BH ‫ ֵרק‬rēq ‘empty’, ‫ ֵה ִריק‬hērîq (Hi. of ‫ ריק‬ryq) ‘to empty’.
šuklulum: cf. BH ‫ ַלל‬Ôָ kālal ‘to complete’.
warāqum: cf. BH ‫ יֶ ֶרק‬yereq ‘green(ness)’, etc.
wârum: —.
bārûm: participle of barûm ‘to see’; cf. perhaps Eth. barha ‘to be bright’.
biltum: from babālum (10).
emum: BH ‫ ָחם‬ḥām.
itinnum: Sum. lw.?
qištum: cf. Aram. ‫יסא‬ ֵ ‫ ַקיְ ָס‬qaysā/qesā ‘wood’; perhaps also MSA Mehri qǝśnīt, Soqoṭri qáśen (with
ָ ‫ק‬/‫א‬
su(xed -n?) ‘thicket, forest’.
warkûm: see warkatum (16).
magal: cf. perhaps Mehri (MSA) mēken ‘much’.
warka: see warkatum (16).

Lesson 30
bêlum: cf. BH ‫ ַעל‬Êָ bāˤal ‘to marry, rule over’.
magārum: cf. perhaps Eth. makara ‘to advise, counsel’ (irregular Akk. g ~ Eth. k).
nabûm: cf. BH ‫ נָ ִביא‬nābî ‘prophet’ (< ‘called, summoned’); cf. Arab. nabaa ‘to announce’, Sab.
tnb ‘to promise’, Mehri (MSA) nǝbō ‘to inform’.
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 13

almattum: BH ‫ ַא ְל ָמנָ ה‬almānā.


arnum: —.
ḫegallum: Sum. lw.
kibrum: cf. perhaps Eth. kanfar ‘lip, edge’ (but see Leslau 1987: 287).
kūṣum: from kaṣûm ‘to be(come) cold’; cf. perhaps BH ‫ ָק ָצה‬qāṣā ‘to cut o"’, ‫ ָק ֶצה‬qāṣe ‘end’.
maškanum: from šakānum (3).
nāqidum: BH ‫ נ ֵֹקד‬nōqēd.
parakkum: Sum. lw. (→ Syr. prakkā, Mandaic prikkā ‘altar’).
sūqum: from siāqum ‘to be narrow’ (root originally *ṣ́yq); → Aram. ‫קא‬Í› ָ šuqā → BH ‫ק‬Í› šûq and
Arab. sūq.
unūtum: cf. BH ‫ָ ה‬Ì ִ‫אנ‬/‫י‬
ֳ ִ‫ ֳאנ‬ŏnî(yā) ‘ship(s)’ (< ‘vessel(s)’), perhaps also Aram. ‫ ָמ)א(נָ א‬mā()nā ‘vessel,
utensil’.

Lesson 31
belûm: cf. BH ‫ ָלה‬Êָ bālā ‘to become old, wear out’.
ḫabātum: cf. Ug. ḫbt (participle) ‘destroyer’.
maṭûm: — (Leslau 1969: 20 compares BH ‫ ְמ ַעט‬mǝˤaṭ ‘little’).
napāḫum: BH ‫ נָ ַפח‬nāpaḥ.
palāsum: —.
sapāḫum: cf. Arab. safaḥa ‘to broaden, widen’, Eth. safḥa ‘to stretch forth’ (Leslau 1987: 488;
Huehnergard 2003)
sarārum: cf. BH ‫ ָס ַרר‬sārar ‘to be(come) rebellious, stubborn’.
kārum: Sum. lw.
mimmû: see mimma (14); cf. BH ‫מה‬Í‫א‬ ָ ‫ ְמ‬məûmā.
nikkassum: Sum. lw.; → BH ‫ נְ ָכ ִסים‬nəkāsîm ‘riches, wealth’.
numātum: cf. Eth. nǝwāy ‘vessel, instrument, object, property, goods’; connect perhaps also with
unūtum (30).

