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T p
6722 ADVANCE ELECTRICITY 3 3
Theory

DETAIL DESCRIPTIOJ\T Theory:


HOUSE WIRING
1. Understand the types of electrical wiring.
1.1 List of residentiat wiring.
1.2 Describe the high rising residential building.
1.3 Describe the high rising commercial building.
1.4 Explain the indoor and outdoor Wiring.
1.5 Distinguish between indoor and outdoor wiring.
1.6 Draw the wiring layout of a residential ouilding.
1. 7 Draw the wiring layout of a commercial residential building.
1.8 Describe the electrical building symbol.
2. Understand the constructional details and working principles
different types of electric lamps.
2.1 Explain the different types of lamps.
2.2 . Explain the working principle of tungsten filament lamp .
2.3 Explain constructional details of tungsten filament lamp.
2. 4 Show diagrammatically the circuit of a fluorescent lamp and its auxiliary components.
2.5 Describe the working principle of a fluorescent lamp stating the
function of the choke coil and starter.
2.6 Discuss advantages and disadvantages of fluorescent lamp.
2.7 Describe the detail circuit diagram of a electronically controlled fluorescent lamp.
2.8 ' Discuss the advantages of electronically controlled fluorescent lamp.
2.9 Explain the working principle of sodium vapour and mercury vapour lamps.
2.10 Explain constructional details of Sodium Vapour & Mercury Vapour lamp.
2.11 Show diagrammatically with the auxiliary components the circuit
diagram of sodium vapour and mercury vapour lamps.
2.12 List the uses of sodium vapour and mercury vapour lamps.
2.13 Describe constructional details of a compact fluorescent lamp.
2.14 Explain working principle of a compact fluorescent lamp.
3. Understand the construction and uses of controlling and protective devices ..
3.1 State the meaning of controlling and protective devices.
3.2 Describe the constructional features and uses of tumbler switch,
iron clad switch, push button switch, gang operated switch etc. ~-
3.3 Explain the meaning and uses of SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT, TPST switch.
3.4 List different types of fuses used in electrical wiring.
3.5 Describe the construction and uses of renewable fuses.
3.6 Describe the construction and uses of MCB and its advantages.
3. 7 Give rea~ons for the uses of a lightening arrester ·
3.8 a
Give reasons for the uses of droop out fuse in distribution system.
4 Understand the concepts of earthing.
4.1 ·List at least three elements required for earthing.
4.2 Discuss the factors to be considered in performing earthing.
4.3 Explain and sketch pipe, plate, sheet and rod earthing.
4.4 Describe the principle and operation of earth testes.
4.5 Describe the measure of earth resistance.
4.6 Explain the earth resistance range in different installation.
Contents

5 Understand the phenomenon of dynamically induced emf.


5.1 Explain dynamically induced emf.
5.2 Deduce the formula of dynamically induced emf.
5.3 Solve problems related to dynamically induced emf.
6 Understand the phenomenon of statically induced emf.
6.1 Explain self induced emf.
6.2 Define Coefficient of self-induction by First, Second and Third
method for self-inductance (L).
6.3 Apply the formula obtained by First, Second and Third Method to
find L of iron core.
6.4 Explain Mutual Inductance (M).
6.5 Define coefficient of self-induction by First, Second and Third Method for (M).
6.6 Apply the formula obtained by First, Second and Third method to
find out Mutual Inductance (M). ·
7 Understand the concept of co-efficient of coupling.
7.1 Explain co-efficient of coupling.
7.2 Deduce the expression for co-efficient of coupling.
7.3 Solve problems on mutual inductance and co-efficient of coupling.
8 Understand how Inductance are connected in series.
8.1 Define the expression for inductance in series.
8.2 Derive the expression for inductance in series.
8.3 Solve problems on inductance in series.
9 Understand the principle of magnetization of magnetic materials.
9 .1 Explain magnetization properties of materials.
9.2 Prepare a list of magnetic materials.
9.3 Describe the properties of iron, steel and other magnetic materials.
9.4 List the uses of magnetic materials.
10 Understand cycles of magnetization.
10.1 Explain cycle of magnetization.
10.2 Draw magnetization (B-H) curve.
10.3 Mention applications of B-H curve.
11 Understand the concept of hysteresis loss.
11. 1 Define magnetic hysteresis.
11.2 . Explain hysteresis loss.
11.3 Explain hysteresis loop.
11. 4 Determine ares of hysteresis loop.
1 i .5 Deduce the expression for energy loss in one cycle of magnetization per cubic meter.
11. 6 State the uses of hysteresis Joss curves.
12 Understand the concepts of Steinmetz's hysteresis law.
12.1 State steinmetz's hysteresis law.
12.2 Explain Steinmetz's hysteresis law.
12.3 Derive the formula for hysteresis loss on the basis of the Steinmentz's law.
12.4 Solve prolens on hysteresis loss related to Steinmentz's law.
13 Understand the concept of eddy current loss and their minimization.
13.1 Define eddy current loss.
13.2 Discuss the methods for minimization of eddy current loss.
13.3 Describe the expression for eddy current loss.
13.4 Solve problems related to eddy current loss.
14 Understand the concept of energy-stored in a magnetic fields.
14.1 Explain the principle of energy stored in a magnetic field.
14.2 Drive the expression for energy stored in a magnetic field.
14.3 Solve problems related to energy stored in a magnetic circuit.
14.4 Explain the lifting power of electromagnet.
14.5 Mention the application of lifting power of electromagnet.
Contents

vi

15. Differentiate the conducting non-conducting materials.


15.1 Define conducting, non-conducting and semi-conducting materials.
15.2 Distinguish between non-conducting and semi-conducting materials.
15.3 List at least three items from each group of materials.
15.4 · Define resistivity of materials.
15.5 Define temperature co-efficient and melting point.
15.6 Define malleability, conductivity and tensile-stress.
15. 7 List the factors affecting resistivity of metal.
15.8 Describe the mechanical properties and resistivity of hard and
annealed copper, aluminium, low and high tensile steel.
15.9 Define contact materials.
15.10 Describe, the physical and electrical properties of silver, tungsten,
carbon and copper.
15.11 Explain the use of copper and graphite as materials for brushes.
15. 12 Compare the advantages of using copper and graphite as brush material.
16. Know high resistive materials.
16.1 Define the term high resistivity.
16.2 State general properties of nichrome, eureka, manganin and German silver.
16.3 State composition of nichrome, eureka, manganin and German silver.
16. 4 List uses of high resistive materials.
16.5 Define fuse, metal and alloys.
16.6 List the name of metal and alloys to be used fuse material.
16.7. Compare the advantage of using metals and alloys as fuse materials.
17. Understand the Concepts of Magnetic-Materials.
17. 1 Define magnetic materials, soft magnetic material and hard
magnetic materials
17.2 Classify the magnetic materials as diamagnetic, paramagnetic and
ferromagnetic types.
17.3 Name the types of soft and hard magnetic materials.
17.4 Describe the characteristic features of soft magnetic materials.
17 .5 Describe composition and properties of hard magnetic materials.
17.6 List the uses of hard and soft magnetic materials.
18. Understand the concepts of insulating materials.
18..1 Describe insulating materials.
18.2 State the importance of insulating materials.
18.3 State the basis of classifying insulating materials.
18.4 Interpret the classification of insulating material on the basis temperature.
18.5 State the criteria for selection of proper insulating materials.
18.6 List the properties of an ideal insulating material.
18. 7 State electrical properties of insulating materials.
18.8 Name the normal range for the resistivity of a low grade, medium
grade and high grade insulating materials.
18.9 State the effect of temperature on the insulating material.
18.10 Write down the factors for the electric breakdown strength of
insulating material.
18.11 State the temperature limit for class "C" and class "F" insulating materials.
18: 12 Name an insulating material which an withstand temperature
higher than 1800 C.
18.13 State the effect of moisture on the insulating material.
18.14 Define Loss angle with respect to an insulating material.
19. Understand the characteristics of solid insulating materials.
19 .1 List the solid insulating materials.
19. 2 List the Fibrous type of insulating materials.
19. 3 State the properties and application of cotton, varnish, cloth insulating materials.
Contents

vii

19.4 compare the properties and application of cotton, varnish, cloth and
silk insulating materials.
19.5 State the properties of impregnated paper insulation.
19.6 List the application of impregnated paper insulating materials.
19.7 State the properties of glass and asbestos insulation.
19.8 List the application of glass and asbestos insulation.
19.9 Write down the properties and applications of ceramic/procelain
insulating materials.
19.10 List two types of Mica insulating materials.
19.11 State the properties and applications of Mica.
19.12 Write down the properties of Poly ISO Butyle (PIB) insulating materials.
19.13 State the properties of cross Link Poly Ethyiene (XLPE) insulating materials.
19.14 List the applications of Poly ISO Butyle and cross Link Poly
Ethylene insulating materials.
19.15 State the reasons for giving due importance to the mechanical
properties of insulating materials.
20. Understand the characteristics of Liquid Insulating Materials.
20.1 State the properties of insulating oil.
20.2 State the physical properties of liquid insulating material.
20. 3 Write down the electrical properties of liquid insulating material.
20.4 State thermal properties of liquid insulating material.
20.5 Write down the causes of failure of insulation in oil.
20.6 Explain the testing of di-electric strength of liquid insulating materials.
20~ 7 Compare the advantage and disadvantage of liquid insulating materials.
Practical:
1. Show skill in connecting one lamp controlled from two/three different points.
1.1 Sketch a working diagram of one lamp controlled by two SPDT tumbler switches.
1.2 Connect the circuit using required materials and equipment in wiring board.
1.3 Test the connection of circuit by applying proper supply.
1. 4 Write a report on connecting one lamp controlled from two different points.
2. Show skill in connecting one calling bell with four indicating lamps
controlled from four points.
2.1 Sketch the working wiring diagram of one calling bell with two
indicating lamps controlled by two push button switch.
2.2 Connect the circuit using required materials and equipment in wiring board.
2.3 Test the connection of the circuit by applying proper supply.
2.4 Write a report connecting one calling bell with two indicating lamps
controlled from two points. '
3. Show skill in connecting a ceiling fan in a circuit.
3.1 Sketch the wiring diagram of a ceiling fan showing regulator and a
SPST tumbler switch.
3.2 Connect the fan, regulator and switch as per drawing. .
3.3 Apply proper supply to the circuit. ·
3.4 Put the switch of the fan to the "on" position and observe its operation.
3.5 Write a report on connection of a ceiling fan.
4. Show skill in connecting one lamp, one socket and one fan in a circuit
by channel wiring.
4.1 Draw the appropriate circuit diagram showing the location of lamp,
fan, switches and socket.
4.2 Connect lamp, fan and socket as per drawing.
4.3 Connect the circuit with the supply.
4.4 Switch on the lamp and fan and check the power socket with the
help of a test lamp. ,
4.5 Write a report on connecting one lamp, one socket and one fan in a circuit
Contents
· viii

5. Show skill in connecting two fluore$cent lamps in parallel and


controlled by two switches separately.
5.1 Draw the appropriate circuit diagram showing two fluorescent
lamps in parallel and a two SPST tumbler switches.
5.2 Wiring of the circuits according to diagram.
5.3 Connect the circuit with the power supply.
5.4 Switched on and observe.
5.5 Write a report connecting two fluorescent lamps in parallel and
controlled by one switch.
6. Show skill in verifying Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction.
6.1 Sketch the circuit diagram showing the location of magnets and the
coil connected with a galvanometer.
6.2 Connect a galvanometer with a coil and place it within the magnetic field.
6.3 Observe/measure the induced emfwith the help of galvanometer by
making necessary movements of coil or magnets.
6.4 Write a report on verifying Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction.
7. Show skill in connecting cutout, MCB/MCCB in a circuit.
7 .1 Sketch a circuit diagram showing the location of cutout and MCB or
MCCB separately with aload like heater or lamp.
7.2 Connect the cutoU:t/MCB/MCCB with the load as per drawing.
7.3 Connect the circuit with the supply.
7.4 Make necessary overloading the circuit by adding
additional/ excessive load or by short circuiting the load.
7.5 Observe the operation of a MCB and MCCB or a cutout.
7.6 Write a report on connecting cutout/MCB/MCCB in a circuit.
8. Show skill in connecting one lamp, one 3-pin socket one fan in a
circuit by concelled condmit wiring.
8.1 Draw the circuit diagram in a paper
8.2 Draw the layout diagram of wiring on the booth wall.
8.3 Cutting the wall according to diagram with identification of socket, switch board.
8.4 Fix up the conduct pipe on the wall.
8.5 Flastening the wall.
8.6 Draw the proper size of cables or wines.
8.7 Connect the switches, holders.
8.8 Check the whole installation.
8. 9 Fitting the loads in proper position.
8.10 Test the wiring.
8.11 Supply and operate the load.
9. S~ow skill in installation of pipe earthing
9.1 Skitehes the proper earthing diagram.
9.2 Estimate the list of materials.
9.3 Prepared the list of hand tools.
9.4 Barring the G-1 pipe up to 15
9.5 Connecter the earthing lead with pipe
9.6 Testing the earth resistance by earth tester.
10. Test the rating of circuit breaken(6A, lOA)
10. 1 Draw the circuit diagram with variable load.
10.2 Collect the materials &•tools.
10.3 Collect the circuit breaken according to diagram.
10.4 Check the circuit diagram.
10.5 Supply,to the load and observe the tripping current and determine the rating.
Contents

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Contents

j i ~ ~
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~ ,(J ,(J x ,(J v v v v v v v v v v v
v {( .r> ,.1) ,.1) ~ ~ ~ 00 00 ~ ,.1) ..0 ..0 ..0 <i' <i' . <i' ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ x~ ~
.,....._
Contents

xvi

lins. .______~_:g_."'1_~_"4_{l_Ci"t_fB_,_~_s1_d3_t:a_.~-- s_1"'_


1 _ _ __
~o.~ ~il"lc.G'lfflcz ~ ~ ~~q

~o.~ ~ ~il:l'J:Clilfflcz ~JIWfu~Jllil>t ~~ ~ ~~ ~~q

~O.l!l ~ ~il:i:J:CG'lfflcz ~mwfu~Jllil>t ~~ C<l'l:J~~ ~~ ~~q

~o.8 ~ ~il:l'J:Clilfflcz ~JIWfu~Jllil>t ~~ ~~ ~ ~~,,..

~o.Q ~i1~CG11·r-:f ~ \51~~~1(~1?1 ~~ ~~,,..

~o.~ ~ ~il"lc.lilffl'Z ~JIWfu~Jllil>t ~~ ~ ~Clil~~~ ~'Z~ ~ ~~~

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'<IJ'<l~~:qs •• •• •••••••• •• •••• •••••• ••••• •••• ••• •• •••• •• •••• •• ••• ••• ••••••• ••• ••• • ~8 8 - ~~~ I?.

~~~Yl~':tfil'Sl~\9~................................... ~'Ur- ~lrlr

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ct;;qsf4;qsJtiif -~ ·
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Contents

Understand The Types OJ Electrical Wiring


).o~
llntroduction)
~"~~~~~~~~ -em®~1 ~ ~. ~~ l!l<f~ ~
~~~~~~\SM~ ~~~I 'lttrnfct ~'Gm®~~~~
~ ~ I C4'i)Ns<t> CC1115>t~~ ~- C<t'i)f\!i<t> ~. ~. ~ ~\!iJIMC\b Wi.J'- ~ ~
.~ C<t'i)Ns<t> ~@fl~>tZ{'< ~- ~. ~. ~ ~<J5JIM~ ~l:!Wi C1f ~ C<t'i)Ns<t> ~~ct
~ ~. ~ C<t'i)Ns'$ -em®~ "Ell -em®~~ I
'C4'i)f\ti<t> -em®~~ l!t~ ~ '$;~ '81~ ~ ~ 111Qfl-
(<i>) 151~Ji!!S~ct ~~(Internal Wiring),
(~) '8~ -em®~ (Overhe~d Wiring),
(~) ~ >em®~ (Underground Wiring) I
'8~ >e ~ -emffef~ ~ ~ ~ ~ >t~<t~I~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m
151~Ji!!S~ct
-am®~ "<tlf$-~. ~-~. *~-151l"TIG1\!l ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ Wi.J'- >tM~IC~~ ~
~ ~ I ~ ~ 151~J'S~ct -emtrn~m ~•P'JJCG'lU ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ig_ ~ ~ l!t~
f<ls~'<tt ~ <n ~·~ l!l~ ~w ~ ~ ~ >Gmtrn~"Cmf ~ct ~ ~ ~ 1
~.-em®~~~~~~~~~~ -em®~ ~~~~<fG'll
~~'GM~ 1 ~~~'<It~ c~~c~ ~ <fG11 ~ ~ ~m ~ ~
<fG11 ~ >tl~Cil'>t ~ ~ I l!l~ ~\S <rnT<li ~ -em®~~ I ~- ~ \SM~, C<t>PR
-em®~. l!lll.l!l~ 'GM~~ I
C<f'i)Ns<t> 'SmtRf~ <ff~ ~~tll°t~ ~ Wi.J'- W ~ ~ ~ I
~~~~~·~.~-
(<i>) ~ ~ (Main Switch)
(~) f\S~Pl©"J.i c<rti5 (Distribution Board)
(~) m<f-~ (Sub-Feeder)
(~) m<f f\S~f\S"J.i c<rti5 (Sub Distribution Board}
(i,;) ~~'<It~ m<f-~ (Load Circuit or Final Sub Cricit)
c<ISM ~ C4'l)Ns<t> 'GM~~ '>tml ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I
(~)'GM~ ~~'Gm~~~~~ 1
(~) -em®~ l!l~ ~'Gm~~~ ~9f R9f'Cl'RI' ~ "'11 ~ 1
(~)~.~.~~Wi.J'-~~~~~-em~1
(s)~~~~~'8m~1
(12') 'GM~ ~~-em~ I
(~)~.~··~~~~~'8mtrn~l!l~~l!l~~'8m~~~~.
~'<11~~~1
~~~(Meaning of Wiring)
'Gm~ ~ 151Qf ~ ~ ~ '<It ~ ~ 1AA c~1~1<A'$ Wi.J'- ~ ooirn ~ ~
~ ~ <tJ'Cf~JC<t> 'GM~~ I '
'8lll®~ I!!~ ~ ~ ~ (Wire) ~ CG'f-~ (Layout.) ~ C4'l)Ns<IS CC11\S>tZ{IJJ;<IS ~ '<It
m~-1!1~ ~ • "'lq\NsC\!i l!l<f~ C4'1JNs<1S AA ~ ~~~ ~ 1
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~~_,....,.,,~~~~~dhJ!f~.~

~b'- 15131\5151'>!\S ~CC'fcpfGPtfG .


~ ___.,.... ~'.J"l"'Pf ...,,.,...,,..,. r:rr---r*""1,..,. ~!""ft ~Or.iw.n-i ""...,._.,,.' c""-f"w. ...... ,..,.... ..,_.,.....,"" ~,... .,.~t c'fhwfilr_n.,. ~n.- (.'D~...--..-lwt 4'1-t~t

-~. CIR't-~. ~-151l"lli1-.:i ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ Cll" \SmtRl~ ~ ~. ~ ~


\Sm~~ 1 l!j~ ~. ~. ~ ~-.:iJIM~ ~~ Cll" ~., l<l"l)N>4i ~~ct~~~~
151-eJIS~ <Rl ~ ~ l!I~ 151-eJISi\ct ·~mJ®~ <f"lt ~ I
:~ . ).) ~Cfl.-m4Jl'1 'e~ ~ <214lit"5'1
J
(List of Residential Wiring)
~ ~~ (lf~ ~Ill'~-
(<IS) J'fl'11C'l'J'I \SmtRl~ (Surface Wiring)
(~) ~ \SmtRl~ (Concealed Wiring)
('lli) 'lliiC'PJf ~(Surface Wiring) 8 Cll" \SmtRl~ C"lt:llCC1'11 >il'lll'l'>i ~ ~ ~. ~'- Cll" \SmtRl~
~ 1:lnl ~ J'!l~C'l'>t ~~ ~ I J'fl~C~J'f \SmtRl~ ~ 91i5 ~ I ~ -
(~) ~ \SmtRl'(. (Batten Wiring)
(~) ~ \SmtRl~ (Conduit Wiring),
(~) ~ \SmtRl~ (Cleat Wiring),
(8) ~~ \SmtRl~ (Casing Wiring),
'(a') l!llf. \fl~. \S~~ (M.S. Wiring),
(~) ~ \SmtRl~ (Hook Wiring),
(C\) ~ \SmtRl~ (Chanel Wiring) I
(~) ~ ~ (Concealed Wiring) 8 C"l{llCC'f~ ~~ ~ <ft ~ (Channel) ~
~1Jli1-ei"'ll~ <Rl ~ <ft ~ ~ f9t.~.Pr. ~ <ft ~91 ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~· 00
~ ©::l\!5111"'1'11 f9t.~.f9t. ~ ~ bJIC"'ICC'f~ ~~ <1Prrn ~ ltm m;<p ~ Cll" \SmtRl~ <Rl
~.~~~~<ft~ ~mtRl~ ~I
~~~ll,~1~-
(~) ~ ~ \SmtRl~ (Concealed Conduit Wiring},
(~) ~ \S~ \SmtRl~ (Concealed Wire Wiring) <ft ~ M11fiSsTl6 \SmtRl~ (Under
Plaster Wiring) I
~'- (Channel Wiring) :
~ Pr. ltm ~ ~ ~9fl ~ ~ ~ Cll" \SmtRl~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ~~ ~I
bJIC"1Ci!i\'11 ~ '5!~lrf ~ I l!l<i>fU \5l~lrf \!l<!S m
C~ ~ ~ lID5t l!l<f~ '5!9R$ ~ f9t.~.Pr. ~<ft
<n1t&c"'!'l1lfe\5t1 •rnc:&C"1'11 lfe\5t '51~~ m\S1l"M me~~~ ltm C"llltl"I ~ ~ \S9Rf ~ \§"f'l1
oo ~~ <Rl ~ 1 l!l~~ ~ lID5t ~~ ~ \SmtRl~~ ~ ~m ~ 1 l£l ~ \SW~
~ ~ ~ I <ffi!Cf \fl~~ C~ ~ \§"f'l1 ~ 1:lnl ift I ~ig_ ~ ~lf>&CCR ~ ~
l" 3" l"
1:lnl I~~~~ \S ·~ bJIC"'ICC1'11. 2• 4, l", 12, 2" ~~I
Jfli!C'f'J\ ~ ~e_ (Surface Conduit Wiring) :
~1Jlil1-el"'ll~ <Rl ~<ft~ \5114<ft f?r. ~. Pr ~1' <ft ~91 ~ ~ l!j ~ ~~ <Rl
~I lf~ Ci5IC~CISf'l1 (Medium Voltage, 440 V) ~ ~"'!iUCC'f"M, \SmcPlr91, <!WI"-~.
ISINR&1rnt:11c11 \!l<f~ ~ ~ ~1611Mce ~ \Sm~~ ~ , ~ ~~ J'fl'llclJSJ'f \!l<f~ ~ €
m ~ ~ ~ 11l'M\S 1£l1'r <irn<i~G'!, l!l1U ~~ 1 "\!)™
"'0.,
'lli!C'P'l ~ ~-~ ~ :
(~) ~c~pfg ~ ift I
(~)Wlli~~~~I
(~)~~~~~~I I
(8)~if~~~~I
(~) "<ISJW'f "lrn<t\£"1 <!SID~~ I
I
Contents

~2'.....,...,...,~~~~t-n~~~~.,..,...rl'ft~.9'1""'1'-rAt~.,._.,...r*'ft~,,.. .....-r-fi'tt

, ~CC'l<P$<PJIQ'\ -smffei~
~ .... ~1~ ~Tt'""I .1P'f-~ CO-~*-n-.... ~-~ c.lJ-fir.'J'fW"I "1_,.~t ~~'"" ~ CU-~ .,,_...,-r#'lt
~lll
c:o--r._.....,... .ffqt.TWfftt c;'U-1"i..-.:r""' dl'l_,.-.""''f
/~'AC'PI ~-em®'- ~~.<fl~:
r;~) ~~~C~liStiillC~I ~. ~ ~~<rtm-s~ ~'>'!, ~. ?f ~.~~~~m~ I
<~) \!1~981 ~.~<rt~ QT\;ffil~~ -sB~ ~~~ ~~~m~,
(¢) 80 C'<fe<li 90 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ <rt m-s~ ~'>'! ~ ~ ~~ ~· l$I ~
151tU<PIC~ ~ I ~ ~. l!li'fl<lt, ~ ~~f\!i ~ 10 C'<fe<li ~Q ~ <!J<l'~ ~ G'fl~ ~ I
{8) ~ <PllQ'iM 981 \.!!~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~I ~ ~ ~ ~Qftlf l!l"<flfU ~-~· ~
<fi~~lG'!I ~~~I~~-~·~~~~-\.!!~~ ~lf ~-~· ~ ~ 00
~ <P~lG'!I ~~~I ff~.~-~~ ~qcG'f I
(a") \.!!~ ~ ~ii:>'&CQ'\'~ ~ ~ ~~~'>'! ~ ~ I \.!!~ ~ ~<fl~,,....~....
c;&-<!! ~ ~ l!l"<flfU ~
~~<rt ~IC~'!!~~~~ f.ml ~~I l!I ~· ~ ~ <fl~~c;&<!! ~ ~W ~~I
~~ ~ ~ ~ <Pi5l§C'il'!I ~ i51t~ ~9f"Jlil "<fill ~'Slit~ <m I
(~) -eB~ ~ m c~ ~ -s ~~~~ ~ICC'tl~IC<i ~~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~~~ ~
~ "1't 9ftt'if 1 fuil! ~ ~ C'<fe<li ~ ~ <P~lG'!I ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~
~~I
~ -e~ : C'1~1CC'l'!I ~lfJ ~ <rt ma; 00 ©:;j\!SlllQ'i'i1 f9t. ~- Pf. ~ ~ bJIQ'iCC't'i1 ~lfJ
~ ~ l$I C1'l<P ~ QT '8mtrn~ ~ ~. ~ ~ 'Smtrn~ qcG'f I l!I ~ 'Smtrn~Ul \!i1'if <rt
~ ~ ~ f.!"CD QjjC<fl qcG'f ~<fl~~ \!I ~ 'Smtrn~-1!1~ ~~~I
~ ~ ll~ ~ ~ 9ft<Pt '8
"151t~ 9ft<Pt ~ l!I~ Wi Wi ~
'1511lPr-\511'11Q'\C\!5'8 ~ 'SmBf -em~~
~~~11!1 ~-smirn~~
~tlli! ~~ ~ ~ ~'t ~
~ii:>J:CC'l-R ~ m "151tQf ~ ~ C'rntl"f f Jr uqJPCE
~~~Dl"f~I~~~
~ ~ ~Qftlf llrnl"I ~ ~ ~
f.l~'t ~ ~ \!!"<I'~ ~ ~ Cll'!llllC\!S'!I
~ m ~' ~-e l!I -sm~~
~ii:>'&CC'l•fi! ~ W"liil~iil<P~IC<i "<fill ~
~~~~I
~-em®"~ f.Til1T <rt ~91 :
{~) ~Qftlf ~C~liSliillC\!SI ~ ~~. ~. ?f ~ ~~~ ~ m ~ I
{~) ~<!l~GIQ'\l~C~'!l~~~f.l~~~~m~1
{¢) 1!1~981 C'1~ICC't'!I QT \;ffil~ ~ 'Smtrn~ ~ ~ ~~~~ma; 00 ~ ~
~ ~ l!l<J~ ~ lro C'<fe<li lllo ~.flr. ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
151tU<PIC\!l ~ ~ e<Ji5 l!li'fl<lt, ~ ~\!SJIM'!I ~ ~ ¢0 ~.flr:<it ~ "<fill <!J<l'~ ~
"(r G'fl~ ~ I ~91~~ ~ m <rl'8$ ~ ~ l$I C1'l<P ~ ~ I
(8) ~~981\!l~~M~~~l~~1!1<!$~.~-~<fl~~c;f;'!l~~~I
~~- ~- ~ ~ ~~~ ~ m~. ~- ~ lfl'if c&vi~ <fl~~lG'!I ~~'!!~~I
(a-) l!I 'Smtrn~Ul ~
c<lti5, ~ ~~~, '8llt'1 ~ ~ C'1~1CQ'\'!I ~lfJ ~ QjjC<fl I~~
<rt ~Wm r{<J (Knob)~ CQf'c<fi ~ ~ <rtll 1
{~) 1!1 ~ ~~Ul ~ 9ifu981 ~ .21C~li5!Cii'!I ~ fclst ~ ~-em ~. ~ ~M~JC\!S
~ ~ t~c:&<!! ~ ~ 151f\!iRl'& ~Ur-rt <rlll 1
{C\) ~ c<lti5, ~91 ~ ~ ~ ~ICC'tl~l<A ~~~I
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~tJlft~~~ ... _.,....t*ft~-71~

~o ISIJl'15'Sl+\'15 'lCG1Cl5$PlfG
~.....,...r"ft~~CCS-f""""""u.t~c.\1~«1~~~~~~t~,.,-~c.'D~f'•l•"H""<Pt.r-rllt

~'5~~ '
" ~atten and Casing Wiring ' ·
\ ~) ~ '6llltfi~ : I!! ~ \Smtrn~:rn ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!lt<l5 ~ ~~~I
151l)llC"f'll OWSf ~ ~ ~o ISM ~-~ I!! \Smtrn~ ~ ~ I ~'t ~9RI (Low Voltage,
250 V) l:<i>'GCdl~ l!l<f~ ~ <mmf iSfoU. I!!~~~ I
~ ~ CRnrf.Wrcn- ~:
~~~UT~~~~ f.ITT ~l'lll<llR<P-olc<i ~ ~ ~-
(~) ~~~~~~.~~far (Wooden Plug),~~ m~ (Rawl Plug)
~.~~.~~.~~~~~~~<ml~~'
(~) 1!1~9RI ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ '<3mtrn~ ~~~<ml~~ ('fiPtt ~) I
(~) 60 c~ 70 ~ ~ ~ C"f~ICG1'11 ~~ ~ ~ f.ITT ~~far~ m\SUM m~ ~~I
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9lt-!ff1 C"flll&l'll ~~~I
(8) ~ ~M' 'PllC'il'll 9RI ~ ~ ~~ ~ \S ~~mm Wf ~.~I ~g9Rf
~'&~~9Rl~C~~~~~I
l
r
j

~-~~~~ f61!l:
(~) l!l~~~far~~-ijr;91 "'ft~~ I <IJl,'f1C'l'll ~~ 5 ~I!!~~ 12 ~ 14 ~fir
9RI 2l" ~\6..,..l'll<ifi='lU
.....I ~ M'~~ "'ft~ ~ I
(~) <IJl<:GC'l'll ~9RI far~~ ~1le'l1'11 9RI 1!1~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ llSltG<PIC~ ~ I
(C\) 1!1~9RI <IJllGC~'ll ~~ ~rn16i~ll f9t.~.~., ~-~.I!!~.• 1!11f.l!I~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ijr;91
~ M'~~~ \Sltu~rn ~ ~ I I!!~ far~~-ijr;91 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
GlfG4"1C'l1 ~ ~ I
("tr) ~~ 1SfoU ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.25 ~ ~ 1.5 fifGBf ~'- 4 c~ 5 ~
• ~ 9fiC"t ~m ~I
(~ ~ '5~ : I!! ~ \Smtrn~UT ~ ~'i'l"t'§ C"l~ICG1'11 ~ ~fvrn ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
7'p,!O WGit ~W ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 f.'rrn ~m ~ t I!! ~ ~ ~ C<PPl~ <fCG1 (1Wr : ~) I
· ~~'f\§ ~~-l!l we ~¥r '3;t~~ 4 ~ ·
10 ~"ff'ijl~ I~ 20 ~ ~~ ~~\S
9ftem ~ I ~ ~ 9RI ~~-1!1~ ~ D\S~
~t-'l~~~~~~~
~. I!!~ ~ ~~ (Capping) I (f6i!l : ~) I
~· ~ <filSt ~ ~ ~ ~ <filSt'
f9t.~.~-~~~~l!l<f~~~9Rf (T) (U)
f9t. ~. ~. ~~ ~ cq\Sm~ I f6i!l: ~-~ (~) ~~ (~) ~~
:iiJl\6CJiC'b ~'i'l"t'§, ':11>'GIC'11'11 ~ Ffs~~ 9l1f.Rr ~9RI ~~·~I!! ~ -emffei~ ~ ~ il'T I
~f9t. ~. ~. ~~ ~~ :i\JN>t:iil~~'i'l"t'§ ~~~il'T I
Contents
~..,~~~~..,.,_r"ft'~.i!l'f"lll'f""'tl!tt~~~~~ .............""'~~

It
~l61<PfG+.i li1 '8lUlRR
~ ~_,....t"ft ~~~ ctl'-r""'""""'"~ ~'"~ ~~ cu.~ .....
~)
.,,~t ~.,-~""fil!h ~f•......-...-r.rn .... -~

).~ ~ ~ 151ICllPt<t5 ~
(Describe the High Rising Residential Building)
~ ~ ~ ~~ \511<11f>t«t> AA~ "<1319\<fi ~~'Rt~ I l!I~ ~ ~~-~~ 00
'Rt~ I ~ 1!1"<1$ ~1*1~ \511<llf>l<P ~-1!1~ l!l"<P ~ ~ ~ ~ I

t········· 9'-8'x9
) : ~
2946 x2743

24-8
75lmm BED RM.
i3' x 1d
3962 x3048

BED RM. DRAWING RM.


11-i'xs' 8-9 x 1i -9
3404x2438

......... ·········.1?12Z?2F=¥r=~~ZF=~=f4:a.:=::W
·-----~---·-·: ~----~t .•... : .: .. ..
.:
3'-6~: ..
t. .. ~:::::::::::::::~
..'•
::

~ : ).s ~ ~~ \511<11f>t<P AA~-1!1~ ~ ~ Cli-~


).~~~~!Fl~·~
(Describe the High Rising Commercial Building)'
~ <tlfc1~J4>~IC<I ~ ~ ~ C<IS1it ~ ~I ~ 1!1"<1$ ~AA~ Of'8llt ~I
~ ~ f.ff.s~ l!I Plb~Gi!I~_ Cl'f-~ Of{3lft ~ I
General store Ge
Kitchen
Receptln Office

_Stall
WC(3)
WC
Showers (2) Feed Store
Changing
Manager Poom
office Personnel
Office Office

).8 ~C\Sl'il It!~ ISll~UC\51"1 ~ ~
Contents

- ). c
(Explain the Indoor and Outdoor Wiring)
~ ~~ (Indoor Wiring) : ~~~ ~ ~ QT ~ ISmtrn~ <lim ~ ~ ~
IS-~ <fCG1 I ~ ~ ~ ISmtrn~ l!I ~1caic&1& ~ '21C~l1Stith1 ~ ~ ~ ISmtrn~
<!im ~I "'ll~Jlialct \Smtrn~ ':>it~~~' ~~' ~ 151)~)")\b • ~ ~ ~S'fm <Rf
~1'Wf~~~~~~~-w~~~~~l!l~~cr~~
~- ~ ~ ~ qsm W'f ~ ~ ISmtRf~ ~ ~ <!im W'f ~ ~ ~~
~9M~~~m C~~~ ~~ ~ l!I~~ ~ISmtG'rn~m C~
~ ~ ~ -~ l!l<r~ ~\S~ ~~firm C~ ~ :>il'AC'l':>i ~ ISmRt~ <fCG1 I
151l~°GC\Sl'SI '{31Utft'. (Autdoor Wiring) : ':>it~~ ~ ~ ~ Gll4>1C-rn ~ ~ ·~ m
• m ~ QT ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cm
~~ <fCG1 I ~- ~ CQfe<;> C9fttG'RJ ~ c<Jfilt
W'f ~ Cl>llG"ilRI \Smtrn~. '5f(li!t iSITTl~ ~ &u ISmtRf~ l!l<r~ ~'{3 C'fit'4TIS ~ ~ ~
~"i>J:Caic&1& ~ m lftlSm ~ l!I~ ~ IS ~ 1SMJ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ™
~ \Smtrn~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ fuPlaPI~~ <mlSl ~"i>J:C61lUI& 4>Jl"1C61'!l ~ ~ ~ ~
Gll<t>IC"t'A f.rcD ~ ~~ ~ mlft\Sm ~ I
).tt ~C\Sl"1 -e ISll~UC\51"1 ~ ltll' 1l'ro ~ ~'1"
{Distinguish Between Indoor and Outdoor Wiring)
~ \S Gll~UCl&l'!l ISmtrn~ 1!1~ l!C~ ~~~~~~~-em~ I

~I ~ I ':>it~Cf\3 ~ i!i'F.t ~ ~ ~; ~
~ ~ ~~lG1d'hs ~IS~~~ I

81':>it~~ .~l!I~
~~~~~I~~ f.ffl
~IS<!im~I
).~ \:ICl'iill~CIS ~ ltll' ~ ewf-~ ~~
frc:aw the Wiri.!1..J Layout of a Residential Building)
~ 151l~lfSt• ~ 1!11' '6lltfi'. cwr-~ ~~ ~ ~ a
Toile

Bath roo

Bedroom-2

Bedroom- I

Sub main line - - -- - - - -- - - - - - - ·


Sub-circuit---------==
Meter -- -- -- -- - - •
Earth ·---- ---------t
Wall light -- - - - - -- --<>
. Mein switch. - - - - - - - -- --0.. Pendent lamp- - -- - - - - - -<>
Distribution box· - - - - - - .f2Z2Z2I 3-pin socket - - - - - - - - -.>Cr
Doblew-T-braket- -- -- - ---0 Fan - - - - - -- - - - -- - -
Junction box- .. - .. - ...... - -c:::::::1 Plourcsccnt lamp - - - - - - ..... +--1
Contents
~.,_,...~~~~4'lfllll'P"tfi!t't~~~~.,.....,,..~~~~.,_.,...rtl'it~~

~.., ~rl'ft ~ '7fW/Pr~ t;~~ ~ ~r-nW"I .91~


~Ci:'l<!>UJ<!>Jlt'I -am~
1;s-;-"-n., .'t!f'QITWI'~ ~fif'IWJlW'I' .-J"llt-i"'t
.
CO-..,.,_,,.., ~T'"'l'ltl c.'0-.P~
~~
d1-t-rl'lt

). C\ ~lf'l~4 llSll;ql1Si4 ~ \£lit ?cl'l.Jl\54 ~ c-r-~


(Draw the Wiring Layout of a Commercial Residential Building)
~ ~<r$ Cf!R~J<p-o)C<I ~ m~-~~ C<l'l)Ri<!S Co'f-~ Cl'f~ ~ I

al
. ....._.:.,..._..
-\----·sr·--·--
......h~-
~.. :
J:m oic>
Kitchen·\:
.. ---------:.
~
.
. \
..J::l::l::::----ic£J:::~
~ -
~~

~
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------ ------
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SINGLE POLE
MULTI POLE
SINGLE THROW A.C.B.


