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Community Diagnosis1


As Wikipedia defines a community, as a group of interacting

organisms, sharing an environment where intent, belief, resources,
preferences, needs and risks and a number of conditions may be present or

Community health nursing was our training ground in promoting and

providing care, wellness and health in different communities. In line with this
is the empowerment of every individual in the maintenance of their healthy
way of life.

On the other way around, community diagnosis is a process that helps

a community health nurse in prioritizing the health problems available in the
community which will help the people in achieving a healthy way of life.
Included in the Cdx is analyzing the available data that will be correlated in
the current resources of the community in order to help them in solving their
weaknesses and change it to their major strengths.

Therefore, community and community health nursing is totally

interrelated because with the absence of the fundamentals of CHN, the
community itself will not be able to meet its desired standards especially in
the field of health care process. Aside from it, CDX will be a best tool that will
help both the CHN and the said community in equating a new way of
possible interventions in solving the current health scenarios/issues that may
deteriorate or augment the perfect health status.


As student nurses, it is very important to undergo the process of

Community Diagnosis or CDx because this will be the guide in determining
the health profile of the studied community as well as the health problems
present. In addition to that, the Community Diagnosis is a stepping stone in
resolving the health needs and problems of the community. The role of a
student nurse in undergoing the process of CDx is to know the health needs
and problems in the community which affect their total health condition.
Student nurses, being new in the field of community health nursing,
should take part in the administration of community health diagnosis. In
Community Diagnosis2

collaboration with the health teams, the student nurses should apply their
knowledge in maintaining and promoting quality health. They may impart
knowledge and provide necessary information about the proper way of
preventing diseases which may truly help the whole community. They may
also promote health by suggesting health programs and seminar related with
the commonly occurring diseases for early detection and prevention

General Objectives:
After our community exposure, our group will be able to assess and
acquire the relevant data that will help the community in becoming more
aware in the health status of their place even if they share common interest
their health ways and beliefs still differs from one another. Being the future
community health nurses someday, we’ll try to formulate new ideas that will
teach and help them in equating ways and means of how to be participative
in right health ways instead of the “false” beliefs taught from the past. We
the student nurses will be able to apply our different therapeutic ways in
communication especially in the community where we are all strangers
which are a challenge for all of us.

Specific Objectives:

1. To gather relevant demographic profile of the community and be able

to interpret if it has an effect to the community.

2. To analyze and interpret the available environmental resources and be

able to interpret if it's an additional threat or a deficit for the

Community Diagnosis3

Group 5 of BSN 3-B, weeks of exposure to Barangay Pulang Lupa 4

Compound,Purok 4 Las Piñas City.

Within the allotted time, some of the member was assigned at Pulang
Lupa 4 Health Center and some in Purok 4 doing home visitation and
surveying community diagnosis.

For the first week of duty in the community the researchers went to
coordinate with health center, Barangay officials and home owners of Purok
4 Las Pinas.

An orientation on the activities of the health center was conducted by

the Nurse and the Midwives. After familiarization of their activities, the
researchers had their ocular survey of the area (Purok 4).

Aside from identifying community’s exact location, boundaries, and

landmarks, the history of the barangay, and the officers of the home owners
association were also gathered. It took 4 consecutive days for the spot map
to be finalized.

The researchers started conducting their interview on the second week

as well. With the survey forms as their tool, the researchers gathered and
initially assess the conditions of the families, this was intended, for them to
identify and prioritize d the problems and needs of the community as well as
to conduct probable solutions such as seminar, programs and health

In asserting eligibility of respondents, the interviewee has to be a

member of the family residing in the said area for at least 6 months prior to
interview. In a span of 10 consecutive days and assigned by pairs, the
researchers were able to survey every house within the community
boundaries, living open spaces and rented lots as an exception.

Tabulations were started as soon as the surveys were completed. Data

were double- checked for strict documentation so as to prevent errors in
tallying. After finalization of the tabulated data, the topics were equally
distributed for interpretation. Brain storming followed.
Community Diagnosis4


The study covers thirty-five families composing of 228 individuals
merely representing the residents of Purok4.

Data gathered were based from the interview made by the student-
nurses to the head of the family or any family member who is knowledgeable
and capable of answering the essential information of their family.