Lesson 32
dabābum: cf. perhaps Eth. nababa ‘to speak’ (*d > n before b in Eth.?).
dekûm: —.
ḫerûm: cf. perhaps BH ‫ ָרה‬Ôָ kārā ‘to dig’ (and *kry elsewhere in WS; spirantization of *k > ḫ in
Akk.?); cf. also Ug. [ḫirītu] ‘cemetery’.
nabutum: from abātum ‘to destroy’? cf. BH ‫ ָא ַבד‬ābad ‘to perish, be(come) lost’ (irregular t ~ d).
šalālum: BH ‫ ָ› ַלל‬šālal.
šâlum: BH ‫ ָ› ַאל‬šāal.
iṣṣūrum: cf. Ug. [ˤuṣṣūru], Arab. ˤuṣfūr, BH ‫˚ר‬ı‫ ִצ‬ṣippôr < *ṣuppur, all ‘bird, sparrow’.
mūdûtum: from edûm (26).
šīrum: BH ‫ ְ› ֵאר‬šəēr.
warkānum: see warkatum (16).
ezib: from ezēbum (8).
qadum: cf. perhaps MSA mǝn qədē ‘about’; or from root qdm as, e.g., in Aram. ‫ ֳק ָדם‬qŏdām ‘before’?

Lesson 33
atwûm: see awātum (9).
gamālum: cf. BH ‫ָ ַמל‬Á gāmal ‘to complete, deal with’.
kamāsum a: cf. BH ‫ ַמס‬Ôָ kāmas ‘to store’ (1x Deut 32:34), and perhaps ‫נַ ס‬Ôָ kānas ‘to gather’.
kamāsum b: —; see kanāšum (12).
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 14

kasûm: cf. Sem. root *ktsw for ‘clothing’ such as Akk. kusītum ‘garb’, BH ‫ת‬Í‫ס‬Ôְ kəsût ‘covering’ (and
perhaps also BH ‫ ָסה‬Ôָ kāsā ‘to hide’?).
labāšum: BH ›‫ ָל ַב‬lābaš.
nazāqum: cf. BH ‫ נֵ זֶ ק‬nēzeq ‘injury’ Esth 7:4 (← Aram.), Aram. ‫ נְ זַ ק‬nəzaq ‘to be(come) injured’,
Arab. nazaqa ‘to be(come) excited’.
niālum: cf. probably BH root ‫ לין‬lyn ‘to spend the night’; both probably dissimilated from Sem.
*laylay‑ ‘night’.
qalûm: BH ‫ ָק ָלה‬qālā.
ṣeḫērum: cf. WS *ṣǵr ‘to be(come) small’, BH ‫ ָצ ִעיר‬ṣāˤîr ‘small’.
ḫīṭum: BH ‫ ֵח ְטא‬ḥēṭ().
šaptum: BH ‫ ָ‡ ָפה‬śāpā.
zibbatum: cf. BH ‫ זָ נָ ב‬zānāb.
pāna: see pānum (12).

Lesson 34
ṣiārum: —.
šeûm: cf. BH ‫ ָ› ָעה‬šāˤā ‘to gaze’.
wapûm: cf. BH ‫יע‬ ִ hôpîaˤ (Hi. of ‫ יפע‬ypˤ) ‘to shine’, or ‫ יָ ָפה‬yāpā ‘to be(come) fair’?
ַ ‫ה˚פ‬
adānum: cf. BH ‫מ˚עד‬ ֵ môˤēd (both from root *wˤd).
ereqqum: cf. Ug. ˤrq ‘cart, wagon’.
irtum: cf. NWS riu (Emar; Cohen 2002), MH ‫ ֵר ָאה‬rēā, Syr. rātā, Arab. ria, all ‘lung’ (metathesis).
nūnum: cf. MH ‫ן‬Í‫ נ‬nûn, Aram. ‫נָ א‬Í‫ נ‬nunā ‘!sh’.
parṣum: —.
sukkallum: Sum. lw.
šakkanakkum: Sum. lw.?
tāḫāzum: from aḫāzum (8).
waklum: from wakālum ‘to trust’ (rare); see takālum (16).
zikrum/siqrum: from zakārum (19).
etellum: — (cf. perhaps the BH name (Í)‫ ֲע ַת ְליָ ה‬ˤătalyāh(û)).

