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ENCULTURATION AND SOCIALIZATION PROCESS – methods of interaction that IMITATION STAGE – first 2 years, imitates

enables the content to be given to person gestures and sounds

undergoing socialization
PLAY STAGE – child assumes the roles of
-life long process of social interaction
RESULTS – outcomes of the socialization; others; playing they learn what is acceptable
- “central process” of social life ;; process of evident when indiv begin to practice the n not
member recruitment and replacement behaviors, attitudes and values
GAME – child assumes the roles not just the
-enables the person to gradually become a SIGNIFICANT RESULT OF person; learn that people behave the way they
self-aware and knowledgeable human being SOCIALIZATION do bec of a role; also children learn that not all
and learn the ways, values, rules and culture roles are equal
SELF IDENTITY – establishment of a unique
of his/her society
sense of identity; awareness of how it relates
-influenced by the context of their respective to their society n world
IDENTITY FORMATION – development of an
society, and the social groups that they
individual’s distinct personality, regarded as a
persisting entity in a particular stage of life
SELF CONCEPT – the sum of a being’s
development of citizen to function effectively -is regarded as one of the founders of social
knowledge and understanding of themselves
within a particular political system psychology; what has come to be referred to
(components: physical, psychological and
as the Chicago sociological tradition
VIEWED IN THE CONTEXT OF – social attributes)
CULTURAL IDENTITY – one’s feeling of
Process of accepting the social norms, identity or affiliation with a group or culture
attitudes, roles and values; society is the IMITATION
ETHNIC IDENTITY – identification with a
primary factor responsible for how individuals
PLAY – child takes different roles they certain ethnicity, usually on the basis of a
learn to think and behave
observe in adult society presumed common genealogy or ancestry
GAME – child must take the role if everyone NATURAL IDENTITY – is an ethnical and
SOCIAL CONTEXT – particular else; organization begins and definite philosophical concept where humans divided
circumstances of a society; consist of its personalities start to emerge into groups NATION
culture, language and the social structures
THE GENERALIZED OTHER – individual RELIGIOUS IDENTITY – set of beliefs and
that define social class, ethnicity and gender
understands what kind of behavior is practices generally held by an individual
CONTENT AND PROCESS expected or appropriate in different social involving adherence to codified beliefs and
settings rituals
CONTENT – ideas, beliefs, behaviour and
other info that are passed by members of the
society to indiv
NORMS – rule that guides the behabior of the DEVIANCE depends on… UNDERCONFORMITY “negative deviance”
members of a society or group
-TIME – fashion and grooming change -behavior that underconforms to social
NORMAL – refers to conforms to norms experiments people either reject, misinterpret
-PLACE – where behavior occurs
, or unaware of the norms
NORMATIVE – refers to what we perceive as
-SITUATION – takes precedence over
normal, what we think should be normal; -ex. Obesity, unmotivated students
place in determining appropriateness of
-refers to beliefs that are expressed as actions
directives/value of judgement
-CULTURE – most influential in defining THEORIES OF DEVIANCE
FUNCTIONALISTS – argue that deviance
ENCULTURATION -if a particular behavior is considered deviant, serves a positive social function by clarifying
it means that it violates the values and norms moral boundaries and promoting social
-process of being socialized into a specific
or a particular group, not that it is inherently cohesion
culture, indivs learn cultural symbols, norms,
wrong CONFLICT THEORY – society’s inequalities
values, and language by observing and
are reproduced in its definitions of deviance
interacting with fam, friends, n rest of d society -literature, deviance focuses on crime and
how diff cultures define very diff behaviors as MERTON’S STRUCTURAL STRAIN
criminal or not THEORY – argues that the tension or strain
DEVIANCE AND CONFORMITY between socially approved goals and an
-most serious crime in US – punished by
indiv’s ability to meet those goals
DEVIANCE imprisonment

- violation of social norms; Other forms of Punishment

-a behavior, trait or other characteristics that -shunning

violates a norm and causes a negative
-total banishment from a community
-corporal punishment
ex. Homosexuals, prostitutes, drug addicts,