The data collected from the survey-questionnaire includes the family

members’ background – education, occupation, income, religion, origin and
residency. It also pertains to the respondents’ way of living including their
housing condition, water supply, excreta disposal and garbage disposal.
Other topics covered in the survey include their food storage, infant feeding
practice and immunization status, health seeking behaviors and sources of
health information
Community Diagnosis5


1. Total population of the barangay is 1,166

2. Total population of the families is 228

3. Sex ratio = No. of males x 100

No. of females
= (573/593) x 100
= 96.63

Sex ratio= 96 males: 100 females

Based on the data gathered, the ratio between males and
females is 96.63%. The female population is greater in number
than male population by 4%.

Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
The shift toward an excess of females has a variety of social and
biological implications. Men and women differ with respect to
the amount of schooling, age at marriage, entrance into and
length of labor force activity, type of occupations held, amount of
income received and amount of social group activity. They also
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are purported to have different social, psychological and cultural


Based on the given data, it was found out that there are
more females than males in Purok 4. With this data, it could be
suggested that the health programs be intensified for both of the
sexes since the only difference between them is 4%. Health
teachings like proper diet, lifestyle, and prevention of diseases
must be discussed in order to prevent death and promote
healthy living.

4. Age and Sex Distribution

Table 1
Age and Sex Distribution of Purok 4
Percenta Femal Percenta
Age Male Total Percenta
ge e ge
month 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
31 5% 20 3.37% 51 4.37%
2-4y/o 40 6.98% 43 7.25% 83 7.12%
5-9y/o 62 10.82% 61 10.29% 123 10.55%
51 8.90% 59 9.95% 110 9.43%
72 12.57% 81 13.66% 153 13.12%
55 9.60% 66 11.13% 121 10.38%
25-29 57 9.95% 58 9.78% 115 9.86%
30-34 54 9.42% 46 7.76% 100 8.58%
35-39 27 4.71% 38 6.41% 65 5.57%
40-44 42 7.33% 41 6.91% 83 7.12%
45-49 33 5.76% 28 4.72% 61 5.23%
50-54 19 3.32% 20 3.37% 39 3.34%
55-59 12 2.09% 10 1.69% 22 1.89%
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60-64 11 1.92% 10 1.69% 21 1.80%

65 & ↑ 7 1.22% 12 2.02% 19 1.63%
Total 573 100% 593 100% 1166 100%

65 & ↑
Figure 1 5-9
Pyramidal 2-4

Presentation of Age and Sex Distribution in Purok

Interpretation and Analysis:

Table 1 shows the frequency of male and female in the

community. The data shows that the productive age group that
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consists of 54.63% is the highest in number. Age that ranges

from 15-44 years old is classified under fertility age group and
also fall under the category for civil status and reproductive age
group. This age group, proper programs should still be carried
out to educate them about the maternal and child care since
these are the age brackets wherein they are capable of bearing a
child. One of the programs that may be implemented would be
would be Reproductive health education that will teach them
about the importance of having a child in the right age. Through
this, their values formation will be strengthened that will make
them realize the importance of their acts. Another method that
can be used to limit the population would be the responsible
parenthood that could help them identify the ideal family size
depending upon the budget to accommodate the basic needs.
The Manila Health Department may conduct programs focusing
on maternal and child health care such as Micronutrient
Supplementation, Monitoring of Malnourished Pregnant Women,
Tetanus Toxoid Immunization, and Safe Motherhood and
Women’s Health like the Pre-marital and Responsible Parenthood
Counseling and Kangaroo care Management for the mother to
ensure her safe pregnancy and delivery.

The dependent age group ranging from 0-14 and 65 years

old and above has 33. 10% of the total population. The males in
this area which has 33% dominates the females that only have
32.8% of the population since these are children and senior
citizens representing the community programs like supplemental
feeding of rehabilitation of Malnourished Children; Home, School,
Community Food Production, Promotion of Fortified Foods to
inform the target respondents about the importance of proper
nutrition to the body. In addition to this, programs like book
giving, free school supplies and scholarship programs provided
by the community officials or other private sectors may help the
children to be motivated and determined to perform at their best
in school.

5. Civil Status
Community Diagnosis9

Based on the pie chart, 51% of the total population in
Purok 4 are single, 46% are married, 2% separated and the least
is the widowed comprising of 0.5% of the population.