SINGLE POLE MULTI POLE
SINGLE THROWO.C.B. SINGLE POLE MULTI POLE
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I
Contents

II ----·- ........ ----·--------


CEIUNG OR WAIL CONCEaUID IN FLOR
BRANCH CIRCUIT EXPOSED

++ ++ r++ ++
CONDUCFOR CROSSING CONDUCTOR
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.I

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Contents
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Contents

SWITCHES

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SIGNALS

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(Introduction)
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~c:ic<PRlc>t-0 ~-s <l"!T ~ 1 ~
Contents

_,_,_,_, ~~~~ ~~;-;~aj~ _,,_,.,...,..,..,~~~"-;';


t;;D~1...,. ~~ ~Tf'l"'I -r.i,.,... ~ d.hP"fi•r.i:rrn..,. _,.,_~t c.-O-f"~ a•:r,;qsr-tl"fi ';,~~';..:'"~r-t"'ft cn-~f'~"!P>T""'I 4"1.,_,. .. ~ <:.~r-n.,- ~rwt*t Ci>"~'JT'l"I e.i--1"'rl'l'I

Msit\C~-0 "!JM~~~ 9imr I <rQ)t-


(<P) ~ Msit\IC~iG ~ (Carbon filament lamp),
(~) m~~ Msit\IC"l-0 "!JM (Tungsten filament lamp) I
Ui~~ Msit\IC~-0 ~ ~ ~ ~ I <rQ)t-
(~) ~Tlt~I~ ~ Msit\ll~-0 "!JM, (Vacvum metal filament lamp),
( ~) 51Wr Was <rnlCS Ui~~ Ms"ill);l-0 "!JM (Gas filled coiled tungsten filament lamp)
(1!>) S'!Wi~~<fSrn"'fUi~~ f¥ilc~4' ~(Gas Filed coiled coil tongsten filament Lamp) I
(~)~~(Arc Lamp) : ~ ~ ~ ~ "i~ ~Cit\<tlcJal\5 ~ C~ ~~~I
~ ~Cit\cJal\5 ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~Cit\4'dil\5 ~ "ftit"J f<l"l:JC\!5~ ~ct (Flash) ~
l!l<f~ ~~ ~~ l!l~~it"JM~~~ ~I~~ ~~~~~IS~
~ ~lit!cJal\5 ~ l<W1 ~cm -rciU ~ ~ 91w. rn, ~ l!l"001 -rcit"J ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ l!l\5 c<rfi"t QT "ilm C~\!l~ l!l"(O<I) ~ <Pm <T"rn "ft I
~~~~-~~(Search Light), Pll'i~I~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~
~~<fSm~I
(~) ~ ~ ~ (Gas Discherce Lamp) : l!l~ l!l<PfU ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Cit\4>cJal15.
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~98l 51Wf <ft~~~ ~<r'<li ~~~I~
~ ~~~ l/llNl~I~ <!t4 (Sodium Vapour), 9IBfq ~ (Mercury Vapour), R1R
(Neon), ~-t-1 (Argon), ~ (Helium), fu!>911M (Crypton), ~ (Xenon) ~~fb 51Wr
~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ l!l"001 Di91 ~ *981"
~ ~ ~ ~ I 51Wf <ft ~ "ftit"J ~Cit\4'lla4'
Nl>tblliSf~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I
~~$JW!<!l~~98l~~l!l~~~~~~-
(~) C>ilNl~I~ ~9frn "!JM (Sodium Vapour Lamp),
(~) ~ ~9frn "!JM (Mercury Vapour Lamp), _
(1!>) ~~"!JM (Hot Cathode Lamp), ~- (.r<i~rr.1c=?ll'""'>t~-O "!JM (Fluorescent Lamp),
(8) ~ <fSJil'<fl\S ~(Cold Cathode Lamp),~- R1R ~(Neon Lamp),
(<t) ~-t-1 "!JM (Argon Lamp),
(~)~"!JM (Helium Lamp),
(C\) fu!>911M ~ (Crypton Lamp),
(b") ~ "!JM (Xenon Lamp) I
~.~ Ut~~i1to.,loto'U ~JIC""'1~~~
(Explain the Working Principle of Tungsten Filament Lamp)
m~~ Msit\IC"l-0 u ~ Msit\IC~-0 ~ m~~ ~ ~ W<A ~~~<Pm~ I l!l
<tlC!lCC'J~ ~it"J ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l~ ~ 9ftlS~ ~~ ~ <rt \5191 ~ ~~ ~ 1·~
l!l ~~ \51~ \5191 ~cm (Radiation)~~~~~~~ 1
~ :lf\!llij?ilC~ ~ ~'
9
~~~ \5191 oc 91TIS~ ~~ "
0-
1
:.H ocl2Rt

I t-

'
oc I2 . 12.h
A .t [~,R=£fl
nd2
[~,A=4l

I
Contents

~~1""1"~~~~~~~~~~4!'!f~~~~-S't~

~~ 15lJllS~t'lllS ~(.G'l~~l"'llU
~,.,.~~~_,.....~ ~t..,-~~«1~·r"fi~~-n•r-rnt~«r~ ~~1.,..~t#ft~•P'f'"~'""'-rl"rr

l!l~, I = fitsG1IC1ldG~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
p = Ut~~ '~~pj;~fi;
L = fitsG'llCllC'U~ ~
t=~

d = fitsG'llClloU ~ ~ I
'@~~ct C~ ~ <rm, lJt~~ fitsG'JIClloU %f ~ ~ ~ ~91 ~ ·~ ~ I ~ '@~~
~91 ~ ~ ~' ~91 f<lf<t>~l'~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ctlS ~~~I~~ Ut~~ fitsG'JIClloU
G'fJlM ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l C~ ~ i5illG1l 91Nrn ~I Ut~~ ~ ~ ~
~ <i>m ~ Ut~~ ~ fitsG'!IClloU 2700 ~ CJiG'!PlW'I ~~IS~~~ I
~.~ ~~ flr>vtltlloU Ci\JICNP\~ ~'tlfif
(Explain Constructional Details of Tungsten Filament Lamp)
l!l ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ l!l~ ~ ~ ~ ~- ~~. ---i1~-~..,..1~ciS!~<i, ful>~
~~%~I ~ ~ °Dl91 <llUlll:SCG'I~ DR~ 4 ~~~~~~~~I~~
~ ~ lJt~~ fitsG'JICll-0 2700°C ~ ~ ~ 9ftlQ Ut~~ ~ ~<rm~ I ~ l!l ~ m
~ ~ ~' ~ ~ i5illG1l 9111Svt ~I Ut~~ fit>G'llQJ-0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 'Ifl~
1511.i~fil<P \Wf. ~ ~~ ~~ ~'el<PIC~ ~ ~ I ~91iif WU~ l!l~ ~ ~ ~ 15lrG<lSIC"11
~ 1 <liC~&'\t&~ ~~WU~~~~ c~~ ~~~ ~ 1 ~ c~ ~~
~<li~C\b~~~~~~~~I
c~~~~C<l'lif~~~~~1'@9Rf-i~~l1l~~~~
~ '@'e~ fits&'!IClloUC<tS ~i ~ ~ ~ I l!l~ ~ <li~if'll\bl - I l!l ~ ~ ~ l!l~ Gi"1ifl
q:IS~ fits&'!IClldG~ ~ ~""t <rt?t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ *1m M ~~I ~ ~
~~~'
~ ~ ~ Ut~~ fitsailcll-0 ~ ~ ~ (Improve) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Ut~~ fits&'!IClloU ~~~~I l!l~ ~ fitsailClloUf&C<fl ~ ~ ~ <i>m ~I l!l~
~ c~ 15 c~ 20 ~~ ~ i5illG1l 9l11Svt <rm 1
l!l~ ~IS l!l<I> ~ lJt~~ fitsG'JIClloU ~ ~' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~I l!lv:lS ~Jlf!'!lll
~ fitsailClloU ~ q¢jj ~I l!l~ ~ C~ 'Ifl~ ~ Ut~~ ~ fitsailClloU <tl~fii~'lll~IC<l
~ ~ l!l~ fits&'!IClloU ~ 2000°c-l!l~ 'll\3 ~ ~ 9fro:r 1 l!l~ -21~ ~ ~ Ut~~ fitsailcll.:U
~ ~ ~ ~ 'Of~""t ~ ~' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'ft~ ~ <rm l!l<f~ fitsailClloU
l!f'lM ~~<rm I ~~Cf\!) 15 C~ 25 IS~ ~'CG11 l!l ~~~I
/"" ~c~

~~
N*\lell~ qt~
f5is:r: ~.~ ~~~Ut~~ Ms"'llClloU ~
Contents
-...'"""""""~. ~~~~. ,,,.,.,..,.,,~~~'"~~~~~~
"

l<ll~::f ~ ;~ ~q
~~~~art~~,..,.~~~Grt~ ... '""' .,..~r-tlf\'~.r.1~-rl'ft~r.QJ'J,..,..~~<11..,..1•ri'tt

~9\m ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ Ut~~ f¥aitlC~-0 ~ ~ ~ ~I ~~ Ut~~


f¥'11C~-0 ~ ~ ~~-..rotait ~ I
(~) ~ C~<lt 9ftl!i,
(~) ~ C~ (Contact Plate)
(~)~~(Steam Rod),
(8) ~~(Lead in Wire),
(a') Ut~~ f¥'11Dl-0 (Tungsten Filament),
(~) ~91% (Support)
( C\) cm-~ ~ (Blow-out Hole) I
~.8 ieC'QC:>toG ~ ~ \&l~l!I~
(Show Diagrammatically the Circuit of a Fluorescent Lamp and Its
Auxiliary Components)

Line
~: ~-~ ~~~~iGMc99"if~f?mr~~1
Starter open

Line
~: ~-~~~~ 9Kl~"if~f?mr~~
~.~ ieC'QC:>toG ~' cst<li~ I!!~ J\J\UIC'Qii ~ '<3 ~~'t1fir
(Describe the Working Principle of a Fluorescent Lamp Stating the
Function of the Choke Coil and Starter)
fC'!lCJ'l-0 "IJt"'1 <ftRfeiJ<r'Sl<A ~ ~ 1938 ~ ~
jjj~ct ~"i<rJl"iKSc:>t-0 <It M>ailc~-0-~91
1

~ ~ ~Ut ~-aw~~.~ ('f¢11£c~ii') ~corn ~<r~ C<!fi't ~ ~ ~ 1


!Jl'IC'51C<>ioU ~<It at'IC'51C<>toG ~~ ~ ~ (Construction of Fluorescent Lamp) :
C~IC9C:>t-0 ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~~ 38 fiifdifii'&l9 <fJW'rn ~~~~<It
~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~<f~ ~ ~ct ~~~I <JM 'S~ ~ ~ ~ <l>"i[-C<!fi't
~ ~, ~ jjj~~ 20 -a~ ~<f~ 40 -a~ m
~ 91t-sm ~, 20 ~ ~ m
~ 0.6 filUrn ~<f~ 40 'S~ ~ ~ ~ 1.2 ~ ~ ~I ~ 'i.~ ~
151Jl4J:fiiM~ID19 Ft ~ ~<f~ ~ ~~<ml f9A G'ft~ ~ I ~ ~~ \51<J!ll~C\59 ~91 CVi1lt
f¥aitlD!CoU9 ~ 'i.~ ~ f9A G'ft~ ~I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~g~ (~~ ~
Contents
~~~~~~~~.Yf~~ti1t~.rf~~~jTU~.Pf""'FT""~

~b- \51Jl15~1'§115 ~'Pl.l.ll;/'JllJ .


~1..,. ~ ~91'~ 4'1.,.._r"" c~,...,. ~r-i#ft ~T~t.,,-,o:n·__,..,.._.., ~"'"-'"n..,. ,yt_.r-,~t ciJ'"-T-rt., 4'1-=M-rltt 1;U---f"'r'QS"J'fWT ·"l'f~t ...:~-JT..,. <t1"'1•rltt

~ M ~ c~ ~ ~ m ~ 1!1~) 9il©1SIC'iB1 ~91 lvrnt ~ 1 rrt"1t <fl:cfu ~ ~


~~rrt"1t~ ~~~~I~-
(~) ~~<JS c<iffif¢1m~ PlMC<i>T:i (Zinc Beryllium Silicate)-~ "'il~"l'ffi'! ~ I
(~) <JSJl15firnl~ c<!roW (Cadmium Borate) G'fto'r "'il~"l'ffi'! ~ I
(~) l!Jt'ii<f\Pl{lt~ ~~~(Magnesium Tungstate)~ "'il'Z"l'ffi'l ~.I
\!! ~ ~ ~ filfitrn :!jl{lliS!~~\!l ~"'ii~~~~ I ~ <t>li<'IPl!llll ~-~(Calcium
Halophpspate) ~ l!l<llfU ~~~~I\!!~~~~·~~~~~ 9l1'@.lt
~I fil*ll~iG ~ ~ ~ l!l<llfU ~ ~ ~ <JPIG~Cli'G G'!JtFi ~ ~ ~ \5i ~ '111 \!!~
~ ~'ffl" li\QO:\~J<i>l*l ~'lff (Component)~~ I \!!~ CDt<lS ~ (Choke Coil)~~ (Balast)
\!l~~~(Starter)1'@~~\!1~~~~~~~1
CJPICilC:>\oU ~~~(Working Principle of Fluorescent Lamp)
l!l ~ ~ '2l~ 'J:~ fuaoilc~-0 ~ ~ ~ 1 ~·~ ~ m~ ~ ~ <ism ~
:>Utu'lc$1'?1 m~ fuaoitc~-0 "J:'fiKr ~~ ~-~ m <rm 1 ~ :>u1VIC$1$1 m~ filsaoi1c~c-0$1 ~~ M
~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ firaoito:i-0 ~ m ~ 1 <JS"Co'f firaoi1c~c'G$1 <i>l~:l<i>I~ ~ 'J:'~ "fTPr
\5llC!ll~l~iS!l5 (Ionized) m ~ ~ ~caoi<l'JaC~$1 ~ ~ I 'il'~ ~~ :iiJIVtC$1$1 ~~-\!!"'ii
~-~~<rm \!l<f~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ M ~ ~ ~QO ~I <JS"Co'f "fTPr
~ ~ ~I ~ "fTPr ~ ~ ~ ~Fr ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ CtJl\C$1Qi'G 911©\S\C$1$1
~ ~g~ m ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 9l"'il ~1~1R<i> ~ ~ ~
2/3 ~ "limT 'G'fR'i'( I "fTPr ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ '5i"'il C$1~:iiJJl'§l'e ~ ~ <m<f I~ ©1$C$111{3$1
~~~l~CDl<P~\51~~'111
~ iSJa>jl<i>loil~ \!JIC\!l ~ 110 ~ ~ ~ I
f i (230-110) = 120 ~ CDi<P <1SlW'I ~91 ~I
~ ~· ~ ~ ~ ~'ZMa{l~tl<I ~ ~
c~ e<r G1N5ffi1S> ~ (~ soo ~) ~
~ \5i'e CDi<P <l>C!lea>!'?I ~ 911-em <lW I ~
~ ~ ~ ~ 15tl'¥1151\~ \!)~ ~ 110
~ ~I ~ :iiJIVtC$1$1 ~ \!I~~ <!tt\!l
~~ C~lcci1CiS!$1 ~ ~ \5li'if ~ ~ '1t
911C$1 i \!!"<!$ CtJ'IC$1CJ'1-0 ~ fuaoito:i.U ~ C~
4/5 ~ct~~~\!l~\!l"'il'WQ~~'e~ I

~~Cilil ~ '<3 ~:
~ ~~ 'J:'~ ~I \!!<!$ CW-~91 \!l<f~ \51'~ ~ ~911 ~ CW-~91 ~
~~~ ~ ~ I RITT m \!j<pf[} CW-~91 :>Uf'G'1c$J$1 ~Of~~ I
:>U1Vtc$1'?! ~~ U 151l<fNl$1 \!!<!$ ~-C~IM<1S ~
\!l~\!1<1$~~~1 ~1~1F<t<i>~~ ~
~ C~ ~I ~~~Jffe~ Jffl~~ ~
~ I <AAfct \!! ~ CDi<P <1SlW'I ~ ~ ~ct
~ ~91~1 <JS"Co'f ~~ C15lcci;ciS!'?I ~ ~
:>u1V!c<?1<?1 1511'¥1151l~c\5 911-em <rm 1 ~~ c~ ~ ~
N
<fCC'f \!! ~ :>Uf'G'1$1C<l> CW-~91 ~ <fCC'f I'~
~ <JS"Co'f \!Ire ~91"'i! ~ ~ \!l<f'Z ~-c~IM<i>
<i>-Oi#fG ~ m ~~-\!!"'ii~~~ I

L
Contents
~~~~~~~~"1~~~~.,..~~~rftt~~
l<ll~::j ~ \!) • <ffi\.!) ~i'!>
~1W"f~~~.,..~~~~.~"1"4JT""r"ft ,...,.<IPf'l!l'l'Prflfi~a:t~~~,._.,.~~~<!"f~1~

~ ~ 'i~ ~ailcwU 'i~ m~ ~-Jil~<>6i1~~1 ~ ~~ m~ ~ ~ ~ ~


~ I ~ <f>l~ColJi1 ~ct ~ ~a>!it>lolJ ~ ~ m
I ~ ~ >6iVJ~i1 ~ 'l:°fU ~'Z~ ~
~ct~ RCi5 ~ ~<f'Z ~ ~ ~ ~· ~ ~ ~ ~ ~· ~<i'Z ~ ~ ~.~i:!J
~~~~l~ct~~~~~~~"lt~~ct~(~
.~)~mt~~I
~ <ISUlCC'lil ~ '6 ..r(~ (Contrnction Operation of Choke Coil)
~ ~ ~98f ~ C~ C5"f<li ~ ~ ~ ~ I \!I~ ~ ~ a>!Jlfi!C"ll6\5 ~ ~ I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~<pfi; ~'Zrmf m~ ~ ~I ~~ ~~ ~'4' 9fN' ~ >i'~
~ ~~~~~~ ~t4'W@<f ~ ~G'\lt>!d&i!l ~~~~'Z~~~ I
m ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ ~~ ci1~>G11.,, ~ m
~ ~ zs-e~1-ei1 ~
C~ ~ ~ C5"f<li ~~~~"It I~ ~G'\1<111~'1 ~~ ~ 110 ~~~I~
(230 - 110) = 120 ~. '5"f<li, ~ ~91 ~I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~'ZNHl~lc<! GR~
C~ QT '5lfuiffiiG> ~ ($ 800 ~) ~ ~ \51'{3 ~ <11C~<ft'li1~911'81ft ~I
Ql'ICitC>iol; i!JI~ ~ (Uses of Fluorescent Lamp)
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~"$it, ~ ~a>!"lll["i<f>~IC<1 ~ ~ ~ '4ili1 <1<ft1 Frcs ~
~l"lJil[CQ.. C3JSl~CJ'1-0 ~~~~<flt~~~ I
(~) \5ll<11Pl<11 "<Bf-~,~ '4iCi1 ~'Z ~ I
(~) ~-m ~ '4ili1 "1%9l!Vt>1"Glai ~. C1'tt-~ (Show-room) ~<f'Z ~~ ~ ~\tJIMC\!) 1

(~) ~ Gil"ila>!C\t I
(8)~-~I
(<?-)~~~I
(~) ~ '8 ~-<JITtjfu ~\tJIMC\t I
~.~ Ql'ICilC>!o{; i!JIC~ ~ -e ~
(Discuss Advantages and Disadvantages ofFluorescent Lamp)
~(Advantage of Flourescent lamp) :
(~) C$15l~CJ'f4i ~ "£a>!"ll~"'l<f>~IC<l ~ ~ ~ '4iCi1 I
(~) ~~~~~"$ft~~I
(~) ~~~$~1
(8) ~~ ~~ ~ ~a>!"lll[_"l<f>~IC<1 ~ I
(<?-) ~~ ~ ~91 ~~9f:l ~ I
(~) ~~ ~a>!"lll[_"i<f>~IC<1 ~~~I
(C\) ~'8~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~i:!i ~ ~~ <111J'tJl>~\tl I ~ ~ '8~ 911'8'illm ~
~ ~ QT ~ct~ ~. ~ ~i:!ii1ct ~"l<fSJl"lNiC"'l-0 <rt ~G'\lt>!-0 ~ ~ DBT-9iw ~ct
~~~I
(b-) ~~ ~ ~"l<f>JHNicJi-0 ~~~ct ~ I
(i'!>) ~~ 911'8~ ~ '4iCi1 ~"l<f'Jl"lNiC>ioG ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~91 ~~~ ~. ~ '51"l<ft11
~~ct ~ 911'81ft ~I
(~o) ~"l<f'Jl"lNic>i-0 ~ ~ ~~ 911'8~ '\51"~ ~ ~ 1

~(Disadvantage Flourescent lamp) :


(~) C~l~t>t-0 ~ ~ c~IMCiSt GR (On) ~ ~"It I
(~) ~~ Glf\bffiiG> ~, C5"f<li ~ '8 ~ ~ ~ I
Contents
~~~-~~~~.,,.~~~~~~~~.?J..,._r!tt

So 15lJl\5151+1''5 ~CCi<tS(GP!fl; .
~.,...~C.:0--~<P.l~~G.~TW'l'~~<P.1""5"P"r'tt~~,..,.«f~...,.dt-~~~~~..,.<P.l~~t

(~) l!l~ ~•POCCi"!if ~ ~Qft111, ~ ~ ~"'1i'\l~C'\<!i~lc<l <:<l'flCt I


'(s) ~ ~ ~ <:<l'flCt <flVl c~ <J?IC'ilCJ'l-0 ~ ~ (Off)~, '2ffil, ~ ~lcwU ~ ~
~~~~~I
(~) ~~ct fili"'11CWU ~ ~ c<litif ~~ ~ ~ 9ft@ I llS~ GifJF9! ~~ ~ m
~I
(\!,,) ~"llCll-0 ~~~~~~TIN~~~~ <Wi ~Im~
<:<l'flCt ~IS f¥"'11Cll-0 ~ ~ ~'S ~ Fl~ ~ ~ i ,€~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <flOl i5ltCJi Im~~~ l.!I~ ~ ~ c<litif
~R~~rft, ~~1.!1~~'2ffil I
~ ~~~ ~ ~ <:<l'fl<t~-~ ~. ~ ~~~~~ ~ '2ffilr{t I

~. C\ l;c01~l~+.1llit ~ a'IC'llC:Jt;'f; d!JIC°"Rf ~ \SHU$!


(Describe the Detail Circuit Diagram of a Electronically Controlled Fluorescent
Lamp)
" '
~ct CY"l~c>i-0 ~ WfJ 15lNlR!is> '@~ CDt4' ~ -s ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~CCi<fil;IM<t>JIM
~ cyslC'ilC>i-0 ~ 1.!1~ ~CCi<fil;M<tS CDt4' ~ ~ ~ I l.!IN ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
rft, ~ m l.!I~ ~~ct cys1~CJ'l-0 ~ ~CC1cfilif.i<t>11rui ~ ~ ~ ~,

~ : ~.\!,, ~CCi~M<!iJIM ~ CY'IC'ilt>i'tl ~ ~


~ ~ l!!Pr ~~ ~$'( ~ ~ ~ m~ -s~ l.!l~ 21Gl~1'f~ c.~1ciUciST'i1 @>c<tSIC~M ~
~ 9lm ~ ~i%f"l\!>l'S ~ ~ 9lm I ~ct ~ ~ "1ffi4i'C*!: lP.O'! ~CC'l~C"l'il ~ ~ 9lm
'S <:<l'flCt ~ct '$:c"l<fil;ri ~ ~ ~ ~ I '$:c"l~M41 ~ ~ 20--30KHZ l!l ~ ~ I ~
~ ~ l!l~ f¥\5<1Jf<tS ~ l!l~ ~ CDt4' <ml"!, ~. ~~iG~. ~~. ~ l!l<f~
Wf1 ~ @ic<tSlc~Ri l!lrifGt>D'il ~ ~ ~ 1
~: ~~ 220 ~ l!l.Pr-~ ~ ~<liffl¥mKI ~ (D 1 ~ 04) ~ C'il41ffl*~ ~ ~
<filt~ ~ ~ ~ ~llii ~ 220 ~~~~~~IQ~~~~ ~-s~ m
~ ~ ~ ~ I :>tlf<15t.G'il WfJ :ilJlri~'§'!l ~~ff ~gf'I ~~ ~'" l!f~ m
~ l!l~ fu>tc~M~ ~911"ciW ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ (Lighted up) 1 ~ ~~ ~ ~ "Wf 1
l!Jlri~>i>'il T1 l!l<f~ T2-1.!1~ ~(Base) C~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ l.!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~~ ~- ~ ~ ~ ~ <mr, ~ ]ltiiiftit>i>'!lqC~ <mWf >i>JIM441~C'St"'R
~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ rft ~I l!l~ 35V-1.!1~ ~ (Diac) ~ ~ ~ ~
T2-l!l~ ~ ~ ~. ~ 15lPtC"l•fii'f ~~I
Contents

~. """"'"""~. ~~~~-21~~~-...-,,..,. - '2':1~~~~.


- . ~~

l<il~::j ~ \!> '~ .8~


"""~ ~r-Jfifi c:o--f'~ (l'j_,_......, ~,..,. ~~ ~,.... (l'j_,_....,,, ,.,. -~r-t#tt ~1",.... (l'j'2M'""1"il'it ~f.qr_J"1 .... ~ ~1WI ~rt'l'I

~.b'~il~M<PJIM .:PC'!ilii& aistc<1lc:>t-U "IJIC""Rf ~


(Discuss the Advantages of Electronically Controlled Fluorescent Lamp)
m ·~:c;G1~M<tiJIM ~ <Jl'ltsc"11' ~ ~tft ~ ~ ~-
(~)\!I~,~~ ~~;qt I
(~)~~~~~\S~i
I
!'
(~)~~~~\S~<j)lfl
{8) \!I~ <j)lf c~1c!Gc1St\S ~ ~ ~ 1
(

~-~ C:>tlf'S~li! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ,~~Ns

I (Explain the Working Principle of Sodium Vapour and Mercury Vapour Lamps)
C"llNl{llll ~9frn ~ \!I~ U ~lfNHl~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C"llNl{Jlll C\S9frn l!l<r~ ~ ~9frn
~\!I~~~ C~\!J~ ~~ct~ ~9frn ~I
~ \!I ~9frn <rt ~ ~~ Nm ~ ~ ~ ~ ~"C"lt 16llC{Jl"11~iSt (Ionized) ~ ~
, (Positive) \S '<It~ (Negative) ~ (Ion) 9lfu~ ~ I ~ 16ll{J"1C<l> <fO'it ~ C~ ~ '<It~
16ll{J"1Qfi <fO'it ~ ~CG1~"1 I C~"C"lt ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<r~ ~<P1~"1~"C"lt C"ft~ m"iSf ~ ~ I
~~~~~'Of~~ l!l<r~ '<It~~~ Ql5C'ft ~' ~ ~ ~ ~
\!l<f~ '<It~ ~"C"lt \!l"c<fi 'Of~~ 00 ~~ ~ ~~I \5fR! ~ \!I~ ~ ~
i!l~'<lt~~~oo~~~, ~~ c~ ~ ~~ ~ 1 ~ c~~~9m \!I
~ ~ ~ ~ '15~ C"11Nl{J1ll l!l<r~ ~ ~9frn ~ \5!t<Pll 1
~.~o C:>tlf\S~li! ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ilJIC""Rf ~
(Explain Constructional Details of Sodium Vapour & Mercury Vapour Lamp)
K > [;ftr wj K > [;ftr wjW

fWI : ~. 9. C"!lf\S{Jjll ~9frn ~


~~~\!I~ C"llNHJ1ll C\S9frn ~~~~I C"llNl{Jlll ~9frn ~ ~ ~
~~ I \!I~ \!I~~~~ U- 16l1fN>C1!5 ~ l!l<r~ ~ ~ C"llNl{Jlll ~ (Vapour) \S
~~~ct~~~ 1.~ ~ ~ Ut~~ fi!>d!IC~oU ~I~ fi!>d!IDloU C~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~l:!Wl G1Jl4f&C<ti ~ "lirtlC\b ~Rlllt~ ~ ~ I ~ ~l<tilC"11~
~ct ~ \!I~ ~<P!<ti[i<lS f\5"1t>lc'Gf~ ~ ~ 9IRf I \!1~98f ~cf ~ \!I~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~~I C"llNl{Jlll ~9frn ~ ~~~ 45, 60, 85 l!l<r~ 100 \S~ ~ ~
~I \!I~~~~ 200 C~ 250 ~~I
~ ~9frn~~~~W.,~~~ I~-
(~) \!l~.\!l.~91 (M.A. type),
(~) \!l~.l!I.~. ~91 (M.A.T. type),
{~) \!l~.R.~91 (M. B. type) I
Contents

~~t-t ___,. .....,, °'~""" .-,_,_r~l ~ ~,..,_ ~~·~;~~$'~ ~""' 4'1-'~ ~,q-:.t-i .....---r--~t ~r""'"-n""' ·"'1-t-rilltl

C~T ... .?f'llOT•tlltt ~""" 01_..._ril'l't "u--~,.,. ~"'" ~~ crt·-r-r'ft G~T.,. -~.-.-"ft c#~•TTWI ~ G.~~n ....Yr-T-rll'tt G~~.qrrr..., <'f'f"li-1-ri'ft

(<ti) ~~~ ~9t VUl-t : ~.<l' 01~ fmf 1!1<1$ \!lll.l!l.~9f ~ C~ ~ C'S9frn ~ (H.P.M.V.) l!l~
~~~I l!l~ 1!1<1$ ~."WRf ~ \5IBf 1!1<1$~ "lO'f ~I ~ ~ ~i:IJ
~~Cf~ C'S9frn l!l<f~ ~ ~Cf~~~ l!l<f~ ~~~Ur~~~~
fll>"'llc~-0 <rt ~<Fl<t>Qlll.S ~ <ltt<lS ~~ ~<Fl<t>Qlll.S (Main Electrod) ~ ~ 1 ~~ ~C"'l<t>QllCIS'il
9ftV't \5IBf 1!1<1$ ~ ~cai<t>Qll\5 (Auxiliary Electrode) ~ I ~ ~ ~C"'l<t>Qlll.Sfr; 1!1<1$ ~
~ C'!'l~:>GC'!'l'il (Limiting Resistor) ml:fWr Frm:r ~<F1<t'Qlt1Sffl'i1 ~ ~~~ !2ftt<t' I ~
~ ~ ~ 1!]<1$ (f-<l>Jt91 ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ <l~~~ <t>tC.,<t'"lC.,'il 1SR.f l!l C~ ~
~ Mi5 ~ ~ !2ftt<t' I l!l ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~Cf\5 200 C~ 250 ~ l!l<f~
9ftem'il' ~~ 250 l!l<r~ 400 \SW m !2ftt<t' 1

~f.li; ~-- ~~

~: ~.11' \!l~.f9!.l!lll.~. ~ (l!lll.l!l.~9f)


(~) ~~.~.~.~9t ~ : l!l ~ ~ C'S9frn ~ ~ GIC.,4>UI l!llf.\!l.~9f ~ ~I
l!l~ ~~~~~Ur~~ flt>dlt~o\I ~~~ !2ftt<t' ~ CDt<t' <t'C!l<Fl'il ~ ~ ~ I

~ffePr~
~ : ~.~ l!l~.f9!.l!lll.~. ~ (l!lll.\!l.fU.~9f)
~~ l!l~ ~ ~ ~ CDt<t' ~ ~ ~ i{f I ~ l!l G'fJtt-1 CDt<t' ~
~ ~ "ill CJ'f 1SR.f 9ft'em'il' ~ ~ ~ 1SR.f ~ <t>OO.,>fl'il\S ~ ~ i{f I \5IBf ~ l!lf'U
l!lPT (AC) \S ~ (DC) ~ ~ ~ ~ Dl"f I l!l ~ ~ ~<!$ ~ ~-~
~ ~ ~ ~ 1!1<1$ ~ \?t~ ~<rt -..fi1' m fir"'llc~c-0'!1 ~ 15f~'"t ~ c~ -,~
~I~~ m (~ m)-l!l~ Glll¥1Gll~ ~~<Im I l!l ~ ~ C~
~ '¢11~1~'<3> ~ l5ft<F1t 9fl\Sm <Im I Frm:r ~ 1!1<1$ \!lll.l!l.fU.~9f ~-C~ ~ C'S9frn
(H.P.M.V.) ~~~~I l!l~ ~ ~~ ~~Cf\5 200 C~ 250 ~
l!l<r~ 9 fMm'il' ~~ ~~Cf\5 300 l!l<f~ 500 \Smu m !2ftt<t' 1
Contents

~"""""'""'-...,.,..,. ~~~~~~ajf\'b~...,.~~~~. ...-


l<ll~::j ~ ~ 8~
~..,. ~ ~"l"-n-1 ~~r'l'I ~1_,. ~ c»-.f'~ <Pt._f>"~ 1Wf ....._~ ciJ"~T..,. 01"4St-r'ft ~~.,,..,. ..,.,.._,....,*t ~.-rf.., <!t'J-q>T.,,.tf'n

(~) i.q:f.t~9t : <!l~.R.~91 ~ ~ <!l~.<!l.~91


~~1~~~'$~~<!l
~~~l~~<!l~~~~~
~~~~~~ 11~
(Mercury Vapour) "5191 ~ ~ I <!l~ ~·~
151~ffil8' ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
l~~~ ~i:frnef ~ ~ ~ l<fll{lfifiS! ~
(Quartz)~~~ ~1 ~ ~
~ \5ll"1<t>UI ~l:frnef ~"llDJ43 ~ ~ ~~
\5llff?:il\!l ~ ~ ~I 9flV<BI m
<!l<!'fU ~ ~
<!l~.R~91 m-l~ ~ ~9frn ~ ~ f5<!I: ~.~o l.!l~.f9t.l.!l~.fti "ITt"'9I (l.!l~.f<t.~91)
~~I <!l~.Ff.~91 C'fJF\ 80, 125 l.!l~~ 250
'$~ ~ m ~ <!l<r~ <!l'C'BI ~ ~~ 200 c~ 250 ·~ ~ 1
~-~~ QilNrnl~ ~91"Rf 1!1~ ~ ~91"Rf ~ ~ \Sl{l~ ~~liflRl'l>t~
(Show Diagrammatically with the Auxiliary Components the Circuit
Diagram of Sodium Vapour and Mercury Vapour Lamps)
co9tRf i'IJI~ ~ 151{1~ :
~m ~~ ·(Auxiliary
· Component) <!l<!'fU l>tlf\s{ll~ ~9frn ~ ~ 9l!'GlITTI~
~~~I
-
<!l~ ~ ~~
~ ~
1«_1."11."I
~~~

<!l<l'fi' ~"lll~43 ~~ ~l'fl~'il~l'il, <!l<!'fU ~-\Ul'fl~'il~l'il


<!l<r~ <!l<!'fU 9ft'5~ ~ ~ <lSTl91 IPJUC'il'il
~ ~ I ~"lll~4.J ~~ ~l'f!~'il~l'ilffl Ur~~
fit."lll~4.J 'l'fU"C<fl ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~I ~~­
<!l~ m l>tlf\s{ll~ ~9frn ~ ~ l~lc.:&ciS!'il
~ ~Cf l~lca1UC\Sl'il ~ ~ <rt ~-\Ul'fl~'il~l'il ''
'
c~ 9ft'5m ~ I >tlf<lilU'il 9ft'5~ ~ @::i~<fl'ilC~ ...
'
:-~
(Improve) ~ 9ft'5~ ~ ~ <m91fferfiK!
~ ~ I ~~-<!l~ ~ ~-\Ul'fl~'il~l'il ~ 151~~18'
.

~~~,~~~Nm~~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~l~lf<l<fl ~ ~ \5IM I
<!l~ ~-\Ul'fl~'il~l'ilffl lD8" <t>cm:G'l'il ~~<ml 1 ~: ~.~~ l>tlf\s{ll~ ~9frn ~ ~
~~ = l>tlf\s{ll~ ~~~~~.mm~~~~~~~ firnir 5tW! ~~ m ~
~ ~~ ~ ~~.<ml <!l<f~ <!l~ J'ftt~ ~~ ~l'Ji~'il~ll?l'il 'llt~ Ur~~ ~"llC~4.J ~ ~ m ~ I
~ ~ ~ ~ l>tlfls~I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <!l<r~ <!l<P ~ lJilf\s{lt~ <ftt®• \5llC{ll"11~CiSt"lr:t'
(Ionization) ~~ m ~ I 151llWll~liS1"1r:i ~~ ~'5~ ~ ~ ~ l~ ~ \511~1~ ~
~ R~ ~~I~ ~l~lf<l<fl ©14S.l"l\!ll ~ ~ 15 C~ 20 ~ ~ "!il~ I C>tlf\s{lj~
~9frn ~ C~ '5mU ~ ~ 60 ~(Lumen)~-~ R~ ~~I
~ co9tRf ~ .~ 151{1~ : ~ m
~ ~~ <!l<l'fi' <!l~.<!l.~91 ~ ~9frn
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~I <!l~ ~ ~~ ~ <!l<!'fU lDt<fl ~ <rt ~
(Balast) <!l<f~ <!l<!'fU <PJt~ ~ ~ I <!l~'5 <m~ >tlf¥CG'il 9ft'5~ ~ ~ ~
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-1"'f~

88 . 151Jl\5~l+t\5 ~J."1<1>1.l.lPlln
~~~01~ ~,..,.~*t'~~G':t._,.~ ~,..,..~r-tfi!ft~-1111-.t-rl'ft ~j.,..,.~~~~-r'n

~~:
I!!~ ~. ~ ~~ ~ Wi ~9fm ~~ ~cci<t>c;ijl15
l!l<f~ ~ ~C"1<Pc;ijlc15~ ~~ ~ (Arc) <rt ~C61<t>$<t> ~
'OW ~ I \5ft~. ~ ~~ ~cci<t>l!i<t> ~ ~
~cci<Pc;ijlc15~ ~ ~ ~ <O'll~:>U11+1 ~ ~ ~ l!l<r~ ~ <mfif
~cci<Pl!i<t> ~<rt~ N<t> ~ ~ ~ ~~
~cci<t>c;ijlC\5~ ~~ 'OW ~ I I!! ~ CDt<f' <t>CflC61~ ~~
~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ '~ ~ ~ \5ft'CO'lt ~
~ ~ I ~C61<t>'Ul\5 ~ ~~ ~C61<t>l!i<t> f\s:>fblCiSf~ ~ ~
~9!~~~~1 ~~(Mercury)~
91Rf~ ~<ft~~~ 'Dtt~ ~~I~
~ ~d (Arc)~ C~ @iS!l.{"1\b~ ~~I
~l~lf<l<t> @iS!l.{"1\!ll ~ ~ 4 C~ 5 fi@W ~ "l1Vf I
~ ~~ ~ '~ ~ "5lt~lf<3' ~ ~~nm \5ft'CO'lt ~ : ~.:>~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
9!1'$m
~ 1 I!! ~ ,~ ~ ~ 40 '~ 60 -ew
~(Lumen)~~~~~ I
~.~~ v11f\S~I~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ i!JI~ ~
(List the uses of sodium vapour and mercury vapour lamps)
c.>tlNHllil ~91lif Wille~~ :
(:>) ~<rt ~ ~ ~ \5llC61lf<t>\!l ~; c~) m~~;
'
(~) ~ilC'iPlfllCil; (~)~~~-1!1;
i (~)~-~'{3~~; (o.) ~-~ ~\!5JIMC\!5 I
I
(8)~~;
I ~ ~ i\JIC""'tif ~:
(:>)~<rt~~~ '51IC61lf<ti\!5 ~. (8)~~'

I (~)~~.
(~)~-~'{3~~.
~.:>" ~~ ,C~CJ'liG i\JI~ ~
(~) 151~\Stl\!5 ~ l!l<f~ fS91ffl0!1;101 ~.
(~) f.:Rlt~ ~ l!l'il'l ~ I

(Describe Constructional Details of a Compact Fluorescent Lam)


~ m I!!~ ~91® 3e~CJ1-G ~ ~ ~
~I l!lfU 911'8~ ~ 9iJtmf ~~~~I.
l!lfU~~ ~~~I ffi~9!~~~9!1
~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ (j>:>f(jl~~ ~9!
~-em~ I l!lfU ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~ ~-ffi
~ ~ ~~ ,~C:>foG ~ l!l<f~ ~-~
~C"'l<f\GM<t> ~ ~~ ~~CJio{; ~ 1 ~cci~f4~
~ ~ I!!~~ ~ C~<t>fGq>lfll~ ~ <ISJ't~
l!l<f~ ~~ ~ ~~ I!!~ ~ Jal'i~$G~ <rt C~ostleiioG ~
@>fCflM ~ ~ l!l<r~ ~ c~ l!!Pr ~'i~l~UIC~ ~~
~ 1 I!!~ c~C\StliioG ~ @trnM 40 f<t>cailQ;l'G:ii (KHz) <rt
--
~ C5UI c<lfi't ~ I I!!~ C~C\StlC'ioG <t>'i~~ ~
<t>l~4'<AS ~ ~ I I!!~ ~ 9!Wcfu fir"'lleiloG C~ X-ray
~CilCiSt~ ~~ Q;l~@;fCflMCl!l \5ftC"11 O'rn I
-
......
Contents

-~-. ~~~~~~~~,,,~~~~
.. ~
1<11'?:1 ~ i ~ 8Q-
~t-f ~~ort.....r-......, ~~t-f~~.r.t._,--tl'ft ~Cfl"~<rt._,.-r*ft ~...... ~~~""'"

~.)8 ~91Jl'i i!:Cilc:>tiG '1Jl<:"91if ~'tffer


(Explain Working Principle of a Compact Fluorescent Lamp)
~ m \!I~ ~91Jl'§ 111:'.~C>1iG ~~~~~I \!I~~~ ~~-ic( ~
"111 ~CG'l<P\UM~ ~ \!I~ ~ ~1m~1c<i ~~ ~ ~ <ii ~· \!l<r~ ~ ~Hf@pt~~ ~~
~ fils~C~M ~~I~ '>11~ C"t'Sm ~ ~ ~ filsai1c11ciG~ ~~ ~~fil<t>~IC<l ~
~ ~ ~ \!l<r~ ~>1~~IC>1~ ~91 ~ ~ ~ '>Jlqj ~ ~ ~ ~ \!l<r~ 9i~<l&iCI!>
C~CiS!i<fl-0 ~ fil>fC~M~ ~ct \!I~ ~ ~ ~ 91t'Sm <ii1l 1 ~ ~"i<t'Jl"'\Ci5C>14' ~
CDUl ~ ~ ~~ 91t'Sm
<ii1l 1

f5ll! : ~- )8 ~ ,~ ic:>t-0 G'fJl1'>9j


~"i<t'Jl"'\Ci5C>1oG ~ ~ ~91Jl'§ 111:'.C~C>1iG ~ ~-
(<r>) ~"i<t'Jl"'\Ci5C>14' ~ CDUl 8 C~ 15 ~ct~~~ 6,000 C~ 15,000 'ifeut I
~ ~"'\<t'Jl"'\C~C>1iG ~ ~ 750 C~ 1,000 'Cfeut ~ 1
(~) ~~ 111:'.~C>14' ~ 15llCG'11Clb ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~"i<t'Jl"i\5C>14' ~ ~ct ~
~ct~!
(~) ~~ 111:'.C'llc:>t-0 ~ ~~ c<lfi't I ~"i<t'Jl"'\Ci5C>14' ~ ~~ ~ ~ 20 c<tc<t' 33% I
~~ C?J"IC'llC>14' ~ ~ ~"'\<t'Jl"'\Ci5C>14' ~·911~ ~~I
~"'\<t'J l<iC\5C>14' ~ 9it'S~ ~91Jl'§ 111:'.C'llC>14' ~ 911'9~
40 'Smf; 9 - 13 'Smf;
60 'Smf; 13 - 15 ,'Smf;
75 'Smf; 18 - 25 'Smf;
100 'Smf; 23 - 30 'Smf;
150 'Smf; 30 - 52 'Smf;
~91JW C?J"l~C>14' ~ 15P'JJ<r~ :
(<r>) \!I~ '1_cf ~ ~ 1 ~ C~ 3 ~~ c<rn I
(~) \!I~~ ~a>t<il~iil<t' ~I
(~)~~Dmt~~\!l~~~I
('if) \!I~~ 20 C>1f1'filtlC'll'll ~~-~~~IS.~ iSf"'1J ~I
(l!!i) ~~~ell~. ~911'11 ~~~\!I~~~~ I
(l>) \!lfU M~ ~ 0l'Ci1! ~ ~ <ii1l "111
Contents

(~:)~Rf

N
L-----.J
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~~~.5"1~~~~~~
1c:i1~::1 ~ ~ sq
~~ ~iD!:G~;~~~*'~ ~..,---· __..._""'.,__~ ~,.,..,,..,.,[~~:..7~;]
~ ;_~ ~l~@CiSi"1, ful;~ I
~~9frni1JIC""'lif~~fiR1 [~: 'o~]
~ ~: c>11f\bm~ ~9frn ~ ~ ~91 wu =

())~IS c<Ptr1 ~ ~ \5/IC'11Fls~ ~' (~) fGt~C"1PHllC~ I


)~I ~CJPIC~C:>ti6~~~~~1 [~: 'o~]
~:~-~.~~I
~I Ul'.~fifii11~"6~~~1tcf'~~? [~: 'o~]
~ ~ : Ut~~ Mo"11C~-U ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (£!~ Mo"1\t;11; "1l ~ 2700°C m ~~
. ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9ftt?! I (£! ~~ 9f'N3~ ~ lJt~~ f¥11C~oU "fJtC"'1 ~ <;jJpf 91_cf ~ I
)<f I C>tlf\S{ll~ ~9trn~~~~~'. ~~ ~? [~: 'o~]
~: C>ill%~1~ ~9ffif ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ m
~~~~I ~ -21~ ~ C'ftO'f ~~
~~I 1.!Bf98f C>ilf\bm~ <irc"'9f GllC?ll"11~CiSi""f"f ~ W'l ~ ~ ~ \5lll:)l'ii3' ~~~~~~I
:>~1 ~~~~~-emc'U~~~m~r f~:·o~J
~: C>iil%~1~ ~9frn O'!Ji"'9f ~I
)C\ I C>tlf\S{ll~ ~ ~ ~ trtJIC""'I~ '<3~ ~ ffl\S~"1 ~? [~: 'o~]
-smu
~ : C>ilflb?il~ ~9frn O'fJW>9I ~ ~ 60 ~ (£l<f~ mm
~9frn O'fJW>9! 1Sm'U ~ 40 C~
60~~~R~~I
1'-1 ~~j>
r ~:WrJ~~<rtci§~~w~~~~~c<WM~~'~
c<i'l)Ns<t> m ~ ~ ~ 1

~ ~.tf~~~'<3~~j>
~· ~ : c<i'l)N><t> m ~ O'jJj"'9f -21~ ~ ~ 1 ~~-
c~) ModllC~-U O'!Ji"'9f; (~) ~O'!Ji"'9f; (~)~~~I
~.O I -R.Ns""'"'ill~~,-1; ~ ~ ~? •
~: ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~~ ~ m
~ ~ Mo"11C~C-U'il ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ \!itt98f ~ ~' ~ Mo"ilC~'&>i~ ~ c~11"14>ITk<t> \5/ICdll<t>~~ <m:f ~ ~ Mo"il_c~-0
O'jJj"'9f ~ I
~~~?
I ·~ ~: ~ ~ ~ Pwsic~'il ~~ ~ ~ OOCo'RI ~ ~l"i<rua'l ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~
. "~<m:f "ll, ~~ 'ill>il~M'1>~1C<I ~'~~~~I
,~~~~~fiRI .
~: ~, m, \?It~, fu1>~, ~ (!j<f~ ~I ·.
@) CJPIC~C>to'G 'IJI~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~? ·
~: QPIC'ilQi'& ~ ~ ~ ~ ~g~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ RVS!~
~IS~ (£!~ 911~\SIC'il'il ~91 C"ffit ~I
~8 I CJPIC~C>t"G~~~~~~~?
~: ~~~1fi1~- (~) CDt<l>~~~; (~)~I
~<fl CUt~9t~~j>
~: ~ ~ ~~ 9frlS~ ~~~IS~,~ cm
~91~~1 (£!~ (£!'<!$ <i1~c~u11¢1<t>
(!j<f~ (£!'<!$~~~I~~~~ \!itt~ ~ ~ (!j<f~ <ll~C~IM<!S ~ ~
~ ~ ~-(£!~ ~ C"i'C5! :>'!IRlbc<t> ~ <m:f I
Contents

~:~I vtl~illil ~~~~~~ '<3~~?