Lesson 35
batāqum: BH ‫ ַתק‬Êָ bātaq.
ḫaṭûm: BH ‫ ָח ָטא‬ḥāṭā.
mašûm: cf. BH ‫ נָ ָ›ה‬nāšā (and other WS forms of root *nsy, with *m > *n before *s) ‘to forget’.
naqûm: cf. perhaps BH ‫ נָ ָקה‬nāqā ‘to be clean, free’; → Syr. naqqi ‘to make a libation’, BH ‫˚ת‬ִ̘ ַ‫ְמנ‬
mənaqqîyōt ‘sacri!cial bowls’.
ṣamādum: BH ‫ ָצ ַמד‬ṣāmad.
šanûm a: BH ‫ ָ›נָ ה‬šānā ‘to repeat’.
šanûm b: BH ‫ ָ›נָ ה‬šānā ‘to change’.
šebûm: BH ‫ ָ‡ ַבע‬śābaˤ.
šutaûm: cf. Syr. ešt(aˤ)ˤi ‘to play’.
gišimmarum: Sum. lw.
ibrum: BH ‫ ָח ֵבר‬ḥābēr ‘friend’.
kāsum: BH ‫˚ס‬Ô kôs.
napḫarum: from paḫārum (11).
appūna, appūnā-ma: —.
kī maṣi: see kīma (5), maṣûm (22).
mati: BH ‫ ָמ ַתי‬mātay.
šattam: see šattum (10).
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 15

Lesson 36
šasûm: —.
watûm: cf. Arab. wātā(y) ‘to come to, upon’, Sab. causative hwtw ‘to bring back’ (unless these are
biforms of tw ‘to come’).
eršum: BH ‡‫ ֶע ֶר‬ˤereś ‘couch’.
igārum: Sum. lw; → Aram. ‫ָ ָרא‬Á‫ ֶא‬eggārā, Arab. ijjār/injār.
libittum: BH ‫ ְל ֵבנָ ה‬lǝbēnā.
mīšarum: from ešērum (8); cf. BH ‫י›ר‬ ָ ‫ ֵמ‬mêšār, ‫ ִמי›˚ר‬mîšôr ‘evenness, even area, equity’.
nēmelum: cf. BH ‫ ָע ַמל‬ˤāmal ‘to labor’.
ṣibtum: from ṣabātum (3).
šaplum: see šaplûm (6).
tukultum: from takālum (16).
Purattum: Sum. lw.; → BH ‫ ָרת‬ıְ Pǝrāt.

Lesson 37
ḫiāṭum: cf. Arab. ḥāṭa ‘to guard, protect, watch’ (Huehnergard 2003).
izuzzum: cf. BH ‫ זִ יז‬zîz ‘moving things’, ‫זָ ה‬Í‫ ְמז‬mǝzûzā ‘door-post’; MH ‫ זָ ז‬zāz ‘to move away’, Ug. dd
‘to stand’.
qiāpum: —.
zenûm: cf. probably BH ‫ זָ נַ ח‬zānaḥ ‘to reject, spurn’.
gerrum: —.
kurummatum: —.
niṭlum: from naṭālum (6).
nukurtum: from nakārum (21).
ṭūbum: see ṭābum (4), ṭiābum (9).

Lesson 38
garārum: —.
naarrurum: —.
nabalkutum: —.
naparkûm: —.
neḫelṣûm: —.
*šaqululum: see šaqālum (16).
šaqûm a: BH Hi. ‫ ִה ְ› ָקה‬hišqā.
šaqûm b: —.
šukênum: cf. probably BH ‫ נִ ְכנַ ע‬niknaˤ (Ni. of ‫ כנע‬knˤ) ‘to humble oneself’ (Speiser 1952: 90–92).
šupêlum: cf. probably BH ‫ ַעל‬ıָ pāˤal ‘to do, make’ (Speiser 1952: 90–92).
zabālum cf. BH ‫ ָס ַבל‬sābal ‘to carry, bear’ (Akk. s > z before b).
awīltum: see awīlum (3).
eliš: see elûm (15, 21).
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 16