The pie chart emphasizes a large population of single
individual which indicates less expenditure than married couples.
On the other hand separated couples shows lack of ability to
cope with stress resulting to broken family. While widowed
individuals gains responsibility to support the needs his or her
family. As a nurse, we can advice to the individual things related
to stress reduction like provision of recreational activities,
involving in sports and community participation.
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Civil (marital) status is the description of a person’s

relationship with a significant other. In Purok 4, most of the
population is single since according to age and sex distribution,
the population largely comprises of young adolescent group.
Second to the highest is the married group since the percentage
of late adolescent group and adult group is dominant in the area.
Only 2% is separated which means that only a small percentage
of married couples is discontented of their relationship with
significant other. The least percentage is the widowed group and
this is due to the elderly population in the area wherein their
partners died of old age or other sickness significant to aging

Health programs must be intensified for those who are

single since their group is comprised mostly of those in the
adolescent stage. Health teachings regarding proper hygiene,
diet and lifestyle must be discussed. Also, ways on how to
manage and cope with stress must also be emphasized because
they are single and thus they do not have someone to deal their
problems with except for their family. It is also important to
inculcate to them the importance of education before they enter
marriage. Second priority in the area is the married group
wherein the health teachings must be the following: family
planning, responsible parenthood, prevention of diseases and
promotion of healthy lifestyle. Although the separated and the
widowed are least in the group, they must also be given focus
and be reminded of prioritizing their selves as well as their
children if they have any. Coping with stress must be given
emphasis since they lack ability to cope with it due to broken


Dependency Ratio = No. of population 0-14 years + 65 years

old & above x 100
Population 15 – 64 years old
= 184+7 x 100
1. Dependency Ratio =50%
Community Diagnosis11


Based from the above mentioned computation, for every

100 productive individuals, there are 50 dependents. This shows
that the ratio of the supporting population and the one they are
supporting is 2:1. Initially, the ratio signifies an ideal weight for
the productive and non-productive group of the population. Two
productive individuals are supposed to work for every single non-
productive individual. The community exhibited an ideal to good
rate of dependency ratio. That is if all the productive group of the
population would work and have decently fair wages, the
community can be able to minimize their economic difficulties.
The population’s working group is large enough to support the
dependents. The only thing that is needed is to utilize this
working group by providing them with jobs that would give
enough income for them to satisfy their physiologic needs.
Income generating livelihood programs may be a good way of
helping the working group stabilizes their jobs as well as incomes
if the community will provide so.

2. Occupational Status


Majority of the residents of Purok 4 are employed with a

percentage of 62%, while 38% are Unemployed.

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Occupation or employment refers to any activity that

serves as one's regular source of livelihood.

62% of the population has jobs while only 38% of them do

not have. Even if majority of them have lower educational
attainment, most of them still find jobs to make a living.
Belonging to this group are vendors and sari-sari store owners
who employ themselves in providing a living for their families.
Even without formal education, they use their own skills in order
for them to provide for their needs, in any way possible. Those
who were unemployed were either minors or still students, or
have disabilities which prohibit them to make a living by

3. Occupation

According to this pie, chart, 60% of the total population has
blue collar job while the other white collar job has 40%.

Community Diagnosis13

Large percentage of blue collar job indicates that the

community preferred to use the skills, instead of using their
intellectual capacity to earn money, on the other hand, 40%
choose white collar job related to their intelligence and their
ability to their excellent ideas. As our nursing responsibility, we
should provide health teaching that focuses on how to balance
daily uplifts and daily hassles to prevent stress.

Majority of the population is under the Blue collar job, like

the vendors and drivers. They are prone to diseases, which can
easily be transferred by physical contact because they are
exposed to many different people. The same thing goes with the
drivers; there are also physical contacts with other people. In
addition, they are more likely to get involved in a vehicular
accident. Their working environment is exposed to different kinds
of pollution, such as noise and air pollution, which can lead to ear
problems and respiratory diseases. There are also several
construction and factory workers in the community. They are
doing very heavy works that may cause body pains and fatigue.
Their work may also cause accidents and Upper Respiratory
Infections (URI). Blue-collar jobs also include the embalmer, who
is prone to inhaling fumes and chemicals used in their job.
Another occupation under the blue-collar job is the field police in
which their lives are always at risk. They are mostly involved in
shootouts, in protecting the citizen, and in chasing down the
criminals, which may lead to major wounds in the body. There is
also a service crew in the respondents. Their work is mostly
subjected in cleaning their working place. They may also have
physical contact with their customers. These bluecollar works, in
general, are exposed to unfavorable and dirty areas, and have
physical contact with different people. So, the health care
providers may promote programs like “communicable disease
control”, proper hygiene, and sanitation techniques. Second, a
whitecollar worker refers to an educated worker or a salaried
professional who performs semi – professional office works,
administrative and sales coordination tasks. This category
includes the nurses. They are more prone to health threatening
diseases because they have contact with the patients. Since they
know that their health is at risk in their profession, they may do
preventive measures so that the disease of the patient will not
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be transferred to them. There is also a real estate agent who is