~: v11f\irn1-i ~91Bf ~ m~~ 45, 60, 85 -.s 100 -.s~ ~,
~<\I ~~~~~~'<3~~?
~: ~ ~91Bf~~~ I ~f<tt­
(~) l!lll.l!l. ~91
(~) <.!Ill~ l!l. "!U. ~91
(~) <.!ill. f<r. ~91 I
~11"1 ~~~'111~~~~~~?
~: ~ ~91Bf~~ ~ct~~ l!l<r~ ~~Cf~~~~ I
~~1~~~~~~~'<3~~?
~: (~) <.!Ill. l!l. ~91 g 250 c~ 400 -.smu-
(~) <.!ill. l!l. "!U. ~91 g 300 c~ 500 -.smu-
(~)<.!ill. f<r. ~91 g 80, 125 l.!l<r~ 250 -.smu- I
~o I Cstl~illil ~~ ~ ~~ '1llC"'1if C15IC~\l3t ~ ~ ~?
~ : C>ilf\iiillil l.!l<r~ ~ ~91Bf ~ ~ ~~ 100 C~ 250 ~ ~ I
~)I CJl'IC'llC:>t~~~~~~911'6lmf"\l3fiU"~~~~7
~ : wl~C>ioU ~ <rt ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ 9fT'8lITTI ~ <ISJl'1Ptillll ~IC"llll'>iClfG
~~~~I
~~I~~~?
~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~C"l<iSd.illS ~ C~ ~ ~ ~~ <mf fcrw~ >i~<B!IC~ lit~
l.!IV'rn~~~~~~~~ I ~~~<rC"! I
~I ~~~~~~~"1911Pt"GC'll'll~~?
~: ~ ~ 9fl'S~ ~ ~~\!l<f'~C'8! ~ CS91Bl ~ ~ ~~~ ~'11ffi ~~I
~8 I ~~ ~'11Cil~ '111~ ~'11Cil~ ~~ ~~~~ 9'mf7
~: ~~ rr'11ClloU ~ rr'11ClloU 27000C m~~~ 9fmf I
~I estl~illil~~~C'Si5m~~~~?
~: c:>tlNiill~ cs"!m ~ ~l"l<f'ffi<f' Ni>iblosfo ~~~cm~ 1!19 ~ ~ ~ ~ 1
~I ~~~~~C'll~$f;IC'll'll~~?
~: ~ CS91Bl ~~~~~If)' ~eut<f'ffi<f' ~~'81 ~~~~~~~I
~<\ I Ql'IC'llC:>toU ~~~ ~~~?
~: CU'l~CS(oU ~ ~~. firni1, ~~~~~I
~11"1 £tC'llC:>toU~~~~~~~~~~~~<Ri~?
~:~C~C>ioU~~~~·<M<l>~~~~~~~N~~I
~~I CFL ~if~~~<Ri~?
~ : ~ '>f1Ul ll'>ill'~~ ~91 l!l<r~ ~ ~\!>~ ~ ISJ191Bf ~ ~ ~ I
80 I ~~~'11CiloU"i'!JtC1:JPf~~~~~~~~~~<ql~,'!i~~ I
~ : ~~~ rr'11ClloU ~ ~ ~~~ct 2700°C Wl~\S ~~~~~"ill I
8) I 15Jl1illil ~~'llCiloU~~~~~~~<ql~,"!~?
~: ~Jltillll ~ rr"!IC~oU ~ 200°C wt~~~~~~ I
8~ I ~~~~~~lfi'l~<t>15lc<q~~?
~:~~~b-~~~~~~~I
S~l~'1llC"'1if~~~~~~~~9100ft~.~1f~~?
~=~~~~~~c<!~91-m~~91Cl1111~,l!l9~~~1
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
l<ll~::t ~ ':I ; ~ 8~
~~~01~~.,...,.~~<l':f~ ~~~<l':f~~~~~~-t"ft

88 I C:>tlf\S{ll~ ~~~~~"'rfii~J<IS\!IC"I ~~emf?


~ : <O>tlNrnl;i ~91'RT G'!JFI ~~~ 'J'ti{ ~ <rtf'lfet1~~1cA ~ ~ ~ 1

. 8~1 ~~i1JIC~~~~'1JPr~?
~ : Gft${ ~ 9!Wf ~ I
8~ I Oqli.J~<l5~1f'ff'Ci'lt~~~ ~~~~~~.tll'fl"1<15lil?
~: C>tlf\S~l;i ~91'RT G'!JFI I
8~ I csilf\S{ll~~i1JIC1~~-ew~fit~c~i1?
~: 100 f¢lt;c;;ic;<j~ °©~·I
Sb' I C:>tlf\S{ll~ "\!Jl9tnf ~, ~~C'SICSf-1'; ~~~"\!Jl9tnf d!JIC1~ct ~~ Cl'flr?
~ : ~ct <O<!fi't 'Gftca'lt ~ I
8~ I C:>tlf\S{ll~ ~ ~. 500W ~i1<j5J1"1f\Scsi-l; ~ d!JIC1 ~ ~ ~ ~ Qilf?
~: C>tlf\S~l;i ~91'RT G'!JF\, 500W ~<j~Jl<jN6C>t-l; 1!1<1$ ~ .2fW ~ct <O<!fi't 'Gftca'lt ~I
<to I ~"\!Jl91tt~~~~'Sf1f~~~?
~ : 1!1<1$ CDl<P <mM l!l<f~ 1!1<1$ ~~ I
~) I C:>tlf\S{ll~ "\!Jl9lnf #111'1 ~ filiillC~-1';(1S ~ ~ ~ ~ JiJl91'R~ICH ~ ~. ~
JiJl91'R~lilC<l5 ~ ~?
~: fip'11c;i-T; ~da11*"~~1~ ,
~ I C:>tlf\S{ll~ "\!Jl9tnf ~ Sfil"l'Sll'( m1' ~ ~IC"I ~ ~ ~ 'Sf1RT "'ltt't?
~: C>tlf\S~I~ 'S'Jt91'RT ~ ~ ~ ~ 9!fif91~ ~ ~ 15 ~ 20 TirfiW '>tmi C'fte~ I
cz.., I C:>tlf\S{ll~ ~ d!JIC1 ._1'81~<15 ISll{ttil'I ~~?
- : ~ ~ '<[/ii;t I
~ I ~ ~ ~ Sfil"lill'( Cl'flOil' ~ ~ifslC"I ~ ~ ~ 'Sf1RT "'ltt't?
~ : ~ 'S'Jt91'Rf ~ ~ ~ ~ 9@91~ 'Gftca'lt ~ "f'"I TirfiW '>tmi ~ I
t t l ~~~~~~9tt'Sltt~?
~ : ~ ~91'Rf G'!JFI 175 ~~ ~ 400 ~~ 91l~m ~ I
~I ~~d!JIC~~~~fit~C~i1?
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t CJl'ICilCSf-1'; ~-~ ~ ~ '1JPr ~ ~?
~:~:B~fflw$!![1
~'Ir I 'CilCSf-1'; ~~ ~~ C5f<lS<rol"f ~~~~~~<Rt~?
~: C~l~c>t-1'; ~ ~ ~ ~ CDl<P <mM ~~~~~~~~~~I
Contents
~~~.~~~~-7:1~~~~~~~~~~

Qo i5lJl\5~l+t15 ,,.,~uaPITU

~G.V.~M<d~~-;-----;:;:;~·;::;~~.-);1.
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(")IQ~~~~ ~61"1l:l(rl"f<fi~IC<t ~I
(8) IQ~~ ~91 ~~91jf ~I
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\ ~:~-~-~~' .
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[<tl'Prfiife<ft: ·~~!

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'Ir I c:>tlffiiiilil ~ 'IJI~ ~'6~~~~~~~~ I [<t/<p/fi'tc<rt: 'o~/
~:~-~.Q~I
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(") C~IC'SICJ'\4' ~ (8)~~:
)o I $~~lei!;{; 'IJIC~ ~~I
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I

~ : 1510J:C~lif ~.Q IQ~ ~ "151"~~ (~- ~-") ~ I


)<t I )<t I CJlllC'SIC"l<l; 'IJIC""'lit ~ ~ ~ I
. ~ : (:>) i5ll<t\~4i ~ ~; (8)~-w; I
(~) ~-~, C'"lt~;
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(Q) ~ 'S ~-q>JlilHlC\!l 1

I
Contents
----------~;;;~~-----~~
'--------~~------
i )~I CJllf~Btli!~~'lJl~~~~I
.
~: ~ ~.~aT<iJ I
)'\I CJllffliilli! ~'lJI~-~~ I
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)~ I l;t-i<fll~¥Jlfil CISC~l'lli CJPIC'SIV'tilJ 'IJI~ ~ ~ I
~:())l!l~,Q/<15~~~~1 (¢)~~~~'6~~1
(~) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'S~ I (8) l!ltu ~ C'Slci6C'8!'6 ~ ~ ~ I
~o I ~"1¥Jli\Cl5C:>tct<s1 ~ CFL cJllf ~ ~ I
~: 15liC~'1 ~.)8 cxm~ I
~) I ~CISJ!i1Cl5C"1it i\JI~ ~ CFL cJllf Cli'l'&fl'"'i"ICi\'11 C'l'&fl11'11Ci\'ll ~ ~?
~: \Slit~ ~.)8 cxm ~ I
~~I ~ «C'lllC"lit 'lJI~ (CFL) ~~I
~ : 15l"J:C~ ~.)8 cxm ~~""t I
~~ I ?q'iJ~Cli ~fit~~~~ 'Rt~~~~? ''<._.'

~: Qq"J)fb4S ~<ft~~~~~~~~~' <rQ.tt-


(<li) RP"'llC~oG ~; (~) ~ ~; (~) 'i'fWr ~ ~ I
~8 I UJt"c;sf;i\ ~'llci!='G "IJttDPt~~~ '1JPf ~ ~ '1JIC""'l11~'bM11MI ~~?
~: ~ ~ 'i'fWr ~ Ut~~ RP"'llC~oG ~ 9!,cf ~ I ~-
(<ii) "114:<;'GIC'St"1 (~)) ~$t l!l<f~ (~)~~I
UJt~~ fil'i"'llC~oG ~ ~ ~-~ ~ 2700 CJ\f.I;-~ ~~ ~ I
~ <JPIC31VloG~~~ $~~~' ~$~lf\Tt"5fP~~ I ~lf\Tt~~~
~: .

) I ~ l!l.Pr. >t~<BllC~~ ~ ~ ~' ~ l!l l!l~ ~ 'Mnr ~ 4SIC~ci&~ ~ ~ 91Rl<l~"1C4S <ftl:f om I


~ I ~ 4SC{JC"1~ ~l:fJ ~ ~ 4Sl~i&c;qs $ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ~ "ISl"Ci\J l!l~
~~ l~l<fiklSl~ ~ct l<lfiCt ~ ~ ~ I
~~ I CJPIC'llV'ioG 'lJlrl1l ~ ~\!SC'll'll ~ ffmf ~ 'lll"1Hl~Cli ~ ~"I ~ ~' cJllf ~ ~ ~
E ~ ccpi{ oon ~r
9 .
.· ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 911©\SIC~~ ~91 ~~I ~ 911©\SI~~
~ct~~l!l~~-~RWXlrR~~.W$11.£1~g~~~<ft1!1~~~1
~91 ~

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)l~~~~w.ll ¢1~-~~~I
' ~ I ~1{11~~"1 ~ w.l I 8 I '<qSl[ ~ l<lfiCt ~ w.l I
Contents
~~~~~~~~~T~o1"'f~~~~o1"'(~
<N, 15lJ I\5~ I''1\5
~~~<1\11.....,....,,,.,~~~<l\ll~~~~~......,,~~~~,..,,

~Jr I <JPIC'i1C$!"6 ~ ~ ~"Rt~ott?


'\Sfi:~~~~~~~-~~.~~~\!l~~~~~~I
~2D I C?tl~{llil ~ '1JIC4"91if~ i:.'11Ci1"6C<p-~~~~"Rt~ l!l~ l!lif~~?
m: \!I~~ ~.,1,;i-0 m ~ ~ 1!1<1$ :u11+t¥'!lill'!l ~ ~ ~ \!l<f~ \!I~ :U1+t¥'!lill'!l!U'!l
"1tlr ·~'11Ci1"6 ~~\QJl+t~'!lill'!l' I
~o I~~ i:.'1tC11"6 ~~~~ ~~ ~~ 9imf?
'\Sfi : Wt~~ ~'11CiloU ~ <fli ~ ~ 15lNl~'6> ~"'I~~~ ~'11Ci1"6 ~ ~ 9itt'!l i
.<€J C?tl~{llil ~ ~ ~.\Gl.,'l''ilill'il <CIJ<l~C'il'il ~ ~?
f= '\Sfi : C:>\l~~lil ~9inf '1JIC~ ~~-\!!~ ~ ~ c~l~C'St'!l ~ ~~ c~l~CIS!'!l ~ ~ I
\!I~~~~ \!l<f~ ~'11CiloU ~~\UJl+t¥'!l~IC'!l'!l ~ ~~tltt~ ~~I
~I ~~ i:.'11Ci1"6 ~~~ '1JPf ~ ~ ~?
m:
~~~ ~.,1i;i-O ~ ~ ~ 9!_cf ~ ~ 2100°c ~~.~~~ ~ ~
~I~\!!~~~~~~' ~\S~~!
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- : C:>\l~~lil '5Jt91nf l'IJtC4"9I ~ ~ Cl11ft ~. ~.ff~~ '1JPf ~ ~ ~ \!l<f~ ~
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~~ C:>\l~~I~ ~ \5llcW11~c1STii <ft M"l)~IM ~ ~ c~ ~ ~
~ 15ll<sl~'{§' ~~~~~~I

~ C$\l~{llil ~~ '1JIC4"91if ~ ~ '6 <1514tlctlf'I ~ I f<tlqs/fii~: 'o~, 'o 'i, ')o, ')), ')·~. ')°"]
' ~~ ~: 15l'iC~ ~.~o \!I~ ~1f ~llf l!l<f~ ~- ~.~~ l!l~ ~1f ~~llf aT<u I
' ~ ~ <JPIC'ilc->1"6 ~ <1514tlctlfil ~ I [~: 'o~, '))j
• ~.Q' \!I~ ~1f ~llf (~- ~.8) aT<u I
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~: 15l'iC~ ~.~o \!I~ ~ll ~llf (~- ~.b") \!l<f~ ~- ~.~~ aT<u I
81 ~~C'Dt~:iGl~C'il'il~~I
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m: 15l'iC~ ~. ~ aT<u I
~I ~ 15l{llttll! ~emf~ C?tl~{llil ~~ '1JIC4"91if <1514tlctlfil ~I
'\Sfi : 15l'iC~ ~.~~ \!I~ ~1f ~~llf aT<u I
C\ I ~ l&l{llttll! ~emf ~ ~ ~~ 'IJIC4"91if <1514tlctlfil ~ I
m: 15l'J:C~ ~.~~ \!I~ ~ll ~~llf aT<u I
lr I ~ l&l{llttll! ~emf ~C*lcMal~<15Jlfit ~ <JPIC'i1C$!"6 *IJIC""'lif <1514tlctlfil ~ I
m: 15l'J:C~ ~. C\ aT<u I
· 2DI~~~~~C<l5t;~·~~.~CRI
~ : 15l'iC~ ~.~ aT<u I
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~ : 15l'iC~ ~.~~ aT<u i
. )) I '<l5ll"'IJl4'G 4tC'ilC"1"6 *IJIC""'!if <pl(Jlf!ct~ ~CR I
~ : 15l'iC~ ~.~8 aT<u I
Contents

-o.o~
(Introduction)
~I <IM~lrn<P ~ f6tf.P1C<P~ f.oo!'t (Control) l!lq~ ~ (Protection) ~ ~ 1 ~ "ill ~ ~ ~ •
~ ~ ~ $ 91t'Sm 1$ "ill 1 elf ~- <tt ~'-='l~Qi'll ~ C<PR ~ met ~ 1$ ~
m~ ~<ft ~~ ~ (Controlling Device) Cf"C"f I l!l~'-='IC<I ~~ W ~ ~ ~
C<llj)Ns<P <1i~c<P (Electric Circuit) met ~ ~ ~ I C<llj)Ns<P <1i~C<P met ~ ~
~tfBfef\5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~I ~ ~~ C<llj)Ns<P <1i~c<P ~ (on) l!lq~ ~ (off)
~~I
~ l<llj)Ns<P <1\6'~"6 ~~(Wire)~ C<llj)Ns<P <1\6'~"6 elf~ 'fffef ~9flN> Gift~ Q!tt<P,
'>§IC11'llC<P C<PR ~ ~ ~9i'f C~ ~ ~ ~ C<llj)Ns<P <1\6'~(;'i!) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~.. ~net~ <ft C.2llco&<PfG'=' ~(Protective Device) '<ll'll· ~I~~ 1!1<1'$ C<llj)M
<1i~C'>§ C.2llco&<Pf&'-=' ~ ~ ~ ~ I
(:>) ~-~. '6'-='l'll(';Qll\S ~ ~ C<PR ~ct ~ 'O!Nsrn'<3' ~ c~ ~ l!jq~ ~~Gif~
~911N>"C<P ~ ~ I
(-<.)~~<ft~~~ c~ )jlf.fi&c<P ~ ~ 1

~.) <PC~lf#t'- ~~ CG!llco'ri4f615 ffli15~ c.!lif ~


(State the Meaning pf Controlling and Protective Devices)
·~1 <P~lf#t'- ~ : ~~ ~ ~ ~ f.oo!'t ~ I ~ elf ~ <ft N5'-='l~C)j'll ~~ C<fSR ~
f.oo!'t ~ ~. ~ qG'ft ~ f.iu'1<P1m ~ <tt ~~ ~ , ~ C<ilj)N><P C'if'Cil! m~ ~
<ft ~~ N5'-='l~)j ~ qG'ft ~ ~ ~~ 1!1<1'$ C<llj)Ns<P <1\6'~"6 ~ <ft C'-='lc#&iSiC<P met <ft
~ ~ ~ I C<llj)Ns<P <1i~C<P ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (On) l!lq~ ~ (Oft) <P'lllCijl~ ~
~tfBfef\5 ~~~~~I
~~~~~11lQjl-
(qi) ~ ~ (Knife Switch),
(~) ~ ~ (Tumbler Switch
~.~l!lq~~~~·~~~'if~1$1~­
(:>) ~·~~~(Quick Break Knife Switch),
(-<.) C!rt ~~~(Slow Break Knife Switch),
(¢) ~ C911Gif ~~(Single Pole Knife Switch),
(8) ·ISl<fC'r C911Gif ~~(Double Pole Knife Switch),
( Q') fij9M C911Gif ~ ~ (Triple Pole Knife Switch),
(~) maor ~~~(Single Break Knife Switch),
( '\) ISl<fC'r ~ ~ ~ (Double Break Knife Switch),
('11') ~~~(Iron Clad Switch) <ft~~ (Main Switch) I
Contents

~~~~rtlf\'~~~,.,.~~~~~~~~~

Q'S '61Jl'IS~l'§1'15 ~CG't<fi(GPtffl


~~~~~<P.:l~~~~~r"i't~,.,.~~<P.PllT""rf'ft~~

~ '6 ~J~R(~•J.~t~t~ ~~ ~~fi!~l!S\5IC<il ~~~I ~-


(~) IS~ ISnT (One Way) qt •.!Ptf9t.l.!l~.~. (Single Pole Single Throw, S.P. S. T.) ~ I
(~) ~ ISnT (Tow Way) qt l.!l~.f9t.fS.~. (Single Pole Double Thorw, S. P. D. T.) ~ I
('-') ~ C~ ~ ~ (D. P. D. T.)~ I
(8) ffi~ C~ ~~(Triple Pole Single Throw) qt ~.f9t.l.!l~.~. (T.P.S.T.) ~I
(a-) ~4'1'ilc~Nicw ~ (Intermediate Swi-tch) 1
(~) 9J:'t 9J:'f ~(Push Pull Swich) I
( C\) 9J:'t ~ ~ (Push Button Swich) I
(b-) ~~(Bed Swich) I
Gfllt'ri<IS!t\5 f?S\5~"1 (Protective Device): -icfU-~, 1815\'ilC"'ll'IS qt~~ ~ct~ '61N5~"$>
~ c~ ~qt ~~ar:t <m~ ~ ~ ~ C<llj)N><fi ~ Clr ~qt~~
<IS'ill ~ ~ C~llU<fiffl~ ~qt ~ct~~ I
c~llU4ifGl5 ~ ~ ~ <IS'ill ~. ~ ~ct '61N5~<e> ~ ~ ~ ~ l.!l<r~ ~~ar?:(
~9ftN> ~~~~~I~~~~~ C~llU<fiffl~ qt~~~~ I
~-'(~)~(Fuse), (~)~~(Circuit Breaker) I
(;>)~(Fuse):~l.!l'IR~~~~~~l.!l~~~~~~~mqt
~ M "'llf<ff<.'G'il ~ l.!l<r~ ~G'f;t <m~ '61N5ffi<e> 4ilC'ilt4''il ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ I
~ ~ ~ "'llf¥l11'i1 ~911N>"'l~~<fi ~ c~ ~ ~ oor, ~ ~ ~ ~·~
~~91mr~,~~~~qt~~~~~1~.~.~
1S ~ ~ ~~~ ~. ~ <IS'ill ~ l.!l<r~ l.!lJIGJ:~Prnl~ fir.\Scst'il ~~ ~ ~ ~ 1

Wm-'-'.~:~
(~)~~(Circuit Breaker): ~ ~ l.!l<li ~ ~ ~. ~ o:rt~ "'llm'G'il 1l~IM<fi
l.!l<r~ '6111~1f<i41 ~ '61<1~1~~ "'llf<liGc<fi ~ qt ~ <IS'ill ~ 1 ~ ~ <!St'il"Cct '6lf\!iffi<e> ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~Qr~~IC<I ~ ~ "'llf<liGC<fi ~qt~~~ m ~~
~ ~ ~ ~~~~IC<I "'llf<liGC<fi ~g~~~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ l.!l'C<li ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I

t-
Contents

- ~~~....._,...'""""~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~rl'ft~,...,.~
~~ l!l<f~ C~ll&<15f&~ ~~f~:C>t>t Q({

~ ~~ ~ (63Cl$ICH ~ ~
~ I ~ C<l5<1C'111111! \5l1l~lf~<l5 ~~<ml, m ~ ~ 1l~lf<l<15 l!l<f~ \5l1l~lf<l<15 ~ ~
~ <ml >t lf<l51;>t~ l<l'l)Ns<l5 ~9flNs ~ <ml I
~I ~~~~\S~~"\5lt<ITTf~~<Jrn, m~~~~~~
<Jrn o:\t I
~I ~~liffl-,s~~~~~,m~~~~~~
~~<iRll
8 I ~~~net~ ~>tC<I~ ~ ~ <Jrn, m ~ ~net~ ~~~ct~
~~~I
QI ~~~~~~o:\t,m~~~~~<m!I
~.~ ~w. ~IJ!iWW, 1-t~w~ ~\5f"11u1t&l5~~'<3~
Describe the (Constructional Features and Uses of Tumbler Switch, Iron Clad
Switch, Push Button Sw:itch, Gang Operated Switch etc)
<4') ~ W (Tumbler .Switch) g lQ<i$ ~ ~ ~ ~~ 'Of~10f ~I l!l~ l!l~ <fO'ft
~ 1'tcA1 (Cover) l!l<f~ 'Of~ 'i!iC'ft <rt ~(Base) I 1'tcA1 \S ~ ~l:frn~ <IJIC<15G'll~l&~ ~
I <ft
, ~ I <IJIWG'll~& lQ<i$ ~~ ~I ~ ~ ~ Gl<15"'llf&C<l5 ~ ~ \5ltU<15IC"'ll ~ I

(<!>) ('Cf)
~-~.~ : ~ ~ (<p) ~ (~) 1'tcA1
~ ~ ~ ~l:frn~ <IJIC<15G414'& <ft 6lo:il11lf&~ q;m ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ <ft
~ ~ ~ ll'ft~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c<1'l)Ns<l5 ~ ~'<t ~~w~ ~ ~ 1
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \5ltU<15IC"'ll~ ~~~~~I~~~~ lQ<i$ ~
<ft~ ~ \5ltU<15IC"'ll ~ ~ ~ r~~-l!l~ ~ l!l<i$ <IJIC<15G'll~l&~ ~ Cl'ft~ ~ I l!l
~~~~<ft~~<Jrnll!l~~~~~,o:\t~~~~I
l!l~ ~ C<l5R \5l<l~IC"'l ~ ~ o:il I ~ \5l<l~C"'l ~ ~ l!lff1 ~~'\Tumble)
~ ~ C<l5R l!l~ ~<iRll~ l!l ~ l!l~~~~ (Tumbler)~!~
~ ~ ~~ ~l:frn~ 220 ~ 250 ~~~~~ ~~ 5 IS 15 ~~ ·
~l~'Pfm~-~~l!l<i$~~~l!l<f~~9j~~~I
~ (Uses) : <rtNs <rt 9INl M~llll"rn ~ 5 \5lJIM~ l!l<f~ 911\S~ ~ ~. ~. ~
~ M~ll!C~ ~ 15 ~-l!l~ ~~~~I~~~~~ 220
~ 250 ~ ~~ '<ttC<l5 I
('lit) ~ IJliW ~ (Iron Clad Switch) : l!lff1 ~l:frn~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I l!l"C<P "\5lt<ITTf
~ ~ <fO'ft ~ I l!lff1 lQ<i$ ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ l!)cp .9f1V<t lQ<i$ ~ ~ l!l<f~
~ 6lo:il11lf&~ ~ fill©ciST~ ~ '<tte<l5, ~ ~ ~ Cl'ft~ ~ %i6f ~I l!l~
Contents

~~~~....._,....~~~~~~~~~~~tlift~~

a-~
~~~,..,.~~~~~~~c::'O"~~~~rf'fi~~-~
"!Jl15"Sl"115 ~CVl<t>fiaf>tff; .
f~N3{lJICMil1 <ft~~~~~~~ 5"CG1 I l!l~"CG'it ~ C91'1'i, ~9(G'f C91'1'1 I!!~
M~l"l>t~ ~9(G'f C91'1'1 'J'f<f 'tl<f>DHl~ ~ 9lm! I I!!~~~~ I!!~~~'~
~ ~~ M ~ I!!~ ~ ~R~ 9tt'5 ~@CIST't! <t>lblC~l't! ~~ <wl. ~ \5l"i! ~ ~I
~ ~l\!iil'\IUC<t>~~~~~I ~\51"i!~ I!!~~ ~~o:ftl I!!~
~ ~~~ 250 I!!~ 500 ~~~~I~~ 1!1<1$ ~ C91'1'i 15 ~
~~~~~I

~-~.8:~~~
~ (Uses) : "!l<tlf>t<t> ~-~ l!!Cf~ ~-"!l"ll"IC\!l I!! ~ ~ "'ft~~ ~ ~ ~
~~I
('f) 9J:llt ~ ~ (Push Button Switch) : I!! ~~~.ft~ ~~¥t ~ I I!!~ <fG'11 ~
~(Cover) l!!Cf~ ~~~<rt ~ (Base) I I!!~~ l!!Cf~ ~ ~ <IJIC<t>"ll~U ~ ~
~ ~ I ~ ~~ 1!14 ~ ~ I ~ ~~ ~ 1!1<1$ <tJle<t>"ll~lU~ ~ (Button)
~ ~ 9lm! I C<ll\§IOl"a ~ m 1!1<1$ 'F.ft~ ~ ~ C<ll\§l~C4 ~~ m ~ ~ I
C<lllblC~~ ~ 1!1<1$ ~ <ft f9rwRJ C~ ~ ~ I 9J.1'f ~ ~ QWl ~ ~
~~~~I!!~~~~~~~~ I~ I!!~ C<ll'!l~ffle<t>~"t cqm~W$'f
C<ll\!llC~~ ~ ~~~ <.'iilil114l't! 91ffi<ll~f6
~ ~~~~~~WM Wnl, ~
~\51"i!~I~~~~~
~~~~~l~'el!J<j)~
9J.1<f ~ ~.~ ~ ~9t ~ ~ ~
~ I!!~ ~ ~ ~ \5l"i! ~ I ~ I!!
~ "'ft~ct ~ \5l"i! ~ I ~·~
lit~ 1!1<1$ 9J.1<f ~ ~ ~ l!!Cf~ ~ (<j)) . (~)
91~ ~ ~ I ~-~.Cl' : 9J.1'f ~ ~ (<j)) ~ (~) ~
~ (Uses) : I!! ~~"'ft~~ "!l<llPl<t> ~-~ 'e ~-"!lql¢1C\!l, ~~ ~' C<l'l)Ni<t>
~'~~I!!~ 'G'fJM ~ >tl~rn<f>\:)IC<I ~ ~ ~ I
(if) 'fm. ~ (Gang Switch) : ~~ ~ ~ ~ \7fC'f I ~~ ~ I!!~ ~' ~ q¢1"1'lll"SIC"1
~ ~"CG'lt ~ ~I ~~ ~ ~'e~ ~"CG'lt ~ "!Cil<t>'Gt ~ ~
~ Dtf<RJ ~~I!!~~ ~91 (~~ ~'e <fG'11 ~ I

{f:"j';!j:1
~-~.~=~~9t~
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~t!. l.!l<ft!. C'2ll<OU<Pt'G~ KS~l~C<>P! . Q'C\


~~~~~~~~~~~~~..,.._.,....tl'f't~~

~ ~91 ~ c;<l<>f l.!l<ft!. ~~'Gr~ ~~~I c<fC:>RI ~~ ~ ~


~ ~ ~ m ~~<it~ G'!l~ ~ , ~ f'~t!.-1.!l~ ~ l.!l~
G'!l~ ~ Clr,l.!l~ ~ m Dt91 ~ ~ ~-1.!l~ ~~ ~ ~ 'G[if ~. ~ m
~~~~Dt91~~~-l.!l~~C~~~l.!l<ft!_~~~~I
~~~1.!1<!$~~91~~~~1
~ (Uses) : l.!l ~ ~ j'f(~Cf';§ ~-\5jllifldl\!5 '8 ~-~ ~ -smtfut!.~ ~

r.~~~I
:rST, SPDT,.DPST, DPDT, ~ T.P.S.T. ~ ~ ~~
' (Explain the Meaning and uses of SPST, SPDT, DPST, DPDT, TPST Switch) :
S. P. S.T. ~ (SPST Switch) : S.P.S.T. ~ ~ 1.!1<1$ ~ C9f"IG'! ~ ~ (Single Pole
Single Throw)~~ I S.P.S.T. ~ 1.!1<1$ $ C9f"IG'! ~ ~ l.!l~ ~ C9f"IG'! <.!l<f~ <.!!~ ~~
$ <.!!~ ~~~~ <.!!~~~~~I<.!!~~ '8~ \Snl~\S <fG'!l~ I<.!!~
~':>ft~Cf\§5~~(!.~~~l<.!l~~~<lt~~~t!.~~~~I
~.<2' rf~ ~ ~~ <.!!<!$ S.P.S.T. ~~~~I

----~-·------
~-~.(\: S.P.S.T. ~~
~ (Uses) : <.!! ~ ~ j'f(~Cf';§ \5jl<11Pl<P ~-~ <.!l<f~ ~-\5jllif IG1C\!5 ~. ~ ~
~cm iSMJ ~~I
S.P.D.T. ~ (SPDT Switch) ~ S.P.D.T.~ ~ <.!!<!$ ~ C9f"IG'! ~ ~ (single Pole Double
Throw)~~ I S.P.D.T. ~ <.!!~ C9f"IG'! ~ ~ <.!!~ ~ C9f"IG'! l.!l<f~ <.!!~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ <.!!~ ~ C$ ~ ~ I <.!!~ ~ ~-\Sn! ~'8 <fG'!1 ~ I <.!! ~ ~ Ul'!lfit"llCi
~ 1~ ~ ~ Ul'!lfit"llci ~ ~ ~ Ul'!lfit"ll'1C<1$ ~ ~ ~ ~ f?tnr ~ Ul'!lfit"llci
~ ~ ~ I <.!!~ ~ <.!!~ Clr, l!I~ 1!)<1$ Ul'!lfit"lldl f?tnr ~ ~ ~~ ~ (;lf ~ <.!!<!$
Ui'!lfit"lllil ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9ltt'!1' I ~.~rf~ ~ <.!!<!$ S.P.D.T. ~~~~I

l . l
-~ ~-~.b- : S.P.D.T.~ ~
---·"'---
~(Uses) : S.P.D.T. ~ ~ ~ <.!!~ ~ 'J.~ ~ M~<!lccrn ~ ~ ~ 1 l.!l ~ ~
~iSMJFf- <.!l~~~~~'J.~ ~~~<.!!ff;~~ I
D.P.S.T.~ (DPDT Switch): D.P.S.T. ~ ~ <.!!<!$ ~ C9f"IG'! ~ ~ (Double Pole Single
Throw)~~ I D.P.S.T. ~ 'J."fG C9f"IG'! ~ l!l<ft!. 1!1 C~ \!I~~~~~ \!I~~
C9f"IG'! mcir ~~~I <.!!~ ~ ~ ~(!. ':>ft~Cf\§ 30 ~~I ~. C\rf~ ~ 1!1<1$
D.P.S.T.~~~~I

~-~-~ : D.P.S.T. ~ ~
~(Uses) : \5jl<1Pl<P ~-~ '8 ~-\5jl"flli1C\!5 ~ ~ ~ \!I ~ ~ ~ ~ I
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

<l"b-
~.:t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,...,.~
\51J l15<sl7115 ~CG1<15$Ptffl .
D.P.D.T. ~ (DPDT Switch}: D.P.D.T. ~ ~ 1!1<1$ ~ C911"r l5t<IG'r ~(Double Pole double
Throw)~~ I D.P.D.T. ~~ C911"r ~ 1!1~ l!I ~ ~t:IWT~ ~<Rt~~ l!l~
l5t<IG'r c9ftG'r "l5t<fO'f ~ ~ ~ 1 l!I~ ~t:IWT ~ :>itRf&cqs f.nmct <Rt ~. ~ ~ ~ ell ~ 1!1<1$
"\51if~~~~~~~l¢.b-~m1!1<1$D:P.D.T.~~~~I



~-¢.~o : D.P.D.T. ~ ~
~(Uses} :~~~l!l ~~~~ 1
T.P.S:~. ~ (TPST Switch} : T.P.S.T. ~ ~ 1!1<1$ ~9M C9fli'r ~ ~ (Triple Pole Single
Throw)~~ I T.P.S.T. ~ fw.$ C9fli'r ~ ~ l!l~ ~9M C9fli'r l!l<f~ l!l~ 'If!~ l!l<ll M
~ <Rt ~ ~ l!l~ ~ C8ft ~ ~ I l!l~ C9fli'r Nl"!f&C<!S l!l~ ~ ~ ~ :>itf.f1&C4 "\51if-~
~ ~ t l!I ~ ~ ~ 100, 150 l!I~ 200 "'1Jlfi>i1~Bl ~~·~I ¢.~"1~ Wcm
1!1<1$ T.P.S.T. ~ ~ ~ ~-




f5;:li-¢.~~ : T.P.S.T. ~ ~
~(Uses} : T.P.S.T. W -f£t-'1l"Sf l!l"Pi ~. <fW!-~. ~91, ~~ ~GJIMC\b ~
~~~~I
S.P.S.T., D.P.D.T. l!l~ T.P.S.T. ~ C~~ ~ ~ ~~ l!l~ ~~ iSMJ l!l~
~~ ~ (~~~ l!IJIC"l!"l~G) ~ ~ ~ l!l<li ~~~~~~~I l!l ~~
~C\bJ<t>fflC<t> ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l~~ ~ ~ (Iron Clad) ~'8 <f'1t ~ I
~~":>it~~~W~~~I
~ ~;~•11'1 ~'ti~~·~~
(List Different Types of Fuses Used in Electrical Wiring}
C"l"l)f\§<15 ~ ~ ~ '8 ~ O!?llt'&<pfij<s ~ ~ ~~ (Protective Device)~~
~~~~,~~~~~l!~~-
' (~) ~ Dtt~ ~ (Low Voltage Fuse),
(~) TSt» Dtt~ ~(High Voltage Fuse)
~Dtt~~~~~ 1~-
(<ll) ~~fXl<ls i;t<pl Rtl8{1JICMG'I ~(Semi-enclosed Rewirable Fuse)
(~) TSt» ~ct~~~~ (High Repturing Capacity Cartridge Fuse)~ l!l~. ~.Fi.
(H.R.C.) ~~I
(~) tijf91~ ~ l!l~.~.Fi. ~ (H.R.C. Fuse with Tripping Device) t
Contents

~~~~tl!f't~~~~~~~~~..a~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t*ft~.,...,.~
~~ l!l<f~ c~1c:&<1>f'G~ ~~l~CJ'f:>i Q?i>
~"5tt~~~~ 1'~-
(<1>) ~~(Cartridge Fuse),
(~)~~(Liquid Fuse),
(~) ~@IS~ (Metal Clad Fuse) I
~'S~~~'@~~<ml~~~ll[~-
()) §'-s~JIC'i1<1dl <ft h1f.1©ml<161.~ (Rewirble or Renewable Fuse),
(-<.) TS-~91 ~ ~ (D-type Cartridge Fuse),
(~) ~~<ti-~91 ~(Link-type Fuse),
( 8) ~-~91 ~ (Voltage-type Fuse),
(Q) ~91-~ ~(Drop-out Fuse),
(~)~-~~(Time-delay Fuse) I
~cit"fitsml<O'll<ldl ~ dRf ~ -e ~
f..(Describe the Construction and Uses of Renew~ble Fuses)
rnf.1©~Jl<1'1 fits©OS1<11 ~ -s <u<1$ :
)../
l!l ~ fitiGCiSl'll ~ '15f~¥f ~ I lf~­
(~) ~~(Fuse Wire),
(-<.) ~ ~ ~ (Fuse Wire Carrier),
(~)~<ft C<f:>j (Bottom or Base) I
()) ~ 'i!Rr (Fuse Wire) : ~' fG;;i, ·~ 'S fGi;i ~ ~~~ l:f!W, ~ <li'llt ~ l!l<f~
l!lll~H~I~ ~ l:f!W$t~~<li'llt~ I Cl[~~~ 10 ~"<pl!~
~. ~ ~~<ft ~ 'S fGi;{ ~ ~~~ l:ftW ~ ~ ~ <fJ<I$ <li'll1 ~ ~ I :>ilf¥c;u<11
~· 10 ~ ~9f'Jlit C<lfXt ~ ~ ~ ~ <fJ<I$ <li'llt ~I <!iBfct l!l~ ~ ~
~~~"<pl!~ 1'aj~~~14 C'>tiSi(S.W.G.)m l!l<li~ C~~~~
~ I ~ C<lfXt <l>IOSldV'll ~ ""l't~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ <li'llt ~ I
{~) ~ '5tmf .~ (Fuse Wire Carrier) : 1!1111 'aj~~ 6101l~lf'G<11 ~ ~ I l!l~ ~ -r'ff1
~<ft~~~~~~~~~l~~""l't~~<ll~<lSf'GC<I>~~
~ Ci1m~ I l!lff1'15f~~~<flG'f~~~~~~~~~ I
(~)~<ft~ (Bottom or Base) : fitiGOSl'll ~ 'aj~~ 6'011~1f'G $1 ~ <li'llt ~ 1 l!l~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~m~1e<1~w~~1 l!l~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ l!l-c<li ~ ~ ~ ~~~ <li'llt ~I
l!l ~ ~ '15ft~fi't<I> U1"<lSt (Semi Enclosed) <ft ~cf U1"<lSt (Totally Enclosed) ~ ~ I ~
~cf U1"<lSt ~ Frnt91>t I l!l ~ ~ 'aj~~ 'aj~ ~ 400 ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~
300 ~ m<u<I$ <li'llt ~ 1 ~ ~ ~~ l!l~ rnf.1©ml<1'1 fiti©OS1<11 C<1"'I l!l<f~
~~~~~~I

I.
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~o
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~3115-ol"f\15 ~C6145fi!Pl\U
~(Uses) : l!I ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1"11Pl<P ~­
~ l!!Cf~ ~-~l"'llG'IC'\!l l!I~~~~ I
"·~ "11f. ~.~.-"!if~.~ '6 ~
(Describe the Construction and Uses of MCB and Its Advantages)
~ ~ ~ (Miniature Circuit Breaker)-1!1~ ~~~~ ~9f ~ l!l~.Pl".f.t (M.C.B.) I l!I~ ~
c<o1c}Gc1Sf'll ~-~. m-~ l!I~ ~-~1"'116\C'!S cut~ ~ ~ 1 ~ l!i~ ~ IS
~ ~ ~ ~. c:<Fr-tt IQ~ l!l~.~.Pl". ~ IQ<f~ 1!1<1$ ~ ~ IQ~ 91l1Sm
~ I 11-olM<lS ~ IQ~ ~ ~ ~ <fiC'll ~ ~N>Rl<e> ~ <ft ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~N>Rl<e>
~ ~ ~ l!I~ ~~M>~-olc"1 t9f <fSC'll ;q\b'~c<P ~ ~ ~ <fiC'll corn 1 l!I~ "ti!f9f~
Ci!<PIM\Sf};l ~~ ~ (Thermal Magnetic)~ ~cf f\S<ol~CJ'l'!I ~ 9!Rl11IMl!l ~I
filM~111'!1~~~~~~1!1<1$ ~ ~ (JiM'1~15) ~ IQ<f~ IQ<!$ ~-c~IM<P
~9f (~~~~~IQ~~~~ ~9f) ~. 1Qq;fU ~ ~~
c~tro&<i>ffl-s ~ ~ 1 IQ~ IQ<!$~ <ft~~ ~ ~ "il't~ 11-olM<lS ~ ~1f<imc<P ~-
~ ~ ~ 1 ~ Ql<fStC'!l'!I ~~ ~ 11-olMC<t>'ll cmT ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-c~'Glfdi<P
9flW ~ ~ IQCf~ IQ<l> ~ ~ ~ I <FCG'f ~~Qft~ ~ m ~ WJ1i1 ~ I ~ ~ ~­
C~UIM<t> ~ l!ll'{'ll!ll~ ~ m ~~ ~ ~ Cf3'4 ~ ~ >1fdi01~\S ~ <fSC'll 1 J'lfdic~C\S'll ~~
~ ~N>Rl<e> ~~~ct IQ<!$~~~~~~ t9f M'Ol'llC<fS ~ct~ I
<FCG'f ~ ~ ~ IQ<f~ >11f<lii;c;qs WJli1 <!SC'll 1

~~~
~) ("):~~ (tf)

~-"-~":
IQ~ ~ ~~~ ~ C9ft"I ~CJiC<I~ ~ <i'S'!ll ~ I '\!)"r-:f fw.$ ~ C9ito'f ~ IQ<t>W <Wfnr
~91to'f ~~~~I IQ~~~~ 5, 10, 15, 20, IS 30 ~I~ ~~-IQ"ll'~ ~I
~(Uses) : filMc~11l'll ~ ~ ~~~ Cftf$..;~, ~-~ll'fl"ll!l, C<l'l)fi'b<P IQJt~, C<l'lJNs<P
~ IQCf~ ~ ~ ~N>01C-H1 ~ ~-~ ~l!SJIMC'!S ~ ~ I
~~(Advantages) :
~llQ~~~~IS~~~~~ro&<PfG'O~~~~I
~ I l!I~ ~-, G'fl~ ~~'ii! I
" I ~ W41'11~~<P-ol<A ~ I
8i~~<i'S'!ll~I
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~«1...,...rfft~~

