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FACULTY : ENGINEERING

EDITION: 02
TECHNOLOGY
LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO: 01
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
EXPERIMENT: FLAKINESS EFFECTIVE DATE: SEPT. 2016
AND ELONGATION INDEX AMENDMENT DATE: AUG. 2016
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY

LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEETS

COURSE CODE BNP 20303

EXPERIMENT CODE EXPERIMENT 6

EXPERIMENT TITLE MULTILANE HIGHWAY CAPACITY ANALYSIS

DATE
6th NOVEMBER 2019
GROUP NO.
4

(1) PUAN NOOR KHAZANAH BINTI A RAHMAN


LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR
(2) Ts. NUR FAEZAH BINTI YAHYA

DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION 20th NOVEMBER 2019

RECEIVED DATE AND STAMP

COMMENTS:

TOTAL MARK (FROM RUBRIC


ASSESSMENT)
FACULTY : ENGINEERING
EDITION: 02
TECHNOLOGY
LABORATORY: CIVIL
REVISION NO: 01
ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY
ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
EXPERIMENT: FLAKINESS EFFECTIVE DATE: SEPT. 2016
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
AND ELONGATION INDEX AMENDMENT DATE: AUG. 2016

HIGHWAY ENGNEERING TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY


LABORATORY RUBRIC ASSESSMENT

Level of Achievement

Very Weak Weak Modest Good Excellent


Elements
1 2 3 4 5 Level Weight Score

No Students
mistakes mistakes while
Display with
ls, but

Display a
handling Most of Procedures
procedures
procedures procedures
of are

Most data All data


Measure All data Most data taken
minor data All data
taking missing
taken, correctly
with missing
missing

Respond
Able
Limited respond Able Unable
Respond ability to respond respond
answer to respond answer answer to
answer sometimes most of
to not match at all

Show the
discipline
follows Major Minor flaws Minor flaws Conform Conform to
rules to criteria, criteria, dress code dress
minutes minutes minor flaw
-Dress

Regulations

Total
/100
Mark:
STUDENT CODE OF ETHICS

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

I hereby declare that I have prepared this report with my own efforts. I also admit
to not accept or

provide any assistance in preparing this report and anything that is in it is true

1) Group Leader (Signature)


Name : Fazeerul Bin M.Suofian
Matrix No. : CN170045

2) Group Member 1 (Signature)


Name : Khairul Nizam Bin Jatjo
Matrix No : AN 170081

3) Group Member 2 (Signature)


Name : Muhammad Nadjmi Bin MD Nasir
Matrix No. : AN170124

4) Group Member 3 (Signature)


Name : Nurul Fazilah Binti Abdul Zail
Matrix No.: AN170179

5) Group Member 3 (Signature)


Name : Siti Nurhaliza Binti Rosli
Matrix No. : AN170034
1.0 OBJECTIVE
i. The objective is to determine the level of service at Pagoh.
ii. Focus on relations between capacity, level-of-service, and design.

2.0 INTRODUCTION

A multilane highway can be described as a highway with a total of four or six lanes,
counting both directions, and not completely access controlled which consists of at-grade
intersections and occasional traffic signals. Multilane highways are usually constructed along
high-volume suburban and rural corridors which connect two cities for important.

Activities generating a significant number of daily trips. Those kinds of trips generate
vehicles following behaviour which vary due to many factors. Thus, driver’s car following
behaviour was studied and modelled by numerous researchers over the past decades and mostly
focused on two-lane highway. These studies and developed models were varied in objectives
and ranged from empirical approach to simulation modelling approach as well as complex.

Mathematical analysis. The empirical studies basically concern the analysis of real data
and car following behaviour determined from such studies is referred to car following distance.
Meanwhile, additional lane on the highways has been constructed in order to provide smooth
traffic flow to the increasing vehicles. Therefore, the average speed of vehicles may as well
increase due to smooth flow. This phenomenon has been experienced along Pagoh road which
was upgraded to four-lane highway since 2005. The objectives of this study were to determine
car headway along Pagoh multilane highway and to develop linear regression models to present
the relationships between headway and speed. In this study, car following headways were
analysed based on the time of headway and operating speed along this multilane highway. This
study focuses on the traffic flow characteristics such as volume, speed and headway. This study
covers car headway using the data extracted from the image processing technique at free flow
speed during peak hour.
3.0 APPARATUS / EQUIPMENT

1. Wheel measuring

2. Forms HC1, HC2 and HC3


3. Safety vest

4. Safety cones

5. Flags
4.0 PROCEDURE

1. A traffic count was conducted at the location (1 km in length) for an hour in


segments of 15 minutes. The data was recorded in form HC1.

Figure 4.1: insert data in form HC1

2. The lane width, shoulder width and median width were measured using either a
measuring tape or measuring wheel. The data was recorded in form HC2.

3. A walk-through survey of the 1 km section was conducted to determine the number


of access points. The type of median was observed. The data was recorded in form
HC2.

4. The posted speed limit of the multilane highway was recorded in form HC2.

5. The Free Flow Speed (FFS) was calculated.

6. The number of lanes (per direction) was recorded in form HC3.

7. From form HC1, the hourly volume (V) and percentage of heavy vehicles were
determined. The data was recorded in form HC3.