always in contact with various types’ people especially when
dealing with different clients. This member of the blue-collar job
is also exposed to health threatening diseases especially those
infectious ones. Since they are less aware of their health than
nurses are, they must be specified by the necessary health
information regarding the probable illnesses that they may

4. Average Income per Family

Low income earners are more common in PUROK 4 by 59%
of the population. Moderate Income earners come next with 31%
and High Income earners, by 10%.

Income is the consumption and savings opportunity
gained by an entity within a specified time frame, which is
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generally expressed in monetary terms. However, for households

and individuals, "income is the sum of all the wages, salaries,
profits, interests payments, rents and other forms of earnings
received... in a given period of time.

Families in the Purok 4 community with Low income are

higher in number by 49% than those with a high income.
Moderate Income workers are greater than high income earners
by 21%, but still lesser than low income earners. Because most
of the people in the community were only able to finish High
School, they cannot find better occupations to make a living,
therefore causing them to earn only a little amount for the day
which they allot for basic necessities such as food, shelter and
health. Most of the working individuals in the community either
work in sari-sari stores or in public works which only provide
small profits for them. Joining livelihood programs in the
community such as seminars, trainings and handicraft product
making may improve their income.


1. Educational Attainment
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Surveyed showed that 42% of the total population are High

School graduate,15% are High School undergraduates, 14%
College graduates, 12% Elementary graduates, 8% College
undergraduates,5% Elementary graduates and 4 Vocational.


The pie chart shows that the citizens can’t afford to finance
their need in terms of paying tuition fee as they enter the next
educational level (College). High School undergraduates is the
second to the highest percentage of educational attainment that
indicates lack of guidance from parents leading to increase
percentage of High School; undergraduates. 14% of college
graduates showing enough finances to pay for their tuition fee.
While 12% of the total population are Elementary graduates
signifies percentage of school-age. Children successfully
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accomplished primary education. 8% are a college

undergraduate means that it depends on different factors like
health, finances, income, and expenditure and their willingness
to finish the course. 5 % of the population under Elementary
undergraduates indicates poor literacy rate, health since this age
group are more prone to have an illness. The last 4% are
vocational who preferred to take a less expensive course based
on their mental, body, and finance capacity. As a health care
provider, we can give health teaching about the importance and
benefits of education affecting health like having knowledge
about proper grooming, proper diet and exercise.

2. Religion

There are more persons living in Purok 4 that are members
of the Roman catholic church with 99% rate compared to the
remaining 1% who are practicing religions that are non-catholic
like Iglesia ni Cristo, Dating Daan, Protestant, Aglipayan and
even Islam.

In purok 4, there are more Roman Catholics compared to
the least number of non-catholic members. Therefore, being
Catholics make these group of people decide with conscience
regarding health matters and issues like family planning which
their church’s teaching are in contrast because they believe that
there must be preservation of life within the family and home.
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3. Place of Origin

Out of the total population, many persons rooted from
Visayas region composing the 50%, while persons who came
from Luzon islands are only 34% and the remaining 16% came
from Mindanao region.

Almost the half of the population of Purok 4 had their roots
from Visayas, because their relatives had spared them there lots,
farms, or even fish ponds that they are maintaining due to the
wish of their descendants.Therefore, as Visayans dominates the
population, many are used to speak Cebuano, Ilonggo, and

4. Housing
a. Type of Housing
Community Diagnosis19


56% of the residents in Purok4 are living in a mixed type of

housing. 37% have strong type of housing, while a percentage of
only 5% live in a light type of housing. An even smaller
percentage of 2% have make shift houses.