. ~ ~~ i.!!<f~ c~lc:&<r>ffl'O Ns'Ol~co•>t:>'I


~~ ~~~~~~~~~~rt'ft~'f'PJ~
. ~~-
• "IJIC'Slif'il'SI C\Ml{IC'Sl'SI ~
. (Give Reasons for the Uses of a Lightening Arreste) . · .
IS~~~~~~~~l~l.!!~~~9Rf~~~~
~~~~~I~~~~~ ~t'f ~ ~ 11.!l GINsRllS' C'Olc!Uco\St'!I ~
~ '~ \S~ ~ l.!l<f~ ~ ~ W!J~ ~ o:rnt ~I.!!~~ <m9!1Ns, ~-'<Rf, '<f'O'f-
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C<l'l)Ns<r> ~ ~ c;W~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ G!Jlco'!l>ill'!I <fCOG'f 1

_..-(!)

1. ESE; Lightning Rod LTDE series"'


2. Mast.•
3. R.Q)!l!l conductor,;
4. Lightning strike Counter,;
5. Inspection joint..•
6. Protection sheath+'
7. ~mti.lln"'

~-~.~8 : ~~ 151Jlco'!lif'il:st
wtl1_'ri~'. "IJIC'SIJUIC'Sl'SI ~ 8~~~~151Jl~>ill'!I ~ ~ ~ I
(~) Jil"lfil"iif ~. (~) G1llSUco1Sl'!I $f-~.
(~) 'TIG'Jl<J'l'!I <litWt, (8) ~I.!!~~~~~ I
wt~~'. "IJIC'SIJUl'SI C\Ml{IC'Sl'SI ~ : ~~ ~ ~ 151Nsrn'S' C'OIC~CiS!'!:I ~ ~ C~ ~l"lfil"iif
~ l.!l<f~ ~ ~ W!J~ ~ o:rnt ~ I.!!~~ <m9!1Ns, ~-'<Rf, '<f'O'f-~ ~ Wlft ~
~ ~~ i.!!JIC'!l>ill'!I ~~~I~~ i.!!JIC'!l>illl'!l'!I ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~. ~ 1l'OIM<I'~ I.!!"!:!~~~~~~~ I
rRifS4~ts"I~ ~ \i9t ~ ~tsC'St'SI C\M~C'Sl'SI ~ .
(Give reasons for the Uses of a Droop Out Fuse in Distribution System)
~91 ~ ~ = I.!!~~~~-~ <rt 151Nsrn'Ci ~ ~ ~ ~ ~,~:c; ~ ~
l.!l<f~ ~ ~c;~;{; ~ ~ ~ <r>lffl'C\St'!I ~ ~ ~~Jl<l'(<J'l'!I ~ ~(;SC\St'!I ~ ~ ~ ~
~ I I.!! ~ ~ ~~91 ~ ~ :>tlf<iit:&'!I M'!IM~l!>I ~ <ruf I
~91 ~ ~ Nitlf4(;S"f.:f P\c;:>Uc~ <1J<1(1l'!l'!I <i>rnc:t :
fiffl ~~ct Ni~f4(;S·t~ Pie:>&~ ~91 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-
~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 9!rn11•f"!<r>1m ~tsost'!I ~ ~ ~ <ruf ~ f4~\!)1 ~ ~ ~ l.!l<r~
~ ~ <f't:G'f ~ ~ I
~ I ~ ~ <ruf 'MD.·,~ ~~JJ:CGilG\S ~ ~ '¢1~1{11CJ1 ~ ~(;;15tC<f' ~ l.!)'(Oi{ ~ ~Mc;~;{;
~ ~'MD c~ ~JJ;CG'JC:G\S ~ ~ G'\t~ ~ I
~l~i{~~~~I
8 I ~ ~G'J~l~G'J<I' ~ I
Contents

[~:'ob-]
Contents
~~~~ff!t't~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~ l!l<f~ C~ll&4Stu~ fu~f~:c>P'I


~~~'fW"f~~~~~~<P.f'llP'T-~~~~~,.,,,~,...,.~
. ~~
)~I fils~M~~~~~~? [~: 'oq]
m :
~. ~. ~ \9 ~ ~ ~R~ ~. ~ <Rt .\$11 l!l<f~ l!IJIGJ:MM~I~ 111>15c1Sl~ 'IS9MR
~~~I .
~~? . . [~: 'o~, 'ol!>, 'oq]
m : MMC~bl~ ~ ~ (Miniature Circuit Breaker) I!!~ 'jj'~N~ ~91 ~ MCB I ~ ~
'5fef. ~~I ~ ~ ~ q ~ <fiTISl ~ 9fM l!l<f~ 15ll4Slml ~ ~\9 ~ ™ MCB qzyr I
~~RHllllC"RP!fiIT~~~~~? [~: 'oB, 'oci]
~: S.P.D.T. ~I
~<lt~lt'r;<pfG'Sf\S'S~~~? [~: 'o~, 'o~]
. : ~ ~' \S~l~Cdll\S <It ~ C4Stif ~ct ~ 15lN5Hl<e> ~ CQ)°C<IS ~ <It ~~G'f':t
~~ WJlit ~ ~ Qq"l)N54S ~ ~ ~ <It ~ m $ 'Rt ~. ~ ·~~ <It
<:~ltG4SfG'S~~l·~-~I ·
~~~? f;q/qs/fWtccrt: 'oB]
~:~~ 1l'SIM<P ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!lct~ 1511l18IM<P ~ • C4Stif ~ct
1511\bRl<e> ~ ~ ~ "11l(Mtfl18lc<t )!l~C<P ~ ~ 1511\bRl'<!i <PICJlcaU~ ~ ~ ~ ~~.
~~~~I
)'Ir I ~~~~'G~~? f;q/<p/fi'fl;qf: 'o~J
~:~~2~1~-
())~~~~
(~)~~~~
~'jj'~~~2~1~-(:>)~~~~' (~)%~~~1
~ ~-~~~di ~~~~~I [~;qf<pz+1/fii:'-,N,fl;qf.,,.,.: 'o~J
·v--~: (:>)~ ~~ (~)~~ (~) 9!"t~~ (8)~~91~ I
~oi~~~~~~~? {;q/qs/fi'fl;qf: 'o~]
m: ~ CQ)°C<IS ~ ~ 8.~<t<iU ~ 8.Q ~ ~~ ~ l!l<f~ ~~ ~ ~ C\.Q ~
/'~b"~~~~~~I
~)) <15Cfalfilt. Rf;'S~ ~ ~?
\V - : ~~<ltf\S~t«)j~~~~~~~~. ™~~<ft~~~<fldl I
~II~~~? .
~m: ~~~~(.q"l)N5<l> q\£~e45~-~~~' ~~~I
~~ 1~~~~~'6~~?
m:~~~~~ l~Qft- (:>)~~'(~)~~I
~81~~~?
~=~~\5f~~~~~~~.~~~~~ll!l~~C4Stif~
~~~(Tumble)~~~;~~~~ I
~<tl~~~~~~~~~I
fiil: ~ ~ ~~ \5f~lef ~I ~Qft-
. (:>) '991IBJ \5f~lef; ~<It~.(~)~ \5f~lef ~<It~
~~1~~~'6~~~~?
m = ~ ~ ~ \9 ~ 'J'ft~ct\5 <tJIC4SG1l~t&~ ~ ~ 1 '5c<t ~ m~1~1ro~ ~ ~
9fmf I
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~'TW'f~~~~~

~8
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t"tt~"fW'T~
151Jl15-ol'J115 ~C61•t'faPlf&
~C\1~w~~~~~~1
m:220~~250~~1
~17' I~~~ 1!1JlfAs1{11C'A'A~W~~7
m=~~~l!l~~~~~?
~~I 91l'Slmf~~~ 1!1JlfAs1{11C'A'A ~W~~ I
m : 911\S~~~~~ 15 l!l~~~~~ I
~01'6~~~~~7

m : ~ ~ 'm~ ~ ~ m ~\S~ l!l~ ~ 9fe.t ~. ~ 'IS~ \SUi ~ <rCG'f I ~­
S.P.S.T. ~I
~:>1t-~w~~1
- : ~~~~m~~~ 9fe.t ~. ~~-\SUi~<wl I~ - S.P.D.T ~I
~I S.P.S.T '6 S.P.D.T W ~~CR't~7
- : 151l<11Pt• ·-'<Rf \S ~-151l"!lii1C\!l ~. ~~~cm ~ S.P.S.T ~ l!l<r~ ~-'<Rf
~ ~ "l'·~nwtt '~~cm~ S.P.D.T ~~~I
~~7
l"l'i.JN>• ;q<£~C\!l ~ ~ ~ ~~ l!l~ ~ ~c:t ~ ~ ~ ~ m <rt
~ m >11f¥,rh1 ~ l!l<r~ ~~~?t ~~ 1511\hrnie; •1~c.u~ ~ ~ ~m ,~ ~ ~.
~~~I
~8 I fi!f.ilC{lbl'A ~ ~~~7
m : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l~ 1511•1~~ ~~~(mini),~
~MC{lbl~ ~ ~ <rCG'f I
.~I ft!MCMl'A ~ Gl•IC'A'A ~ ~ ~~~7
- : 5, 10, 15, 20 l!l<l~ 30 \!!JI~~ I
~ I klM~ilJl<tWI <rt ~ilJIC'A<tWI ~ ~ ~7
m: ~ ~©CIS!~ ~ ~ C~ ~ <1'1ii1IC"11 ~. ~ Rlfii\Sml61 <rt rn\Sml~<lil1 ~ <rCG'f I
~C\ I 'Im. W ~7
~: "161<1q)ISIC<I·~ ~~ ~ l!l~ ~~ ~ <rCG'f I l!l~ ~ <ft-rr ~ ~ ~ ~
<rCG'f l!l~ f9rnMI ~9f ~~ ~\S <r"ft ~ I
~17' I ~~CSi'll ~ ~7
m =~ ~. \S-ol~C611\5 <rt ~ ~ ~c:t ~ 1511\hrn'e> ·~ ,~ ~ l!l<r~ ~~~?t
~~~~~\SC~'Sl~I
~~,~~~7
.m =~ ~ ~~ m l!l~ ~ ~ ~ Dt9f ~~~~<rt fifcD ~ >tlf<Mk<I>
~-"151<11' ~ ~. ~ ~ <rCG'f I
801~~~w~~w1
m:~~~~~~~I
8) I ~W ~~ ·~:JlfQsil{llC'A'A ~7
m:~~~~~5A\S lOA~~I
8~1~-,~w~~CRt~1
~: ~~-C~~€J-~ l!l.'P!. ~~~~I
Contents
.
~~~~tf!ff~.,~~l9'f~ft!lt~~~,_.,,.,....tlltt~ ...~~~tt'tt

" ~~ l!l<f~ <:.:i!lllG<t>f&~ ~~l~V'Pi


~_,...,....~ ~,_~~~""1~ ~ .... ~~....,...,,,,,,_,_,..,, ~1,.,.~r-1"'1~~~-,..,, ~TWT,,,....,._,..t
~<2'
8~ I ~-~<rt~-~~~ <>tlf.l!ijc4 ~~~~~CR1'~7
~: 15lt4-~ <rt ~Qf-~ ~ ~ >ilf<liUC:<t> ~ ~ miU Wif'ct ~ ~ ~ ~ I
88 I ~-·<HOlt~<ldl fq~Uli~ ~ ~llf' ~ ~1
~ : Rf-'8mlC:~M61 fir©CiSi'il "i°fU ~~-.rt ~ I c<Pf '8 ~ I ~ I
8<l" I ~-'EHUIC~<l'l fq~c'SRI ~ ~~ ~ ~1
~: Rf-'8~JIC'i1<161 fir\%si'il ~ ~~~ S'l••tl~lf&'il ~I
8~ I TPST-~ 1_'f'~~ I
~ : TPST-l!l"'il' 9!_q ~ Triple Pole Single Throw.

'6 ~ Gl41CH ~~~fir¢ I


: ~ ~ ~ '8 RP©c:iSi'il l!T;~

~. ~ ~ >ilf<rl'lG'il 1l~lf<l<t> l!l<r~ 1511l~lf<l<t> ~. ~ ~~ 1511l~lf<l<15.~ ~ <IS"l'il I


rt
I,
m 151"1~1~~ ~ <IS"l'il I
~. ~ ~ l!l~ ~ ~ 9l"'il' ~ ~.~~~<IS"l'il~~~
~~~I ~~I

8. ~ ~ f.ffl, ~ l!l<r~ g ~ 8. -~ ~~ f.ffl '8 ~ ~~


~~I ~I

a-. ~ ~ l!l~ ~ met '8 Wlf'l<!lf a-.~~~~~~~~


~~~~I ~I
/,-.__~~--,.--~~---,..,-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.,....---=-~-'
~Y~-JSJtW~\51"U~ ~~, f~: '.\~J
~ : ~-~ ~ ~ ~'8 <!G1t ~ I ~ct ~ 151~1\SC'il ~ ~, l<t'l)Ns<t> ~ ~
, e..:zt~l!l~~l!T;~~~~l!l~~~-8~~-' •
. /~~f<l~"1"'1~1i9f~~<IJ<l~CH~~7 {q/<p/Pfc<tt: '.\~, '.\~]
~: 151°i'~ ~.'IT~ I
~~~~-lllf~~,
~: ~ ~ W!l'ct ~ ~~. ~-
~ ~-~ '8~-~ <rt ~Qf-~ ~Cf ~ 151NsRl'e> ~ ~ ~ \!l<f~ ~-~~G'f~
1
I
~~~~I
~ I ~Qf ~<rt ~Qf-~ ~ ~ :>\l~C:<IS ~ ~ I
,.,-- ~ I .:i!IC~liSrC'1'il ~ Wi.J-<IJ<l~l'il<ISlmc<IS Wi.Je_ ~ ~ :>\l~C<IS ~ ~ ~~ Cl1m I
•<l" 1' -t~'Gf.I'- la!JIC~iGICH ~ ~ ~ ~ ~7 [<t/Wfii~: '.\.\]
f ~ :(~) 151JIC'iliGIC'il l!l~ <rt l!l<litfif<li ~<rt ~91 ~ ~ I ~ ll~ ~~-~~~<rt~~ 1
(~)~-~<rt~ M"5IC'11'il ~~~I
(~) 1l~lf<l<15~151JIC'iliGIC'il'il ~ ll~ ~~~~'it~ 1
Contents

~......,._,_~....,...,..~ ............. ~~~~~~~~~~~

~ . . . \51) l15-el"115 ~<ftl4t'GPlf&


~.......,...,...~~~~~~~..,.,_,wr"ft~,.,.~~~-r'ft~"f1PJ~

~I ~~at~~~~~~~~~Cf\A~CR I [<tl<rtPtr<ft: 'o", 'o~, ')oj


~: f.fw·~?<t511N>4 ~wu~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ W'fl:

S.P.S.T ~ S.P.S.T ~
~
~: m ~ l!lq~ "'I'ff; ~ ~ ~~ l!l~ Cf!~·~~ ll:'~'lfl c~ fiBl&ilil~ ~
l!l tRfC~~p{tf.fii; ~."Rt~ 1 . .
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~ : ~~ l!lJIC~JUIC~~ ~ f.ooi'91 :
f<tl<rtfii~: 'oB]
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~~JIMC°"I
)o I ~ff-f.lgiOl'il'l fif~cikt~~f.ij~:r~~~1it-t I [<tt<fS/fii~: 'o"J
~: l!l~ ~t5CiS!~ ~~~-.rt~ I~~­
(~ )~~
(~)~~~
('-')~Cf! CCPf I -~··-=3
~= 01 :9~
~
· )) 1 ~~~"ll'IWtt~-.t ~r f<tl'fStm: 'o"J
~: ~~~~~ ~~ l!l<f~ c<litif ~ct~ ~~~Oft·~~
~~~~~~~~~~~I ~~c<litif•~f<lw~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~<ftl<lSila4 "'"t<lS C~ 9lmf I l!l ~ ~9i"f \!l~ ~
~~~·O'im~'ftl
Contents

---------------
~~~~-~~.....,..."""-~-~~.m':!...r-tlft~~
It
~~ l!l<f~ Cti:llt&<t>tu~ Ni~l~C:>t:>t ~C\
'4!llc'G4!Ti\5 ~\51~ ~? ?<iiiJ.Jf\54 <i~C% ~ <i)<i~CH '<iSlt'1' ~CR l
m = ~~~:qs <i~C\6 ~ ~ ~ c<i~Ni45 <ie~C\6 ~ ':>t<f ~~ail~ ~. lblc"i~c<i> c<llM

~ ~ ~91'1 C~ ~ ~ ~ ~'i.JNs4 <te'~CI§ ~~~<ft~ "<iR$ "4m QJl, 1blC'1'!1C<t>


C.211tG4>1U~ ~.~I ~ - ~'~~~I
~~ct ~~f\!s:qs <te'~C\6 C.211CG<t>tu~ ~ ~ ~ I
()) ~ ~. '{3~l~CG1115 ~ ~ c<llM ~ ~ \5l~ffi'<3' ~ '~ ~ l!l<f~ ~~'i!f
~~~~I .
(~)~~<ft~~~ c~ :>tll'#c<t> WJlil <li'l1l 1
)~IS.P.D.T~~~?~~~~~~?
m: am
S.P.D.T ~ ~ C9fl4'r iSl<f"J (single pole Double Throw)~~ I
~]
l!I ~~~'<mfl!l'4~~~,~~~~~~1 l!l$WU~~
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8]
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m :
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~ ~I ~~ml~~ ~ WU
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~ ~ <li'l1t ~ I l!I~ ~ I!!~ ~. l!I~ '5fif ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "il ~, 1!1<!$ ~ Ncrl
~~~~~~ ~ c<llM 1!1<J$~Ncrl~ ~m ~~I~ I!!
~ ~ c<llM \5fif qt·~~~ I
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m = ~ ~ ~ ~~f\!s:qs ~ ~" ~ 9f~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ "4m ~. ~
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~~ ~ \51\bJ<i"tJ<li, ~~~<ft G2tliG<t>fG~ ~qa;t ~I ~~'~~I
)1' I <:i!f'bkl'& <ft '6°$-~ ~?
m = 151f\§ffi'<3' <fl '{3-srn-~ W'l1 =
) I "-!lf-:>tl~<.t'l1 ~ : c<llM ~ct 1ffei ~-~,~<ft '151lQf-~ ~ ~~~~ m ~. ~
~ fil'~ <tilC~C-0~ ~ct~~~~ I
~I '6$-~ ~ .: c<llM ~ 1ffei C<l~C:>tM C'ill5 ~~~~ <li'l1l, QJl, ~ 1l~IM<t> CG'f1'Cl5 ~
~ct ~ ~ ~. l!I~ crnT ~ ~ct c<efi<t· ~ ~ ~ I ~ I!!~ 151Nsffi-e>
<t>IUli&C~ '{3$-~ qa;1 ~ I
~o I ~-J5Jl\i~ ~~iM?
m= ~-~ ~ ':>tltfBT~g ~ ~ 1!1<!$ ~. ~ ~~ 1!1<!$ ~. l!I~ 1!1'4 9l1V't 1!1<!$
~ l!l<f~ ~ ~~lillro~ ~ M>\SciS!'!1 ~ ~I M>©~<sl Clil~IC~ICI§ ~-~ ail~ ~
ll.'ff1 ~ ·~ 1 ~ ~~ m ~ l!I~ ~ ~~~ wu ~ r¥~ciS!~ <t>1~1011~ OR;tt} <ibr ~ 1
Contents
~~~~~..,~~~""'~~~~~~..,....,..rift~~

~b- ~Jl\S-ol'il\5 'Q:cC"l<ti\laP!f& ·


~~~,.,.~~~~~~P"T~-,..,,~~~~....,.~,...,.~t

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-\-\l·~~r
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~<rt~ linr I It!~~~ \5fef-~ ~ I
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m : ~ c'iit*'f ~ ~ ~<rt ·~· t:!t m ~<rt '\5fef' ~~I ~ ~<l'!(IC"i ~
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It!~~~ It!~~~~~~~~~~~ I It!~~ 'Gi?lfil<ilC"I ~
It)~~ Ul'llfil<ilCC"l?l ~It)~~"'~ I It)~~~ It)~~~~ I~
~ ~-~ 1t1<l5~ 1t1~ ~ 1t1<l5 'Gt?ifil<ilCC"I 1t1~ ~ 1t1<l5-~ 1t1~ ~ ~~ 'Gl'ilfil<ilCC"l?l
~ "'Ftnr ~tG<!SIC<it ~ I
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~ ~ ~~M>~l-olc<I >11f<flUcqs ~ om 1
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m = filMc~bl?l ~~~~~~ 1 ~~-~~~~~~It)~
~l<Pl~'il ~. ~ filMC~bl?l ~-~ <fl"f
fff<ls f?m!IS I
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=

) 1~315Jti5~<ft~~I
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1

m: P.V.C-1.!1~ 9L'f 'Ttlr Poly vinyle chloride


P.V.C-ltl~ 9I_cf Pfl1f High Rupturing capacity
.· -\~ I f'iM«lbl'll ~ ~ (MCB)-~ ~t"lt ~ I
~ : filMc~&l'il ~ Qt<tSlc'll'lt ~~rt~rc"lt ~91 1 ~-
:> I It)~ ~ ~~~ IS ~ ~l'fN>'ll ltl<f~ ~Q<tSIC'ltiG ~ f.ffi-~~ <tSIC'llW'll ~ ~ ~ I
~I ~~~~<ft_.fj~•1CC"l'il~~~~~~~~·~
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~ I ~ ~ ~?llC~C'Jl'il ~ >ll?!IC"il'SI ~ ~ Ql<Pl?lc<tS \5fef ~ ~ ~ linr I
81 ltj~~~~~~~i{ll
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Contents

~~~~rf!ftc9'"~~~...... ~.... "'""~"'~~~~~ .........-..-~.,..,.~'"""

~~ l!l<f~ C.2lllUCl5t'U~ fiS'Sl~CJ'fJ'f . ~i'I>


~«l~~,....~~~tllft~...... ~~~~-rl'ft~~~~tl'ft~"fll'f·,..,..... .........

'i'O l ·-ilhft,. "'"1' .


~ : ~ ~ct ~ ~-~ ~ qt \511Qf-~ ~ ~~mt~ ~ ~. ~ ~ f.r~
~ crnJ ~zyt ~ ~'- ~ ~ ~ ~' ~ ~ 'J'ftf<iiU ~I
~~-~1~~~1 .
~ • SWG-1!1~ 9!.cf ~ Standard wire gauge.
~llllJIC'A~'A~~1' · .
p ~ :l<l"J)f\!>Cl5 ~ct ~ <fii~ ~ l<l"J)N>Cl5 111f~ \S ~~ ~ 1rt\Sllm qt~ ~\SlITTf
~~~11!1~~~~ l!l~~~~C<l"J)f\!>Cl5~~ Ql111fqt
~~ ~ ~ ~. l!lt<li 'G'l~offiM~ '¢1Jl~Jifi~· ~ I
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~ : ~~ '¢1Jl~Jifi~~ ~. ~ l<l"J)f\!>Cl5 ~ <fij9f"l\5 ~. ~ ~-45l~oGCCl5 ~ l<l"J)f\!>4
1!1f~ qt ~@l~ qt~~ ~tfJ ~ i{l ~ ~ ~ ~ f.rrn ~llt I

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m: '¢1"J:C~ ~.Q' ~ I
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<t l f9llrftilt ~9t W "'"1' ~~"A I
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m : '¢1"J:C~ ~-~ ~ I
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~~~~~I
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Contents

.,5 i• 511
~,r, 'If ~;,e.i IE~~t !~.· f~ !Jl1~,,
.
,, 111
f ~ U_ I l ~ " I I H· U ~ t I ~ t _l ~ - h lh I ti
I • ., " !' ~ w~ ~ U !.! ... !' i wE i f ~ l i ~ - w~ I ~ wf
~. rf~' i1!ti1rt j11 1 1 i:i1!!r111w.~~i
-u:- ~i_w~~~~ &~ -a~E~~ ~fl~l~ -: .~~w
iJ!fi. ~.-.it~~t·!f~ ~11~! tP~~ttf ~~lwjJ
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o/ o/ •
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00
. .
~"'-"""h' '•-"''"'" i.
Contents
~~~.....,....~~__..........,.~~"""~~~~~~~~

~~~....,.~~~~~~~~'*"'~~~~~~
~~ ~~
~ ~ ~c:t 1'4~~4> ~9Mt ~ ~9ii!IMC\!l ~~ <fim ~-
~I ~~c:t 4ll'tli6l4 ~ ~~ ~<mf I
~I ~ m
M~N>4 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \!I~~ 1ltcif 11ftC4 ~~ ~~ .
~ C~ "'ll 9ftl1f ~ ~ <mf I
~ l!llt G!IC411~41 Ws11"flii ~
ist_ at Least three Elements Required for Earthing) :
~~-\!!~ 1Sf-U Q!jl{JliSi!lJ{J ~~ ~~ ~ I 1(Q/t-
(~) ~ Cllf.GMGffl ~ (Earth Continuity Wire),
(~)~~~(Earthing Lead),
('o) ~~l'14S~l\S (Earth Electrode)
()) ~ .t-'Gf.i''G "\!ff (Earth Continuity Wire) : ~ ~ ~ ~ C<Cl~Ns4 ~~.
1111~ f<ri~~ 1Sm~URJ ~ ~~ ~ ~t ~ 41Ci(•Pli( 1(1t, ~ qsfil)f.l~ffl ~'WT I
~~ ~ ~ 1Sm~ IS ~9f'tilt ~ <tSRiMGffl ~ 11ftC4 1 ~ ~~ ~ qs~uc<PIS
(l:ft'iR ~ ~) ~ 4>R1MGD ~ qt ~ ~ <IJ<f$ <R1 ~ I ~ ~ ~1Sl7!1'rt
~ 1Sm~ ~ ~l>J:l41U <R't ~ ~·~ ~~IS 4.£1 <1SttiSi <IJ<f$ <R'I Rl'f I
{~~'-firs (Earthing Lead) : ~ ~ .~
~" <tiRiMGffl ~ l!lq~ ~" ~l414Q~ ~~
~~mt~~~ <fiID ~. ~~~~<It~$
I
~l~~~~~~~<fiID~·1
~
.~~~~~~~~~~
~ (G.1.) ~IS ~ <R't ~. "I!~ tj)Ut ~
<mf ~~ ~~~! ~fQI~ ~~
~ ~ ~·~~ ~ 1'f'lli ~.~ ~. ~~
~ 01l'(l~ ~ • ~~m ~
121-Ct~l'Hl ~~ <l51l "oft~ I ~ ~~ ~ ~
115111( ~*l<PGGN1
~ <fiID ~ ~ \!I~ ~ tj)1fol ~'<rot ~
~·tj)~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~" ~ CPllT f5ill : 8.~ ~" ~
<l51l "'11 ~ I
(") * ~914~1\5 (Earth Electrode) : _ . ~ C~ 1:11\R ~~--t 1ft • .~ ~~~ ~~
~. ~ ~ ll4145cJal\S ~I ~If ~C'1<PcQllS ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~I ~
lCG'!<li~llS \!lq~ ~~ ~ \!I~ ~~~'<rot~ I • ~ ~ ~ ~ <151f9R'Jli 1.5
fitGBf (5~) ~ ~" ~l~ClScJaliS C~~ ~ I
. ~l;lc:i_<li~lli Cilt'f;li]JU 9ftD ~ ~ ~ 11fQ/t-
(~) 9"l:9t l:cc:i<ti~l<s (Pipe Electrode),
(~) ~ ~C'145cJallS (Rod Electrode),
('o) Ptl9f ~ ~ ~C"l<PcJallS (Strip or Conductor Electrode),
(8) C~ ~CGll<ticJal\S (Plate Electrode),
(ct)~ ~<PcJallS (Sheet Electrode) 1
Contents
~~~...,..~~~~~~~~.,..,~rtlft~~~~

C\~ ' \51Jl\5'-='l"l\5 4:tai<t>t'GP1fG


~""".._,.~~.,.,,,,...,,....,ltt~.r"""~ ~....-.wr-r-rt!ft~~r-"IGP:f_, ...rl'ft ~.,...,.r-tflftc'O"~...., ...rl'ft ~r..,..,.,...........fllt

8.~~~~1WmRl'441:>t~('
(Discuss the Factors to be Considered' in Performing Earthing)
~~'tmf ~·~ j{<f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ fir.rni91-
(~) 4:cai<i><Ji1i:s l!I~ ~ $ ~ 91'tl~, (~) ~C61<t><Jiri:s l!l<r~ ~ ~ ~.
(-:>) ~ ~ ~" ~ ~ ~ ~~. ~;:it~. (8) ~ ~~.
(a')~~. (~) ~Cdl<t><Jili;s '{\!ilt"ll'!I ~.
(ct) \51l~ ~·;4 :<)l"l)I~ 5 \S~ ~~\Sm~ om, ~ 911'8$ ~ l!l<J~ 'J'ftcf-~
lT~ 0.5 \S~ l!l<f~ 1 \S~ ~\Sm~ I
~ C11~Jl9f ~ ~9ftf
~ C'!lf6riGJl"I ~ ~ ~ ~ C"lm ~. lT~­
~ ·1 ~ C~ <ft ms~ ltdl<t><Jilt\S'!I \5ll<fflr ~~~I
~I ~-\S~ l!l<f~ ~~~~~~~I
-:> I l!l<litflff l;C61<t>tUl\5t<t> 91Jl'!llC61Cil'f ~~~~ ~ ~ I
8 I ~ ~ 4:C6f<JilCIS'!I ti~M'c<P'!I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ lt614$<Jilt15'!1 5WMc<t> ~
~~-~.cwt~~~~~~~~ I
8.~ ~ ""'f\b:>ti1_(
(Explain and Sketch Pipe, Plate, Sheet and Rod Earthing)
~~nr ~ ltai<t>CGICIS'!I ~~~~~~~~ct~ Q)tc<P 1 ~-
(~) ~91 ~~(Pipe Earthing) (8) C~~~ (Plate Earthing),
(~)ms~~ (Rod Earthing), (~)~~~(Sheet earthing),
(-:>) ~91<n~~'- (Strip or Conductor Earthing), (~) 9l1f.rn ~~ lft~ ~~I
PrS~'t ~~ (Pipe Earthing) : 38 fiifcftfir&l'!I ~ ~ ~Ulil'f1Sl"lll:1ST ~ ~<rt 4:"""'11\!S'!I ~
Q~/ ~91 ~til'f<t>CGllS ~ ~91 ~'--1!1'!1 ~~~~I~~~ <15lf9f"t'lli 2 ~ ~ ~.
f ~~<rt~~~~~~2.75~~~\Sm~,~~l!I~~~~
~ ~ l!l'!I ~~~ 2 ~ 2.75 ~~·~I ~91 j{<f ~ ~ 'lllll)jl'SICA ~~I
~'. 'SldflSICA ~ ~ ~ ~91~ ~~· lftfG j{<f ~ ~~~I ~ct~~
~~ <l5lf ~ I ~l'-='IM<P ~~~;:it Q)tc<P ~ ~~ ~9ftcxt ~ ~ ~ ~-~ I!!~
i'R't ~ ~ lftfG ~ ~ 'Sfi'f ~ 911\Sm ~fl1l' I
~~ 7.5 c;>1f.Ufii'Gl'!I ~ ~ 1!1'!1 ~.~ ll2 filfV!fi(Gl'!I
ciJ1>1f<lf'IW ~ ~ ~, ~~ ~ m
11te<~ lftCAt 9l1f.i
1'l"rC6f ~ ~ lft~ ~~ ~911C'"t 9l1f.i Ftn.r lftfG ~
~ I 19 fil~fifG I'll <IJ l>!Mf'IW I!!~ ~ .~. ~c'91'!1 ~
~ l!l<f~ ~91 ~tdf<t>CGICIS'!I lf"Ctfl ~'-~~ ~9A ~ ~ I
~ ~ ~. ~ "lfGtcilt*6'!1 ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ l!l'CA' 12. 7 ~rfii1mr ~ l!l<JSfS
~~ ~ m ?"'f0 ,~ 60 C>if.Gfm f.ro· m f.ml
lTt\S~ ~ I ~'- C~ <15lf9f"t'lli 1. 5 ~ ~ ~91
lt61<PCGl1Sfflt"l$ ~ ~I 8.~ ~'- ~Weill I!!<~ ~91
lt614$<Jil1S ~'-~~~I
Contents
~411~~.,_,........,.,~ ....~~'P'f~~ . .~~~~.s!I"""'°'*"~~
~~ q~
~ ...~~,..,...,,..,...9ft~~..,_..-rftt~~~~f""l~.....,.~,_,.4!'Pfi"T'"1fltt~T... ~""~~.,_,.,;.,...r-r"f't

(~) 11\i ~ (Rod Earthing) : ~Jlii118liil4'1Si ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4:c111"Pdil\S ~ ~ ~~~


~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ll\!>'!1 ~ ~ I!!~ ~ ~ 16 filf61filu1'!1 ~-s'lfl ~ 1 ~ m
4:"1"PcQl\S ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ iWf I!!~~~ 12.5 filf6lfilul'!I ~ Dto'f I ~
~ ~9ft'ili 2.5 ~ ~ ~ I 911~ ~$.l ~ 4:"1"PcQl\S ~ ~ ~ ~ ll"1
911'8l!t~ I~~~~ 2.5 ~~f.lw~~ I

(e) '?li9t ~ ~ ~'- (Strip or Conductor :;~~rod


EarthiU:g) : 4:"1"PcQl\S ~ ~ 15 x 4 er~
filf61fillil'!I ~ AAW "111"'1181"11~ ~ ~ ~ Earth
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I!! ~~~~~I down-conductor~
(copper strip)
~~~·~~~25x l.6er~
filf6lfi!Ul'!I ~ Dto'f I C~lii114>1'!1 ~ 4:"1"PcQ1\S ~
~~·~$~~~~3er~
filf61fi!Ul'!I l!ler~ "1Jl"'1181"114:iST ~ ~ ~ 4:""1IC\!l'!I ~ 6 ~:a1
~ filf6lfi!Ul'!I ~'!rol ~ I ~9f ~ ~ 4:"1"Pdil"5'!1 ~
15 ~ ~ ~ ~ i{f I ~~ ~~ C'!l™:${;Jl"I 'Crow'sfoot'
eartn lead
~ ~ '2lC411\Sl"lco<llCtf ~ ~ ~ I I!! ~
~CG'l"Pdil\S ~9ft'ili 0.5 ~ ~ f.tw CJ'tl'Stl1:fei ~
1'<31"PI~ l!lqsfU 'iftli1l 00 ~ lltt!J ~ ~ ~
/~I ~:8.8~9f~~~~
~ ~ ~" (Plate Earthing) : 9l1firn WV1! l!lqsfU '~ Earth rod Wire to earth connection
·V ~~ ~ ~ ~ 1 I!!~ 4:"14>cJal\5 ~ 60 (nomlal~in~e fu_seJ>oxl
x 60 er~ CJ'tf.t;fi!Ul'!I ~ ~ "!Jllil'Sl"ll~'St ~ ~.
~' ~ ~ ~ C~ ~~~IC~~~
~ ~ ~ 6.3 filf61filU1'!1, ~ ~ 3. l8
filf61filu1'!1 l!lcr~ ~ ""1$ Wf g .45 fil~filu1'!1 ~ ~
~l~~~~~C~l!l~~~I~
Qr m ~~-.,r 911-sm~ ~m~~~'
C~ ~Clil"Pi;UIC\5'!1 ~ $ ~9ftt"t ~ ~ ~ ~- ~ . ~~
~ '8 G'f<rct ~ ~ ~ ~ ll"1 911-sm ~ I : S.<2' C ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ OOlBf ~~~I ~ ~ C'!lfei:${;Jl'>I ~ ift 911-sm
~ iWf I!!~~ ~ 4:Cli1"PcQl\S ~ ~ I!!~ ~ ~ ~~'Cllf~ ~ ~ ~ I iWf
~Ci1"PCGll$~'CG'fBf <u<r~ B ~ ~ ~ ~ om 1 ~ °ef9f';§ c~ ~~ rflU-~
~'8~~~~~~~~~~l~C~l!ler~~l!l~~~'!rol~m1
r,
I Contents
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i C\8 .. 15lJl15~l"i15 ~Cdl<t>$Pifi;


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(<t) ~~(Sheet Earthing): 2 <r'iffirol~ ~ 6 EARTHING SHEET


<f'lffit'Gt~
x 1.36 ~:fii. ~ <;1Jld\<st"'lt~ei15 ~ A SHEET LJKE No OTHEm Ci'ii·l'll .
~ ~Cao\CflcJallS ~ ~ ~I ~~~ ~ HOW OUR UNIQUE
l!I~ l!I~ ~~ cism ~I 911~1Cl!J)'ll ~. ~ COMBINATION OF
NATUAAl COTTON
~ ~ fi'IU-l:C61Cfl'1il15 ~9f"I ~ ~ I ~qf . AND.SILVER
THREAD MAKE UP
C'll~JGJl"I ~ ~ 1!1~ fi'tU )l~!'{!l'll\Cd\ THIS PREMIUM
GROUNDING
SHEET•


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(Describe the Principle and Operation of Earth Testes)
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(Describe the Measure of Earth Resistance)
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Contents

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~~ 15lJl15'Sl'115 ~cciqsfQP!t&
~~~~~~,_,.......,..,..~"""'~~~...,.~,..,~co-.~~-fl'ft~~,.....,.t

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Ra =~A-~ c;:i™:>'GJl'I l!lq~
Rb = ~ B-~ c;:ifiS!JGJt't\ I
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~f . .
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f
,.
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1ftif ~ l!IUt R1 l!lq~
R1 = Ro + Ra ...... (i)
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1ftif ~ l!I~ ~ ~ R2 I!!~ RJ
l!lm91 R2 = Ro + Rb ...... (ii)
l!lm91 R3 = Ra + Rb . . . . . . (iii)
~~ fW-$ ~ct~~ 911l:,
R1 + R2- RJ
Ro= 2
~E. ~ ~cci<l>c;litc\S;:i c;:i™JiGJl"i 1

~ ~-c;:if6t>&Jt"1 ~ ~ ~. ~ ~~~~ ~ c~f6t:>'GJl"1 rr~cn ~ ~9f"llil ~ ~ rir


l!jq~ l!l'C<l5'8 ~ ~ ~ I
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(Explain the Earth Resistance Range in Different lnstallatio)
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Contents

~-----~- - -~--~----

---- --~~ - ~- ----

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Contents
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. (~) ~91 ~~ (Pipe Earthing)
(~) ~ ~~ (Rod Earthing),
(..:>) ~91 ~~~~(Strip or Conductor Earthing),
(8) C~ ~~(Plate Earthing),
(<1') ~ ~~ (Sheet earthing),
9flf.rn ~~ ~~~~I
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Contents

Unders1and The Phenomenon OJ Dynamically Induced Em.f.

<t.o~
(Introduction) :
~ ~ ~ l!I~ "'lffi<ll~C\5 151IC<IC"m 1iltmlr ell l:.1!11l.l!I~. ~"'l:f ~ ~ 151IC<I~ l:.1!11l.l!I~.
CfCl'f I 151lt<lfSN5 l:.1!11l.l!l~.c<IS ~~'SM~ 1fnr I~-
()) ~~"1"5lt<1151IC<I~ ~.1!11l.l!I~ ••
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~ilft'ICSICCI 154ICClfiltl.I •.~.~.-dff ~ (Definition of Dynamically Induced Emf) :
lffei 1!1~ ~ ~ C'fliCiJl 1!1~ ~ ~ ~ 151IC'11N>\5 ~ ~ ~ ~ flftC<IS, ~ ~ f f
~ ~ 4C41Cii'f'll ~ ~'.~ Jm{ ~~ "'lffi<lf\t\b ~ '\5cct ~ ~ ~ l!I~ ~
"b11ff ~ ~ ~.1!11l.l!I~. 151IC<lm ~I l!I~ 'tNio;i"l"SIC<I 151IC<lm ~ \Sl~"'llfii<lillfil l:effiS\;:Ji\S
(Dynamically Induced) l:. 1!11l.l!I~. CfCl'f I
ct.) ~ilft'l'5ICCI l54ICC1fi111.1 •.~.~.-dff ~
(Explain Dynamically Induced Emf)
m
~o;i."s1C<1 -oai1c<1m l:.1!11l. l!l~.-1!1~ C'fliCiJl ~ ~ ~ ~ "'lrn<11~c<li ~ ~ 1[Clij
~~I ~~~<m, L ~~ l!I~ 1!1"44 ~ B m
C\S"'lPtfG'll l!I~~ ~
C'lftillvC<ltst~,~~~A~~~l~~ITTo~~~~
~~I
Contents

i .

---------------------
-.....,...,...~.,.,.......~~~~~~--.......,.......~~--~

"'lf\P1M'8fc<I \51fc<1~ ~.\!l~.1!111S.


~91l'.11ffU ~ ~ "lilt'&'llli'i ~ l!I~ ~ c<lilif
vs· 0 ~91l~~ - m
m
~ ~ i{t 1 l!I ~ "'lrn<it~'ll M '1~
~ ~ l!I~ "1rn<ll~Cl6 ~C,..Di'j"ClS ~ ~ ~.l!l~.l!I~. ~'Pijf <l5'll"C<f I
~

~ '"'l~<Cll~C'I!) t!llC<CI~ ~-~· ~- dl'f ~ (Formula)~


ti (Deduce the Formula of Dynamically Induced Emf) .
_y ~ ~ I film ~ l!I~ l!l<li<l5 ~ B m C'5"1f'Jlffl'll l!I~ ~ ~ CIJliU1l v C<IVt ~' 11'1 Q .)
'fJ i{~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ "1rn<11~ffl dt ~ dx ~ ~ \5lf\b1£F11 <mr, ~ ~ ~ ~
'51f'bl!Fl'S ~ ( ~) .
111S. =Ix dx.
~~ ~ ~ ~ "1rn<if\51b ff,
dcj>=m~x~
=Bx ldx
'J>Jl'RIC\S'll :>[llll'i>llC'll, "1rn<ll~C16 \5llc<tf'i"5 ~.l!l~.1!111l.
_Ndp
e- dt
NBldx
=-at
~.N=l,l!I~~~
Bldx
:. e=dt .