References
AHw = Soden, Wolfram von. 1965–81. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Bonechi, Marco. 2001. On Semitic *rmś. Quaderni del Dipartimento di Linguistica — Università di Firenze 11:
137–44.
Cavigneaux, Antoine. 1989. Le nom akkadien du grain. Nouvelles assyriologiques brèves et utilitaires 1989 no.
52.
Cohen, Yoram. 2002. The West Semitic/Peripheral Akkadian Term for “Lung.” Journal of the American
Oriental Society 122: 824–27.
HALOT = Koehler, Ludwig, W. Baumgartner, et al. 1995–2001. A Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old
Testament. Trans. by M.E.J. Richardson. Leiden: Brill.
Hendel, Ronald S. 1987. Of Demigods and the Deluge: Toward an Interpretation of Gen. 6:1–4. Journal of
Biblical Literature 106: 13–26.
Huehnergard, John. 1991. Further South Semitic Cognates to the Akkadian Lexicon. Semitic Studies in Honor
of Wolf Leslau on the Occasion of His Eighty-;fth Birthday November 14th, 1991, Ed. Alan S. Kaye.
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 1.690–713.
Huehnergard, John. 2003. Akkadian ḫ and West Semitic *ḥ. Studia Semitica. Ed. Leonid Kogan. Orientalia:
Papers of the Oriental Institute, 3 (Alexander Militarev volume). Moscow: Russian State University for
the Humanities. 102–19.
Leslau, Wolf. 1969. Southeast Semitic Cognates to the Akkadian Vocabulary. III. Journal of the American
Oriental Society 89: 18–22.
Leslau, Wolf. 1987. Comparative Dictionary of Ge‘ez (Classical Ethiopic). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Militarev, Alexander, and Leonid Kogan. 2000. Semitic Etymological Dictionary. Vol. 1: Anatomy of Man and
Animals. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag.
Speiser, E.A. 1952. The “Elative” in West Semitic and Akkadian. Journal of Cuneiform Studies 6: 81–92.

Alphabetical list of Akkadian words in the vocabularies


abnum 28 arnum 30 bīšum 19 emūqum 2 ḫadûm 7 išdum 2
abullum 15 asûm 18 bītum 2 enēšum 9 ḫalāqum 3 ištu 2
abum 1 ašar 26 bulṭum 24 enšum 9 ḫarrānum 5 išûm 26
Adad 22 ašrum 26 būšum 19 entum 27 ḫaṭûm 35 itinnum 29
adannum 34 aššatum 2 enûm 27 ḫāwirum 24 itti 2
adi 13 aššum 14 dabābum 35 epēšum 8 ḫegallum 30 itûm 14
adīni 11 atwûm 33 dakûm 14 epištum 8 ḫepûm 12 izbum 23
agārum 9 awātum 8 damāqum 3 eqlum 7 ḫerûm 32 izuzzum 37
agûm 20 awīltum 38 danānum 3 erēbum 8 ḫiārum 24
aḫātum 20 awīlum 3 dannatum 4 ereqqum 34 ḫiāṭum 37 kabātum 18
aḫāzum 8 ayyum 14 dārum 24 erēšum a 19 ḫīrtum 24 kabtum 18
aḫum a 4 dayyānum 6 erēšum b 25 ḫīṭum 33 kakkum 4
aḫum b 17 babālum 10 dekûm 32 errēšum 25 ḫubtum 31 kalbum 5
aḫûm 17 Babilim 14 diānum 14 erṣetum 15 ḫubullum 12 kallatum 26
akālum 10 bābtum 13 dīnum 8 eršum 36 ḫurāṣum 1 kalûm pron. 11
aklum 8 bābum 14 dūrum 21 esēḫum 28 kalûm vb. 17
alākum 8 bāerum 22 esērum a, b 25 ibrum 35 kamāsum 33
almattum 30 balāṭum 4 ebēbum 25 eṣemtum 24 idûm 19 kanākum 4
alpum 4 balum 22 ebūrum 13 ešērum 8 igārum 36 kanāšum 12
ālum 1 banûm 7 edēšum 10 eššum 10 ilkum 16 kanīkum 19
amārum 8 baqaarum 18 edûm 26 etēqum 16 iltum 1 kânum 9
amtum 1 baqrū 18 egûm 27 eṭlum 4 ilum 1 karānum 10
amūtum 22 bârum vb. 29 ekallum 6 ezēbum 8 imērum 20 kārum 31
ana 2 bārûm 29 ekēmum 28 ezub 32 imittum a, b 22 kaspum 1
andurārum 26 bašītum 19 elēlum 26 immerum 19 kasûm 33
annum 6 bašûm 23 elēnum 28 gagûm 20 ina 2 kāsum 35
anumma 17 batāqum 35 eleppum 15 gamālum 33 inanna 17 kaṣārum 11
apālum 14 bēltum 7 eli 3 gamārum 4 īnum 2 kašaadum 3
aplum 20 belûm 31 eliš 38 gerrum 37 inīma 26 kī maṣi 35
aplūtum 20 bēlum 1 elûm adj. 15 gerûm 25 isiḫtum 28 kiam 15
appum 24 bêlum 30 elûm vb. 21 gišimmarum 36 iṣṣūrum 32 kibrum 30
appūna 35 bēlūtum 14 ēm(a) 26 iṣum 11 kibsum 28
arākum 8 biltum 29 emēdum 14 ḫabātum 31 išarum 8 kīdum 28
arḫiš 28 birītum 12 emum 29 ḫabbātum 31 išātum 23 kilallān 23
Huehnergard, Hebrew Cognates to A Grammar of Akkadian, p. 17