-it is important to remember when sociologist -involves behavior that overconforms to social
use the term “deviant” , they are making a expectations (leads to imbalance & Do you follow socially accepted means and
social judgement, never a moral one. perfectionism; can be as harmful as negative goals? CONFORMIST
deviance) Doing the bare minimum? RITUALIST
-ex. Anorexia, body builder, perfect students
If you’re like WorldCom CEO Bernard Ebbers MANAGING STIGMA DISTRIBUTION. Rules:
and want to earn big rewards but have few
PASSING – one strategy analyzed that -Reciprocity. Giving of gives obligates the
scruples about how you reach them.
stigmatized indiv use to negotiate everyday recipient to return sumthing
-Retribution. ‘value added taxes’; require
You’re a RETREATIST if u reject all means
IN-GROUP ORIENTATION – stigmatized centralized government with its rulers to
and goals of society.
individuals follow an orientation away from collect taxes
You’re a REBEL, if u not only reject social mainstream society and toward new
-Free Market System. Worth any item
means and goals but also want to destroy standards that value their group identity
depends on how much others are willing to
society itself.
DEVIANCE AVOWAL – a process by which pay for it
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM – focus on an individual self-identities as deviant and
how interpersonal relations and errday initiates his or her own labeling process
interactions shape definitions of deviance -Banking. Moving funds among 2 or more
accs held by same/diff indiv
states that we learn to be deviant through our -Real Estate. Conveyance of title to a property
associations with deviant peers from the seller to d buyer through deed of
LABELING THEORY – claims that deviance
is consequence of external judgements, or -Securities Trading. Delivery of stocks
labels ECONOMY
certificate by the seller’s broker to the buyer’s
-social institution organized around broker
production, consumption and distribution of
STIGMA goods n services
-exchange of goods n services through a
ERVING GOFFMAN’s term for any physical -revolves in 5
or social attribute that devalues a person or
group’s identity and may exclude those who PRODUCTION (Hess n Associates, 1992).
-set of market transactions taking place in d
are devalued from normal social interaction -taking directly from earth (nature) – hunting, economy is most important in terms of
gathering, farming n mining measuring gross domestic product (GDP)

3 TYPES OF STIGMA -making something from raw materials – MARKET N STATE

pottery, automobiles, or nuclear weapons
-relationship between the material n relational
PHYSICAL – physical or mental impairments
-providing assistance n info – covers activities dynamics of society
MORAL – moral signs of flawed character from baby-sitting to international banking, to
-d state contains mechanisms that r essential
sports n entertainment.
TRIBAL – tribal membership in a discredited to d existence of markets themselves, n these
or oppressed group mechanisms r not “natural” given
HOW ECONOMISTS UNDERSTANDS ppl look grazing land for their 3. SPECIALIZATION. When a nation /
ECONOMIC PROCESSES? livestock; tend to b nomadic, facilitates indiv concentrates its productive
trade n warfare w other grps efforts on producing limited variety of
DEMAND. Product lies on d consumer’s
1.3 HORTICULTURAL SOCITIES – ppl goods; division of labor was adopted
willingness to buy a large quantity at a low
started to raise plants; less nomadic; 4. DIVISION OF LABOR BY AGE.
price n very little at a high price.
work specialization developed; Elderly ppl are expected to contribute
SUPPLY. Producer’s willingness to produce n political system is pursued much food; older men n women play
market a large quantity when d price is high n 1.4 AGRARIAN SOCIETIES – based in essential role in spiritual matters;
less when d price is low. farming n cultivating d soil to make it elders w the past experiences r
fertile; animals r used in greater considered as repositories of
GOODS VS SERVICES. productivity; money economy n trade knowledge n wisdom
GOODS. Products needed, desired n wanted. developed 5. PATTERN OF LABOR.
2. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES. – a. Cooperative Labor. If d effort
SERVICES. Activities which r performed in Industrialization refers to the process in involves d whole community,
order to benefit someone. which an economy based primarily on festive spirit permeates d work
energy supplied by animals n human (bayanihan)
beings – energy such as stem engine to b. Craft Specialization. Greater
CULTURE, SOCIETY, POLITICS AND electricity diversity of specialized task to be
ECONOMICS RELATIONSHIPS 2.1. Economy based on mechanical performed
sources of energy c. Wage Labor. Ppl became wage
RELATION. When sociologists look at
2.2. Division of labors highly specialized laborers under d supervision of a
economic activity, they ask ques which r
2.3. Automation is introduced factory staff; supervision became
broader n less technical. Usually focus on less
2.4. Increase the GNP expected n routine n intense
“Rational” aspect of economic behavior
indicates relative wealth of a country 3. POST INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES.
(Smelser, 1991). To sociologists, economic
3.1 decentralization of production
org is a set of status n power relations. FIVE REVOLUTIONARY CHANGES
3.2 use of renewable energy
3.3 de-urbanization
3.4 work at home
1. NEW FORMS OF ENERGY. James 3.5 merging of roles producer n consumer
Watt applied steam engine to d
1. PRE-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES production of material goods in 1765;
1.1 HUNTING – GATHERING steam power surpassed muscle- - Space industry
SOCIETIES – relies for food on power tech - Industry in d depth of oceans
hunting animals n gathering food 2. SPREAD OF FACTORIES. Steam - Genetic industry
grows in natural environment; ppl r power n large equipment n machines - Electronics industry
nomadic; kinship ties r basic cottage industries operated by human
1.2 PASTORAL SOCIETIES – ppl beings; work became impersonal n
domesticate/raise animals for food; fam life became alienated