=Blx: =B/v[~:=v]
l!I~ ~ "'trn~l~ffl Q.) (ff) ~ i{jf§ ~ ~ ~ e ~ c<l5M <mr ~. ~ ~ vcose
~91t~1'f$ ~ ~ ~ J'lill'&'llli'i ~~ C<l5li{ m
~ <l5'll"C<f i{t I vsin0 ~91t~1'f$ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ '1~ l!I~ - "'trn<ll~C\!i ~AJf.l!llJS. \5llc<1~ ~ I ~~ \5llc<1~ ~.l!l~.1!111S.
e = B/vsin0 ( l!lt'll'CiJl v = vsin0)
~e=o 0 ~.~
e = B/vsin0°
= B/v x 0
= 0 ~. ~ ~.l!l~.1!111l.
~0=90°~.~
e = B/vsin 900
= B/v x 1
= B/v ~. ~ l1!1~.1!111S. I

<t.~~'<I~
(Solve Problems Related to Dynamically Induced Emf)
glifll(~'f - ) : 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.5 ~,f.ll~°GIC'H ~ CIJftiJr 50 ~/~ ~ ~
~ 91fi;q1.,c11 ~ •.d111."'11. -.w ~r
oon~,
~I
/=lfilm
e=B/v B = 1.5 ~f<l>;ffii'Gl'll
'~ = 1.5 x 1 x 50 = 75 ~ ~)
cose v=50film/~
_____ . . . . . . _ ____
b-8
Contents

'diJl\5'151"115
-..,...,........~~-~~~-.....,...,....-...........,..._~~~
~;jfff"'------

•ttli('11'1 - ~ : )~ ~ 1ffif "'lft<ql~lb ~ ClftiJlf ~ 300 '<9 450 ~ ~ 1tf ~ "lfi<ql~C\I


~-.~1r.~. -.W~7
~:

~0=30°
e = B/vsin0 = 1.5 x 1 x 50 x sin 300
=37.5~(~)1
~0=450
e = B/vsin0 = 1.5 x 1 x 50 x sin 450
= 53.03 ~ (m) I
•ttli(t'1 - " : 10 C'fftfillJl:q ~ ~ ~ 0.375 ~ Jm!r Cl50if711b:q ~~ ~
CIJfti1f 0.15 C'\5l'l~."11r.~. "-"l:f~ I "'lfi<ql'Jib-.W ~~7
~:
"'dil1Rtt ~. ~-em~.
e=B/v I= 10 m= 10 x 10-2~
e
:.v= Bl B = 0. 735 ~/<l'iffi!Til'!I
e=0.15 ~
0.15
v=?
0.375 x 10 x 10
=4~/~(m)r
... li('A'I - 8 : 100 ~.~. ~ ~ ~ c:qsfif ~ ~ ~ "lilt41t't 25 ~~ CCIC'1'
~ 11'fiT" ~ 91fi;q1~:q 1'00 llllltCI~ •.~. ~. 10 fi4fitce1ilD ~. ~ ~ ClftiJlf
Jm!r~fiWICRI
~:
"'dil1Rtt ~. ~~.
I
e = B/vsin0 I = 100 Q'f.fir. = 100 x 10-2 = 1 ~
10 x 10-3 v=25~/~
= -----
1 X 25 Xsin 900 e = 10 fillilc'l51"'6 = 10 x 10-3 ~
= 0.4 x 10-3 ~/<l'iffir'Gl'!I
e = 900
= 0.4 ~~(<l'iffirol'll (m) I
.if P('A'I - <t : 120 "1ftfil°Gl11 ~ ~ .n:ir.:irt1tt ~ ~ ClftiJlf '>iilC41"1 20 ~/C'>it:ff ~ 2.4
(~~~~I 75 C:>tftfil'G111 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CIJftiif-.W
~"-"l:f~
~: ~~.
"'dil1Rtt ~. 11 = 120 Q'f.fir. = 120 x 10-2 ~
e=B/v v1=v2=20~/~
e1 =B1/iv1 e1 =2.4~
~.Bi= 120 x ~;2 x 20 h = 75 Q'f.fir. = 75 x 10-2 ~
e2 =?
= 0.1 ·~mr~rn/¥ffifGl'!1
~. e2=B2hv2
= 0.1x75 x 10-2 x 20, [:.B 1=B2 =0.Iwb/m 2]
=1.5~~)1
Contents

~~/=0.25~
· ~~.e=Blv B = 0.5 '<3~/<l'5ffirol'!I
= 0.5 x 0.25 x 1.27 V=l.27~/~
= 0.15875 ~~)I
... lt(t"t-C\: 10~~~~0.5~~~~~~c.tii(50
CJt~fiinlt/~ cwt~~~ I
C") "lflClli)C'ii ~ ~.dl1f.~., ~ c.fRf Cl'lt~ ~ :1111t41t'1 ~ I
(~) "lflClli)C'ii ~ ~.dl1f.~., ~ c.fRf Cl'IC~ ~ 30 ~ ~ 'llt'C4 I
~: ~~.
(<IS)~~. l= 10~
e = Blv = 0.5 x 10 x 0.50 = 2.5 ~ ~) I B = 0.5 ~~@I'S!
(~) ~ ~. v = 50 c>tf.UfirGl'!I/~
e=B/vsin.e = 0.50~/~
= 0.5 x 10 x 0.5 x sin 300 (:.~, e= 300)
= i.25~(m)
•l'flt(tct - 'Ir : 25 CJt.~. ~ ~ ~ 100 ldUI~ ~~'4tt ~ 5000 ~~ CJt.~.­
c.fRf ~ ~ c.tii( 'IWICCI ~ '4C1f I 50 ~/~ cwt "lfl"llt)~ l1ftW ~
~ ~.dl1f.~. 4f\I ~?
~: ~ ~. l = 25 ~.fit= 0.25 ~
B = 5000 ~/q'f ~.fir.
= 5000 x io-s x 104 '6~/'il'5ffirfi1'!1
= 0.5 '<3~/q'f ~

v = 50 ~/~ = 50 ~0~54 = 1.27 ~/~


~~. e=B/v=0.5 x 0.25 x 1.27 = 0.158 ~~)I
•l'flt(tCf - ~ : 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c.tii( 300 "'1'1' '4C1f 11ltif ~ ~.dl1f. ~.
~ 1.8 C5Pl I "lfl"ll"~ llfi\" ~cwt~~ C'lffJlf 450"'1't'4C1f1ti ~ ~
~.dl1f. ~. 4'\I~? {<t/45~: ·~~RI
~: ~.~. /=l~
,.
.4
~~. e=B/vsine.
:. e1 = B/v Sine,
e1= 1.8 = ~
e, = 30° ~
~. 1.8 = B/v sin 30° ......................................... 0) 02 = 45 ~
~. e2 = B/v sin02
~. e2 = B/v sin 45° ............................................ (~)
2"l~~~ l"l~~ct$t~'t~.
~- B/vsin45°
1.8 - B/v sin30°
~ ~=sin45° ,
' 1.8 sin30°
sin45° ..,.....:;:..~
~. e2 == • 300 x 1.8 = 2.545 1.~1"" \ "'Q"')
sm
Contents

~~~__,_,...~.....,.,.....~............-~~~~~~~.......,..,....
~ IQIJl1515l+i15 .
~.......,...,.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

-'11(*1 - )o : ~ ~ CIJftiif 125 C'f.fif. ~ ~ ~ '1tff ~ 20 'fi(Dff/~ I -


· ~ CIJftiiRr lP1'J Cl5"1~p,. ~It'll 110 ~/9lff<11llJC'b ~.~.dl1f.dll1.
f.Wlr 'CIS1f, ~ 'lff<llllJ'll ~ ~ ~ CltrttiP1111 ~ ~) 91Jl'iiltrtlt'1 ~. (~) trt\l<sltCI
~. (ti') 30° ~ CIStf ~I
~: oon~.

I. (<Ii)~~ 91J'~'"'''.,, ~ ~ e = o, I= 125 C'f.fif. = 1.25 ~


~· ~cm~~<mf'ift I v=20~/~
· :. e = B/v sine = B/v sin o0 = o Cl5l1l (m) B= 110 x 10-3 ~-
(~)~~~~.~e=90°
:. e = B/v sin 90°
= 110 X 1Q-3x 1.25 x 20 x
= 2.75 Cl5l1l ~)
('t) ~ ~ 300 ccisttct ~<ml, ~
=
e 30°
:. e = B/v sin30°
= 110 x lQ-3 x 1.25 x 20 x 0.5
= 1.375 Cl5l1l ~)
•"fl(iiCf-)): lOcm ~·~~ ~~ ~ c-.tiiRr ~ilt41t'14m/s ~~I~
CIJftiiRr ~ 1iWlf 'CIS1f, ~ ~ \!llCClf<it\i ~.dl11.dllf.-llff ~ 0.15V ~ I
~= oon~.
~~.e=Blv l = lOcm
=O.lm
B = 0.15
0.1x4 V = 4m/s
= 0.37wb/m2 ~)
e = 0.15V
B =?
•'11(*1 - )~: 2wb/m2 Jlt!{ Oi"1~~ ~ CIRiil 0.5 fiiDt1f ~ ~ 401\Slh ~i1~41tcf
40m/sec 'ft~CCIC'f ~I - 401\Sl•'D'llP,t\i ~ ~.dl1f.dllf. f.Wlr 'CIS1f I ~
401\Sl•'D'llP, ~ CIRiil 45°- C:Slt'il', ~~~~.dl11.dllf. ~'CIS1f I
oon~.
l = 0.5~
B 2wb/m2
= 2 x 0.5 x 40 = 40V ~) v 40~/~
e2 = e 1 x sine e 45°
?
= 40 x sin 45°
= 40 x 0.707 = 28.28 V~) e2 = ?
~ - )'O: ~ fW.~. CiMltt'fttff 15cm atJIJtlt~ \!IRICiitilt11'111'00 0.75wb/m2 4"1~1aG ~
~-~ 4"1\Sl¥h Cl'ltt"1t~ lllf~?sm 15cm. \!ll'Atifbl'iiP, 1000rpm-di1t1f I
\!ll'iitifblCH 401\SI~ ~ 75 ~""~~I~~ ~f.Wlr'CIS1f I
~=oort~. .
r = 15cm = 0.15 m
l =15cm=0.15m
B = 0.75 wb/m2
N = 1000 rpm
Contents
~.........-rfft~~~~~~~~~...--.-rtft~......,....~~

~..,,..,..,...,.~.,..,.,....,...~~~
~c;q "'llOilliN> ~.l!l~.l!l~.
.............
~.,............,~~~~~
lTC\
............
4e\1514'G'!I jf~~ = 75 ff;
~ cb'h1<tSc'iN! C'!!Nrn101, ~ 4e\15l°G1'•twn ~ Cfl'f ~~ Jfiil41l'f ~ ~ 1
:. ~V =wxr
21tN
= 60 x r
= 2 x 3.l:ox 1000 x 0.15 = 15.7 m/s
~ 4e\15l4UC'il ~~ ~ = Blv
= 0.75 x 0.15 x 15.7 = 1.77V
75 ff; 4e\15l4UC'!I ~~ ~
= 1.77 x 75 = 132.75V ~)
;111-.'llct - )8 : 20 ~ ~ ~ ~ SOA ~ ~ ~ ~ 700mwb/m2 -'l.Q ~ ~
C'lftill 71.5cm/sec~~111ft<Cll~t\!~~l.fl1f.~. f.Wltw I
~:oott~.
l = 20inch = 20 x 2.54 cm = 50.8 x 10-2m
B = 700mwb/m2 = 700 x 10-3 = 0.7 wb/m2
V 1. 5 = 0.01 5 m I s~c
= 100
~m.
e = Blv
= 0.7 x 50.8 x 10-2 x 0.015
=0.0053V~)
~ - )(t : 60cm ~ ~ ~ ~ "1"1f C'lltiQ "1i1C4lc.cl 15m/ sec ~ ~ 1llfit" h 91f1"11~11
1'00~~1!11f.~. 20V~, ~ c5tw C'lltl'Q'JPttr ~~<ff I (41¥~: ·~"}
~=oolt~
= 600cm = 0.6m
v = 15m/sec
e = 20V
B =?
~m.
e = Blv
e
:.B = lv
20
=---
0.6 x 15
= 2.22wb/m2
Contents

----

V'' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.atl'llSIC<il 151IC<ilfiil'6 ~.1!11r.~~91'jf~7 ·~"]


{<414i1Ptc<rf:
C19!"1IC1f6C11 'tf?!s~"l\51'4 l!lq'. IOlt'iGl~C"iU~ \S Jil"IJ.1511111~ f(R!i~'115IC4 ~.1!11f.l!llJS ~9fijf ~ I
151IC<ilfiil'6 ~.1!11r.~ IQ# ~7 {4/qs/~: 'o~, ·~~]
'ltf?!;-~'1"81'4 "llC4~ ~.1!11f. 1!1115. l!lif Clflitill c5tlff C'Jfii! ~ ~ m ~~~I
~~'llSICCI 1511'4~'11> ,.~lf.~. ~ Cfe'r7 {"IJqsJfifeift: 'oB, 'o\b]
: ~ C'Jfii! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.1!11f.l!llJS "llC<i~ ~. ~ '1~~'1151'4 "llC<i~
1t.1!11f .1!1115. 1fC'1 I
8 I ISllC<ilfilfxo ~ 1!11r. ~. ~ Cfe'r7 ,
m : ~ ~ ~ l!I~ "'IR<il~C\!S "llC4C"R4 m~ ~ ~.1!11f.l!llJS. ~91':f ~. ~ "llC4~
~.1!11f.l!llJS. ~ I .
151ICCI~ ~.~lf.~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~7
m: "lle4f#K§ ~.1!11f.l!llJS C<li iJ:'~ "'St'it ~~I~ -
(~) '~~'1"SIC<t IOllC<tfit% ~.1!11f.l!llJS I
(~) f(R!i~'1"SIC4 "llC<I~ ~.1!11f.l!llJS I
~ I fl:f\\~'1'6IC<il 151IC<ilfilfxo ~. ~lf. ~ lfJ' # ~7
m = f(Rb~'11SIC4 IOllC4~ ~.1!11f.l!llJS l!lif Clflitill ~ ~ ~<fl "'1rn<11t01~ ~ ~ m
<ft~~~I
C\ I 91ll<i!l~t'6~~.1!11r.~~151ICC1filfxo ~7
m = ~ C<lifil' ~ ~ ~ JStm ~ 0° ~ ~ ~ ~ "'1rn<11~C0 ~ ~.1!11f.l!llJS
IOllC<i~~ I
1r I 91!1Cll.,t'6~~.~lf.~.~151ltClfilfxo "3f7
m: ~ C<litif ~ ~ ~ ~ 90° ~ ~ ~ ~ "'IR<tl~CXb ~ ~.1!11r.1!1115.
\5llC4P~~ I
~ I ~~'1'6lt<il 151lt<ilfilfxo ,.1!11r. ~. "ff~~ I
m: 'l~~G'l'blC<I \51JC<I~ ~.1!11f.l!llJS. e =Bl~, l!I~ I= "'lrn<il~11 ~. B m ~ l!I~ v = =
"'IR<tla'.111~~1
)o 1~~~~Jmfi~e 0 ~~~~151ltClfilfxo~.1!11r.~.1iWtu"lilf~~7
m: ~ C<litif ~ ~ ~ ~ 9° C<liM ~ ~ 'Wf ~ vcos9 ~911'.1lffU ~ ~
~ J'fiil\1111lii1 ~ l!lq'. l!lif ~ C<lifil' $~~'"it I fq vsin9 ~911'.1lffU ~ ~ ~
~ ~ I ll5"Q'f ~~ l!lif - Yfrn<ll~C\b ~.l!llf.1!1115. \5llC4f'~ ~ I ~'. IOllC4fit% tl!llf.1!1115.
n9~1

~'!if .f.\if.Jb6l'I• ~ ~ •lt'Slt-t11 ~ f.WtR ~ ~ "J.il ~ "3f7 .


C'S'l"11cW<:!I ~9!jf Mlij)b6li14 ~ \S 4lr:Ad61l ~ ~ ~ asfir'.-1!1~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~ I
)" 1¥Jl'SllC\!t'll ~~.~lf.~. f.Wtu~<Jt7
m: ¥Jl11IC1511~1':.l!llf.1!1115. f.fm ~ e = N~
Contents

[<11411~: 'olT]

e = B/v sin0
1l1it" 0 = 90° ~~ sin01!11f 111'i1~~1 ~l!I ~ ~~~ ~m~
~ I ~ 151IC<CI~ ~.i.!11f.1!1115 e l!I~ 1ltil ~ ~ I ~ .
e = B/v sin90°
=B/v x 1
'o~] = B/v ~. ~ ~.1!11f.1!1115 I
~ ~1511t<qfwt\J~.IJl'lf.dllf. ~~~? [414'/fMtr.itf: 'o~]
.c;e:.:;~ : ~ l!I~ ~ ~ C"l'tiJI l!I~ ~ -.n·<mli'r "llC'llNI<! ~ ~ -.n ~ ~. ~ ~
f f ~ -.n 4Ci1C'l'll ~ ~~ m ~ct~ "1Hi<1ftt<;o ~ -.n ~ ~ ~ ~ -.n
~ 1!1~ ~~ <l'f -.n ~.1!11f.1!1115 "llC'il~ ~ I l!lm '~~'1\5IC'il "llC'il~ ~.1!11f.1!1115 ~ I l!I
~AA C'&fiiltfit'll'll C"l'tiJI ~ ~ I
~ I 60 C'r.fil. ~ ~ ~ ""9{ ~ 'C'lftill ~ilt41ttf 15 ~~ ~ tfit'ifJt I • '9
91ft:ql~t 1'ro~~.IJl'lf.~. 20 ~ .....,~Jiff{ OS"1t'11'-.W? [414'tPfcin: 'o~]
~= ornr~.
~ "&ftf.r, l = 60cm = 60 x 1o-2m
e = Blv v = 15m/sec.
. e e = 20Volt
:. B = lv B=?
20
60 x 1Q-2x15
=
= 2.22 bW /m2 ~)
8 I ~o ~ ~ ~ ~ SOA ~ ~ -.cf ~ 700mc.ob/m2 dff ~ ~ C'lftill
1.SOcm/sec; ~ tfi"6CI( I "lfi:cilf(t.YJ ._~di, IJl'lf, dllf, ~-I M~: 'o~]
~:
Of!ft~
1=20~ =20 x 2.54 x 10-2~
=0.508~
v= B = 700mrob/m2= 700 x 10-3rob/m2
v = l.50cm/sec = 1.50 x 10-2m/sec
~ "&ftf.r,
e = Blv
= 700 x 10-3 x 0.508 x 1.50 x 10-2
. = 0.0053 ~ ~)
~ 'l~~W1'8lt'CI 151M~~.d111.dllf dff~lfte I
- : "l'J:""'T b'.~~ I
l\t I B Jiff{ C\S.,f7tllt ~ ~ C'lftill ~ 9lffft)' 9° C4tt't v ~ 1ttlf Bcos9 '911"'1fJ ~.IJl'lf.dllf•
~I . .9"Sftif~~~ ~~lfte I
- : ~ C"l'tiJI ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0° C4tc't v cwt ~ Bcos0 ~91l'.~ ~
~ ~ :>iill1S'lllt"1 ~ cm! I ~ l!I ~~~ ~ C<CISM m
~ ~ i{f ~~ ~.1!11f.1!1115
~9flt1Ci{ Bcos0 ~91l'.~ <IStC'&f 1'ltC'1 i{f I
Contents

......
-------------------...--
-~~~--~~
~o

-
ldlJl\l:tlSl'll&
<\I "lfi'41~C\6 151IC'4fiif\i ~•.~.l!Pf. 0 C81'l~- ~WI
m-r~~~--.,..,......,~.........,...

: 1ffer C<Plif ~ ~ ~ ~ 0° c<15ttCt ~ ~ ldllc<I~ ~.1!11f.l!llF.


e = B/v sin0
1ffet" 0 =0° ~ ~ sin0 l!I~ 1ftii ~ ~ l!I~ l!I ~ e l!I~ 1flii ~ ~ I ~
e = B/v sin0°
I =B/vxO
l =0 C\St1l, ~ ~.1!11f.l!lllS I

~"' ~--""'·..., ~ ~<l'!i'l..W'


~~:;:in0 {q/'fS/Ptc<n: 'o~, 'o~, ·~~}
- : ldl'lCDl("I b'.~ ~ I
~I ~~~ ~ ~ 0.6wb/m2 ..,~ ~~ ~ ~ 60 m/s ~
"'1JfC¥1t'1 ~If.MI W : [<t/'fS/fitz"ll/ : 'o~J
~) "lfi'41~C\!I ~•.~.l!Pf.
(~) ~ ~ 45° ~ llfit 91fi;q1f(fb 1tf 'IC'CI: ~ •.~.l!Pf
- : ldl'lCDl("I b'.8, ~ct-C\ l!I~ ~'911
~I ~ ~ ~ 120 ~.~. 1"t CCl'1if ·~ "1tff ~ 20 ~./C'l I ~ ~ CIJftillt Jffl{
(1Si4~1' erfW ~ftlt'll 100 ~I~ "lfi'41~t ~~ ~ '4•tc1Mtt ~.
~) '14i'61Ciif ~~ ~
(~) 45° "'1-t~~~' ~ "lfi'4l~t"5 ~•.~.l!Pf. fiMIW I
- : 2.4 ~. 1.6968 ~ I
8 I ~ m (9ftiJ AA (tlfiilti'Dt ~ C9ftif 20 mwb .JPR( ."JI'
~ I 151t'llCJf61t •etlt<>t\t( 1200

-=
"1ftl.f9t.~. 1tf '1JfC¥1Ctf Jffl{~':IRI I~ WllC'll ~•.~. dllf ~ dff ~1ftif4"1?
1.6~1
Contents

~.) ~ -.iiRtll~\5 ~df1f.~


(Explain Self Induced emf}
l!I "'1'41Ns~ ~ ~ "'lfi1q\€e\~ ~qt~~~~~ ~1[?;~~ ~I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l~t ~ ~ "'IRl<tl!e\~ ~ qt ~ 11Jte<IS, ~
"'lf1iql~~ C1J ~'.-~qi'{ qt ~.1!111.1!1~. <:silcct~ ~ ~ f(f?!~11elcct \5llcct~ qt ~Jlffl<tSJIM
~} l:"11\S~Jlf\5 (Statically Induced) ~.1!111.1!1~. ~ I l5lw'i6H1<A6'A l!l~t :Gl*l'l''AaUC'll l!I "'1'41Nl~ ~1!111.1!1~.
~ ~ I ~'t l!I~ 1lt~ ~ ~ "'lffiql§e\~ ~ {lil91'l''A~IC'A ~ ~ ~ l!I~ ~ ~)
m ~ ~ ~ I ~~"1\YICA l:)llCA~ ~.1!11f.l!l~.-CCIS lf.~ 'eM ~ li111· I ~-
()) ~ ~i!l\S~>!\5 ~.1!11f.l!I~. (Self Induced emf),
(~) fil~k41JI~ l:"11\5~>1\5 ~.1!111.1!1~. (Mutually Induced emf) I
~ -~'l\5 ~-~-~. (Self Induced emf) :

I{

_.. .... I

~ : ~.) <iSIC'A;{;<fl~ ·~
0 . ~ l!l'ClifTI <iSC\IC"lil 1f'IJ fiml ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ (ISUIC"l'A Dnl"'llc-t l!l'ClifTI ~ ~ ~ ~ I
(ISUIC'l'A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "'lfficilte\~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "'lf1i<t<£"i~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ..JPT-~ ~I lFC"I l!I "'lf1iq\€e\~ m ~ ..m ~ ~ \fl~ ~ l!l'ClifTI
~.1!111.1!1~. "llcctf'tx6 ~ ~ 4UIC61'A ~ l:i11\S~Jlf\S ~.1!111.1!1~. ~ ~ ~~ qi'{ ~ ~ I
~ ~ 1!1ci$ qsc41c"l<A ~ ~tf!ll 1!11f ~ ~ "'lrnci<tc"' C1J ~.1!111.l!I~. ~ ~ ~ ~
~i!f\S~Jlf\S ~.1!111.l!I~. qt~~~ qi'{~ I
1ftif cism, N-~t:.~ ~ l!I~ ~I.~~~~~~~ I~ <tSUIC"'l'A ~
"'IRiciffi ~ ~. ~ qsc{IC"l'A ~ ~~ m-s "'lrnqc£-.~ ~ 1 lFC"1 ~ l!l'ClifTI ~.1!111.1!1~.
~~I ¥Jl'iflC\!i'A "'l_llll'J?'llC'll ~ ~.1!111.1!1~.
Nd!
e = dt

-- &!!'ill
dt ................... ())
l!I~ Ncj> 4C41C"l'A N-~t~ 9btcD ~ oifG m I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~91RJ, ~~~m Ncj> ~ I-1!11f~~ I
~
Ncl> oc: I
~ Ncj> =LI
I . Contents
~.,.,.,....~~~~~........,..,.~~~.....,....~~~.,..,.,.,....

~:> "'11\S'ellJl\S l:Ci1<15t'fiPif6


~~~~~~~.............,~ ............. ~...,...,..,..~~~~

~ ~'f ()) 1!1.Ncjl-1!1~ ~~ 91t-evt~ I


_ d(LI) _ Ldl
e - dt - dt
.ca~ L 1!)<1$ ~ ~~"IJt ~ <PC41C41'11 ~ ~ltJl"I '<it ~ltJl"I ~ I
l;ii\Sl4GJIC"l'il l!l'<P<P ~(Henry)
I

'

I
1ffet" ~"'fc'lliceo >t~<P'llC'f,
e = 1 Volt
di/dt = lAmp/sec ~.
'IWfL= 1 H~I
~~ 1!1"1V <PC41Ci'j'il ~i!\Sl4GJl"I 1 ~ ~. 1ffei" l!lt'i5 1 V tl!lll'.l!ll!S "llc<i~ ~. ~ l!I~ ll"C~ ~
~ ~ "'IRl<t\!C"l'il $ 1.A/ sec~ I
C'lwpf ~l•'G'Jl'I (Self Inductance) :
4C41Ci'j'il l!lll'ii l!l'<Pf6 ~ ~ '<it ~. lit ~ ~ ~ '<it <PCJICll'jil bli!MC<P'!I ~-WI­
~ '<it'ft ~ cmJ I
~-~ ~ -.-.f&~'t\li fil(UHI ~
(Define Coemcient of self-induction by First, Second and Third method
for self-inductance (L))
"'1i{ 1!1"1V ~elf~ '<it ~ ~ I!)~~ ll'~ ~·~~'<it I!)~~ ~ ~
.J:Pt-~ '<it-rt ~ cml, ~ ~ "61tJliJf (Self Inductance) '<it <PC41Ci1il ~ ~ CW'r I l!lt<P
~ C<Pl-lNPlc4ii6 W<!f ~ l'<51<P~ (Co-efficient of Self Induction) '<it~ ~ ~~ '<l1'rl
~I
C>tlPf1IS l$ltJl"IC<P L ~ ~ ~ ~ l!I~ I!!~ l!l'<P<P ~ I ~ ~ltJl"I '<it ~$IJJl"I ~~
~~ f.lw "llC41lbi!I '<P1ft ~ I
~ ~ : "'1i{ 1!1"1V '<PC4itl'f l!IPr ~ ~ <PCJIC:41il ~"'IW'r l!l'<Pf6 "'1Rl<t'6i1~ ~ ~ "lfW
~ I I!! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l'<P<P "'11fi»vl411~ ~"'f:f ~~
ff m
'<it ~ 4CJIC:41'11
~~ ~ ~ ~1'i "11, l!lm ~~ ~ <PC41COl'il ~ l'slBJliJf ~ I
~ lficlS, N-~~~ ~ l!l'<Pf6 <15C41CO!il (~ : ~.)) ll'~ ~I~~~ I ~ ~ ~ ~
m + ~ 1'IWf'1ltUmN+~1Cif'Cq~~~m~1-1!1~ ~~ 1~~
Ncjl ex: I
'<it Ncjl = LI, ( l!I~ L l!l'<Pf6 ~'<it 4C41tdlil ~'<5ltJl"I)

'<it, L = ¥
~~ ~ l!l'<P<P "1Jlfi»vl411~ ~-~ ~ ~ltJliJf ~ I
.M11 ~ : ~ ~. l!l'<Pf6 >iflli1CJ1C\S (f5iil = ~.)) ~"'f:f m,
NI
cjl = l/µoµrA
I!!~, l = :>tMi!CJl\S 4C41C:41'11. ~
=
N <PCJICflil ~ ~~"IJt
I=~~
A= ~tJ:Cllti:01?1·~
µo = ~'<it 1_•U~Ci1il "'lliifil41JIMflllt
µr = Rlceif6e "'lliifiliiJIMflllt
I'
I,

.....
I
Contents

:~~~~~~~.._.._.....~~~....,.......~~~~
;
.~
. ™~ "ll~~.1!111".l!llf. ~~
.............. ~~~~~~~~~~~...,...,.....,.~......,.,....
~.~~~
L-~
- I
N
=yx cl>
N NI
=yx ll@@A
N2
l /µoµrA

-
N2
9l
~ ™'1ttll"1, 9l = Z/µoµrA
I
~'- ~ ~~ ™"lltllC"I :>tM"l<Jl\S 4C41Cdl'll ~ ~ i£r <li<JIC"l'll ~ ~~lill"I qt ~~llll"I W'f I .
~-
~~:.!(~~~~~.
L-~
- I
i>d <n, Ncj> =LL
en, d~cl>) = d~~I) , (m 9l"1f Ni¥1C'll"IPtCi!& ~)
<n, N ~ = I;~~ , (~ N '<3 L~)
- .Qi
<n, e -- L dt
di
, (~, e -:- N dt )
e
en, L = dl/dt
1!1°$f l@j ~! = i G!Jlfiivil!Br l!I~ e = 1 ~ ~ ~ L = 1 ~ ~ I
~'-. ~ \!!<\'$ <t'CJIC"l'll 11"C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "'lrn<1'6i! 1 ~Jlfiivil!Br ~. l@j i£r <rnlCilf 1
~ l1!11f.l!lll5. ~ ~. ~ l!I~ ~ ~14Gll"1~1 ~I
~-~ ~ ~ ~\ill'il ~l#(ICtO L ~
(Apply the formula obtained by First, Second and Third Method to find
L or iron core)
'"' ' 11"1 -) : 960 9bw ~ ~ "''''HI lllll\jllllll1' 230 ~AA~ "flt~ 0.005 ~
$~9ijf~ 11'fit 'ifCitC'lf '1tfitiltJl'f SO~~.~ liPUlt'lfl ~1'11411 ...... ~?
~:
~~. oon~.
e N = 960 9lJl5
I= R
e =230~
230 cl> =0.005'8~
= 50
R =50~
= 4. 6 "IJ IFvmrn
~.L=¥
= 960 ~.~.005 = 1.0435 ~ ~) I
Contents

~:

\'5ft1Rll ~. -~~.

L _!it N = 500 9lJlD


- I
L = 30 x 10-3 ~
LI I = 10 x 10-3 "IJIFvtllm
:. '="N
• .I.. = 30 x 1Q-3 x 10 x 1Q-3 ' =?
•• 'I' 500
=0.6x lQ-6~

= 0.6 ~ 'e~ {Cft)


-·t1,11"1 - ~ = 30 ""rt~111 '1'f ~ ~ 2 x 2 ~ ""rt~1il 121"Ull("' ~ ~ ~ m 400
~ ~ I c:lllHC"1'51 _fic'l~'O 11liifil41Jl~fi); 800 'l(Clf "fCilC'lil ~ ~l.JIWj ~1
~:
\'5ft1Rll ~. . oon~.
~~ltJl"I D = 30 c>tf.Ufit'fi11t
N2 A = 2 x 2 ~~.fir.
L = l/J!<,µrA = 2 x 2 x lQ-4 <l'iffirol1t
_ µgµrAN 2 N = 400 9lJlD
- l
= 41t x 10-7 x 800 x 4 x lQ-4 x (400)2
,,..-;: = a.oo.
~ .;; '!1t x 10-7 ~~
0.31t
= 68.26 x lQ-3 ~ I l = 1tD

= 68.26 fiifitC(i1Ht {Cft) I = 1t x 30 x 1Q-2


=0.31t~
""fll(tiCf - 8 : 60 "'1ft~lii ~ 3 "'1ftfil'Glii ~ ~ ~ dllfhr C"fRf "fCilC'lii ~ ~1'11..
37.O1 filfi\Cf(~fi 'l(Clf "fCilC'l'll ~ ~ ~1
~:

\'5ft1Rll ~. oon~,

L = 11oµrAN 2 l = 60 ~.fir. = 60 x 10-2 = 0.6 ~


l D = 3 ~.Pf.= 0.03~
. N 2 =l- - L = 37.01 fiiMC("iHt = 37.01 x 10-3 ~
.. µoµrA
0.6 x 37.01 x 10-3
µr = 1 (l!ilffif ~ ~)
=~---~---~
41t x 10-7 x 1 x 7.068 x 10-4 J!o = 41t x 10-7~~
= 25001377.10 4C~C'I~ ~~blW'T~ ~.

:. N = 5000 {Cft) 1td2


A =4
1t x (0.03)2
4
= 7.068 x lQ-4 ~~Ul1t
Contents

-----~-~-------
'.t<CI 1511~ ~-~11.~~-
,-.............,.-~-
...............
tliiflf(l't - ct:
. l'o<t
........... - -~-~~~-
150 ~ ~ ~ 10 '!UI~ ~ ~ 0.01 ~ i'ttr ~I "-9f:f
Cl'tlt'l'SI ~1¥lhl'I f.Wlf '¥1 I 0.01 ~ 'ff~~~~ ™tl<i~ ~ 'litcf
ldlltcWll<i •• dl1f. ""1f'" ~?
~:

~~. ~~

fil. N = 150
L -- I I = 10 151J lfRsolllt'SI

=
150 x 0.01
10
+ = 0.01 'S~
dt = 0.01 ~
=0.15 ~(\m)
di = 10 - {- 10) = 20 151JI~
~.
L =?
Ldl e =?
DO e = dt
0.15x20
0.01
=300~(\m)
tliifli(11Cf - ~ : 100 ~ ~ Cl'tlt'l'SI ~1'11'1
10,000 ~m"-9f:f~r
~:

~~. ~~
_ fil. N = 100
L - I L = 1 filfil<A:"1Hl
= 1x10-3 ~
..·1=.!'it
L
100 x 10000 x 10-S
+ = 10,000 ~ = 10,000 x 10-S 'S~
=
1 x 10-3 (1 ~ = 10-S 'S~)
= 10151JI~ (\m) I =?
giiflf(lCf - '\ : 1000 "1ntff ~ Cl'tlt'l'SI W f5mr 9 '!UI~ ~ ~ '((11 ~ ~ ~
0.05 ~ ~ 4 '!UlfiOiilllt'SI ~ 'litcf ldllt~fillli •• dl1f."l'f.~ 1.6 ~I Cl'Ult'l'SI
~1911'1 '¥W?

~~
e N = 1000
L = dl/dt Ii = 9 'OIJI~
1.6 h =4151JI~
=
5/0.05
dt=0.05~
1.6 x 0.05
5 e = 1.6~
=0.016~ L =?
= 16 filfil<A:"1Hl (\m) di = Ii - h = 9 - 4 = 5 151) lfRsolllt'SI
Contents

~ ......... ~~~~~~~ ........


. \l51JllS'5l"l15 ~P!ff;
~~~.....,.........~~

Mt
~ ............. ~ ......... ~.....,......,~~~~~~~~~ ............
•1tP(t'I - 1r : 30 C'f.~.. ~ - dl1'1I ~ ¥tlt'l'll ~ ~ 500 I '9 ¥tft'l'll ~ ..Gllil'I
740.20~~~«tt'l'll~f.WIW I {<tl'PI~: ·~~/
~:

~~. oon~.

L = µgµrAN 2 l = 30 ~.fir. = 0.3 ~


l
N = 500 9lJi6
. A= Ll L =740.20~~
•. HoµrN 2
= 740.20 x 1()-6 ~
740.20 x 10""6 x 0.3
= 41t x 10-7 x 1 x (500)2 Ho= 41t x lQ-7 ~ /~-­
= 7.068 x 10-4 <1ifffju111 µr = 1 (1£1~ ~~)
~--------·--·--

1td2
A=T
4A
... d2=-
1t
I 4 x 7.068 x lQ-4
1t
= 8.999 x lQ-4
f
:. d = 0.0299~~)1

I
i
•ifl1('A'1 - it : ~ 800 "bttR ~ ¥tlt'it W ~ ~ ~ 1 1l51JlfO»mtt ~ 4 lilOlf4PBlltfl
91Rl'4~ "'1f ~ ¥tlt'l'll 1fAt .1.Sxl0-4 ~ 6xl0-4 ~ 91Rl'4~ "'1f I ~ 91Rl'4<ti\
~ 4 ~ "'1f 'WtCf '4itlt'l'll ~ ~llil'I 'CjlW?

il>Jl'!llC\5'!1 ~"lliJ:J'\IC'!I, oon~.


Nd! N =800
e""' dt Ii =l~JI~
800 x 4.5 x lQ-4 h =4~11~
4
:. di = 4 - 1 = 3 ~JIP>1~
=0.09~
cl>i = 1.5 x 1Q-4 '<3~
cj>2 =6x lQ-4~
Ldl
e = dt :. dcj> = (6 - 1.5) x lQ-4 = 4.5 x lQ-4 '(3~

edt dt =4~
:. L = di
0.09 x 4
= 3
=0.12~~)
Contents

~~:

~~.

L --~
I
L1 = 360 x 1Q-3 ~
. _ l'hl_ N2 = 510 9'Jw
.. L1 - I
L2 =?
. ~ =h
.. I N1
360 x lQ-3
600
= 0.6 x 10..:.3
~.

T - - N2<!>
....,..i - I

= N2 xt
= 510 x 0.6 x 10-3 ,
=t3A,06~~)1
~~ 2 cm~~ 60 cm~~~ ~.')!fWti1CIC\!i 2000 "'btcR ~~I
~ )!fWti1C41C\!iil ~ 4A ~ ~<mf ~~Self inductance~ CR' I ·

Y~:
{;q/qsffiiflift : ')), ')~, ')~R]

ornr~.
N = 200,Q,_
1t x (0.02)2 I = 4A,.......
4 <fW! D = 2 cm.
= 314 x lQ-6m2 ..
= 0.2 JJl

~~ ,L/:£~- . ~ L =
=~
60 cm = 0.6

=N1µt~V,
2000 x 4 x\1,n x''fo-1'x)lx 311b1Q-6
0.6

= 3.15 x lQ-6WL
,.-·-,
,·~
'' -..----·
.---
~ ~l<li'BJl"I L ~ I /.
2000 x 3.15 x 10-6
4

= 1.57 x 10-3 ~
= 1.57~~~)
-
Contents

~.,_......,.....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~lr
~,.,.~~«:l~~~~
\51J lllii'Sl"1\5
.....
l:CG'l<PfGPtfG
,.,._,.....~~~ .....~~~~ ........-tMtt
~iif~Cf - )~ : ~ 250V, 4-C'ftWr ~ llil4fil1Cillf ~ ~ 2.5A ~ ~ ~ ~dill~
~l'SI ~ <mftl'f 1000 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.. ~ ~ ~ ~. ~
0.05wb m~?f:f~ I~ 4UIC'l'l1 ~ ~1&l•'GJl*I ~CR I
~·:

~~. Cl'im~.
~ <PCfl!:i>!'!!l ~-~"'115l<PGJl"1 V = 250V
p =4
L=N~ i = 2.5A
1

1000 x 0.05 N = 1000 turns


2.5 <l> = 0.05wb
= 20H {m) L =?
~'111':fCf - )-.:> : 1.5cm CUPf 75cm ~ ~ ~ ~ <lt4t ~ ~ ~ (Ring) ~ ~ ~
~ :>f)j\5IC"4 500 ~~~~~I ~ '6~-~ 'ilrom lA 15~'1l•fJ
~ ·~ 0.5wb/m2-~~m ~~ 1 ~ ~-~ ~ ~
~ ~ m~~. ~ 4UIC'l'll ~---•Nil•'GJl*I ~CR I
~:

·~~.L=N~ Cl'im~.
1
d = l.5cm
~~.a =4d2
7t l = 75cm
N = 500
= -3.14
4
- x (1.5 x 10-2)2 = 1.77 x 1Q-4m2 i =IA
<l> = 0.5wb/m2
<l> =Bxa L =?
= 0.5 x 1.77 x lQ-4
= 0.885 x 10-4 = 0.885 x 10-4wb
N<l>
L - i

= 500 x o.~85 x IQ-4 = 442 . 5 x IQ-4

= 0.04425H ~)
~'11(fCf - )8 : 1.25 x 106 AT/wb Hl'll•'GJl*I ~ ~ 11Jl'1C"'llt<fi :>fl~t'ri'll ~ 450 C~ di~
"4CPf ~ ~ I 4Cil'llt'll .."'llSl•'G°Jl*I ~CR I
~:
N2 Cl'im~, ier
<PC~(}'l'!!l ~"'11Sl<1>'GJl'J1 L =S 0
S = 1.25 x 106 AT/wb '·
~~. s = ~~ '>11~<:6'!!1 R101tGJl"1 N = 450
- (450) 2 L =?
L - 1.25 x 106
202500
= 1.25 x 106 = 0.162H (m)
I
Contents

. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-..r-tl!ft-

... ~~~~~r-r
__§!~c;.q '54lc;<qf't% ~.l!l~.l!I~.
~~~~~~~~~~~
~~
~"fl~i1'1- )<t: 500 9lJtmr ~~ ~~ ~~-dlif~~~I~ 4CilC"lfl '11ro
fi1tlf~ ~ lOA ~ 6A-"1.:tPr9fm, ~ lfA!l 850µwb ~ 825µwb"'
"'lf1'"1~ ~ I 4Cilirlfflfl ~ ~i11&l"P°GJI., f.f.f1T CR I
~l:{t-{:

~~. ~~.
di = 10...,, 6 = 4A
L -NxQt
- di dcj> = 850-825
= 25µwb = 25 x 10-<iwb
- 500 x 25 x lQ-<i
- 4 N = 500
= 3.125 x 10-3H L =?
= 3.125 mH (~)
~"fl~i1'1 - )~ : 250 "'IJlflfil~Jl~fit~fl ~-'4tm ~ 12.5 ~ ~ 4.5cm2 et~Cbll"f \54M5Ci1fl
" ~~~~l~~~~~~.~5mA-"I 8~/cm2
~ ~ C'Jliilf ~~ '4C1f I 4Cil'1~fl l:i11&14'GJI., f.f.f1T CR I
~:
oon~.
µi = 350
:. Bi= µix Ba N = 125
·' = 350 x 8 = 2800 lines/cm2 a = 4.5cm2
5x 10-3A~~~~~~ I = 5mA = 5 x 10-3A
Ba = 8 lines/ cm2
cj> =Bi x a L =?
= 2800 x 4.5 = 12.600 lines
= 1.26 x lQ-4 wb .

... L=~
I
125 x 1.26 x 10-4
5 x 10-'3
= 3.15H~)
~-)C\: 25cmCIJPflfl~ 2.5cm2~-~~lfl~~~350'fU91JtD~1~<111TI
~) 4C~-titfl ~i\1&fcpbJI., ~
(~) ~~~."11f.~. ~ 2.5A-dlif ~~ 0.5sec ~"'lil\5~~ I
~:

~~. L = N2Atµr H oon~.