kīma 5 mati 35 pagrum 23 sadārum 14 šarākum 18 ṭeḫûm 11


kima cj 26 mātum 3 paḫārum 11 saḫāpum 12 šarāqum 3 ṭēmum 7
kīnum 9 mâtum 10 palāḫum 16 saḫārum 22 šarrāqum 3 ṭiābum 9
kirûm 14 maṭûm 31 palāšum 18 sanāqum 25 šarratum 1 ṭuppum 2
kiṣrum 21 meḫrum 21 pāna 33 sapāḫum 31 šarrum 1 ṭupšarrum 23
kišādum 5 -mi 15 pānum 12 saqārum 19 šarrūtum 16 ṭūbum 37
kittum 9 miādum 9 pānûm 15 sarārum 31 šasûm 36
kullum 29 migrum 27 paqādum 5 sarrum 31 šattam 35 u1
kullumum 24 mimma 14 parakkum 30 simmum 18 šattum 10 ū 16
kunukkum 9 mimmû 31 parāsum 6 sinništum 11 šatûm 9 ubānum 23
kurrum 23 mīnum 14 parṣum 34 Sippar 33 šaṭārum 6 ugārum 31
kurummatum 37 mīšarum 36 pašāḫum 12 siqrum 34 šebērum 22 ul 4
kussûm 6 mišlum 17 pašārum 19 sukkallum 34 šebûm 35 ullânum 28
kūṣum 30 mitḫāriš 18 pašāšum 5 suluppū 31 šemûm 7 ûm 13
mû 7 paṭārum 17 sūnum 31 šēpum 5 umma 15
labārum 10 mūdûtum 32 pāṭum 28 sūqum 30 šeriktum 18 ummānum 9
labāšum 33 muḫḫum 12 petûm 16 sūtum 23 šērtum 14 ummiānum 25
laberum 10 muškēnum 18 pīḫatum 17 šeûm 34 ummum 2
lāma 26 mūtum 2 pilšum 18 ṣabātum 3 šiābum 10 ūmum 8
lamādum 24 pītum 28 ṣābum 1 šībum 10 unū/iātum 30
lapātum 25 naādum 21 puḫrum 8 ṣamādum 35 šībūtum 21 uznum 2
lawûm 21 nabalkutum 38 pūḫum 22 ṣeḫērum 33 šikarum 4 uzuzzum 37
lemnum 10 nabûm 30 pûm 12 ṣeḫrum 7 šīmtum 18
lemuttum 10 nabutum 32 purussûm 6 ṣēnum 27 šīmum 17 waklum 34
leqûm 7 nadānum 5 ṣērum 12 šinnum 21 walādum 11
lētum 17 nadītum 20 qablum 23 ṣiārum 34 šīpātum 2 wapûm 34
leûm 21 nadûm 21 qabûm 14 ṣibittum 7 šiprum 12 warādum 15
libbum 2 nakārum 21 qadu 32 ṣibtum a 15 šiqlum 23 warāqum 29
libittum 36 nakāsum 11 qalûm 33 ṣibtum b 36 širiktum 18 wardum 1
lišānum 24 napāḫum 31 qaqqadum 1 ṣimdatum 17 šīrum 32 wardūtum 20
littum 25 naparkûm 38 qarrādum 8 ṣīrum 34 šū 6 warḫum 19