8. The Flow Rate (vp) was calculated.

9. The Density (D) was calculated.


5.0 DATA ANALYSIS & RESULTS

Location: KM 1 Jalan Panchor Day: Tuesday

Date: 5/11/2019 Time: 9.00am – 10.00am Weather: Sunny


bright

Vehicle class:

 Class 1 for motorcycles


 Class 2 for cars
 Class 3 for vans and medium trucks
 Class 4 for heavy trucks and buses

Time Traffic Count


Vehicle Class
1 2 3 4 Total
9.00am – 9.15am 19 73 2 7 101
9.16am – 9.30am 14 67 2 11 94
9.31am – 9.45am 15 49 6 7 77
9.46am – 10.00am 18 66 3 16 103
Traffic Volume
66 255 13 41 375
(vehicle/hour)

FREE FLOW SPEED


Posted Speed Limit = 80 + 12.3
= 92.3 km/h
Base Free Flow Speed (BFFS) = 85.00 – 3.00 = 82.00 km/h
Median Type Divided
Lane Width = 3.50 meters
Shoulder Width = 2.00 meters
Median Width = 1.8 meters
Total Lateral Clearance = shoulder width + median width
= 2 + 1.8
= 3.8 meters
Access Point Density = 3 per km
Adjustment for lane width (fLW) 1 km/h
Adjustment for total lateral clearance (fLC) 0 km/h
Adjustment for median type (fM) 0 km/h
Adjustment for access point density (fA) 2 km/h
Free Flow Speed (FFS) = BFFS - fLW - fLC - fM - fA
= 82 – 1 – 0 – 0 - 2
= 79.00 km/h

FLOW RATE
Volume,V = 375 veh/hour
Peak Hour Factor, PHF = V/ (V15 X 4)
= 375 / (104 x 4)
= 0.901
Number of Lanes, N 2 lanes
Percentage of Heavy Vehicle, PT = total class 4/ volume X 100
= 41 / 375 X 100
= 10.93%
Passenger Car Equivalent for Heavy = refer to table
Vehicles, ET = 1.5
Heavy Vehicle Adjustment Factor, fHV = 1 / (1 + PT (ET – 1))
= 1 / (1 + 0.109(1.5 – 1))
= 1 / (1 + 0.055)
= 1 / 1.055
= 0.947
Driver Population Factor, fP = 1.00
Flow Rate (VP) = V / (PHF x N x fHV x fP)
= 375 / (0.901 x 2 x 0.947 x 1)
= 375 / 1.706
= 219.812 pc/h/ln
Density, D = VP / FFS
= 219.812 / 79
= 2.782 pc/h/ln

Level of Services Determination

Figure 10: Speed Flow curve with LOS criteria

Criteria of this road = LOS A


6.0 DISCUSSION

Increasing traffic volumes have required engineers to increase the number of roadways,
so that the drivers can navigate well. The main purpose is to determine the service level (LOS),
which is extremely important for a traffic engineer because it defines conditions for the traffic
activity within a traffic flow. The multilateral highway capability study was carried out
successfully by evaluating the LOS in the area outside of the UTHM Pagoh Campus. In order
to obtain the LOS, 3 steps are required. The first stage is a free-flow speed measurement where
the average traffic speed was calculated. Then there will be the flow rate that is the peak hour
volume balanced for the time variance of traffic conditions within the test time, the effects of
heavy vehicles and driving population characteristics.

From the findings obtained in the city multi-track Panchor to Pagoh the level of service
(LOS) is within a range of A-grade with a speed limit of 80 km / h, where the road shows that
it is in good flow. The LOS class A is a free flow with low volumes, densities and high speeds
according to Arahan Teknik Jalan 8/86. With little or no delay, drivers will keep their necessary
speeds. The layout road from Panchor to Pagoh, due to its performance, represents the best
working conditions. LOS A represents the best working conditions on the basis of six
categories of LOS from A to F in which LOS F represents the worst case. Each LOS reflects a
number of operating conditions and the driver is aware of them.

A road with different operating characteristics and traffic volumes may derive the level
of service. Speed and time of travel, interruptions or restrictions on travel freedom with the
required speed, comfort and convenience of the driver, and operating costs, are the factors
affecting level of service.
7.0 CONCLUSION MULTILANE

Based on the conducted experiment which held at KM1 Jalan Panchor, the Level of
Service (LOS) indicates is LOS A. Level of Service (LOS) known as a qualitative measure
which describing operational conditions within a traffic stream due to the volume of vehicles
flow over a time. LOS A shows the road have a complete free flow and, very short delay or no
delay at all and most vehicles do not stop as result favourable progression and has a short cycle
length.

8.0 REFERENCE

A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads, Road Branch Department JKR. Retrieve Nov.
26, 2019 from
http://www.hbp.usm.my/hilmy/reg366/GuideOnGeometricDesignOfRoad.pdf

Chen, lary, 2009, Determination of Level of Service (LOS) on Different Roads in


Kuching Area (A Case study), UNIMAS E-Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 1: issue
1, page 3-6.