Types of Housing include Strong housing, which are

basically made of concrete and durable materials; Light housing,
which are primarily made of lightweight materials such as
plywood and/or other wooden materials; the Mixed type, which
are composed of both concrete and lightweight materials; and
the Make Shift type wherein the house is built with recycled
materials primarily cartons, plastics, planks and others.

More than half of the community has their houses built with
mixed materials like concrete and plywood. This is more
convenient than Light housing and Make shifts, since the
materials are sturdier and can withstand the usual changes in
the weather. Mixed houses are also cheaper than strong ones.
Second to the most common type of housing in Purok4 is the
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strong type. Individuals or families who can afford materials such

as concrete and steel prefer to make their shelter stronger so as
to withstand the common hazards in the community like fire, and
also the natural calamities. For them safety is their main priority
in order to live a more convenient life. Light type of housing is
not that common, with a 5% percentage only. The families do not
usually have sufficient amount to afford sturdier materials for
their houses. An even smaller percentage of the population built
their houses out of easily-collated materials. For as long as they
have something to protect them from the rain and the heat, have
something where they can sleep and eat in, they are content.
They are usually the ones who cannot provide for their family
mainly because of financial insufficiencies.

b. Type of Residency

The above data shows greater percentage of citizen who has
permanent residency (92%), while the remaining (8%) is transient in
the said community.

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The greater percentage of resident represent people who are

satisfied on their community while the other (8%) of transient resident
means that they find it more beneficial to live in this kind of
community. As a member of health care team, we should be alert of
the people migrating and immigrating in the community specially the
transient individuals who might be a carrier of disease from other

c. Home ownership


More than half of the residents in Purok4 have their own

house, while 27% are renting. A small percentage of them
rent for free.


Home Ownership is the ability of an individual or a family

to have their own property and/or a shelter for themselves.

Majority of the population of Purok4 chose to have their

own residence so as to be more independent especially in
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decision making and also in private matters. Benefits of

owning a house include lesser financial obligations, as those
who only rent would have to count their rent payment as one
of their financial responsibilities when, if they own their house,
they no longer need to worry about its payment. While those
who rent may not be able enough to buy or build their own

d. Ventilation


Almost ¾ of the population have adequate ventilation in

their homes, while only 28% have inadequate ventilation.


Ventilation is the intentional movement of air from

outside a building to the inside. Ventilation in a house is very
essential as it provides the inhabitants in it enough air to keep
them cool or so as not to keep the heat inside the house.
Community Diagnosis23

Proper ventilation is achieved by wide and properly built

windows and doors, and fans in rooms.

72% of the houses built within the community are built

with proper ventilation, while only 28% of them do not. Most
of the houses in Purok4 are built with wide windows and
doors. The inhabitants also prefer to let their windows open
during the day to let the air from outside to get inside and
keep the heat out. Some of the families have plants and trees
planted on their backyards which enhance better ventilation
as it keeps the air cool and clean. The smaller group of
families who do not have adequate ventilation either have
their houses built in the inner streets of the neighborhood and
hence receive only a little amount of outside air and have
windows which are either too small or are being covered by
other houses around.


1. Water Supply
Community Diagnosis24

For the community’s water resources, most of the
population comprising 65% has their water resource from a
water company supply like NAWASA and MWSS. While the
remaining 35% of the total population still rely on the “old style”
common deep well or what we so called “poso”.

The researchers had concluded based from the above data
presented, many homeowners in Purok 4 are used to have their
water resources from the projects of water supply companies
that built different water ways within the community compared
to the remaining percentage of the population that still depends
their water resources from deep wells that are still present in the
community. Some still depends on pozos because of lack of
inadequate finances that they could pay for their monthly dues
for MWSS, they reasoned out that instead of spending it for
NAWASA, they would just spend it in buying their foods for the
whole day.

2. Excreta Disposal
Community Diagnosis25


The illustration shows higher percentage (94%) of

individuals using pour flush method, and the other (6%) use flush
type method.