PRIMARY SECTOR (Toffler, 1980) Father of Modern Economics n Founder of GROUPS. Smaller units that compose a
Capitalism. ;; Author of “An Inquiry into d society; unit of interacting personalities w an
-agricultural spcieties;
Nature n Causes of the Wealth of Nations” interdependence of roles n statuses existing
-emphasizes d use of what nature provides n (1776) which was considered magnum opus n between societies.
adapting it to human use first modern work of Economics. ;; laid the
Importance of Groups.
foundations of free market economic theory.
1. Transmitter of Culture
-industrial societies; 2. Means of Social Control
Father of Communism n Socialism. Wrote 3. Socializes the Individual
-transforms raw materials into manufactured “Communist Manifesto” (1848), one of the 4. Sources of Ideas
goods w d use of machines n complex division world’s most influential political docs. Believed 5. Trains d Indiv in Communication
of labor that workers were being treated badly by d
SOCIAL GROUP. Is two or more ppl who
TERTIARY SECTOR capitalist n should rise up n demand for
identify w n interact w one another (Macionis,
classless society.
-post-industrial societies; 2012). Human beings come together in
FRIEDRECH ENGLES. couples, families, friends n large orgs. Made
-focuses on the provisions of services up of ppl w shared experiences, loyalties n
Collaborator of Communism n Socialism.
Closest collaborator of Karl Marx in foundation
Communist Manifestp n Engels edited d
1. Capitalism Member should develop structure assumes a
second n third vol of Das Kapital (1867) after
2. Communism specific status n adopts a particular role.
Marx’s death. In Das Kapital, Marx proposes
3. Socialism Certain orderly procedure n values r agreed
that motivating force of capitalism is in d
upon. Members of grp feel a sense of identity.
exploitation of labor.
CAPITALISM. System under which resources
n means of production r privately owned, SOCIAL CATEGORY.
COMMUNISM. System of political n economic
citizens r encouraged to seek profit for org in which properly owned by d community Shared social charac, like gender, race,
themselves n success/failure of an enterprise n all citizens share in d enjoyment of d ethnicity, nationality, age, class etc. women,
determined by free market competition. common wealth. homeowners, soldiers, skilled workers,
STATE CAPITALISM. System under which professionals, college grad.
SOCIALISM. System under which resources
resources n means of production r privately n means of production r owned by d society
owned, but closely monitored n regulated by d as a whole, rights to private property are
gov. limited.
NOT EVERY COLLECTION OF INDIV c. Intermediate group IN-GROUP. Member can identify him/her
FORMS A GROUPS 2. GROUPS ACCORDING TO SELF within that group n which indiv feel at home.
CROWD. Loosely formed collection of ppl in
a. In-group faith, common interests, ideology (indicator).
one place.
b. Out-group Being students of a school, employee of
SOCIAL AGGREGATE. Collection of ppl who c. Reference groups company (v specific).
r in d same place at d same time, but do not d. Network
OUT-GROUP. Social unit which indiv do not
necessarily have anything in common.
PRIMARY GROUP. belong due to differences in social categories.
-families, factions, play groups, friendship REFERENCE GROUPS. Groups which we
1. Motivational base shared by indiv grps consciously/unconsciously refer when we
2. Size of group evaluate our life situations n behavior but to
-small, intimate n less specialized group;
3. Type of group goals which we don’t necessarily belong.
share personal n long lasting relationship
4. Kind of group structure
NETWORK. Series or web of social ties
-first grp we experience in life; members r
involving ppl or grps of indiv connected to
bound to others by emotion n loyalty
each other. (friendship, family, acad
SOCIAL ORGANIZATION. Process of institutions)
Characteristics PG.
bringing order n significance into human
social life. + spend a great deal of time 2gether FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL NETWORKS