N = 250
l!I~, l = nd = 0.25 x 7t d = 25cm = 0.25m
µ0 = 41t X 10-7 A = 2.5 cm2 = 2.5 x 1Q-4m2
µr = 1 L =?
a" L _ (350)2 x 2.5 x lQ-4 x 4n x 10-7 x 1 I = 2.5A
0
I
- 0.25 x 1t dt = 0.5sec
eL =?
= 49 x 10-<iH = 49 µH ~)
di
eL = Ldt

= 49 x lQ-<i x
2 5
· ~~; 1. 5 ) = 0.39mv ~)
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~00 . . '5l)f151Sl'*llS l:C61<iSlQ~f&


~~~-~~~~«1..-r-rtltt~~~~~~~~

~.s fll~ml*I ~ellJl91


(Explain Mutual Inductance (M))

,,..../.
E S
f5il! : ~.~ (A 'SB) ~ ~
91"Mt9ftfi<t ~ A l!l<R B 'lfi; ~ (~ : ~.~) I A ~ ~ l!I~ ~ 'S l!I~ crnUtfu l!l<f~ B
<lSCflC"l~ ~ l!I~ C~IFGfiir;I~ j'f~~ 'Rt ~ I ~ S ~ \5fOl 'Rt ~ ~ A <l5Cflt61~ ~~ ~
~ ~ ~ I ~ <l5Cflt61~ DBf9flt'<t l!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~ B 45Cflt61~ ~
j'f~~ (Link) ~ I B <l5Cflt61~ ~ j'f~~ ~ ~ ~ (~~~ Rc"lCq~) ~ fil\S~ml61 m <fC61 I
1!1~ ~A 45Cflt61~ <lSl<JlCoU~ ~~'Rt~~ B ~ l;.l!l~.1!1<15. ~~(~A
~-e l:.1!1~.1!1<15. ~ ~) I fil©~flJl61 ~ ~ ~9f:f <fC61 l!I~ fil~fllM l;<it\SIS>i\5 (Mutualiy
Induced) l:.1!1~.1!1<15. <fC61 I ~ ~Cflt61~ Cl!~ <ft ~~ct l;.l!l~.1!1<15. ~ ~ ~~ ™
fil~flJl61 ~ljJl'*I (Mutual Inductance) I ~Cl!~ <ft ~ ~ 9ft"!l9ftfi<t ~ 'lfi;
45Cflt61~ l!l~ ~<ft~ 91ffi4\£C"i~ ~ 'Sl<iJf&~ l;.l!l~.1!1<15. ~ ~. ™
fil©kflJl61 ~ljJl'*I
<fC61 I l!l~M~~'Rt~ I
~ A 45Cflt61~ <lSl<JloUC<lS 91ffi4\£<i 'Rt ~. ~ fil~flJl61 ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ 45Cflt61l;
l!l.l!l~.1!1<15. ~ ~ I
A~~ l:.l!l~.1!1<15.-1!1~ ~ct ¥Jl~IC15~ ~llli>il<Jl f.ffu 'Rt~­
d<I>m
em= Nsdt
~Ns=B~~j'f~~

d <I>m
d fil IS
t =~flll61 ffi "'
~ 91~4\!SC"i~ $ I

~ ~lllli>il<Jl ~~J~ ~15 ~.\.Q~.\!!<15-1!1~ ~ l!lllf:f ~' ~ ~ct ~. ~ ~ctm


<ft~ ~ ~ 1 B ~ fil©kmlM l;<it\SIS>i15 l;.l!l~.1!1<15. ~ ~ctf&' Wit A ~ ~ fil©kflJl"l
~ 91ffi4\£<i I
f.lijfit~ f.mfo~ ~Ctl~MJ
(~) B ~ fillSkflJIM ~KS©>il5 l;.l!l~.1!1<15-1!1~ ~ ~ct w, ~ct W A~~
9lrn<1f\W ~ ~ I ~ A ~ ~ ~ Qftt4S, ~ fil\S~flJl61 m-e ~ Qftt4S I ~
fil~mlfdl l;<il%IS>J1S l;.l!l~.l!l<JS. ~ ~ 1

(~) ~ >1~4U4~ wr; Jt$CflC61~ \!!~ ~ 91ffi4\£C<j~ ~ Cl[ C<!Rc'Brn ~ct \5fOlJ 45Cfl61f&~
~~~' l!l~ fil~ml61 l;0115l45f;J!lf1 <fC61 I
Contents
~~~ ....~~~~~....,......,~~--~~....,.~~~
----.......----..l!!::='!!'l~-.!-~!;......,,..-----.n-.~
~.~ ~-l;~~-6 ~ fil\Sk~Jldl ~1<15-to'i ~ ~' ~lf ~ ~lf ~ (M) ~'fcH
(Define Coefficient of Self-induction by First, Second and Third Method
for (M))
~ ~: (~.~~~ Wtm) ~~.A '<3 B <t>Ci'ICii~ ~ ~~~ 1:1"~ N11!1'f~ N2 o.!l'f~ A <t>Ci'ICG1~
~~ ~ 11 ~ ~ ~ o.!I~ ~~~ct cj>1 I o.!I cj>1 ~~cf <ft~~ B ~
~~f!ji ~ I~~$ (cj>1) B-~ ~~fi!W ~ ~ ~~i'IJlii ~ltJl"I,

~=~r .
~~ 91'Mt~f1J:\!5 ~ <t>Ci'led\~ o.!I~ ~ o.!l<fS<li ~ ~ ~ .~ '¢1~Jf&C\!5 elf
'<3~-~ M ~. ™ ~ts~i'IJIG1 ~1~}1+1-~ I
~ ~: (~:~ ~~ ~) ~ ~. A~ ~91:{ $,A <t>Ci'ICi'l~ ~~.~ ~~~ o£1q~ o.!I~
~ ~~~ 1:1"~ cj>1, h o.!l'f~ Ni o.!l'f~ B <t>Ci'ICG1~ C'fliCili 1:1"~ cj>2, h o.!l<f~ N2 I ~ ~ ~
~I o.!!~'21~~'1~ ~A~.~
N1h
cj>i = l/µoµrA
= N1
<ft 11
' h l/µoµrA
~.~~~c~.
M _ N2Q>1
2- h

= N2x11
h
= N2 x
li
--=---
l/µoµrA
N2.N1
Z/µoµrA
= N2N i ( ~ ~iiltJl"I 9l = _z_)
. 9l ~µ~
~~ ~ o.!l<fS<li ~G1ttJIC"I ~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~\S~~JIG1 ~l!JI., ~ I

~~:
~~. 11 tl>12
, ,-, \
_ N2Q>1 I \
M- h ................ (~) I
I \
\
I \

=
o.!1~, N2 ~ <t>Ci'ICG1~ ~ ~~~
=
cj>1 ~~ <t'Ci'led\~ $ , ~ ~ ~~
h = ~~ <t>Ci'ICG'J~ ~
~ct(~)~.
N2 c!>1 = Mh
ctr, d(~~p1) = d(~:1) ; (~ ~ ~¥IC'!l~Plcil'G ~)
\ I
\ I
I
\
\ , I

~ - dh Coil A CoilB
<ft, N2 dt - M dt , M-~ ~ ~ I
' Contents

dh
:.em= Mdt
~•,M=dh/dt
'2t em~ .
. l!l~ ~ dl1/d = l 1511lfWl$ l!l~ em= 1 ~ ~ ~ M = 1~~I~91'Mt9!1filt ~
WU
4SCll<ft'BI l!l~ ~ ~ "1Hl•11£i1 1 15111~ ~ ~ 151ii1t°&C"§ 1 ~ ~.l!l~.l!l~.~ ~
~ fil~k~UIG1 ~191191 ~ 1 ~ I
~.~ fil~Hlldl ~l•TiJl'l (M) ~
(Apply the formula Obtained by First, Second and Third method to find
out Mutual Inductance (M))
;'11~'ilct - )17' : <>1ill'4Hll'1 'i!t'f ~ ~ ~ (Identical) ~ ~ ()) ~ {~) ~ ~C'l§J¥~"6
1000 ~~~~I)~~~~ 80% ~~ '<mfC'l'~~~I ~ )~
cmrt'f 5 '?Ill~~~~ o.5 ~ m ~11:f ~ ~ )~ -e ~~
¥Cl1Caii~ ·~ ~~i41Jl'1 ~~llJl'I ~?

<mil~,

-
r '?
N1 =J_QOQ_ .,..., \6
N2 = 1000
1000 x O.B'x 0.5 x 10-3 <!>1.=0.~
5 = 0.5 x 10-3 '(3~
=0.08~~) ~=0.51!1~80%
,___.- ___.. "
= 0.8cj>1 _
= ·o.8 -x o.5 x 10-3 -e~
h = 515111~
M=?-
\;iifl~ilcf-)~: 1~2~~~~1)~~~Jmif2~~~
~ ~.dl'Jf.1!1-.. 0.5 ~~I~~~~ 2.5 \:Jill~~~~ )~
~~JmiflO~~~~~~~iUIWl~llJl'I~?

<mil~,

~ e1 =0.5 ~
e1 = N1 dt
e1
'!it = 2 fir.~. '<3~/~
qt, Ni = d<jl1/dt ,,= 2 x 10-3 '(3~~
0.5 h = 2.5 15111~
-2x10
- - <!>1 = 10 fir.~. -e~ = lOxlQ-3 -e~,
= 250 M =?
~.
G~
M = N1<1>1 •. 1!1~<1>1 ).,,~~,,;iz;m
0

12
= 250 x ~~ x 10-3 = 1 ~ ~)
--
Contents

~:

~-;@i. l. ornt~.
M = NiN2 = 2~
Z/µoµrA r = 2.5 ~.'fii.
- µoµrAN1N2
- l = 2.5x10-2 = 0.025 ~
Ni = 1500
47t x 10-7 x 1 x 1.96 x lQ-3 x 1500 x 1000
2 N2 = 1000
= 1.847 x 10-3 cffi µ0 = 4nxl()-7 ~~
= 1.847 fiiMCA:"lrn ~) I µr = 1 (<fllJ. ~tfJ"Of)
A = nr2
= 1t x (0.025)2
" = 1. 96x 10-3 ~ fiWrn
1so -e aoo 91J10 ~ 9tt-lt"t11ilt~ ~ ~ ~ 100 ~ c31f'tifiiGtt ett(cst:tt -e
200 ~.fif. 't<f ~ ~- ~ ~ 311Rfc'Gt ~tfJ "1JlblC"ll ~ 1llfiit ~ filc"l~IS
9ll'llffiIDlfclfit~ 1000 ~. 'Wf<RPl~ fi!~iiJl"I ~II.ii"! f-Wlf <RI
~:

~~. ornt~.
M - µoµrANiN2 Ni = 150
- l N2 = 300
47t x 10-7 x 1000 x 100 x lQ-4 x 150 x 300 A = 100 ~ ~.'fii.
M= 2 .
= 100 x 10-4 ~~
= 0.2827 ~~)I
l = 200 ~.'fii.
= 200 x 10-2
=2~
µr = 1000
µ0 =47t X 10-7 ~~
\S'ttl(tcl - ~~ : 9lt1t"t11ilt ~ ~ "?C41C'li1 ~ 5 filfir ISIJlfDPtlRI: I ~ ~ ~ 'l(C'f ISMJ~C'\6
0.6 Cl5l'l ~. ~'lf. ~ ~ ~ I """"~ fil'RtJl'I l.'&1•11"1 ~?
'/

ornt~.
em dl
M = dl/dt dt = 5 'fii.fi'r. e!JI~/~.
0.6 =5x10-3~/~
5 x lQ-3
em=0.6~
= 12ocffi~)
I. Contents
~~~~~~~......,...,....~~~~~~~~

~ ~Jl\S\51"115 ~C'14fQPtffl
)08 ..... ~~~~~~..,........~~~ ..-..-tfltt~~~.,,....,-""
.
~ - ~~ : ~ ~ 11.it «t,•111 ~ 4 150lfiNliltf/~~ ~ ~ l!i(iij~(0\6 ~ ~.
~~ 120~1ldit~~6 l50lfil'hlW~~~~~.~. ~. ~~
~ . ~:

I ~~. c>fllt~
I e =dt
Mdl
~; =4~11~/~
Mdl1 e1 = 120~
:. e1 =Cit
e1 ~:=6~/~
:. M = dh/dt
e2 =?
120
=4
=30~
~.
Mdb
e2=(it

=Mx db
dt
= 30 x 6
= 180~~)1
~ifli('ilcf - ~8 : ~ ~ 'l~clht 41.r.t\ ~ 'e C4"\ltifi1 ll'lllilkil 0.95 ~ 'e 4.2xl0-5 ~'1fil'Glt I
- ~t!Jl ~ 'e C'tt¥Slft ~ dRf ~ ~ ll'lllilkil 400 'e 9000 I~µ..=
8 1t x J.0-7 ~ µ.. =800 ~ ~ - "ilf.l'clhi fic~fWli\ ~llJl91 ~ ~?
·~:

~~. c>fllt~.
M = µgµrAN iN4!. l = 0.95 filUR1
l A = 4.2 x 10-s q'iffiif;I~
47t x 10-7' x 800 x 4.2 x 10-s x 400 x 9000 N1 = 400
= 0.95 N2 = 9000
'= 0.16 ~Rf~) µ0 = 47t X 10-7
µ1t ,,; 800
M =?
2.e; fil1Gtf ~ ~ Jt~IV!kl "btJ ~ 1000 I dRf-0. ~ 500 9httff ~ ~
cistPr"l~ft-1CSR~~M~~JM1.5 ~~~~~t41C\lRICIJPr~
~:

~ ~. M = µoµr~N 1N2 c>fllt~.


i =2.5~
Ml N1=10009iJlD
:. A
µgµrN1N2 N2 = 500 9iJlD
1.5 x 10-3 x 2.5 M = 1.5 x 10-3 ~
47t x 10-7 x 1 x 1000 x 500 µ 0 = 47t X 10-7 ~~
= 5.9683 x l0-3 ~'&I~ µr = 1
- 7td2
Contents

~.A=4
4A
•. . d2 =7t-

= 4 x 5.9683 x 10-3 = 7.59~ x 10-3


7t
:. d = 0.087~~) I
if!,glifatl"""'t•tf - ~~ : >till'fll'I "5tlf ~ ~ ~ ~ 1i1t ())
~ (~ ~ G?tt'llJ4ft;C\!S 1500 ~
~1)~~4\51Jl~~~~~~~0.4~lfm~
~I~~~ 0.2 ~ "lkl:qf?te ~ 2 <:illl~RI ~I~~~~~
~~.~-<IS'\§~?

oort~;

.M = N2cp2 Ni = 1500 91JtD


h N2 = 1500 9lJtD
1500 x 0.4 x 10-3 h = 4 151JlfM>Rr~
=
4
h = 2151JI~
= 0.5 \9~ :. di= h - h
Mdl
~.e=dt =4-2
=2~

~I
=
0.15 x 2
0.2 ,2 = 0.4 x 10-3 \9~
= 1.5 ~ ~) dt = 0.2 ~
µ..=
'"' 'tct -~'\: 10cm2 G?t_,Clll'i ~ lOOcm ~~ ~~ ""'"~ ~~ 250
~ 1000 ~ lJ.$ '<qiCPf ~ I IOllHCifA RlC'l~\5 "11il~41JIRfil~ 1 ~ <ml"f ~
~ ~gftll'l "il\SICl''G'Jl'1 ~'ff I

M = N1 N2 aµoµr a = 10cm2
l = 10 x lQ-4 m2
250 x 1000 x 10 x lQ-4 x 47t x 10-7 x 1 l = H>Ocm
=lm
1 N1 = 250 turns
= 31.4 x lQ-6 N2. = 100 turns
= 31.4 µH ~) µr = 1
µo = 47t x 10-7
M =?
'"' '11'1-~lr: 1.75 x 106 AT/wb Rl'llCl'°GJIC•HI ~11/Mc9ilb¥ >tlRfclJ'll "lMliil'Cil 600 ~ 800
~~~~~~ldl~Jmf~~~~~l~'ff­
(:qi) ~ '¥C41t'l11 ~ ~<sl<Cl''Gll'1 ~
('4t) '<qiCPf ~ ~ ~gk41Jlwt l\9i<sl<Cl''GJ1wt I

oon~,
NA= 600
Ne= 800
-~C11-1-4u-11-.,, = 1.72 x 106 AT /wb
Contents

- ra ~NA~
2
_ _ (800)2 _
Ls I I
• <p ) "'
- 1 • 75 x 106 - 0 ·366 H (m)

(~) M = hNA Nsr = 600 x 800 = 0 274H {m)


. C'fl<IS'&J 'I 1. 75 x 106 .
tBlifl~.'il't - ~~: 900 ~~~~~A~ B "'IJl'lllC'ldf ~ ~' ~ ~ ~
~~~ 75% ~ •ct1'11tii ~~I~~ A-~ Wf5mf ~ 7.5A
~ 0.07 mwb JitW~"'l:fcmJ, ~A 'e B-~1lC'ff fil;kiUl'1 ..iilil¥'GJl-t~~ I
~:

~ 1Sflf.I, M = N~A!f>L
NA= Ns = 900
\!I~ !f>A = 0.07 X lQ-3 Wb ~.~
<t'l"l<t''!ll ..-,~ = 75%
75 !f>i = 0.07 mwb
ijls = 0.07 X' lQ-3 X lQO = 0.0525 X 10-3
IA = 7.5A
. M = 900 x 0.0525 x 10-3 M =?
.. 7.5
= 6.3 x 10-3 H = 6.3mH {m)
~lifl(ii't ~ ~o : 125 ~ ~ 250cm ~ ~ ~ ~ >tl~''U'SI "
cm2 ~"'ltti't ~
2501!1~200 ~~~~,~~-
(Cli) ~ •ct1C'l'i1 ~ fil~klJl'I -.•Nil<p°fJJl'I
(~)~~~-.~.~-~~~0.03~~ 2A~SA"'IHl<ilfih~I
GllHCii'il HlC'l!D'S "'IJl'llfiliUlf.4fitfC = 2000 I
~:
(<15) ~ 1Sflf.I, ~~.
M = µoµrANi N2 H Ni = 250
l N2 = 200
47t x 10-7 x 2000 x 125 x 10-4 x 250 x 200 A = 125 cm2 = 125 x 10-4m
2.5 l = 250cm = 2.5m
=0.628H~) dh = 8-2 = 6A
dt = 0.03 sec.
dli
(~) eM 2 = M x dt µr -= 2000
6
M =?
= 0.628 x 0.0 3 = 125.6V ~) eM 2 = ?
\;'fl4-iict - ~~ : 2.5m ~ ~ <>tfitiiClCIS'il ~ 2cm 'e ~ ~~ 2400 I ~ ~ ~ 1500
~ 'G1'iiJ ~ ~ lfMt ~I ~. ~ 1!00 fil~lJlwt ~l&l<p°fiJl'I ~ ~I
(I!!~ HlC'tfCIS "'lklfillJIRfiffC 1)
~:
~~. oon~.
a = 3.14 x (2)2 cm2 =
= nr2 12.56 x lQ-4 m2 l :r 2.5m
~ 1Sflf.I M = Mi N2 aµo µr r = 2cm
' l N1 = 2400
2400 x 1500 x 12.56 x lQ-4 x 47t x 10-7 x 1 N2 = 1500
2.5 µr = 1
~ =4n x 10-7
= 2.27 x 10-3H = 2.27 mH {m)
M =?

...
Contents

-- -----
-----~ ~ - --~ ---- -

---- =

~ @ ~~~'lelc<q "llC'il~ ~ ~.~. CF5 4ffRf ~ ~ ~?


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~:.2{~~: M=N2p1
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~~:M=N2N1
9t
~~ em .
'f'=>lf.I ....,~,-..:i : M = dI1/dt
~lfflf~?
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~~~ (linked)~. ~ fil~~~JIC1 m ~I

r ·' Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~4'ASP~~~~~

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di
e = L dt
Contents

~
,7 ------~-~-------
fiITT!> c<I \5llc<lfi'Nl :{.l!l1f.l!l<l5.
~~P"t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
)q~
™ a-1 10 cm2 ~ ~ 100 cm~~ ~ ~ ~lr.¥"c'Gi1 '691if ~ ~ 250 ~
1000 11JttR ~ ~ ~ I \'SflHCilil ~C*llt'S "'llilfffiUl~fillt 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ f11;ki111*1
~1•'61191 f.WlfCR I {<tl<ISI~: 'o<t]
~:
~~. C"fm~,
a= 10cm2 = 10xlQ-8m2
.M = N iN2aµoµr L = lOOcm = lm
.. L
Ni= 250 Ut-f
250x lOOOx lOx 1Q-4x47tX 10-7 x 1 N2 = 1oom
1 µr = 1
= 3.14x10-6H µ0 = 47t X 10-7

~I ~CR: L = dlf dt {<tl'Prfiife'iff: 'o~]


161-J:C~ ~.~ ~ ~ aT<u I ,

\'SllC~l'Sfl! ~~.~. ~""~7 ~ ~ -e ""'""''


~ ~ .~ ~ 9irn<i1~C\b QT ~.l!l1f.l!l<l5. '611c<1m ~. ~ ~N>"Tii1'8tc<I ~
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"'3:'~1~-
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(~) fil~mlG'\ ~ii~\;"115 ~.1.!11f.l!l<l5. I

'lrl ~CR:M=~
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1- I ~ CR QT, 9tt181t9ttfiit ~ ~ 4UIC'lil fil~kilJl'I ~14'6Jl91 ~ • ~ fil'll4'6JIC'I '4CPr ~
9lJtcR~~I
~:~~.Q~~I
''o~J
)o - .,.-. CR: M
1.... em
= dl/dt
: 'ob-] ~: '61-J:C~ ~.Q ~ ~ aT<u I
)) I~ CR QT, • ~ fil'll<cp6Jlcwt ~fili1Ul\S 4CilC'lil 9lJtmf ~ ~ 4UlC'lil ~ ~l4GJl91 ~ I
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~: GliJ:C~ ~.~ ~ ~aT<u I
~
)~ I ~ill'Sill"I ~ ~ ffl ~ ~ ~ A '6 B ~ ~0041t~ 800 9lJt5 ~I ~ ~
~
'4Cil"C'l'~~75% ISliiJltClb~~ I~ A~4i.f!Jlf4>'tillil~~~lfe'f0.5
mwb m ~"'l:f ~ I~ fil~ilJld\ ~14GJl91 f.Wlf CR I
: 'o'i]
~:
.~~ ~~. C"fm~.
~ _ N2p2 Ni = 800
l.!l<!ilU M - Ii N2 = 800
t~I 800 x 0.5 x 10-3 x 0.75 h =4A
4 ~12 = 0.5 x 10-3 l.!I~ 75%
= 0.075 H (Ans) = 0.5 x 10-3 x 0.75
M =?
Contents

. d"~ fll~k4illdt ~l•°GJlwt COMJt~ I ~f.Wtu~ ~I [~: 'o~, 'olb, ·~~]


~~·~ 161'iC~~ lb.8 ~ I
4~~-"i~~)fl5•.~.~. ~1COM1t~ ~d!Pn't~: e = L !! lfc11<fS/fiitc<ft: 'o~, 'olb, 'o'l]
/ ~: 161"J:C~ lb.~ <1~~ I
~ I 2.5 - ~ ~ $!Mi1Ci1W'i1 ~ 2 ~.1if. -e 9fRS ~~ 2400 I ~ ~ ~ 1500 ~
~ ~ ~ l'Mt ~. ~ ~ 1!"00 fll~klli\ ~l~JI., f.Wlf ~ (If!~ fat*llt15
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~: 1610j0C~ 6.5 ~I
<l" I 2.5 ~~ ~ $!M"'1ClC15'i1 91Jw ~~ 1000 I ~~~ 500 ~ '5li1J ~~·<int
~ l'Mt ~ I $ffili1ClCl5'll '<il1Pt 0.078 ~ ~ fll~kilJlwt ~14G"Jlwt ~1
~ : 1.5 filM<A:"1H1 I
~I - ~ ~ ~ f'6~t"' 600 91Jw ~I ~ ~ ~14G"Jlwt 360 fllfitCt(iifil I ~"'I
~~~~~14GJlwt0.306~~~91Jw~~~1
~: 510 9lJtD I
C\ I ~ .,i11514'GJI., ~1 ~ ~ ~ -e ~ "IClll\!lC'!l ~ loicsl•'GJlwt f.Wlf ~ ~. ~ ~ I
~ : 161'i0)1(~ lb.~ <1~ ~ I .
'

b" I ~ •.~.~. ~ fll~k41Jlfit ._"iffli~)fl5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ifil'lllC15'i1 1lill"J:$!IC'i1 ~ ~ f.WlT


I
i
'CIS'llt ~' ~ I
~: 161'i'~lb.8 <1~~ I

21) I d!Pn't ~ ~. ~ ~1¥'GJI., L = ¥


i ~: 161'i'~ lb.~ <1~~ I
''
Contents

f
r.)~j
~
Understand The Concept Of Co-ejJlclent OfCoupling.
•'o't]
C\.o~
(Introduction)
~~~~~~~~mt~ 1 WU <t>CW·'lC<t> ~~~~mt~~~ <!I~ c~ 16l•ut&ce ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~WU l<l'l,JNi<t>~IC<I ~~~ (Electrically Coupled) I.~ 9ft"tt9ftfiS!.
~ WU~ J'.'il~~~lC<l'e ~~~ (Magnetically Coupled) ~ ~ I <!I~ <mM ~ 'm:~
~ ~ (Physical) ~~mt~ ~ "ilt 1 <!I~ 9ft"tt9ftfiS! ~ WU <1>cm:G1~ QT ~ <!I~ miU
~ ~ ~ $ ~~ <lt '51t~fi'1<1>~1C<I '51~Jf&C\3 ~~~ (Linked) ~ I ~ ~~~ $ ~
~ ~. ~ fq@l~t&C\3 ~.<!!~.<!!'~. \5ltR2 ~ I <!I "'l'l!l~C\3 lt+t~~llt~ <l>C~CG'I~ C>1<11~1rnce
:~
~.<!!~.<!!~. \5ltR2 ~ I
<t>IC'Sl'G<11() ~ ~ ~ QT '51~~ 9ft"tt9ftfiS! ~ W-U ~ ~~~ ~ l!l ~~ ~<R ~
~ ~~ ~~~ ~~ <lt C<ill-~J$ic~'G ~ ~~~ ~ ~ I k'il~~~lc<l ~~~ <1\£~"3 ~~~­
l!l~ .~~ <lt C<l>t-~Ptcw& 'Gl<f "<f't91M~ ~ ~C{ll~~{l I ~'11!1~ ~~ fil~k{IJIG1 ~l~JIC+t~ 'llR ~ ~ I
~-~PlcttiG ~<in~-~'f ~
9ft"tt9ftfiS! ~WU <llC~CG'I~ l!l~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ '51~~ '6l~Jt&C\3 ~~~
(Linked) ~. <!I '51~~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~~ "<fit~~-l!l~ ~ <lt C<lll-l:fil>Pic~'G ~ <lit~~
'ifca'f I l!l'C<li K ~ ~ ~ ~ I K l!l~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~. ~ l!l~ ~ ~l:{BI~ 1-l!l~ cmi '<!Slr .
~~I

C\.) ~-~(Oll-6 ~~ -111ifcuMJt


(Explain Co-efficient of Coupling)
,- - - -•&m•- -,
11 I
I
I 12
I ~
•i--.--
•i- N1 N2 ..
(I) ~

I
(2)
'
I
I
1ql q2 I
I I
I I

·-----·----- '
fWI = °'·~ ~~wui~~~~~~~
C\.~ .,~ ~ l!l~ q~ ~~WU~~~ ll_'ff1 ~ (~) -e (~)~~I l!l~
~'if~~ WrJ~ ~ w.it ~ I ~ ~. ~ 'if~~ Ii ~ ~ ~ l!l~ $1 $ ~91"ff
~ l!l<f~ $1-1!1~ l!l~ '51~1<( ~ ~ ~t!Wf ~'l~ ~~~ms~ I ~~~~~ms m
~2~, ~-
<1>2 oc <1>1
<ll, $2 = K$1
<llK=_h
' $1
Contents

~~~~~~~~~r-..~~~~~~~

)H
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
151Jl\Si8l"115 ~CG'l<P$PW
~ )i{~ ~ ~ ~ m ~i{~ .~ '$[~1!fi ~. ~ +2 = +1 ~ ~~ ~ ~ "<Pt~~ ~'1
K = 1 ~ I ~ "19ffir~-~~ ~ ~ <l't 100% ~ I ~9WJI' "<Pt9ffir~-~~ ~ 100% ~ ~ill,
~c:t $2 ~ $1 -~~ ~ ~ ~ ill 1 ~<!$ ~ ~ "<Pt~ :>11~c;th1 C'lfpil K~~"if ~
~ 0.99 "151'1ft'- 99% ~ ~ ~ I
~~~ ~ (Coupled circ~it) C<Pt-~MsPtC{loU ~ "<Pt9ffir~ ~ :elC{lliSf~{l, ~Cf ~ ~~
fil~{lJl"l ~l<PUJIC"I~ ~ ~ ~ I ·~ <PCJIC"l~ 11~ C<Pt-l!IMsPlC{loU ~ "<Pt~~ ~ ~ ~.
~~ 1f"t~ fil~mtll'l ~l<t>'GJl"I ~ ~ ~ l!l'Cf~ ~• 1

~ ~-~~c41-t; ~ ~-1.ERJ 'ttf'l~• ~


· (Deduce the Expression for Co-efficient of Coupling)
1f"Cif "<PRf, ()) l!!Cf~ (~) Ji'il4'{li8IC<q ~~~ (Magnetically Coupled) 1'ff1 ~ (~ & '\.)) lltClttl
~ ~~~ 'il~ Ni l!l'Cf~ N2, ~~~"Iii~ A ~Cf~ cITT"'il'<P ~ ~ 1; ~-
)i{~ 4>CJICll1~ ~ ~ltJl"I,
Ni 2
Lt=
Z/µoµrA
~i{~ 4>C{JCG1~ ~ ~ltJl"I,
N2 2
L2= Z/µoµrA
~)i{~~h~~~<l>1$~91:f~.~.
Nth
$l = Z/µoµrA
1!1$1 ~ ~i{~ ~ ~~~ m ~l ~. ~
$2 = k1$1, k1= C<Pt-~PlC{loU "151<f"19ffir~
~~ fil~mlll'l '$;1'SltJl"I,

M = <l>2N2
It
Kip1.N2
It
=--x
KiN2 Nth
It l/µoµrA
KiN1N2
l/µoµ,A .................... ())
l!l4>4'~tc;q ~. ~i{~ 4>C{ll4'1~ 1f"t~ 12 ~ ~ ~ ~9rn m +2 ~.
4> 2 = N2h
l/µoµrA
· 1!1$1~) i{~ ~~~~m <1>1 ~~.
4>1 =K2+2, I!!~ K2 C<Pt-~PtCJJiU "l5l<f "19ffir~ I ~~ fil(;~{lJIG1 ~ltJl"I
M = p1Ni K2p2.N1 _ K2Nt x N2h
b h h l/µoµrA
K2N1N2
l/ µoµrA · · ··· ··· .. · · · ·· · · .(~)
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~P'ft~~~~
c<fit-4:filsPtc{l"& ~ "1~~ ))~
1!1'${ ~ct()) l!l:<f~ (~)~ct <ml,
MxM = KiN iN2 x K2N iN2
l/ µoµrA Z/ µoµrA
Ni 2 N2 2
= Ki K2 x x ---~
l/ µoµrA Z/ µoµrA
:<ft, M 2 = KiK2Liki
:<ft, M = °'1KiK2Liki
= "°1KiK2 x °'1Liki
= K. °'1Lik, (°'1KiK2 =K ~ ~)
.·~ ~ fil\;~{IJl6\ y,,~-1i....Jl....
"1 . . ··.,,
: . .K= 'WLiki = <f'CWt1'4C~~ ~ ~liJIC"I~ ~c:t~tG'l-~(~¥ .
~ litU
<f'C~C6\~ fil\;~~Jl'1 4:'(51iJl>i! "i!)'q~ <f'C~"lqlC~~ ~ ~liJIC"I~ ~~
~CG'\~ ~~ c<fit-~P!rnof; ~ "1~~ :<ft "1~~-1!1~ ~~ <ltG'l I
'\.~ ~ '<3 "l;il~
(Solve Problems on Mutual Inductance and Co-efficient of Coupling)
~;}-111':;""''ll""''1 - ) :
!llC"'141"ICCI ~ ~ Cl'C11C'l11 ~ ~llJl'I 100 fil~O(i1ft -e 400 fil~O(i1~ l ~
~-IQ~ 0.8 ~' ~ 'CjStPf ~ fil~41Jl'I ~llJl'I ~-~ ~ fi1;k4111'1
~llJl'I f.Wl<R I
~:
~~. ~~.
K= _M_ Li =100 fit.~= 100 x 10-3 ~
"°1L1L2 L2 = 400 fit.~= 400 x l0-3 ~
:<ft, M = K "°1Liki K = 0.8
= 0.8 x \)..-1-00-x_l_0-_3_x_4_0_0_x_l_o_-3 M =?
=O.l6~(m)1 Mmax =?

~K = 1 ~. ~ fil~{lJl'1 ~liJl41 ~ ~ I ~~ ~ fit\;~~Jl6\ ~liJl"I,


Mmax = "°1Liki
= -V~1-0_0_x_1_0_-3_x_4_0_0_x_lo---3
=0.2~~)
~~l~'llcf - ~ : $f)jl'&iildl ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lMllJIOC)j 12500 ~ 16000 I )'lf ~
~ Jitm 60% ~~~~I~ 5 IQIJlf4i>mRi ~ ~ ~ ~ 0.6
~~~~o.s~m~91:f~.~~<R=
(Cl') fil{Sk~Oldl ~llJl*I, (~) CCl'l"-~f'StC41~ ~';qst~ :<ft';qst~ ~I
~~:
~~.
~~.

I (<fl) M =
KicjiiN2
Ii
Ni
N2
Ki
= 12500
= 16000
= 60% = 0.6

i
0
I

er
~:
0.6 x 0.6 x 10-3 x 16000

= i.152 ~(m)
M
(~) K = ..jLiG
5
Ii
h
$i
$
M
=5~
=5~
= 0.6x1Q-3 'e~
= 0.8 x 10-3 'e~
=?
'-'
LiL2
Contents

I L _ N1<l>i
1- Ii

I 12500 x 0.6 xlQ-3


5
I ':=1.5~

l _ N2<j>2
L 2-
h
16000x0.8x lQ-3
5
=2.56~
u u <:k ~_,;_:i:,.j
------- - - 1. 152
= -/i.5 x 2.56
= 0.5878 {m)
'l'flf(i1"1- ~: 'lill'<Hl'l wt-r ~ 1i1t•<JIC'lil ~ ~ "It,~ 750 I )'Sf croltlf 1500
l!llJlfOsit~/~ ~ ~ lfC'f ~ cmft'f 11.25 ~~~I ~~ilJl'l
~llJl'I f.Wlr ~I ~ «fft •<JIC'lil ~ ..'&llJl'I 15 ~fi!C(91ij ~' ~ )'Sf cmft'f ~
m/1!11Jl~~~~~~""-"-t~~~~~f.Wlr~1

c>rnr~.

e2 N1 = 750
M = dl/dt N2 = 750
di
11.25
dt =1500~
= 1500
= 7.Sx I0-3 ~ e2 =11.25 ~
=7.5~~(~) M =?
L1 = 15 x 10-3 ~
_ N1p1
L1 - Ii L2 = 15 x 10-3 ~
~I/Ii =?
<ft h=h
'Ii N1 K =?
ISxlQ-3
= 750
=2 x IQ-5 IS~/~JIM~ (~)

K- M ~
- '1L1L2 . .h
0
I

7.5 x 10-3
= -/is x 10-3 x 1s x 10-3
= 0.5
=50%~)
I
I
Contents

-
' ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~~~~~~~~~~t#ft~~,......~~~~

-litzs:iiict - 8:
l<lit-~PlC{l4' ~ <tit9!TG'!~ . ~ ~~.
k'll~il'SIC<t ~ ~ <qsutC'l'SI ~~4111'1 ~1'31'1 32 ~filt.(9ifil I ~ )if ~ ~ .
0.004 ~ 3 ~ 15 ~ l!llJlfDPHllC'SI "'lfil<t~ ~. ~ ~1f ~ ~ ~
~.l!lif.l!I~. <n ~? ~ ~1f ~ ~ ~~ )if 1tif ~ ~. ~ ~ ~ltJl'I ~
<Rl~~~~~I
~:

~~. ~~.
M = 32 x 10-3 ~
Mdh
e2=~ dt =0.004~
32 x IQ-3 x 12 x 10-3 dh = 15-3 = 12~~)1~
0.004 = 12x10-3 ~JIM~
= 96 x lQ-3 ~ e2 =?
= 96 filf¢1c~1F& ~) N 1 = N l!l<f~ l1 = l
Ni 2 N2 = 2N l!l<f~ h = 2l
Li=l/ A .................. (~)
l µoµr L1 =?
Mdh k =?
e2=~

32 x 10-3 x 12 x 10-3
0.004
= 96 x 10-3 ~
= 96 filf¢1c~1#G ~)
Ni 2
Li= l1/µoµrA .................. (~)
N2 2
k = l 2 I µoµr A ................. (~)
( ~) 'if~ C<li ( ~) 'if~ ~ ~~ <ml'
k N2 2 li
- = -2x -
L1 N1 l2
k _(2N)2 J_
<ft, 'L1 - N2 x 2l
<ftk=2
'Li
:. k = 2L1
~,M=K°'1L1k
~ ~ 'if~"IJ, ~~ K = 1
:.M = °'1L1k
,-.. <rt M = \}..-L-1X-2L-1
~
,b
0
<ft M = "2..L1

'1M2
I

I
:. L1=
32 x 10-3
'12
I =16 {2 ~filf¢1f,;,.,c~~~rn
L2 = 2L1 = 32"2. filf¢t~rn ~)
~)
Contents

~~~~~~~~~ffi~~~~~

\
)~~ 15lJl15~l+i15 ~Cdl<IS\ij
~~~~~~~~~~~...--r-rilft"~~~
~l~'ilct - <l: k\i4'\il'SIC<q ~~ :qiCilC'lil fil~ilJl'I ~llJI .. 0.15 ~ ~ -.l~ ~ 0.851
fil~i1Jl'1 ~llJI.. 0.25 ~~~-.t~ ~~?

K1 = 0.85
M2 =0.25~

~:

~~. oorr~.
M = 150 x 10-3 ~
M = K "./L1L2
K = 0.95
= K.../Lx3L L1 = L
= K...{3L2 :.~ = 3L
= -{3xKL
M 150x10-s
:.L = ...j'3xK ...J3 x0.95 = 0.09 l
:.L1 = L = 0.091 ~ ~<f~
_ . ~ = 3L = 3 x 0.091 ~ = 0.273 ~ I
~llfl~'i1'1 - C\ : C~\i4'\il'SIC<q ~~ ~ <qS~C'l'l1 ~ ~l4'rm.. Li = 150 mH ~ L2 = 250mH
~ c:qsf-l!jr.~~-1; ~-~ 0.9 ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ fil~illl'l ~1.~11.. t5i
'<q5i I~~ fil~ilJl'l ~1¥lJI .. ~ ~?
~:

~~. oorr~.
L1 =
150 mH
(<Ii) M = K"./L1~
=
150 x 10-3H
= 0. 9 x ....j,....1_5_0_x_l_0_-3_x_2_5_0_x_l_0-_3
~ =
250 mH
= 174.3 x 10-3H =
250 x 10-3H
= 174.3mH~) K = 0.9
(~) Mmax = "./Li~ M =?
Mmax =?
= ..j150 x 10-3 x 250 x 10-3
= 193.65 x 10-3
= 193.65 mH ~)
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~til'ft"~~~~

Ql>t-~~Piai-0 ~ <15t911C'f~ -~~ C\


~--_,,..,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~......,..,...,.

...cim~lfCt- 17': 500mm2 ~'(C~ ~ 150~m ~~~~-IQ~~~~~


~ ~ 400 ~ ~O{Jit;t\!i 600 "R~ ~ ~I ~ ~ klCiltiM
"llilfll~Jlf.i\fitlt 1000~, ~~CR I
~) ~ CliUICilil ~ ~"1'5l•°GJl91 I
('4t) fll~~Jlil ~"1'514GJl91 (~~ ~~ ~~)

~~.
a = 500 mm2
= 500 x 10-3 x 10-3
= 500 x 10-6 m2
27tr
r = 150 mm
(500 x 10-6) x 47t x 10-7 x 1000
= 150 x 10-3m
2 x 150 x 10-3
Ni = 400 turns
·o.9s 2 x 1Q3 x 10-i3 x 103
N2 = 600 turns
(I <ff = 15 x 10s AT-wb µr = 1000
'.R, ·~
{<Ii) Li - ~
N~ Li
L2
. =?
=?
M =?
- (400)2
- 15 x 105
= 0.1067H~)
N2
L2 =_a
~

1 ~ ~0l~s = 0.24H ~)
6
=

(~)~~~~.~K=l
M = K x'1Li ~
= 1 x ..../.-0-.1-0-67-x-0-.2-4
SOmH = 0.16 H {m)
~ ~- ~ : ~ ~ \QJl'lflstlil ~ ~ ~ ~ CliUICilil ~ltpl~lf\lit\!i 12V-l!Rt ~
~~"flt~ C"iC~lllCCii ~~~I CliUICilil "'IJlill~lil ~ ~-

121 1 Coil Coil 2

Ri= 60 R2 = 7.50
=
N1 75 turns N2 = 125 turns
=
+1 0.025 wb +2 = 0.02 wb
Contents
~~~~~~~__,......,..~~~~~·~~~

))lY .
~~~~~__,.....,....~~~~~~~·~~~r*t
'¢1Jl15"Sl'>l15 l:C61<t>t'Gf>tffl
'~'<IR'
(els) ~ <ISCllCVRI ~ ~l"P'G°Jl'I
(-t) ~~llJl'i ~151¥'G°Jl91
('f) c<lit-\!l~f3tui~ ~~
~) ~C<156IHI <ISUlC'iil ~ *l:91=15.. .,l;p,. ,.iGtn,1-91 I
~:
(els) ~cmrcwr~
h =-
v
R1
12
=6 =2A

. L
••
_fuil
1 - h
= 75 x g.025 = 0.9375 H ~)
(-t) ~~IDl'i ~1¥UJl'I,
M = ¥ = 125 ; 0.02 = 1. 25 H ~)
('f) c<lit-\!l~~UliG ~ ~
K = ~ = 0.02 = 'o 8 ~)
$2 0.025 .
~) M =K L2 VL1
'ft, 1.25 = 0.8 .../0.9375 x L2
1
'ft, '10.9375 x L2 = c)~ 5
= 1.5625

L2 = (1.5625)2 = 2 60 H ~)
0.9375 · \ '"'~:ni.
· ~llfl~'ll't - )o : 14,000 ~ A CISC'Pf ~ 15,000 ~ B-CISC'Pf l'f1t CISC'Pf "'IJli!IC'idl ~ ~
~ A-~ ~~ 1'tm 75% B -~ ~ ~" I ~ "dl'JfJ 'fft ~ Clf, A-
cmrcwr 7.5A ~ ~ ~ 1Rl'f 0.5 mwb ~· ~ ~ B-~
0. 75mwb JStl{ ~9ijf~ I
~'<IR':
(els) ~~llJl'i l:ii151¥°GJl'I ~
{-t)-.t~ c<lit-\!l~f3tc41iG I
. -,.,., ~:

~A- ~ ~~ lJSt<J{ =:.0.5 mwb oort~,


~ B- ~ ~~~ lJSt<J{ = 0.5 x 0. 75 = 0.375 mwb NA = 14000
Ne = 15000
(<Ii) M =Ne$ $A = 0.5mwb
IA
IA = 7.5A
= 15000 ~ 0.375 = 750 mH ~)
7 5 Is
M
= 7.5A
=?
, (..,/) L - NA $A - 15000 x 0.5 - 1000 H ~) K =?
. ""' I - I;- - 7. 5 - m \ ,.,Q....
Contents

Li= NB+ = 14000 x 0.7S = 1400 mH ~)


fo 7 .S \. "'~:n~
M
:. K =..,/Li Li
= 7SO = 7SO = 0 634 (ffi)
..../1000 x 1400 1183.22 . ' I

~l'fl~'ll'f - )) : ~~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~~ 125cm ~ ~ 12cm2 ~~ ~-~ ~'Plit '


1500 9lJtrnf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4UIC'l'll ~'Plit ~ 2500 9lJtrnf ~
~ ~ f.l~QfSICq ~ ~ l 4UIC'li1 °r;l<11~0ilcrt~~ ~-~ ~ 4UICVl'll
'l5(lo:tt ~ l ~<ff-
~) ~ 4UICi\'ll ~14l;Jl91 l
(~) ~ 4UICcrt'll ~14'(;1191 ~
(ft) ~~~?q'l)f%4'51Cq Mt'lf ~11'•f~WPl'.m<Rt~ Clf, ~ ~11'.~.~­
~~ "1'll"'"'1'llC4 ~~. ~ >tf?ilfitl!S ~l4l;Jl9f? [~: ')~]
~:
O'rnt~,
~m.
l =12Scm = l.2Sm
(<fi) Li = 7toµrA l x Ni 2 A =12cm2 = 12 x 10-4 m

= 47t x 10-1 x 1 x l.;; 10-4 x (1S00) 2 = 2 .7 mH ~)


Ni
N2
=
=
lSOO
2SOO
2 µ0 =47t X 10-7
(~) Li= 7toµrA X Ni µr =1
l .
Li =?
_ 47t x 10-1 x 1 x 12 x 10-4 x (2500)2 _ H ~) L2 =?
- 1.25 - 7 ·54 m \."'~"'
L =?
(~)M=Kx~
= 1 x -..j2.7 x 7.S4 = ..,/20.3S8 = 4:SmH
~ L =Li+ Li+ 2M
If, A-
= 2.7 + 7.S4 + (2 x 4.S) = 19.24 mH {ffi)
~
t;l'fl~'A'f -. )~ : 12,500 ~ 16,000 ~ ~ A ~ B ~ ~ "11li11C'1Cwt \Olq~I B-~ $t
~"Cfl~~ 60% A-~~~ I A~ 5 IOl1lfDi1$~ ~~
0.6 filfif ~ !!I~ ~ ~ 0.8 ~-~ lft4Jif ~"'l:f ~I C4l-fqfStut~ ~
~~<ff I [~: 'o~, 'o'tr]
~lflif:

~m. O'rnt~,

m
<mM A-~ ~9i:f = 0.6mwb NA
NB
= 12,SOO
= 16,000
<mM B-~ ~~~ m = 0.6 x 0.6 = 0.36 mwb
$A = 0.6mwb
M NB$ $a = 0.8 mwb
= --i;-
IA =SA
= 16000 x 0.36 = l lS 2 x mH IB =SA
s K =?
Li = NA $A= 12SO~ x 0.6 = lSOO x mH
IA
Contents

~ = Ns ~B= 16000 x 0.8 = 2560 x mH


Is 5
, K = M = 1152 = 1152 = O 595 ~)
·· .../Li~ ....f 1500 x 2500 1936.49 ·
j .l;llfl('llef - )'-' : 10000 ~ 12000 tto'f ~
A 'e B ~ ~ "'IJl~lt'IC'I ~ I B ~ ~'
~~~70%A-~~~IA-~6'51Jl~~~Wf·
0.7 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ B ~ 0.8 ~ ~ $ ~91:f ~I c<Jt-.
l!lfitiP\utoC ~~~~CR I [<JJ<p/~: 'o~]·
~:
~~. oon~.

m
<ml""f A-t\!j ~'91::f = 0. 7mwb NA = 10000
= 12,000
~ B-N ~~ m
Ns
= 0.8 x 0.7 = 0.56 mwb
~A = 0.7mwb
M Ns~
=-,;:-- ~B = 0.8 mwb
IA =6A
= 12000 x 0.56 = 1120 x mH Is =6A
6
K =?
L1 = N~A~A= 1000~ x 0.7 = 1166.67 x mH
~ = Ns ~B= 12000 x 0.8 = 1600 x mH
Is 6
M
:. K = '1L1 ~
= 1120 = 1120 = 0 82 ~)
~ 1166.67 x 1600 1366.26 .