Methods of excreta disposal is more economically related

issue. The individuals who use pour flush method signify family
who wants to save water to avoid high water bills. 6% who use
flush type shows people who have the capacity to pay for their

As for the majority who are using pour flush toilets, the
importance of frequent and proper hand washing is the focus of
the community. The absence of a direct water supply in pour
flush toilets makes it prone to dirt and bacteria, which can easily
cause diseases, especially those concerning the digestive track,
when ingested. To avoid the spread of fecal-oral diseases are
common to such kinds of toilets, hand-washing demonstrations
and teachings may be implemented in as a program in the
community. Health seminars may be conducted in the
community to increase their awareness about the importance of
hygiene to their health and how hand washing could decrease
the possibility of acquiring gastrointestinal illnesses.

3. Garbage Disposal
Community Diagnosis26

Out of the houses surveyed in Purok 4, 80% of their
garbages are being collected, 11% of it are being segregated,
8% of it are being dumped while the remaining 1% is being

In Purok 4 community, about 80% of the people dispose
their garbages through the collection of dump trucks for an easy
and convenient way of garbage disposal while 11% of them
practice proper waste segregation. They separate non
biodegradable materials and biodegradable materials to help in
maintaining a healthy and organize environment and try to keep
those materials that can be recycle or use again. And few of
them, about 8%, dumped or throw their garbages anywhere.
Community Diagnosis27

They dumped it along the streets, vacant lot or even along the
river. Lack of knowledge on improper disposal of garbages can
be a factor why few of them disregard important things like this
that can harm their health. And the remaining 1% of them
practiced burning of garbages. They think that burning of
garbages can help them lessen the possibility of having disease
(such as dengue) in their area.

The Republic Act No.9003, “The Philippines Ecological and

Waste Management Campaign” makes way for the creation of
organizations such as the Department of Public Service, which is
responsible for the proper management and disposal of garbage.
In line with that is the promotion of Presidential Decree 856, the
“Code on Sanitation.” It is the responsibility of each individual to
maintain and observe cleanliness not only inside their homes but
as well as their surroundings. Through proper waste disposal, the
environment is not just only conserved but mostly, the spread of
microorganisms and bacteria causing diseases is being lessened.
In the end, any form of violation against the promotion of a
healthy environment must be put into action. Such individuals
must be educated and properly informed about the importance
of cleaning the environment. To have a healthy body is to have a
healthy and clean environment. It must be everyone’s initiative
to promote a healthy lifestyle through the maintenance of a
surrounding free from garbage and pollution.


1. Food Storage
Community Diagnosis28

For food storage and facilities of the community, 64% of
the population has their own tables in storing their foods & meals
for the whole day. While the remaining 2-3% of the population
still use other types of storages like baskets, Tupperware or even

There is a greater percentage of people who don’t keep
their food on refrigerators – which then heightens the risk of food
spoilage and contamination. The chart highlights the need for
proper food storage and handling because food sanitation is not
adequate in the community. The food, when contaminated or
spoiled, loses its original nutritional value, texture, and flavor.
Thus, the food becomes harmful to people and unsuitable to eat.
This can be caused by bacterial or fungal growth, infestations
from insects or rodents and the temperature of the surroundings.
Once the food is not properly stored, it would lead to an increase
in the gastro-intestinal diseases existing in the community.
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In order to promote awareness regarding the right food

practice, health lectures and teachings may be conducted. The
residents of the community should take note with the four simple
things to remember when it comes to proper food sanitation -
starting with the Right Source. In order to ensure the safety of
the food to be eaten, the ingredients like vegetables and raw
meat must be fresh and clean including the water to be used is
potable and decontaminated. Next, the Right Preparation: Hands
must be washed thoroughly before handling food. Then cross-
contamination must be prevented – wherein the fruits or
vegetables should not be prepared on surfaces used for the
preparation of uncooked meats, poultry or fish. The preparation
surface and the utensils to be used must be clean and sanitized
to prevent contamination. Also, toxic substances should be well
labeled and kept away from the preparation area. Persons with
skin infection, open sore or illness should not handle food to
prevent the transfer of disease. Third: the Right Cooking. The
food must be well-cooked to be able to kill the bacteria present
in the food to be eaten. In this way, the risk of food
contamination is lessened. Lastly: the Right Food Storage. This is
maintaining the proper food temperature and storing the food in
such a way as to keep it clean and safe prior to the time it will be
eaten. The food must also be covered well to prevent vermin
entry and contamination.