lītum 25 napištum 4 qatānum 5 ṣītum 26 šubtum 25 warkānum 32
lū 16 naplusum 32 qātum 3 ṣuḫārum 11 šukênum 38 warkatum 16
naqārum 5 qerbum 30 šuklulum 29 warki 17
-ma 7 nāqidum 30 qerēbum 21 ša 2 šulmum 24 warkītum 14
madādum 15 naqûm 35 qiāpum 37 šadādum 20 šumēlum 22 warkûm 29
mādum 5 narāmum 27 qiāšum 9 šadûm 6 šumma 17 wârum/wiārum
magal 29 narkabtum 5 qibītum 25 šakānum 3 šumum 8 36
magārum 30 nārum 2 qištum 29 šakkanakkum šupêlum 38 waṣābum 15
maḫārum 4 narûm 7 qīštum 7 34 šuqammumum waṣûm 21
maḫāṣum 3 nasāḫum 5 šalālum 32 38 wašābum 10
maḫīrum 19 nasākum 6 rabiānum 28 šalāmum 4 šutaûm 35 watartum 10
maḫrum 6 nasāqum 18 rabûm 7 šâlum 32 šūt-rēšim 23 watārum 10
maḫrûm 12 naṣārum 5 ragāmum 13 šamallûm 19 watûm 36
makkūrum 18 našallulum 38 raḫāṣum 29 šamaššammū 27 tabālum 22 wēdum 28
mala 19 našpakum 25 rakābum 5 šammum 26 tāḫāzum 34 wiārum 36
malûm 7 našûm 21 rakāsum 27 šamnum 4 takālum 16 wuššurum 25
mamman 14 naṭālum 6 ramānum 31 šamšum 13 tamkārum 19
mannum 14 nazāqum 33 râmum 19 šamû 13 tamûm 13 zabālum 38
manûm n. 23 neḫelṣûm 38 rapāšum 3 šâmum 9 tappûm 13 zakārum 19
manûm vb. 24 nēmelum 36 rašûm 11 šangûm 31 tappûtum 13 zakûm 7
maqātum 3 nēmettum 11 redītum 20 šanûm adj. 16 tarāṣum 27 zaqāpum 18
marāṣum 3 nêrum 9 redûm 16 šanûm vb. a,b tarbaṣum 27 zâzum 13
martum 22 niālum 33 rēdûm 20 35 târum 9 zenûm 37
mārtum 1 nikkassum 31 rēšum 13 šapākum 20 tebûm 16 zērum 25
mārum 1 nišū 10 reûm 27 šapārum 15 terḫatum 18 zêrum 26
maruštum 4 nīšum 13 riābum 18 šāpirum 20 têrtum 16 zibbatum 33
mārūtum 14 niṭlum 37 riāqum 29 šaplānum 28 tībum 24 zikarum 25
maṣṣartum 22 nukaribbum 31 rittum 17 šaplum 36 tukultum 36 zikrum 34
maṣûm 22 nukurtum 37 rubātum 6 šaplûm 6 zīttum 18
maškanum 30 numātum 31 rugummûm 13 šaqālum 16 ṭābum 4
mašûm 35 nūnum 34 šaqûm a, b 38 ṭarādum 6