,,
Contents

----·~

------ - - - -- --- -- -

·1

~1Ut'iC"ltbCl5Jlfit ~~~~7 {~: ')"']I .


\~ : 9ft1"119ftfi't ~ ~ 4>C{ICG'1'!1 ~ ~·I!!~ ~ ~ ~ ~ $ Wf ~q <ft
~~fi'14>'0lc<l \51•ufflce j'{~i!tW ~ ~ <IC'!t ~ <rnfG'f ~ J?"l~{l;;slc<t j'{~~ <ft ~"'IC"'lffl4>JIM ClSt~ 1
.\

e
~~l:fJ ~~j'{~~"'I ~~I :
'l5(Cf<i15t~ ~<fCl'f? {~: 'o..,, 'o~, 'o~, 'ob-, 'o~, '))j
9ftfiCt ~ ~ <tiC{ICG'\'il I!!~~~ ~ ~ ~ \51~~ \51"1Jffl~-iij'{~i!tW
~ I I!! \51~~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ \51fi~ <15t~~-l!l~ ~"'I <ft ~-~MsPtl{l4' '\5l<r ClSt~~ <f"CG'f I I!!~ K
q:tm~~~I

8 ~~ ~ ~-~Pic41'1i 'l5(Cf~ ~~? f;q/45/Ptwf: 'osJ


m : 1!1<1$ ~ ~ ClSt~ ~lf.¥cli'!I ~ ~-*PlCilU '\5l<r <15t~~ ~ 0. 99 \51~ 99% ~
~ 9ltC'il I

v>:e, m
<lit~~~~ ~1
: ClS191ffef~-1!19 ~ ~ 1 ~ 9ltC'!I 1 ~ I!!~~ ~~""5 1 1!19 cmi ~ m ~
> /

ri· ~""~cisnfit <lit9t'IW ~ ~ ~1


rm : ~ <t>CiJG'\e<t> ~ ~ j'{~~ ~ Wf 1!)(!$ C~ \51"iJt'&Cl!l ~ ~ ~ 9ltC'il ~ <IC'!t ~
<rnfG'f ~ C<t'l)f\§<ti'Slc<l j'{~~ <ft 4:CG1<t>t'fi<t>JIM <l't~ I
~ I CCISt-l:flffJi«1'1i 'l5(Cf <lit~ f.Wt"R ~ ~ I
M
m : ~-~MsPJCil4' '\5l<r <15t~~ K = ~
L1L:i
'\ I k'li.,,Jl"SIC"l ~~~<lit~~ O!IUileMli!\bl ~?
m : l?'IC~{l'Olc<t j'{~~ ~ fii~l?M"' l:~1<pu11C"J1'!1 ~ <15t~~ ~ ~ '9919 f.1..;'!I ~ , •
<15t~~ ~"'I~~ fii~{IJIG'\ ~l<tS'fiJl+i ~~~I~ J?'il~il'OIC<t j'{~~ ~ <15t~~ ~"'I~
.fiC{lllSf~{l I

17' I ~ CISUIC'I~ ~~~ ~~~. ~~ CISC4i'ICCIS ~~. ~~<fCl'f?


m : 1!)(!$ <t>C{ICG'\'il ~ ~ ~ c5i'if<li ~ ~w~--t. ~ \51919 <ISC{IG'\e<t> j'{~i!tW <ruf, ~ <15t~~­
l!l~ ~"'I <f"CG'f I

~ I 1!1$ ~<15t9t'IW ~ K ~ ~~7


\
~ : I!!~ ~ <15t9fG'llS ~ K I!!~ 1!R 30% - 40% I
)0 l ~ CCl5lt CISC!IC'Fl'I ~~ '5l9Af CISUw•1~ ~ ~~~. ~ CClit-l!lfif~c{lol; ~~ ~~7
m : ~ ~ <t>C{ICG'\'il ~ ~ \51919 <t>C{ICG'1'!1 ~ j'{~i!tW ~ ~. ~ c<lit-l!!MsPJC{l4' ~ <15t~~
K=O<ft1"U~I
)) I~ CCISt-l!lfif~Uloli ~ ~ ~ CCISif?
'
Contents

K- M Li = 81mH = 81 x 10-3H
- '\/L1L2
L2 = lOOmH = 100 x 10-3H
:. M = K '\/L1L2 K =0.9
= 0. 9 '\/,_8_1_x_l_0_-3_x_l_OO-x-1-0--3 M =?
= 0.081H = 81mH {ffi)
~I ~-~Pie~~~~~~~?
m : <lit~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ I 9fMt91lf'<t ~ ~ <1>rnC'1'!1 \fl~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~ 15(~~ 15t"IJfGC'b ~~~ ~ I \fl ~~ \fl~~~ 15t"J:~ <lit9@r~-l!l~ ~~ ~ C<l't-
~f°*Ptc~i& ~ <lit9@r~ <KLi I \fl~ K ~ .fl<IS'M ~ ~ I K-1!!~ ~ ~ 1 ~ '9lmf I ~ \fl~~
~~~ 1 \fl~ crnT <!>11 ~ '<ltt<li I l!'il~~ISIC<l ~~~ "13:'$ <t>cm•ci'!1 ~ <lit9@r~ C<l't-~M>Pic~"G I
M
K = '\/L1L2
"
~ I ~ C<l5t-~l)iJIC~~ ~~~ cuMJl CR I
m: 15l"J:C~l1 'U ~ I
8 I C<15t-~P!C~~~~~-l!Rf "l~~cpcuMJl<R I
m: 15l"J:C~l1 '1.~ ~ I
\
{~'
"'ll"'l'll-1~"'11: 08, 'o~, 'oq, 'o~, '~~' '~~' '"'"
']
Contents

~
08/
Understand How Inductance Are Connected In Series.
,'b".o~
(Introduction)
~H \!!~~~qt <ISCmPBI ~~ ~~ ~l'ill<llR<ti~C<I ">!~~~~~.~~qt ~'&l~Jl~'!I
~ ">!~~~ ~ I ~l~Jl~'!I ~ ">!~~~ '!'"<stc<f ~ 9'1G I ~-
(:>) \!!~ ~ *~ (Additive Series Connection),
(~) >il<!lil<t>f&~ qt '\5fC~~ ~ ">!~~~ (Subtractive or Opposing Series Connection) I
~~~:~~~qt~\!!~">!~~~~~ Cli, \!!~ a>l1!1>1~~ ~
~ "<fl'C'!I, ~ ~ ~'&lgJIC"l'il \!!~ ~ ">i~·CllN ~ I I!! ~ ">i~m!C~ ~ 'I~ ~
~ \!!~ m ~ I ~ <f'C{ICG'l'il ~ ~SlgJliJi (L)-1!!~ ">itt'<t fil\Skmlai ~i5l~Jl"I (M) ~~ ~ I
\!!~ <ISC{ICG'i'!I ~'&l<t>UJl'fl ~ 9trn I
stFial•f&\5 <n" ~~ ~ ~ : ~ 'I'fi; ~ qt ~ I!!~ ">!~~~ ~ ~ Cli, I!!~
3151~>1~~ ~ ~~ '~ l!lr<IS ~~ qt~ ~ "<fl'C'!I ~ ~ ~l<t>gl~'!I >il<!lil<t>ffl~ qt
'\5fC~~~">j~~~~1 l!l ~">j~~~~~~~~m~1 ~
<ISC{ICG'l'il ~ ~l~JliJi (L) ~ fil\Sk{llldl ~l~JliJi (M) Rem~~ I \!!~ <ISC{ICG'l'!I ~~ 9trn I
b".) ~~ ~ltJIC~'SI ~~
(Define the Expression for Inductance in Series)
~~~

-
(1)
-
(2)

~~.
M = ~ ~ fil~{!Jlai ~i5l<tiUJl'fl
L1 = :>~~ <t>rncvt'!I ~ ~l~Jl"I
1~/ k = ~~~ <ISC{!Cdl'il ~ ~l~Jl'fl
11 ~' :>~~ <f'C{!Cdl'il ~ ~"!f\5\S:>J\S ~-1!!~.l!l<:JS.
di . ( )
e..:_: - L1 dt (·············· .. :>
~~~ <?Mi1~-~ ~"ffu\S>i\S ~.l!l~.l!l<:JS.
di
e2 = - k dt ...................... (~)
~' ~'l~ <ISC{ICG'i'il ~ ~ :>'l~ <f'C{ICG'l'il fil\Sk~Jldl ~"ffu\5>1\S ~.l!l~.l!l<:JS.
di
e12 = - M dt ............... ('o)
Contents
~.,..,..,..~~~~~

~~8
....,........~~~~~~~~

<¢1Jl\51Sl"llli l:<•i14t'GPIF& ·
~~~~~~~~~,....~~--~~,....~~~

~~ 4C~CG1~ ~ ~ ~"ift <l>C~CG'f~ fil~~JIG'! ~;qffli\;>t\5 ~.~lf.~llS. .


di
e21 = - M dt ................. (8)
~~ (~). (~). (~). (8) ~~. o$~;qffli\;>t\5 ~.~lf.~llS.
e·= e1+ e2+ e12 + e21 ·
di di di di . di
.
\
<ft, -LA dt = - Li dt - L2 dt - M dt - M dt
di di
<ft, -LA dt = -(L1 + L2 + M + M) dt
:. LA= L1 + L2 + 2M, ~~LA=~~~ ~1911"1 I
:>tl~tcpffle~~"'ll~ ~~

{1) • . 12)
~ : b-.~ ~ISIWJIC"I~ >tl~l<!>FGIS ~ ~t~
b-.~ ~ Wtill ~lWJlt:"I~ >tl~l@<:S <ft ~~t ~ ~t~ ~~I
~~.
di
e1 = - L1 dt .............. (~)
di
e2 = - L2dt ................ (~)
di
e12 = + Mdt ................ (~)
di
e21 = + Mdt ................ (8)
~~ (~). (~). (~). ~<r'-(8) ~~ ~. o$ ~oqffli\;>t\5 ~.~lf.~llS.
e = e1 + e2 + e3 + e4
di di di di di
<ft, - Lsdt = - Li dt - L2dt + Mdt + Mdt
di . di
<ft, - Ls(tt = -:-(L1 + L2 - M-M) dt

~ is >t~W~,2~1<1>f&1S ~'<!ilWJl"I
1
+ I
b'.~ 91Jl'511"11Ci1 ~~ ~14GJICWf'51 l!I~~
(Derive the Expression for Inductance in Series)
11 Li

(1)

(2) .
~: ir.~ ~IWJlt:"I~ "1Jl~14"flC1 ~'-~
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~ ... _,........,.~~~~

~ltJI~~ ~ ~~"ClTM ~~(t


,~ -~-"'J?!.l'!'-~-~-~-~-~"'-=:'! !'2!..!.'!'~~*!"~.!'"..H.!~~~4!'-~~r.!-~-'S'!"~'T'!.1 ':.'-~?t-!"!t.
1

~9tm ~ ~l°§Jl~~ ~ ~~"ClTM ~ ~ 1· fil~k!lJl61 ~ltJl"1c<P if~'IJ ~ ~ ~ ~


~.
·~ i=h+h
di dh db
="" 1' -dt -
- -
dt +dt
- ............... (')
..
di
~,e=Ldt
di e
~. dt =I
~~ ~·R ~ct~ 9fN3m ~.
-e =e1- +e2
-
L L1 L2
~· ' !:.L = (..LL1 + L2J
l._1 e
' ~~~'"' e = e
nmro; i = e2
1 1 1
·-=-+-
"L L1 L2
~ l = L1 + L2
' L Li L2
L1 L2 ~ :.
~. L = Li + L2 , Iii~ L ~ <(61iiJl"1 I

~~ GllCdllt><il!l fil~!lJldl ~19Jl"I (M) if~'IJ ~ ~I ~ ~ltJl"I ·~ "1~"'"'1C~~ ~9Rf CCIStif


~~~Im~ ~ltJl"1 ~ "1'iil"'""l~'iil ~9Rf ~ ~ <rnf, ~ ~ ~19JIC"1'iil ~
fil~!JJl61 ~l°§Jl'I (M)-l!l"'iil' ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ c5l'ff C'Jl'il! ~ ~ "1'iil"'""l'ii!C<t5 ~ <rnf,
~ ~ ~'<5ltJl"1 ~.
L1L2- M2
L=L1+L2-2M
~~ c5l'ff C'Jl'il! ~ "1'iil"'""l'iilc<P ~~ (Oppose) <rnf, ~ ~ ~ltJl"1 ~.
L1L2- M2
L = L1 + L2 + 2M
v.'-' l:ac5l~GJl"1 ~wof<JHI JfilJfJl'SI ~
(Solve problems on inductance in series)
*';5;..,,..l~"""~.....
'1 - ~: ~ <1Se{le*111 ~ ~ll\I., ~ 10 ~~~fil.....
e~....
~~H- '<3 25 ~file'(~~ I 1!1~ ~~M"i
~1'31¥1 12 ~file'(~~~~ ~llJ1¥t ~CR I (<Ii)~~~ ~ ~
~~. (~) ~~ ~ Jfl<iQl¥iU"S ~ ~~ I
~:

(<Ii) LA = 11 + L2 + 2M oon~.
= 10 + 25 + 2 x 12 Li = 10 filMcq:~~
= 59 filMcq:~~ ~) L2 = 25 filMc~~
(~) Ls = L1 + L2 - 2M M ,= 12 filMc~~
= 16 + 25 - 2 x 12 LA =?
= 11 filMC~ii~ ~) Ls =?
Contents

~~.
LA= L1 + k + 2M LA =0.6~
<ft, 0.6 = L1 + k + 2M .................. (~) Ls =0.1 ~
Ls = L1 + L2 - 2M L1 =0.2~
<ft, 0.1 = L1 + k - 2M .................. (~) M =?
~'f'Z ~ct~ ~'f'Z ~ct~~. K =?
0.5 = 4M

= 0.125 ~ (~)
0 5
:. M = 4
~'f'Z ~ct L1 ~<f'Z M-~1l ~ ~ -
:.L:i=0.15~
~.<lit~'Z~,
M
K = \)L1L2
0.125
= '10.2 x 0.15
= 0.72 (m)
~ttlf{'llcf-~: ~~~~~~ 4UIC'I~ ~l;'<Sl.Jl'll.9 ~ ~·0.7 ~I~~
~ 0.5 ~~~ ~ ~1-Jl'I ~ fil~M'I ...'<5llJl'1 ~CR I
~:
~~. ~~.
LA= L1 + k + 2M LA = 1.9 ~
<ft, 1.9 = L1 + k + 2M ................. (~) Ls =0.7~
~<f'Z Ls = L1 + k - 2M K = 0.5
<ft, 0.7 = L1 + L2 - 2M ............... (~) M =?
~'f'Z ~ct~ ~'f'Z ~ct~~. L1 =?
k =?
1.2 =4 M
:.M = 142 = 0.3 ~~)
~'f'Z ~ct M-~1l ~ ~-
1.9 = L1 + L2 + 2 x 0.3
<ft, L1 + k = 1. 9 - 0.6
<ft, L1 + k = 1.3 ............. (~)
~. fill[;k~Jl"'I ~l~Jl'fl,
M = K\)L1k
.,.., _/TT M 0.3
~1, -vL1L2 = K = 0. 5 = 0.6
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~.rr~~~~~.rr~

" ~15l~JIC'1'il ~ ~~~ ~~ C\


-~"'!'-~-~-~-c;.ll_"!f!¥'!" 1.! 1=1-~-~!1"~-!:'!"!!~!''!lt-'!~1-*4!'- 1!f!~!Pt.~-~1~-~-Gp~?.!'"!.".IJ":O'-";!'"!'t'"'!"!).
·~~.
(L1 - L2)2 = (L1 + k)2 - 4 L1L2
.. = (1.3)2 - 4 x 0.36 [{"') \S {8) ~)
'
= 0.25
:.L1 - k = 0.5 ........... (<l)
~Cf("')~ (Q) w.tt'>t ~.
2k = 0.8
:.k = 0.4 ~ (~)
(Q) "f~ ~Cf k -\£!~ ~ <@mJ I

L1=0.9 ~(~)

~ - s = 2~ filfilc"~ra -e 50 filfitc"~ra ~1•1191 ~ ~ •ui"'~-~...J~~.--~~. ~


..... ·.···.·'-~
. ~ ccist-~fils~c{lot 85% ~. ~ ~ -e PnciQICl51te ~-~ ~llJI~ -~~'l "<Ff_j
~~: L.. .. ··-
~~. . oort~,
I
M =<1K"./L1k i L1 "'.' 25 filMC~"irn
. ,;..\--
= o.85 x '1/25 x 50 k = 50 filfq,c~Rl
= 30.05 filMc~Rl K = 85% = 0.85
LA =?
Ls =?
.'LA = L1 + k + :{M
. = 25 + 50 +-2 x 30.05
_ ~ 135.1 filM<A:iiRl ~)
>11<\ll1<111U~ ~ ~1~1141 ~~m'>t ~
Ls= L1 + k - 2M
= 25 + 50 - 2 x 30.05
= 14.9 filM!k1Rl ~)
~- <t: 1£1~ 1£1~ :>i1ciGICl51t'5 ~ ~~ ~ Cl5GIC'l'SI ~ ~llJl1'1 ~ 0.5 ~ 'S
0.2 ~I.~ ~~llJl91 0.2 ~~f.W1fCR 8
(cp) ~~{IJl'l ~1Cl5°GJl1'1 (M)
(~) ~"'l'Sllt'SI ~ ~l-Jl1'1 (Ia)
('1") <lil"W ~ (K) I
~:

~~. oort~.
(<t>) LA = L1 + L2 + 2M LA =0.5~
<ft, 0.5 = L1 + k + 2M ............ (~) Ls =0.2~
Ls = L1 + L2 - 2M L1 =0.2~
<ft, 0.2 = L1 + k - 2M ............. (~)
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~.71_,......,.,.~~tftt~~

~~b" \5lJl\S~l•l':.S ~CG'l<.ISITa~!U .


(;9·•1'"'"•lfwt~~~~~~..,~~,..,.~~~~~~<P.t~

~·R ~ct~ ~o:f~ ~~I


0.3 = 4M
0
:. M = ,/ = 0.075 ~ (m)
(~I) ~o:f~ ~ct L1 l!l~~ M-1.!l~ ~ ~ I
0.5 0.2 + L2 + 2 x 0.075
=
:.kl= 0.15 ~ (m)
(~) K = _M_ = 0.075 = 0.433 (m)
'1L1L2 '10.2 x 0.15
~~l'(it'f - ~ : ~ •UICdt'SI ~ ~ltJI., ~ 35 '6 45 iilfil" ~I ~ ~ ~~ ~
~ltJI., 140 fiilitc~01HI ~ :>tl~l•IU15 ~ ~(~IC"t ~ ~?
~:

~~. Oiltt~,

LA = L1 + kl + 2M. L1 = 35x10-3 ~
<rt, 2M = LA - L1 - L2 L2 = 45 x 10-3~
LA- L1 - kl LA = 140 x lQ-3~
<rt, M = 2
Ls =?
- (140 - 35 - 45) x lQ-3
- 2
= 30 x lQ-3~

~.
Ls = L1+ kl + 2M
= (35 + 45 - 2 x 30) x lQ-3
= 20 x 10- 3 ~
= 20 ~MC(il~ (m)
t§~i'(il'f - C\ : ~ ~ ~~ ~ •Utcdt'SI ~ ~ll.JI., 55 fiifilc'("1Hl I llfii.. •utwt ~ fii~~Jlwt
~ltJI., 12 fi!filc~"1Hl ~ ~ :>tl4Gl•IU15 ~ ~(C'llC"t ~ ~ltJI., ~?
~:

~~. Oiltt~,
Li} = L1 + k + 2M LA = 55 x 10-3 ~
<rt, L1 + kl = LA - 2M M = 12 x 10-3 ~
= (55 - 2 x 12)x1Q-3 Ls =?
= 31x10-3 ~
~.
Ls= L1 + k- 2M
= (31 - 2x12) x 10-3
= 7x1Q-3 ~
=1 fiiMCki~ (m)
Contents
~~~~~~~~.,.......,.~~~-71...,..,..,~~~~.~~

· ~IWJIC"1~ ~ ~~~ ~~~


'!'°'.. ~-=ff!•!"'JLL'?'~:f1!.*f~!*:!!.!~frl??!!it"'!>!J~~·5f~JWJ' ..~ ..~~-<llJWJ.•!. !l'l.1.
-~-'*J':!'"!..!'!1 ..~~-~--=>".."""!1!:4:i>J'!"..'!'!".l ..

~5fl'('i1Cf - 11' : 0.5 ~ 'e 0.3 ~ ~


'.t;\SlfJl'I ~ ~ 4<Jld!C4 ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~
'4Mfir'- ~ 0.65 ~ ~~ '.t:'&IJJl'I ~ '41f s
~) ~ ~~W"t~ltc• ~'4'1f
(~) ~ ~~~~ ~1{'4'1f l
~:

~~' ~~'
L1 =0.5~
M = K "'1L1Li
Li =0.3~
= 0.65 x '\/,.....0.-5-x-0-.3
K = 0.65
=0.25~ LA =?
Ls =?
(<Ii) LA = L1 + Li + 2M
= 0.5 + 0.3 + 2 x 0.25
= i.3~(m)
(~) Ls = L1 + Li - 2M
= 0.5 + 0.3 - 2x0.25
=o.3~(m)
~5fl'('ilct - ~ : ~ -e "ll<iQ1¥lt\5 ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ '.t:'&IJJl'I ~ 0.65 ~ -e
0.53 ~.1 ~ ~ '.t;\SlfJl'I "l?lt"'l~ft~ ~~~fl 8
~) fil~IDldl '.t:'&IJJl'I
(~) ~ ~ '.t:'&IWJl'I
('1")-.t~~l
~:

~~' ~~.
(<Ii) LA = L1 + Li + 2M LA =0.65~
= L + 2L + 2M Ls =0.53~
= 3L + 2M L1 =L
<ft, 0.65 = 3L + 2M .............. (~) L..i = 2L
~.
Ls= 3L- 2M
en, 0.53 = 3L - 2M ........... (~)
~"i{~ ~ct~ ~"i{~ ~ct~~ <mf,
0.12 = 4M
. 0.12 ~ ~
en, M = - - = 0.03 1.«."'11~ (~'<:l'!'I)
4
(~) ~O{~ ~ct M-1!1~ ~ ~.
0.65 = 3L + 2 x 0.03
en, 3L = 0.65 - 2 x 0.03
en, L = 0.65-; x 0.03 = 0.1966
:. L1 = L = 0.1966 ~
Li= 2L = 2 x 0.1966 = 0.393 ~

Contents
·/
~~~~~~~~~.~~~~~~~
)'eo
~·~~~~...........,...~~~~~..,~~
~Jl\'6'Sl"l15 ft ....... ~~~

·-/'{<St) ~91fit" ~~.


M
~ K:= vL1~
M
= ...jL.2L
M
=~
. 0.03
= ~x (0.1966)
= 0.1019 (m)
'5'11(11"1 - )o : 12 ~ 'e 15 ~ ~ ~llJl'I ~ ~ •tt'lt'¥ $'1Sll'&'lllt'll ~'Rt~ I~
~ ~ fil~41Jl'1 ~llJl'I b' ~~ ~ ~ ~lfJl'I f.Wlf <R :
\") ~ fil\;RtJl'l ~llJl'l<>t\( "'lt1"""1tt• ~emf
(~) ~ "'lf"""lft'¥ «tt\ttl'f emf
('1') ~ "'l'll"""lt'll'll ~ ~ ~~'iltemf I

~~.
L1L.2- M2 " L1 = 12~
(iii) L = L1 + L.2- 2M L2 = 15~
12 x 15 - 82 M =8~
12 + 15 - 2 x 8
= 10.54~(m)
· LiL.2- M2
(~) L = L1 + L2 + 2M
12 x 15 - 82
12 + 15 + 2 x 8
=2.69~(m)

(<St) L = L1L1L.2
+ L2
12 x 15
= 12 + 15
=6.666~(m)
~W.l(t't-)): ~~~~~(~~'l!lft"'ll~~CRtlf~~l:+'GJl'I lOH ~
SH~ 1-~~ ~ -e fil~41l'1 ~l:+°G"Jl'I ~? {<ti'fJ/~: 'o '!]
~:
~ 1£1~'- 1£1~ ~ 10 = L + L + 2M ---------(i)
~ '5lt~~ 1£1~ ~ 5 = L + L - 2M ----~--(iif
(i) 'i{~ 'S (ii) 'i{" ~ct ~ ~.
15
4L= 15 q"l, L""4= 3.75H (m)
(i) ~ ~ (ii) 'i{~ ~ ~.

4M = 5 <ft, M = 45 = 1.25H (m)


Contents

.... ~~ ....... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

• ~1~31"'1~ 'PITTm ~~ :>~:>


-~-~'!'-~-~-~-"'!'!'i"l'.\...,!"l-'!'\.~~~-S'!"!!~.:o"-'p~-"?"!!~-"'!'!ln'!!'-~-'~:!'!'i."!!•!"1-~-<!i".!'!'!!V-•-~.

ts'tl'(ilct - )~ : SH ~ 3H ~ ~-~l•°UJIC'l'll 1i,t 4UlwtC4 ~ ~ "4ilt ~I ~ 1i,t


. 4UICifi'll ~ CC!it-l!l~~Ul-li 'l'!lt1' ~ 0.8 "(l, ~ <>ilfclSGlt'll ~14fiJl'1 ~ "41,
~~ ~ (4) ~ IOO~ft'. ~ (~) ~-~· ~ "4ilt"(l I
~:

~~' C"im~,

Lt. = L1 + kl ± 2M L1 =SH
kl = 3H
i!I~ M = K'1L1 kl K = 0.8
M = 0.8 x -[5;J = 3.1
{<fS) Lt. = L1 + kl + 2M
= 5 + 3 + (2 x 3.1) = 14.2H ~)
(~) Lt. = L1 + kl - 2M
= 5 + 3 - (2 x 3.1) = l.8H ~)
ts5fl'(i1Cf - )~ : lOH ~ lSH ~ ~ '$:'<sl:+lJl'1 ml 1i,t 4UlwtC4 "'IJl'lllCwtC'I ~~~I ~
~ ~~ fil~kmlwt ~1¥~1'1 6H "(l, ~ <>il~c'G'll C1i1'i ~1¥~1'1 ~ "41 -
(4) ~ fil~41Jlwt Jl'ltl<>i\~ "'l'll"""l'llC4 ~ ~ l
(-t) ~ fil~k4111wt Jl'ltl<>i\~ "'l'll"""ICH ~'11"4ilb'11Cf <ml',. I
~ : {<fS) ~ ~ 11"C~ fil~~Jl"'l ~il51<fiUJl'f1 ~ ~' ~'t fil~ml"'l 3Pl•JP1~Q; ~
~~I~~~ ~ilSl<fiUJlifi ~I
L1 = 10 + 6 = 16H
kl =15+6=21H
1 1 1
- =-+-
L1 L1 L2
L1 + k
L1L2
L1k
~Lt. L1 + k
16 x 21
16 + 21
=9.08H~)
OH~

": 'o'i} (~) i!!~ ~ ~ 11"C~ filG~m1111 ~ilSl<fiU11'f1 ~~ ~' ~'t filGI?mlci !rl<JIJ'!~Q; ~
f<l*'llllb~'t ~I ~ ~ ~ ~l<ii'GJl'f1 ~I
L1 = 10-6 = 4H
L2 = 15- 6 = 9H
Lt. = L1k
L1 + k
4x9
=4+9
=2.77H~)
Contents

-~~~~~~~~~~~ ....~~~~~~
. )~~
..
'51Jl151Sl"115 ~CG14fGPrlt
-~.,.,...,..,.~......,....,~~~~~....--r-rtltt~.-,~~1Wf~~«r~

•'flf(11ct - )8: ~ ifCtC-t'll ~ bltfil°Dl'l lJ.t'Dt T1 ~ T:1 l!tm ~ISl4'GJl't lOOmH. ~~tft'll
. °Gl11f°ifiil"I ~ Ta ~ T4, l!tm ~\Sl4'GJl'I 1200mH, hi 'mPf ~ 9'Mt~ ~
~~I ~ ~ °Dltfiliili\ (T2) ~ ~41ft'll ~ °DklfiliilVI (Ta) ~ ~ CRl
~ I lit~ T:1 ~ T4-dff 11'00 ~ISl4'GJl'I 2400mH. ~CR I
~:

otm~.
Li = 1000 mH
~
~ = 1200 mH
Lt = 2400 mH
M
L
=?
=?
~
..:

Will : b-.8
~) lMif M'f~
Lt = L1 + ~ + 2M
2400 = 1000 + 1200 + 2M
2M = 2400- 1000 - 1200
= 2400 - 2200 = 200
:.M = 200/2 = 100 mH ~)
(tt) ~~"Wt~
Lt =Li+ ~-2M
= 1000 + 1200 - (2 x 100)
'Ir I
= 2200 - 200 = 2000 mH ~)

)o

)) I
Contents

~~~(tAIC'1~~14'G:ll'i~~~·I f<tl'fStPtt<lt : ·~~. ·~~]


- : LA = Li + L2 + 2M,
~i ~Cf'- L2 ~ 4<JIC"l'!I ~ ~'<!il4'f1Jl'1 ~Cf'- M fil~ilJl"I ~14UJllJI I
~~~(tAIC'1~--614'G:ll'l~~fiMI
,v - : Ls = Li + Li - 2M .
01 ~l~Jl'i~~~,.~~~~? f<t/'fStPtc<tt : 'olP]
- : ~~~ ~14U'!I <ft 4C'!IC"l'!I ~"C"ltt<li 91if91if tll'lll'1ll~IC'1l ~'-"CAttt qsm ~. ~ ~14'f1'll <ft
~14UJICIJl'll ~ ~""CAttt <ft~ ~'ij\;" CftG'r I
I I ~~~~~? f<t/'fS~: '08}
- : ~ ~ ~ <ft ~14U'!I ~~ ~'-"tAttt qsm ~ ~. \JI~ !Pl"l>t\( "'l'!1""91'llC4 ~ "4t1t
~ ~ ~14GJl'I-~~ ~~ ~ ~""CAttt ~ I
~I :t:614'G:ll'l-~~~~~'e~~?
-=~~,~~-
(~) ~~~~""CAttt
(~) :>!IJfUJl4f6<e <ft '5TC~" ~ ~""CAttt I

"' 'tli(}31~\i~~~~?
- : ~~~<ft ~14'f1'll ~~ ~""CAttt <R1 ~ ~. I!!~ !Pl"!:>!\~~ ~"'lll'6:t'1l ~
~t4 'ilS{~ <ft~ ~ "4t1t ~ ~ l:'<!il4'f1JllJI \JI~ :>!l<c'Qt:qsf6'8 ~ ~'."tAltt cstl'I' I
~I ~Cl'UICdlil 'tli(}31Cll~\i~~f5iir~CR I
- : ~ °i{'. lr.~ aFu I
r I ~ ~ l($ CllCilCdlil ~ ~~ ~tl\6~~ ~(tAMft; '4tif ~ ~?
- : I!!~~'.~ :>!l<c'Q14IU'8 ~ ~'."tAltt ~ I ~'t ~~ 4CilCG'l'll l:'<!l4'GJllJI~ 9l'm I
~I 9bliil'llC'1~~""61~1'1 ~fil'kIDt'1"'61~1'1 C.~~~~~14'D'JM ~~C'l't I
........... T = LiLi
"~. ~ Li+ L2
)0 I "'IJliil'llC.-. ~ lJ.$ ~14'D'Jl'I ~ ~ ~14'G"Jl'I "'1J ~ fiM ()) lMif ~ C'lfti1l '5JP
"'lii""'li!C4 ~-.t1f (~ ~ ~ C'Jl'iiflJP 91ii""'liiC4 ~-.t1f I
~ LiL2- M2
"~: (~) Lp = Li+L2- 2M
L1L2 - M 2
(~) Lp = L1 + L2 + 2M
)) I 1Mif~"lt4CilwtCCll~~ 91,R!C\6~~~. ~C1lflt~l4'G:ll'I~~?
- : ~ tff6 <l>CildfC4 ~ ~'. ~ ~~"ClfM ~ ~. ~ o:rfU ~l4'f1JllJI Lt = L1 + L2 + 2M
~--