In the case of the sixty-nine percent who do not store their

food on refrigerators, they should be aware of the amount of
food to be cooked for the day. It should be just enough for the
whole family to consume wherein there would be no excesses. In
this way, food spoilage can be avoided and there would be no
waste of money and time.
Community Diagnosis30

2. Family Planning

Women on Purok 4 surveyed shown that most of them agreed
with 61% as acceptors and the remaining 39% where non-acceptors.
Apparently, 0% is defaulter.


Family planning is the planning of when to have children,

and the use of birth control and other techniques to implement
such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality
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education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted

infections, pre-conception counseling and management, and
infertility management.

Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the

use of birth control, though it often includes more. It is most
usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the
number of children they have and/or to control the timing of
pregnancy (also known as spacing children).

Family planning services are defined as "educational,

comprehensive medical or social activities which enable
individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number
and spacing of their children and to select the means by which
this may be achieved.

Based on the data surveyed, 61% were in favor of family

planning known as “acceptors” and the rest comprising of
approximately 39% were “non-acceptors.” This entails that
people on the community favored family planning without any
other statement. Maybe because they themselves were victims
of adversities brought about by a somewhat large family size.
Community Diagnosis32

Out of the 73% who prefer artificial method: 62% wants usage of
pills, 19% prefers ligation, 16% wants usage of IUDs, 2% only prefers
usage of condoms & the remaining 1% prefers injectibles. This implies
that responsibilities towards contraception lies on women rather than
man themselves. Usage of pills must be taken religiously since any
alteration on it means unwanted pregnancy. Ligation on women seems
to be effective most of the times since ampulla of the fallopian tube
where cut thus ovary cannot pass through it, we
very well know that vasectomy is the
counterpart of it among men. IUDs such as
those hormonally based and copper based one;
however certain abnormal effects may happen
if pregnancy continues here, epitome of it was
intrauterine bleeding. Condoms were not used
mainly by men for the reason that “satisfaction
not guaranteed”. Usage of injectibles is not that popular
since pain is present upon administration of it.

On the other hand, out of 27% who prefers natural method of

family planning: 56% of them prefer withdrawal, 39% uses calendar
method & the remaining 5% thinks abstinence would be the best
choice. We all know that Philippines is one of those Catholic country
and in line with this is a “pro life” heart within ourselves. In relation to
program of DOH: Senate Bill No. 1546 and House Bill No. 16 which
mainly entails “Reproductive Health Act of 2004” which implies that
parents must understand the concepts like Responsible Parenthood,
Respect for life, Birth Spacing and Informed Choice.


Considering the population explosion, increasing inflation

and scarcity of resources, the family trends have shifted to
nuclear families with number of children limited to one or two.
Family planning refers to the natural and artificial birth control
methods that allow you to control the size of your family and the
gap between your children. Family planning tools help you
prevent conception and reduce the risk of pregnancy. The
Community Diagnosis33

biggest advantage of these family planning tools is that they

save you the hassles of abortion. Adopting the family plan
directly affects a woman's health in a good way by preventing
the unwanted and unplanned pregnancies and the following
abortions. Restricting the family size allows more resources for
bringing up and sustaining a family nicely. You can let you
children have more focused upbringing and better education and
other amenities.

Family Planning of DOH defines it as a national mandated

priority public health program to attain the country's national
health development: a health intervention program and an
important tool for the improvement of the health and welfare of
mothers, children and other members of the family. Family
planning also provides information and services for the couples
of reproductive age to plan their family according to their beliefs
and circumstances through legally and medically acceptable
family planning methods.

Dominant of them have preference on usage of artificial

method compare to natural one: 62% favors pills; 19% on
ligation; 16% for usage of IUDs; 2% uses condoms & a
percentage of 1 who likes better using injectibles. In contrast,
27% who prefers natural method: 57% of them like withdrawal;
39% favors calendar method & the remaining 5% thought that
abstinence would be the solution.

The program of family planning is anchored on the

following basic principles. First, “responsible parenthood” which
means that each family has the right and duty to determine the
desired number of children they might have and when they
might have them. And beyond responsible parenthood is
“responsible parenting” which is the proper upbringing and
education of children so that they grow up to be upright,
productive and civic-minded citizens. Next, “respect for life”. The
1987 Constitution states that the government protects the
sanctity of life. Abortion is NOT a family planning method; in
which are “birth spacing” which refers to interval between
pregnancies (which is ideally 3 years). It enables women to
recover their health improves women's potential to be more
Community Diagnosis34

productive and to realize their personal aspirations and allows

more time to care for children and spouse/husband, and
secondly, “informed choice” that is upholding and ensuring the
rights of couples to determine the number and spacing of their
children according to their life's aspirations and reminding
couples that planning size of their families have a direct bearing
on the quality of their children's and their own lives.