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL ORG + engage in a wide range of activities 1. DIFFUSION. In networks info travel
fast like gossips n other breaking news
1. Differentiation in statuses n roles on + feel that they know one another very well 2. EXCHANGE. Information exchange,
the basis of sex, age n ability material exchange like in multilevel
2. Repeated activities n behavior marketing
3. System of norms n values govern -industrial workers; business associates; 3. SOCIAL SUPPORT. Referral system
social activities faculty staff, company employees works well in networks in locating
4. Control: some person control d someone, finding a job, seeking
behavior of others; system of -large n impersonal social group whose
members pursue a specific goal/activity advice n forming support groups
sanctions maintain orderly behavior 4. EXCLUSION. Outside the network r
Organized set of social institutions and -weak emotional ties n little personal excluded from d benefits
patterns of institutionalized relationships that knowledge of one another; includes many ppl;
couldn’t have a lasting relationship; exist for ACCORING TO PURPOSE.
together compose society.
only short time 1. Special interest groups
GROUPS W/IN SOCIETY 2. Task groups
1. GROUPS ACCORDING TO TIES primary n secondary groups. Large scale 3. Influence/Pressure groups
a. Primary group applies familial relationship. Family members
b. Secondary group r separated bc of work, circumstances
n Marriage.
1. FORMAL GROUPS. Goals r clearly
stated; deliberately formed n their KINSHIP BY BLOOD.
purpose n objectives r defined.
2. BUREAUCRACY. Administrative
Relationship achieved by birth/blood
structure aimed to enable members to
meet their goals; hierarchal KINSHIP BY MARRIAGE.
2. DESCENT. Biological relationship
arrangement in large scale
between parents n offspring. MARRIAGE. Union of a couple through legal
3. LINEAGE. Line where one’s descent n socially acceptable means. Both sides r
spontaneously out of interactions of
is traced. related by affinity. Center of d kinship system.
two or more persons; unplanned; no
explicit rules n objectives AFFINEAL KINSHIP. Type of relations
affiliation of a person through descent
FAMILY, KINSHIP N MARRIAGE of only one sex. developed when marriage occurs.
5. GROUP. a. ENDOGAMY. Marrying within a
FAMILY. Type of social institution that unites
5.1 CLANS. Link by kin w members specific ethnic group, class or social
ppl by blood, kinship or alliance
tracing connection through one group.
TYPES OF FAMILIES another b. EXOGAMY. Marrying outside group,
5.2 LINAGES. Common ancestry class or social group. Means of
1. NUCLEAR FAMILY. Married couple using both mother n father’s side maintaining boundaries n creates
with/without unmarried children. 5.3 MOIETIES. Based on the links.
2. EXTENDED FAMILY. Families association by choice w an c. MONOGAMY. Marriage of sexual
include other members of the kinship ancestral line partnering practice where d indiv has
group like uncles, grandparents, 5.4 PHRATRIES. Group of ppl within only one male of female partner/mate.
cousins etc. a tribe who have a common d. POLYGAMY. Practice of having more
3. SINGLE-PARENT FAMILY. Parent ancestor than one partner/sexual mate.
(un/married, widowed, divorced) lives 6. BILATERAL DESCENT. Some
with their biological/adopted child societies trace their descent through d POLYGYNY. Man has multiple partner.
4. BLENDED FAMILY. Remarried study of both parents ancestors.
couple n their children. POLYANDRY. Woman has multiple partner.
7. PATRILINEAL. Tracing the ancestry
KINSHIP. of an indiv by his/her relatives from the SORORAL POLYGYNY. Man marries sisters.
-one of the main organizing principles of RELATIONSHIP OF AFFINITY.
8. MATRILINEAL. Tracing the affiliation
society; basic social institutions found in every of an indiv by his/her relatives from
society women
-bonds, n all other relationships – marriage n RELATIONSHIP OF CONSANGUINITY