3. Health Seeking Behavior

Figure 19
Percentage Distribution of Population Showing
Seeking Behavior of Families in Purok 4

Community Diagnosis35

Out of the number of people on houses surveyed on Purok 4

regarding health care facilities: 36% of them consults private clinic;
35% goes to hospital; 28% seek health needs in health center & 1%
prefer to go on “albularyos” or quack doctors. In this sense, their
preference lies on seeking health care on medical professionals who
completely overpower against quack doctors. So, this means that they
don’t believe much on quacks, same thing as they don’t believe on the
traditional and conventional methods of healing.


Health care facilities encompass a wide range of types, from

small and relatively simple medical clinics to large, complex, and
costly, teaching and research hospitals; health center and even
traditionally quack doctors.

The facility also influences employee service attitudes and

behaviors. Finishes, signage, and artwork must be carefully selected,
well coordinated, and integrated. Security can be balanced with some
features apparent to patients/visitors, while conveying a message of

Medical practitioners in the Philippines are graduates from top

universities in the country, and most of them have in United States
medical schools. Additionally, there are also doctors that have
practiced medicine in the US before sharing their expertise in the
Philippines. Filipino nurses are also trained by nursing schools with the
best standards. In fact, most of the nurses working in the US are

It’s based on the findings that people have a preference going to

private clinics to seek health needs, followed by choosing hospitals,
next favor is on health centers and the remaining on quack doctors.
Medical professionals like doctors, nurses, midwifes and the like were
apparently most consultation and preference regarding seeking health
care lie. Quack doctors were not favored since the community
surveyed is not a “province based” one and more of it is an urban


From the above data that has been gathered and collated by the
researchers, we are able to identify and prioritize some of the
Community Diagnosis36

different community’s problems and weaknesses that need some

solutions. These problems are becoming a great hindrance to the
progress of the whole community. Other problems that are
identified may be a possible health deficits and threats that could
cause a more devastating effect to the community, however with
the active participation of each member of the said community time
by time, these certain health deficits and threats may be trimmed
down and be solved. One of the problems arising from the
community is the level of educational attainment as they have a
high rate of high school undergraduates, therefore some health
teachings like in family planning are ineffective because they lack
some of the “listening” and “writing” skills that is to be learned from
higher educational level making them somewhat ignorant to such
health teaching because they always wanted to do their acts on
their own instead of listening to other persons. Therefore, being a
high school graduate maybe somehow a benefiting effect but still
lack of proper education may hinder one’s progress and could lead
to a more compromising circumstance for the whole community.


In Purok 4, we have seen and observed different health deficits
and threats like poor drainage system wherein the excreta disposal
of everyone is passing through, some are covered some are
exposed entirely. This drainage system may be a cause of some of
vector-borne diseases. As they have a high rate in usage of artificial
family planning, they are used to be “pill-users”, however they are
defaulters because they reasoned out that instead of spending their
time going to the health center, they’ll just use it in finding jobs and
be provided with their way of living for expenses especially in food.
Therefore, as they become defaulters, the tendency is there are
marked rates of increased population.


As this study was researched within limited time, we suggest

that more time must be spent within the community and somehow
one of us can be doing an “immersion” so that we must be able to
experience the real life inside Purok 4, because we believe that
experience counts over data. This immersion will be giving us,
Community Diagnosis37

researchers the more eyes’ view of the real trending and issues in
the community and will make it sure that these issues will be
available and seen in our research.


As the community has high incidence of defaulters of the family

planning program, DOH officials from the city government must be
knocked so that appropriate funding of new health workers which
are reliable and competent will be the one who’ll do house-to-house
teaching of the family planning programs. Also, with the current
educational attainment of the overall community which hinders
them from acquiring a good and established job, the city
government must be told about it so that they can send available
trainers and lecturers for livelihood projects and “easy money-
making” programs for the community. Therefore, the problems
identified must be solved not only by the community but still with
the government on their side.