Contents
~....,...r-n-~~~~~"".r-tftt~~~.S!'f~~~~~~~

)~8
~~~~~~ilft~.n~~~~~~~f"Wf'lltt~~
~JllS~l"115 l:C61<istQf>tfG
)~I ~~it'CISUl'IC<P~~I~ 11,~C\!~<Rf~, ~~l<is'GJl91~~1'
~:~OJ:'$ <l5C'IG1G<t> ~ ~(~ ~t~ ~ ~. ~ ~14GJI~ Lt= L1 + k - 2M
)" I ~~ ~ ~ CISCilC'l'il ~l<is'UJl-t.:(Pl 9ltlf?
~ : ~OJ:'$ <l5C'ICG1'?1 ~~ JPl<Jt:>t~~ 11'!!"""1~'?1 M~l'"liilb'?l'f '<l5'C'?I' ~ l:'<sl4GJl"1~ 11'Rr I

"':. ..

[~: ·~"]

~ ~u<UI tC1St51S
()) I!!~ JPl<Jt:>t~~ 11'?t"""l'?IC<IS ~ '<l5'C'?I' I ()) I!!~ JPl<Jt:>t~~ ~<ft~~ '<l5'C'?I' I

(~) l!l~~t~ 4C~Cdl'?I ~ ~ (~) l!l~~.~~m~1


l!l~m~1
(~) I!!~ ~ l:'<sl<t>&Jl"I l!lit ~ (~) l!l~Fmn'>t~
fill,S~~JIG'I ~~l<is'GJl"1 ~ ~ I
(8) I!!~ 4C~CG'l'?I ~~l<is'GJl"I ~ 11'Rr I (8) I!!~ <!iC~CiS'l'?I ~~l<is'GJl"I ~ 11'Rr I

~I~~~~·~?
~ : ~WU~ <rt l:'<sl<ISG'?I I!!~ ~t~ ~ ~ Cll, I!!~ JPl<Jt»i~~ ~ ~ '<l5'C'?I',
~ ™ ~14GJl'"'1'?11!1~ ~ ~t~'>t ~I I!! ~~t~'>t ~~~~I!!~
m ~ I ~ <l5C'IC61'?1 ~ ~l<tSGJl"I L I!!~~ ~©k~llli1 ~l<tSGl"I M 0l"1 ~ I i!l~ 4C~C61'?1
~l<tSGJl"I ~ 11'Rr I
"I Jtl<Uil4f5'0~~~·~?
~ : ~WU~ <rt ~l<tSU'?I I!!~ :>tt~ ~ ~ Cll, I!!~ JPl~P1i{~ ~ R~ Cllfe<IS
I!!~ \5T~ <rt~ ~l:ft-1 '<l5'C'?I' ~ ™ ~'<Sl<tSGJIC'fl'?I :>tl<d11<1if&~ <rt '5TC~t ~~"~'if .<fCG'f I I!!
~ ~t~ ~ ~ ~ ~ R~ m ~, ~ <t>c~c"l'?I ~ l:'<51<i>&110J1 ~
R~ m ~ , ~ "'~'61'?1 ~ l:'<514&11"1 L ~ filtsk~111i\ ~1<is&11"1 "f.mn'>t ~ , I!!~
<l5C~C61'?1 ~l<l5GJl"1~ 11'Rr I
8 I ~~~~~*-~~~~l<p°f;Jl91-~~~ I
~ : ~ ~t-1!1~ ~ l:'<sl<i>UJl"I ~ Lt = L1 + 2M. ~ '5TC~t ~ ~ l:'<sl<is&Jl"I
~ Lt = L1 + k - 2M.
<t I 11Jl1llC'1'1 ;Jf(C~lctt ~ ~~ml'I ~f+fJJIC•HI ~~.1
~ : 1!1<1$-.rtMrn ~tt-llf~ fil~~JIG'I ~1514UJl"1 = L1 + M12
~91'Stt<f '5T11it -.rtMrn = k + M12 •
~I ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ..•Nil<l5°6Jl91-~~~I
' '
~: ~ b-.) ~taT<IJ I .,,_
Contents

~ : 'dl°iW(\1 l7'. ~ aWcu I


~ ~#~~ ( . ~ ~d'rQ ~Wl(tl't ~ --~1¥c'G¥110H ~SH· '.
~I
• ~ I cml"f ~ ~ -e fii~411'1 ~14'lJl't ~r /<IJ"P/~ : 'o <i/
: 3. 75H l!I~'. 1.25H .
•@~mll1!1f "N;Cqlf:it ~14'G"Jl't ~~'ff I f<!l"Ptfitcctt : 'o~J
~ : 'dl!J:C~l1 l7' .~ aWcu I
I I l;<!il4GJl't dRf ~~ ~(Cqlf.'Stt ~~'ff I [<tli#S~: 'o~]
. LA = Li + L2 + 2M
~ : 'di"!- 17'.) ~~ ~~ aT-u I
t' I l:<!il4'fi119f ~ Jtlc«il.-ftJ'O ~· Jf(C~Ut"tt ~~"fl I La =Li + la - 2M
~ : 'dl°i~ l7' .) ~lt ~~ aWcu I
bI 5 ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ ~14''D°Jl91~l{fit«ili\CC!i~~~1(tl'tt I~~ ¥C1Ci'l'd
~ C¥t-~Cilot ~ ~ 0.8 ~I ~ ~ ~ Jtlcifil• ~ :>t(Ctilt'1 ~
l:cs14GJl'I ~'ff I
emf, ~: 14.2 ~ l!I~ 1.8 ~I
~~ 4\ I 50 flllilc~'lkl ~ 250 fillilCA'lkl ~ ¥Ci'lt¥ f~41'6lt"4 ~ ~ ~ I ~ cml"f ~
fil~flJl*I ~ICl"DJlwt 0.095 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ >UctGI•~ ~ "N;Cqlc;tf ~ ~1+rm'f
~'ffl
. ~ : 0. 94 ~ l!I~" 0.11 ~ I

~ )'I ,..614'G"Jl'f Mt1f ¥\6'dlt:ct ~~lftlr ~~~~~'ff I


JI l!I ~: 'dl°iC~l1 l7'.) O{"aFu I
~
~~
Contents

'.~.o~
(Introduction)
~ ~ "Sl\4\%:i ~ l!!Cf~ ~ ~~ ~ 1frn l!l~ ~ ~ ~ ~<fart ~I ~­
~. ~.~.~~~~1~~~~~~~~"1'1C4
<.f'11 ~ li'ii4lWI <ft li'ii~4'ilct (Magnetisation) I ~ct, ~ I!!~~~ ~ lll~ ~ ~ I!!
~ ~l:ft ~ 1frn I ~ I!!~ 1fC~ ~~ k'ii4l~ii (Electro magnetisation) ~ ~ ~
~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ((101'ilc<P ~ ~~ ~ ~ l!lm ~1m1S1c<1 ~ 9frn ~, ~- ~
~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ((I01'ilC4 ~ ~~ ~ ~ l!lm ~ift'SIC<I ~ 9frn I ~- 9tt<l>t
~.~~I
~.) 91lf~ ~4i·l~ii ~
(Explain Magnetization Properties.of Materials) ·
~ ~ ~ ~ I!!<!> I!!~~ l!!Cf~ ~ <!>~ I!!~ m
(N} l!!Cf~ 1!1'<1$ ~ct (S} 00!"
(Pole) ~ 1 1£1~ ~m ~ (Molecular Magnet) <fart~ 1 1l15IM<i> ~ l!lm ~ 1fC~
1£1Cd11C~C'1115IC<I ~ (f5in: ~.~-<!>) I ~ 1l15IM4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9frol ~ I

c::J c::J CJ c::J c:::J

c::J c:::J c::J c::J c::J


(<!>) (~)
f5in : ~.~ (<Ii) ~ ~ti'ft 1£1Cd11C~Cd11.~, (~) ~ ~
m ~ 1!)'<1$ c5t1ff ~~ct. ~ ~ ~~ ~ lll~ ~ ~~ ~ ~. ~~
J:i'ii4Sl~ii ~ ~ ~ 1£1~ l!IC'11C~Cd11 ~~ti'ft ~~ ~m ~'C"lt ~ct ~ lll~ 1£1~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :11~1Stl@lfl c~~Jii[Q; cffi:qs ~ l!l~ l!ICf~
~ ~ (f5in : ~.~-~) I ~ cffi:qs ~ 1!1'<1$ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 1£1~
R•m c~~Ji~~ ~
(N) ~ l!ICf~
"SI~ ~ct (S) ~ ~9'N; ~I
c:qsti{ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ l!Jl'ilCi\f&4-~Jlt:&rn~l"1 ~ I ~ 1£1~ ~ ~
~ ~~ ~ ~. ~ 9f@~ C'JRill l!Jl~-~ ~~I
l!Jl'i101ffl<li-~JIC&rn~l'1, ~ : ~. ~ ~JIM'il C<f'"t ~ ~~ "SI~ (Unneutilized) ~91Qf
~. ~ ~ l!Jl'i1CiiCGIC~lf&15 ~ ~ l!Jl~ ~-C~ (Dipole)-1£1~ ~ ~ 1 ~'ii4M~ii
~ 1£1~ ~ ~~-C~ lll~ ~ct 'e ~ct~~ 'e ~~~~ct~.
~ ~ ~ c:qsti{ ~ ~~ .tfCl5M 9lm ~ I
~ ~-~~ ~ l!Jl°ijCiit:'GIC~lf&15 ~ Jilll"S'il(}'I ~-C~ ~ ~ ~ I 1£1~ ~ ~ '.
~ ~~ ~ ~ l!J"l'ilCiiC'Glc~lf&IS ~ "Sl~ct ~ ~. ~~'e 1£1~ ~-C~ ~ti'ft
~~~'e~~-1£1~~~1 ~
~ ~ ~1'i101f&:qs ~11c:&rnfllG1 ~-lll~ 911'!1NflJlf.lfaif& .!f<f ~. 1£1~ 911'!1NflJlf<lfaif& ~
~~~~~9frnl ~'c<ISN0 ~~~~-e l!l~lllii47t x 10-1.
Contents

~....,-tlltt~~~~~~~.....,...,.....~~~~tl!lt~~

- - - - --~~l:!!~!~ .... ----..,,_.-----.~~


101•tci\l;~tf"IC"1'll ~ (Amount of Magnetization) :
~ lft<IS, 1!1<1$ "1M"1C~C\S~ ~ l l!l<f~ ~-~ A.
. m
w "1M"1C~C\S~ Utif
.
j'f~~ N l!l<f~ ~

~I~ H = -l l!l<f~ m ~Bo= NoH, ~ ~ -oJl1~1C~ (<ft'U-~ ~)~~I :


~ ~ "1M"1C~l5c<P l!Jlt~I~ -.:rt ~ ~ ~ 111m ~ ~. ~ m-~ ~ 9ltt<f ~ >.
B = NoNrH
~m-~~~ctB-Bo=No(Nr-l)H [·:H= llJl~~~~Qf)
= NoH'
~ ~ CIJl'?;ilf 451~<:&~ ~I'~.
NI' NI'A
~ H' = - l = -;p;- ................................. (1)..
l!l~ "1~4S~C'~ ~-91'11i ~ l!l"<p<p "'1141\bC"'I ~ llJl~ ~-c9fta'l ~ ~ l!l<f~ l!lt<IS M ~
~ ~ ~ I M-c<l'i 111~ llJl'l<AGl~C$?"tit'9 ~ I
~~ H' = (Nr - l)H = M
M
or-= Nr - 1 = x
H
~ x-1!1~ ~ l!l~ ~ l!l<f~ l!lt<IS 111~ llJl~ ~-~ (Susceptibility) ~ I l!l~
~
B =Bo+ NoH' = No(H + H') No(l + X)H = NoNrH
Nr = 1 + x, l!lt<IS Relative 91Htfil~JIM~t& <ftG'r I <q-llJl~ 111tmlr x = 0 CIJl'?;ilf Nr = 1 ~ I
~1C"1ft<p ~ Klci'ft&IS ""ll~fil~JIMMt& 2500 ~ ""lmf I m
18'1'1tC"11t:+ SOlc'Gf1'llC'1'll ~ (Properties of Magnetic Materials)
llJl~ ~Jlc;'GKl~ICG'I ~ ~ ~~ ~. ~~ ~-
~ I 11Jl'1C"1ft<p m ~ (B)
~ I ~"1coG"1Ptt& ~ ~J(;.{[;rl;c'6l"fif (I)
~I ~Jl'IC"'lf-&<p ~ C?U~Qf (H)
B
8 I ""ll~~~JIKlfdlf-& (N), N = H ~ B = ~ m
H = llJl't(;.f[;rl;~~ ~
I
<t 1~91ff;f.4fdit& (K), K = H I = ~coG"1Ptft ~ llJl'1C"1Url;C$t"lif
~ I lITMC"1t&<t> Kl"'lJl<t>UJl"I
C\ I C4Sl~IPr<a ~ (Co-ercive force)
b- 1 ~"1co'G~f>t"1 ~
~II!!~~~
~ o I C~Pt\~J li'f llJl'1 C"'lf-&'61~ I
~.~ ~ "'llif1'44 \!lfii•I
(Prepare a list of magnetic materials) ·
~ j'f<f ~ ~ ~ "'ll4Sfif'!l ~ l!l<f~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ I '5IC"i~C<p ~ ~- Cf1
~le"'lft<p ~JIWKl~Jl"1"1 <ftG'r I ~-
(~) ~-~IC"1ft<p ~ (Ferro-magnetic materials)
(~) 91Jt1ft-11Jl~ ~(Para-magnetic Materials) \,
(~) ~-11J~IC"1f-&<p ~(Dia-magnetic Materidls)
Contents
~..,_,....,..,,.~~~...,...lfi!ft"~~~~cb-~~~.....,..,..,,~at~

)~lr . .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
\31] 115'81'115 ~C'1<15fQPlf&
{)) ~-''JIJNC"'fft;qs ~(Ferro-magnetic materials) : Qr ~ ~ ~ qBft ~ c<lfi<t \3ll<flfij\,
~' 16ttYBIC4 cmm-1U1'>1Cilt°G4 ~ <fC"l I ~- ~' ~' ~ IQ~ ~ryrn ~~~ ~
~ I ~ '!>fl'llfil~JIMfdlf& 200, fetc<fSC"l'll 300, '<fll<llC*&'ll 250 ~I m
{~ 91Jt11l--.ul'1Ciilt'4S ~(Pata-Magnetic Materials): Qr ~ ~ ~ qtm ~ \3ll<ifi~<P ~'
'i!llC'HIC<fl 9fmlt-1U1~ ~ <fC"l I ~- ~Jl'1~M{ll11, ~' "'IJl"ll~{llif, f&UIM{ll11 ~ I
{") 'litm-11'JMCiilt'4S 9fl'ittlf (Dia-Magnetic Materials): Qr~ ~ ~ qtm \31\<IS(~ ~ '
~ ~ ~. 'i!llC11'llt4 ~-11J1-stc"'lf&<fl ~ <fC"l I ~~ IQryrn ~ ~tf&'8-~ ~ I
IQ~ "R-1U1~ 11JlcGrn{l\il'e qG'(t ~I ~- ~' ~' ~'~'~~I
IQ~~ ~ ~ ~ \St't :;qsm lftll 1 ~- '
(") ~ ~ ~ : Qr ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I !!IO'Blt4 ~ ~ 9fl11Qj' <fC"l I

m
IQryrn 9il'llfil{IJ1f4fd1F& c<lfXt ~ct~ <rr ~ ~ ~ , ~- mqj ~. ~ ~.
~ ~, ~ ~, filtscifG1ai, "1l'll11Jlil'rn ~~, 11Jl1JtlM1S1 ~, ~ ~
~I '··
(~) ~ ~ 9fl'ittlf: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "11, 'i!llC11'llC<P ~ ~ ~ <fCG'f I IQryrn
9IJ'llfil{l11!"4fd1F& ~ m ~ct~ <rr ~ ~ c<lfXt , ~ - ·
(i) ~ ~ (354% Cu, 5% Cr, 5% Tungsten, 56% Iron)
(ii) Cillilfil{ll11.~ ~1% Carbon, 1 - 6% Crm ~ ~)I
(iii) Ut~~ ~ (4 - 6% Tungsteq, 5% carbon, ~ ~)
(iv) \3IJIG'IR (25%Ni. 15% Al.~~) .
(v) \31Jl"IMC<ISI (18% Ni, 10% Al. 6% Cu. 12% Co.~~)
(vi) ~ (60% C.u. 20% NL 20%Fe)
(vii) l-~ (60% Cu.· 20% Ni. 20% *'co)
(viii) \313141C<l5111Jl'9t
(ix) '154lGIG'lf~'G
(x) ·~J~C<l5111Jl'3!1 I
~-"~,~~,.~~~~
(Describe the Properties of Iron, Steel and Other Magnetic Materials)
~ (Iron) : ~ ~ ~ -e \3ll<fN5Cl6 ~ ~ l<l"l)N5<fl ~* 1 ~- ~.
'IS!"'llC'llU'll, 15l{l"'flC111, Jal'1il5'll111'll ~'!JIMC'! '4Bl ~cut~~~ I ~ 1ft~ ~ ~
~~~I IQt\6 ~ ~ W, ~ ~ ~ ~ <ISCil'f IQ~:~~ 91rn<I~
~ lftll t C'8ISltG'f ~ ~ ·c<lfi<t ~ ~ I ~ct IQf[I 1111"'1>{614 <f'G'f (Coercive Force) IQ<f~
f«)GC'llPl:>! ~~~~I ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~I '5C<f 151~C'S!C"'l'll ~~
~ ~ ~ iffi I <f'll~ ~ ~ ~ (Molecular Magnet)~~~ I ~ ~
~~~I
f.KD mqj ~ <ifiC{l<ISf& ~'1 ~ ~ ~­
'
'
()). mqj~~~~~I
(~)~$~IQ~~,
(~) ~$ ~ ~ \311<15fij\, ~ I
(8) mqj ~ ~ ~ 'PfRfctl6 ~ lftli IQ<f~ ~ IQ~~~~~ I
(a-) mqj ~ 1535oc ~~ ~ IQ~ 30000C ~~ ~G"'llC1\1 '~ I.
<~)mqj~~~~~1.a51

l
Contents
~:=1!!1-~~~~.,.._,._,..,.~~~~~~~~~rlll't~~

.--.,..,__...__,__..., ~-c..~~~L!~;...___,~-~-----...~~
~ ~ \S ~ <lt ~' l!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1S~ ~~I~~~ 1S~
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 91Rl~IC'M11S~~~ ~~ c:i!t~ ~~~~I~-
(~) ~ ~ <l1 ~ ~ (Cast Iron),
(~) c91Ut ~(Wrought Iron),
(~)'~:"91~ <l1 ~(Steel) I
()) ~ ~ (Cast Iron) : ~ ~ ~ ~ct ~G'f"'ll~G'!<f'~IC<l ~ c<ffi't '<ttC<fl I l!I~ ·
~~ct~~~ 2. 7 ~ 3.6%, PtMCISC"'l 2 ~ 2. 7%, ~>t~~ICJ'\ 0.15 ~ 0.5% l!l<f~
~ 0.15%-1!1~ f.trr> '<ttC<fl 1 ~ ~ Rledtt'G~ 'Pft~fimJIMMfG ~G'f"il~G'!'<P"5tc:ci CR ~ 1 .
,,
I
~~'1~.~l<f~-
(~) ~ ~ ~ (White Cast Iron),
(~I) ~ ~ ~ (Grey Cast Iron) I
~) ~ ~ ~ (White Cast Iron) : ~ ~ ~~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 1S~9f:l
~11!1~~~(Fe3C)~9l~~1~~~~~9tt>W1~~1
(~)~~~(Grey Cast Iron):~~~~~~~~~~~~ I
l!I~ ~ ~~l~l~<>G1l ~~~~(Crystal)~~~ I~~~~
~9f'lfit~~ I~~~~~~ I ~~~~~~M~IC"'l1l~ I .
(~ c91lit ~ (Mild Steel) : l!I~ ClllUllJJU ~ ~ ~ 1 1!1~ ~ttl ~ ~ct
~G'f"'lli{G'!<f''SIC"l CR~ I~~ 0.1 ~ 0.2% I l!I~ $.l 1.6% ~ ~ 9M1e:f' ~ '<ttC<fl I
l!I~. ~ ~ct ~ \!I~~. ~ <.!l<f~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ \!I~ f9t1mT Cl! C<flt"'l' ~ \S
1:5tl<ff'h1l ~ ~ <.!l<f~ <.!l ~ l!I~ C9fUt ~ <fG'ft ~ I
(~) ~ ~ ~ (Steel) : ~ ~ ~ c91Ut ~ ~9f'll't c<ffi't l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~9f'll't
CR ~I l!I~ ~ ~cf~~~ 0.25 ~ 1.7% ·'<ttt<f' I ~ \S ~ ~ ~
1S9Rf~<mT~~~~I~-
~) ~ ~ ~ ~ (Soft or Mild Steel ) : l!I~ ~ ~ct 0.1 C~ 0.2% '<ttC<fl I fflM
c9!Ut~~~~~~~.1~~c~~~~~
(JplT~~~I •
(~) ~ ~ (Hard Steel) : .~ ~ ~ct $.l 1.7% ~I \!I~~~~~~
~ (Fe3C) Qrr~91 ·~ ~I ~ ~\S 4:""'111C\b1l ~ ~ (Ni), C\!!>lfil~I~ (Cr),
~Jl!lflM'St (Mn) ~ ~ ~ l:RfCirn 'Ji~~ ~ (Alloy steel) 00 <lim ~ I ·
(~)~~(Sheet Steel):~~~~~~~~~~
~ ~ I ~ ~~ \!I~ 1S9Rf ~IC1l<t>ff;, \!I~ ~ OftUt fi"tU ~ ~ ~ ~
.~ ~ ~ ~filsPtC~M 911\S'm ~I ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <l1 fi"tU ~
Jil"1~1llll1l ~ ~ ~ ~ Rc>&C11PtJ'\ ~CR~ I
('Cf)~~ (Cast Steel) : ~ m ~··~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1S~~ I~ ~ct~
~ ~ 5.5% ~Jl!lflM'St, 0.08% ~J'j~~IJ'\ \!lq~ 0.06% ~ '<ttC<fl I
~~~~
o~) ~-~ (Carbon~steel) : MC~\$1IC'l ~ ~ CG'f1-~ ~ ~ ~ ~I
~~~~~I
~~ct~~~~~~-~~~~.<f~-
(~) ~~PG~f&1l ~ I
(~)~~~I
(~) '1ll"'l~G'l<f' <f'1 (Coerive Force) l!l<f~ ~ct-~ (Retaintivity) ~ ~91 ~
~l~fil~JIMf¢lfG.lFl 9lm I
Contents

~~~~~......,..ttlff~~~~~~~_,_,...,..,.,~-'J"fW'f·~

)80
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-rfltt~~""'
. 151Jl\51Sl"115 ~'61Cl>$PJW
(~) PifiiCl'ii-~ (Silicon-steel) : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~~ ~ 9fnr I m
91HlfiBBIMMf& ~ 9fnr I ~ C'!lfer>iiJl"'I ~ 9frn I l!l~ ~Cf l!l~-~ G'pf l!l<J~ ~ ~
R>i<:GC'!lPt>!-G'pf'{3~ 9fnr I
l!I~ ~ ~-151J1G'rn l!l.Pr l!l<J~ ~.Pr. ~ ~ ~ ~~~~I ~
PtM<PC"'l'!l ~Cf~~~~~.~~-
(qs) 15il'!IC~bl'!l ~ - 1.5%
(~) ~ l!l<J~ \Sl§"'llCill'!l ~ - 2.5 ~ 3.5%
(~) :al"'l'l''!lill'!l ~ ~ - 4 ~ 5% I
('.I)) "'llili!Jll\l (Permalloy} : l!I~ ~ 78.5% ~ 21 % l!l<J~ ~ ~Cf ~Jl!itlMISt, ~ '{3
Cl!Flfil§I~ ~ I ~ ~ C\S"'IPtf&Ci!S l!l~ ~ ~ (Permeability) ~ czj¥t ~ I ~
fWU~PPI a>py ~ 11!1~ ~ ~~~. ~ l!l"C<P ~~~~~~I
(8) ~ISCil'Glwt (Mumetal) : l!I~ ~ 75%, qs91"rn 4%, Cl!Flfil§I~ 2 ~ 3% l!l<J~ ~ ~ ~ I
~ ~ C\S"'IPtfflC'§ 1!1~ ~ ~ ~ czj¥t l!l<J~ ~~ C'!lfer>iiJl"1'{3 czj¥t I~ l!l~
fWi;C'!IPt>! l!l<J~ l!l~ ~ a>py ~ ~ I i'il'!li!JIG'J§ ~ l!I~ ~ ~~ ~ czj¥t ~ I
(<t) ~(Aini) : l!I~ 10 C~ 15% l!IJl~filM§lil, 25 C~ 30% ~ l!l<J~ ~ ~ ~ I
l!I~ BH ~~ ~ CS56i!lc•rn l!l~ q~"'l1J_d\<15 ~ ~ czj¥t I
(~) \!!Jlwtf.lc•I (Alnico) : l!I~ 10% l!IJl'l.filPrnl~. 18% ~. 12% ~. 6% qs91"rn l!l<J~ ~
~~I l!l~~~~~~<fi~1 l!l'Gt~~~~~11!1fiJ~
.l!l<J~~I
('\)~-~(Carbon-steel) : Pltt6'1StlG'J ~ ~ CG'Jl-~ ~ ~~~I
"1Hl<1'6"'1~~ ~~~I
~~Cf~~~~~~-~ ~~t4iT~. ~~-
(qs) C'!lferPG~'!l ~ 1
·(~)~~~I
{~) qii"'l\01<15 '<l'G'f (Coerive Force) l!l<J~ ~Cf-~ (Retaintivity) ~ ~ ~tt<f
"'ll'!lfil§JIMfillU~ 9fnr I '
(lr) P!f'IC!Sii-~ (Silicon-steel) : ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~-~~ ~ 9tnl I m
"'ll'!lfil~JIM!itffl ~ 9frn I ~ ~~>&JI"! ~ 9fnr I l!I~ ~Cf 1!1~-~ G'pf l!l<J~ ~ ~
R>i<:GC'!lPt>!-~.lPr 9fnr I
l!I~ ~ ~-151J1G'rn l!l.Pr l!l<J~ ~.Pr. m ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~I ~
Plfal<PC"'l'!l ~er~~~~~. ~-
(cis) 15il'!1Cilbl'!l ~ - 1.5%
(~) ~ l!l<J~ \Sl§"'llei!l'!l ~ -2.5 ~ 3.5%
(~) :at"i'l''!lill'!l ~ ~ - 4 ~ 5% I

~
8 "'llif~it~
(List the uses of magnetic materials)
()) 'C<l'iJf\!i<P ~. .
{~) \Sl§"'llei!l'!l C9flG'r l!l<J~ 151IC~bl'!l ~.
(~) lal+i'l''!lill'!l l!l<r~ C<i'iJf\!i<P ~ ~ ~.
{8)~~~. .
(ct) c&f6t~"IC"'l'!l ~ ~ ~~ lllt~ ~.
(~) c&f6tN5"1c"'l'!l ~~ <PC§CG>J'!l ~ l!l<J~ ~ l<l"l)R!i<P "'"~~-cil~c--G ~ ~ ~ ~ 1
Contents
~4'1..-t-rfln'~~~~~~~~~~~~~l'flft~~

~~~~~~~~~!~.~~~~~~~

e m: "1Jli1~C41'll ~"C'ltf<lif<ls? [<tl<fSJ'PfW: ')), ')~]


l!l~ 10% l!lJl'lfi!P\~111, 18% ~. 12% ~. 6% ~91'Bf l!l<f~ ~~~I
~I~~~~? [~:·o~,·o~J
m: ~ ~ ~ ~ GlJl"1MC4>l 1
G~
~ -
I - ~?
ClitCC1i
: Qf ~ ~ ~ ~ Gll4>1%!i ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ 91Rl~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ~<ft
{<q/<fS/fiifC<tt :'o~]
mt'>'lti1t'&4> 1IJlt&fuW1P1 ~ I
81 evil~~~~~? f<t/<tS!Ptc<ft: 'o~]
m:Qf~~~~~~~-~~~~I
~ I ~ ~ ~ '6 fStfWl4C"i'll ~~? . [<t/<fStfiitr;n : 'o~J
m: ~ ~~ ~m~~ 2.7~ 3.6% l!l<f~~~ 2.7% ~I
~I ~~~~fit'4tl
•=•~~~~oon~-
()) ~(Iron) (~)~(Cobalt)
(~)~(Nickel) (8) ~(Steel)
C\ I k'll4HM f<ls?

~I
m: ~ ~ ~ 9fRlef\5 ~ k'll4>l~i! <ft k'll~<f>~ct (magnetisation)~ I
1r I ~ ~ ClitCC1i ~?
m: ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<fifUm (N) l!l~ 1.£1<1$ ~ct (S) ~~I~~~
~~~~m~~I
~I ~~"Cilt~~~~~?
m : ~m ~'CO'll ~ ~tfJ 1!1Cd'llOIC¢ll~lc<l ~I ~ "4l~lf-44> ~ ~ ~
~~~~~-.:ill
)ol~~~~~~~?
m: ~ct,~~~~~~~~ 9fl'ft~ ~ 9fRlef\5 ~~I
))I ~~~~~~~'69Rf°f.ts~~?
m: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.£1~ '111'1~dl4> <fai l!l<f~ ~~~)! "Pf~~ 9frn I
)~ I fStfWl4C"i'il ~ ~ '69Rf f<ls ~ ~?
m: ~ ~ '3981 ~~~I™ Gl~C'Slei1~ ~~ ~ ~~ <rn I
~~l!l~~m~~~~ I~ ~~ctl<@r~~ I
)~I ~ ~~~fit'4t I
m: ())~~~~ct ~"'l"'ll~dl<f>~lc<q c<lfi't ~I
(~) ~ ~ BlC"1t'&i5 9il~fil~JIMMt'& ~G'li!l~dl<l>~lc<l ~~I
)8 I c9'Gt ~~ ~~ 'lttt4?
~: 1.£1~ ~~ct ~"1'1l~dl4>~1C~ ~ ~ I ~Qfr~ 0.1 ~ 0.2% I
)~I ~<ft~~~~'lttt4?
m = 1.£1~ <fit;fc~ ~ct m~Cf'i5 o.2s% ~ i. 1% ~ 1
)~ I C11C'ilt-~111Ci!ft4 ~ ClitCC1i ~?
ffi : Qf ~ 9fl'ft~ ~ qtm ~ c<lfi't "'l!<f>i%!i ~. ~ l<mlt-mt~ ~'WI I ~- ~.
~.~~I
Contents

~.......,...."""~~~~r"f't~~~~r"ft~~~~r'!ft~~

~8~.
~~~~~~~~~~~~,.,.~~~~
15lJli5\5l"1i5 l:C61<i>[iP!F&
)C\ I ~-101'1Ci!IU<P ~~~p.
~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "'ll<P~ ~. \!SICl'i'i1C<P 91Jtm-~~ ~ ~I
~-l!lJl'1)iiM{ll:ll, ~ ~ I
)lr I ~-11J'l'1Co1ID<P ~~~,
· m: ~~~~~cm~~~~.~ i51'm-~~ ~~,
~-""R8t, ~. ~ ~ I
)~ I ajf'SICi\IU<P ~ A1ci11U'S ""llilf'lilJl~lillU ~ ~ ~?
~ : ~'>ICiif&<P ~ HlC611U~ 9ll'i1fiBlJIMMF& ~ 2500 ~ ~ I
~o I ~ '6 MC<PC'1il 9llil~i!Jl~f#t$ ~r
t'ff: ~ '8 MC<PC'1'i1 9ll'i1firn11f<lf¢1F& ~ 2000 l!.l<f~ 300 1
~)I ~~~~~7 , ..
~ : ~ ~ ~9f1l1t-{ 43% Cu, 5% Cr. %% Tungsten. 56% Iron.
~~,~~~~~, .

t'ff : Ut~~ ~ ~9f1l1t-{ 4 - 6% Tungsten. 5% Carbon l!.l<f~ ~ ~ I


~"'~~~~~~,
t'ff : ~~ ~ ~ 7 .85 l!.l<f~ ~~(j'S 1530°C 1
~8 I ~~Pilit<PCi\il ~~~?
~: ~~ PlM<qiC"'l'i1 ~ct 3% -4.5% ~~I
~~ I \lilili\IDll-~ ~ Pilit<PCi\il ~ ~?
~ : i5l{liilli!I-~ ~ PtM<l>C"'I~ ~ct ~ 5% ~ ~ ~ I
~~ I lGJl"l'Rillil-~ ~ f3t~<PC91il ~ ~?
~ : Ji1t*r>'i1lll'i1-~ ~ Plf¢1<Pl"'l'i1 ~ct 4.5%
~C\ I lGJl"l'Rillil-~ ~·~-Ql'l~SGJl"I ~ ~ ~ ~?
m = ~ C'i1~rtRiro l!.I~ <IS':ll l!.I~~~~ l!.I~ ~~~-C'i1f\5tiG11"1~<f"lt~,
~'Ir I ~~ <tM~C~ ~~"Pf~ ""lllr?
m: ~~~~ct 1!.11\S ~ ~ 1!.1~ ~ ~ ~t:'GIHlPtJi "PT'S~ 9fffi I
~~ I ""llili!Jl'ICilC\b ~ '6 ~ ~~?
m = 9ll'i11111'1CTIC\!i f*1c:q>C61'i1 ~ct 78.5% \!l<f~ ~ ~ct 21.5% ,
"o I ISIJl'IMC<Plil ~ lml-~~? .
~ :15lJIG'JMC<P1'i1~m~l.2wb/m2

G \;tfl'(~~
.Jr.I m
'1fCilt,
= ~-~~fll>~
~ -e \5l11f~n,tc-i!D<? ~ ~~ ~ 1
~ )~, )8 IS )Q- ~ ,
{~: 'o~, )~R, ')'b]

rty c""llit ~ <PCil<t>IU ~ ~ "<Pil I {~: '))j.


I
. m:c91Ut~~~~~91:
()) C91Ut ~ ~ ~'t 0.12 ~ 0.2% I (~) i!l~i@l, ~i!l<f~'le~~~ I
(~) i!l~ ~ 1.6% ~ ~ ~ Q(tt<p I ( 8) i!l-c<li f9lfflnr C1l ~ ~ '<3 ~ "iR 'fim <Im I
€i ~~8~~~1
~· ~:~~8~~~91:
{~: 'o'b, 'o~J

()) C<l1JNl<P ~I
(~) i5l{l<ilclll'i1 C9fl"r l!.l<f~ 15lllllbl'i1 ~ I
(~).Iil"1*'i1lll'i1 l!.l<f~ C<l1JNl<qi ~~~I
(8)~~~~~~~~1
Contents

~.,._.,..~~~~......,....rfi!l"t~~~...,...tllit~~~....,...tifr~~

-~-----~~.IC!!t~~.~ .-..,,.,.....,-__,.,,.,_.....,_,.._,.,~
. f3tfit¥ii~~~~~~? · [~: 'oi!J]
<rt"{ I m:~~~m9f: ·
.: (~) ~~'lt<f1ir~~ I (~) l!l~~i'pf~~ I
. (~) "1l?1finu1f<lfdtf& ~ I (8) ~C~C'l'lPPI i'pf ~ ~ I
<rt"{ I ~ ~ ~ ¥Ul¥@~~'¥if I {;q/qs/fi'~: 'oi!J]
\i--m = ~ ~ <i>c~<l>r& ~ m9f =
(~)~~~~'5'1<Pm~1
(~) l!lt<P~ 91Rf~~~ I
(~) ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<JS l!l<fif& ~I
(8) ~ ~ "51tm
~~ ~1151f<l<P ~ l!lcG11cilCG11~1c<1 ~,
(<t)~~~'t,~l!l~~t.~111~~91Rf~~~I
~I ~~~~'¥ifl'"
m=~~~~m9f=
())~~~~~fi1
(~) l!l~~l!(q~~I .
(~) l!l~~~ '51l<P~-£~ I
(8) l!lt<P ~ ~ 91Rf~ ~ ~ l!l~ ~ l!l~ ~~~~I
(<t) l!l~ ~~<JS 15350C l!fq'. ~ 30QQOC I
(~) ~~ ~ "51te~ 'G~ 7.85 I
C\. I ~ 91Rli11C'Ht '691it'~ ~ ~ ~ 4!l¥ti '6 ~ ~?
m : 'fW-1 ~ I ~Qfl-
()) ~ ~'<It~~ (Cast Iron); (~) c91Ut ~ (wrought Iron);
Bl I (~)~'<It~ (steel) I
11·1 ~ 91Rliil'1~1i;~ ~~C'll ~ '¥iJ I
m : ~ -11~lll't~~.~~~~m9I =
(~) ~ ~ 2.7% ~ 3.6% I (~) ~Jj~?lfJ'I 0.15% ~ 0.5% I
(~) ~ 2% ~ 2.7% I (8) ~ 0.15% l!l~fi:fCD I
~ I ~ ~ '51Jl"!f.IC¥1'51 ~ ~ '¥iJ I
m m9f :
= '51JIG1Pl'l'l ~
()) l!l~ 10 c~ 15% l!IJl~filf'il~lil ~ 1 (~)di~ B H ~~ ~ Gbtil!ICii'l'l l!l<f'-
(~) 25 '~ 30% Rw~ l!(q'. ~ ~ (8) "til"l~l.1<1' ~ ~ CCtfit I ~I
R, ·~i!J] ~lwtf.IC<isl'il ~~ :
(~) l!lt\!5 10% l!IJl'lfi!f.'rnlil, 18% ~. 12% ~. 6% <JS~ l!l<f'- ~~~I
1: ·~~] (~) l!l~ ~ ~'lt<f1ir ~ ~ I
!
(~)l!l~~~~I
I (8) l!l~ ~. l!l<f~ ~ I
ij lITTl I )o I 'illl'IC-.ffl¥ ilJltf;Rt{ll61e"Ciftt¥ ~ ~ 'l5l't '¥itt ~ '6 ~ ~?
"· 'o~] m : (Zf~ fW-1 ~~ 151~ ~ ~. ~!tft-
(<r>) C~UllilJI~ llJllGKBflG'I I (~) 9fm!t-~~ illlc;'G~~IG1 I (~) i5\"m-~~ i1Jlt:&~~IG1 I
)) I \;Aft-~l"IC"'!@<p ~~ '¥tC¥ ~? ~l11li;il"t ~ I .
m : ~ ~ ~''~ 9ll'l'lfil~11Rfii'G, ~Plf&?l cm~ <R ~. l!l~ ~ eo:ft~ ~
~ I l!l~ i5tm-~~'F~ i1Jlt:'G~~IG1 <rl"f I ~- ~. ~. ~~ ~ I
Contents
~~rltl-~~~~rtlft-~~~......,..,.,..~~~~rtlft-~~

)88 . ~Jl\5'81'>115 ~ff;


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
)~ I 11l1"1t"1tl•Jlfil ~-illJlt'r;filill'I ~ ~1 ~l'fl,'il"f lft'6 I
~ = ~ ~ :q31,11rn~1Cdl'!I "1l'!lfil~J1f4f6iro ~ ~ \!l<l'- c'!IPi\~JIG'! 11J1~tli1ro'Sr11 ~ <l>1l ~. ·
\!SIC11'!1C4> 11J1"1li1f'G45JIM ~ (~) :qJl(,'Grn~llil <lCdl 1 ~- ~ ~' ~ ~ ~ 1
"""1
)'-' I 11l"l"1t"1tl•Jfil ~-ilOlc'Gfilillwt ~ ~l'fl~'il"f lfte I
~ = ~ ~ il(J1,11rn~1Cdl'!I ~ c'!IPi~Jllil il(J1c-1ro'S!11 '8 frrn "1l'!lfil~11f4Mro <~ rnG'!Jl<pu11.,,) ~.
\;~Jl'i'!IC4511J1~1li1f'G45JIM QJi5 il(Jl<:'Grn~llil <lCdl I~-~~. Ciil"lfil~lll ~~I
)8 l ~ (Age-ing) ~1
~: "l!I~" l!I~ l!I~ ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ <IMl(IC~Bl CFtG'f ~ 'ISl~<lfi!Clb "frnciic'1'!1 ~'t l'fil'1~"1'1S ~
l!jq~ lt->tt11C'!IPP1 "PI~ c~ ~ I~ ~91 ~ ~ ~ ~ l!jq~ 91Rrm ~~~I
)<ti ~-~~~~~~~~~"1Mt~7
~=~~Wit-
(~) C'!lfe!P°f;~ff;'!I ~; (~) ~ ~ ~; ("1) l'f\1('1~'145 <l6I \!!Cf'. ~'t ~ ~ I
)~l~-~~~I
~:~-~~~91:
(~) ~l'!llllt>l'!I ~; (~) ~ '8 15l~"llC111'!1 ~; ("1) JlJl"llJS"llll'!I ~ ~ I
)C\ I "91Jl'llil(Jlwtil" ~~~1
~ : ""1Jl'!111JIG1~" ~ ~91 :
(<r>) >tl<llllrn"I ~ 45'<Sl~l'!l'!I t>l~MC45 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I
(~) ~ CGMClJSl'1 ~ C<cl'jjl\iS45-~ ~ ~ 1Sil"U ~ ~ I
)lrll-~~~~1
. ~: (<r>) ~-\UJl"llJS'!lil(ll'!l'!I ~ ~; (~) '8~Jl'!lldt>t JlJl'>tlJS'!llllC'!l'!I ~ ~;
("1) lffe''.-~ ~"t~c:qc-t'!I 1

) I ~ ~ ~ k"l•li1C"1'll ~ ~IC'llb"1I ~ I
~: ~"J:C~ ?ii.)~ I
~1 ~9tfil:q1cct'l1-e9i1tM~~~~~~~1~~~~m-e1
~ : ~OJ:C~l'f ?ii.) ~ I
...,, ~~--"""llCl!'ll~~lft'el
~ : ~"J:C~ ?ii.-.:>~ I
8 l '~ ~·~11J"l'lti1'6f~Cet"IC"1'll ~~f.Wlr~ ~.~~I
~: ~OJ:C~ ?ii.)~ I
<ti ~~~~~~~'
~: ~"J:C~ ?ii.)~ I
~ I 'ill'Jt'lt"1tl• il(Jlt&Hli!ICWl'll ~ ~ ~ I
~: ~OJ:C~ ?ii.~~ I
C\ I 1UMC"1tl~lfil ~-il(JIWHlillC'l'll ~ ~ I
~: ~OJ:C~ ?ii.~ (<r>)~ I
lr I '\ll'Jt•tc01tl~lf#I ~-illllt&Hli!IC'l'll ~~I
~ : ~"J:l~ ?ii.~ (~) ~ I
2D l ~. 1- ~ ~ ~Jlwtf.it•l'll ~iitat I
~:~<J:C~lll.-.:>~I
)Ol~~~~I
~ : ~OJ:C~lif ~.8 ~ I
Contents

Understand Cycles Of Magnetization.


)o.o~
(Introduction)
~I!!~~~ ~"lco:itl$t~ ~ (H) ~'if <rm~.~~ 91"fl~ ~ 9@~ ~I!!~~
m ~ (B) ~ ~ C - I l!l<fti:I ~ ~c;jco:i'[;f~~~ ~~~Rm~~.~
m C\S"'1Pllt$1 ~ ~ 00 ~ "ft I \!)~ ~ ~ c~ '1:1W· I m C\S"'1Pllt$1 \!) ~ ~
~ (Residual Magnetism) ~ ~ I i5IBf ~ ~ m
lffif ~ I!! 'll'l:ll!>IC<fS ~ ~ ~Cf
~(Retentivity)~ Hll>IJIC"'1'§1 (Remanance) I~ k'il<fS\!jlC<fS ~ ~ ~ ~ 151~~
91"fl~ ~ffi91 k"1<11~"'1 ~ ~ ~"lco:i'GI~~~ ~ ~ m (Reverse Direction) ~
~~1~m~"lco:itt~~~~~~~~~~c~.~
~ qG'f ~ l"!l:i"'1i{G1<l> qG'f (Coercive Force) <fCG'! I ~ 9fl1tt~-l!l ~ C<t>l~l~f>t~lt <fCG'! I I!! ~
~ 91"fl~ ~ $W 1 \!)~~ ~$1~1~~~ oo ~ ~ m ~<rm~ m ~
~ m ~~I~~ 11Jfc;jC"'1UI~~~ ~ ~ m $ ll'~l~llS f\SC$1<fS•~ ~ ~
~ m ~ ~ "["1JillC"'1 l.!l~ ~ ll'~l{li£ f\SC$1<fS~ ~~ C~ I l.!l"SM ~ l.!l~
~ 91"fl~ l.!l'AB! ~ 9@~ <rm~. ~ k'il<fS~"'1 <rm~ l.!l~~ ~ ~ 9@~ <rm ~
l.!l~~ ~ l.!l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ mC\S"'1f>tlt$1 ~ ~~1C"'1tl~~~ ~ ~ ~
~~ B-H ~ l.!l~ ·~~~~I l.!l ~ ~ k'ii<t>l~"'1 ~ ~ :>fl~C<fS61 ~
~$1co:it1~ciSf•~ ~ ~ 1 ·

)o.) lt'ii<ISl~ii ~~
(Explain Cycle of Magnetization) :
+B

R
+H

'1 lf

11
E (<11) ('ti) -B
~ : ~o.~ (<ii) k"l<fSl~"'1 ~. (~) k'il<fSl{l"'1 ~
~~ (<i>) m l.!l~ k"'4'1~o:i ~. c~) m l.!l~ k"'<i>1~o:i ~ ~ ~ 1 <i>-~ R l.!l~
~ C$1f~p'G$1 <Im ~~ ~c;jco:i'f;1$f~ 00 ff:l_!l~ ~ ~ 18 ~ '1:fW I ~ ~
~'ljco:it1~~ ~ ~~ m c1So:iPll'6$1 ~ Pl~$! ~ 1 ~k"'~~ ~ l.!l~ ~ 91"fl~ ~ (<i>-
m :>J~bltC<fS <ii-~ 151<l~IC"'1 ~) ~ ~ ~ ~$lc"'1tl~~~ ~ (H) ~ ~ ~. ~ m
~ (B)-1.!l~ ~18 ~ 9ltt<f I ~ ~~ ~ <Pl~ \5fl<fSt ~ ~ ~ OC ~ ~ ~ I l!l<fti:I (H)-
1!1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ B-1.!l~ ~~~"ft I ~Cf l.!l~ ~ ~ ~
Contents
~~,.,.,.~~~__,,..~~,,.,~~~~~~~.,....,.,...tf!f't~~

. ~8~
~T9'f~~~~.,,.,.~~"1'~~,..,.~~<lPl~~t-r~~<lPI~
15lJllS~l'if\S ~(}'l<is$PlfG

~ (Saturation) C~ C~ I \!l<IBJ ~ H-\!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ B-\!I~ ~'8


~I~ \!I~~ CO~~~~ CD 9!et ~ct~ I~~~~ H-\!I~~
~~'8 B-\!I~~~~~ I \!I~~~ (OD)~~ I H = 0 ~ B-\!I~ \!I-~ (OD)
<Ml~~~ (Residual Magnetism) I
\!l<IBJ H-\!I~ ~ WUl ~ ~ (~~ :ir~bfGC4 ~-~ 15l<ltJC"i ~) ~ ~ ~ ~ DEF
~ 9ft\Sm ~I~ F~ C~ ~ H-\!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c:r;m ~ \!l<f~ ~~ H-
\!I~ ~ ~ \!I~~(~ :ir~bffkcis ~<Ii-~~~) ~ \!I~~~~~
FKGC ~ 9ft\Sm ~ I ~~ ~ ~. S'li(N~ m ~ (B) ~~1co;Gf$fei~ ~ (H)-\!I~
~ ~ 1 ~-a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 m osijP!fG~ \!I 91·w~x5!1bll4~ <Mr ~ ~Qtc~PIS'I ~
~ ~ I ~ CDEFKGC ~ 'l9! ~ ~ <Ml ~ ~C?lPJS'I 'l9! (Hysteresis Loop) ~
k'i!<ISHl"i Di!!> (Cycle of Magnetisation) I
~o.~ ~l'lciff;l~cet~ (B-H) ~~
(Draw Magnetization (B-H) Curve) .
m C\SijPJfG~ (B) \!l<f~ ~~1co;G~~ ~ (H)-\!I~ ~~ "'P"'14:>[b<IS ~ ~1~1c.Wl~CIS!"fif <t>I-; ~ B-H
~<fl"! I ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ \!I~~~ W-U ~lco:fG~C\St"M ~ ~ k'i!<Pl~ij ~
~Wftl
~.o·

~l ),8
).~

),o

o.b-

o.~

o.8
o.~
o ~ooo 8000 ~oo lrooo ~oooo

H (AT/m)
~ : ~o.~ 11J1~1co:fG1~ciSi"trf <t>l-6'
B-H ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<I® ~ ~ ~ ~ 9il~fi@lf<1MfG Rcfu c:r;m ~ I
~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15lhl~Cij~ ~ ~ ~ 91l~filmlf<lfGf¢1fG (µ =B/H) ~ c<lfit I
~o.'-' B-H~~
(Mention Applications of B-H Curve)
frl"CD B-H ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ c:r;m ~­
(~) ~ ~ ~ 9ll~film1f<lf¢1!U

I
Rcfur 1

(~) m ~ Rcfur ,
(~) 11Jl~CijUJ~~R ~ Rcfur I
( 8) ~>G C?lPJS'I "Pl Rcfur I
(Q) ~ ~ (Saturation Point) Rcful I
I
Contents

~~~~~~ ... ..,....r'ii't~.2"1~~~rft't~.rt~~~rt11"~~

_g,"1<1'1~1 ~ ~8 q
~'8 -~-'*j':!!..!'!'-~-~-~1~'!'!'*..!-'"'-~~~~!.-r~~[wt4tJ!.?!"!.~-~!":!-~-c,;ff!"fi!TL1'-~~
.~
(OD)

-~~~~?
DEF

·~ ,;;n,-.c~~~l-i m-l"tli11U1St~ ~? !~: ')~, ')i:>J


' m = C<tS"t1' ~"!mm~ 9@~ ~ 98f \!!~ fiiqi~1 ~ ~ ~'( ~ ~ "t1J

~ ~'8 ml'S1Piffl~ ~ ~ oo
~ '111 \!!~ ~· ~ c~ ~ 1 c""1Piro~ \!! ~ m
~~~I
. /~\Sf~~~Viil~I [~: 'o~, '))j
h m: ~ ~ (B) l!l<r'( ~'iC"!U~'Z ~ (H) l!I~ ~ttl~~ ~c<fG!4'cG-r"t-l ~<It B-H ~~I
f> I ~cJG<Jl~J1 ~9t ~? [~: 'o C/]
·~ : ~ ~ C<tS"l'i' ~ ~ ~ !i'il<tSl~1 ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ W;:>{;c~Pt:>J 'J:9! ~ I
B-H 8 I filt'f;"'11Uf\51U ~ fil~Jlli1"1 ~?
qsl~ m = ~~~<it~~ l:fC?! ~ '*~~1C<t> ~~~~<it 8kn1ro~ro <it Ri~11c1'f1 1
It I ~ ~~ '1~"'11{#1<15 ~ ~~? .
m: ~ !!'il<tS~cqs "J:1J~ll1 fimr ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~cBR9! J!'il~1 ~ ~
l!Jl'1C11;f~:f61~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ 'Il"J1'1c1tll~f@t~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~C~,.~~~<lt'1~1~C'\qi~~I
f1 k'll<ISHM~~~?
~m = ~ \!l"<t>fU ~ ·~ \!!~ ~ 9@~ ~ ~. ~ fii<t>~1 ~ ~ \!l<r~ ~ ~
9@~ ~ ~ \!l<f'( ~ \!! ~ ~ ~ QflCqi ~ m C""1Pllt~ ~ l!Jl'1Ci1'Gl~f@t~ ~
~ <rSI~ ~~ B-H ~ \!l"<t>fU <rqj ~~ ~ ~I \!! <rqj ~~ !i"i<t>l{1i1 ~<It
:>J~cqsC'I ~ l!Jl'icrfGf~ciSi•t"l" <fC1t ~ 1

Kl ~cJGc~Pl:>t f<lir
vm: ~ ~~ ~ ~'(~ ~ ~ qsfqs ~ ~ttl 00 oorK! .ft<r~ Rc:>{;~Pi:>J ~ I
b'I B-H~~~~?
m =~ C<tS"t1' l!Jl~ :>JIF<t>'lu~ ~ ~l:fR :>J~1St~1c<t ~ ~ B-H <t>I~ ~'1 ~ 1

~I

0
""
I

i
I
Contents

)).o~
(Introduction)
k'ii<f'l~'i ~ ~ ~. l!l<l5fU· ~ 9f"ft~ ~ 9@ct'5 ~ ~ l!l"t<P k'ii<f'~'i ~ ~
llJ~1cif&I~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~IS lPm Cl5"1Ptffl~ ~ ~ ~ ""11, ~ ~ (Residual)
c~ 1l"rn 1 m Cl5"1Plffl~ ~ ~ fim:r ~ ~ ~ m
lfrt'>1C"IUI~~~ 00 ~$'( ~ zji,
~ lifll'i~G'l<f' ~ (Coercive Force) ~ I ~ ~ 9ft\S~ '5T91Dll ~ I ~ k'ii<f'l~C'i~ ~
~ ~ \!l<F11Cll<Fll 151tm~"<Fll (Molecular Magnets) 1!1<15fU frlfi¥Z ~~IS~ m
~ l!l<f~ ~ '5T'U m ~~IS~ ~ I!!~ f.'lciSiclif~ ~~ Jf~~ ~ 9("11tt~ Wtt~ ~ ~ 1
\!l~IS ~ 9ft\S~ '5T91Dll ~ I ©~~Cil'Ci!I '5T~ I!! 9fllS~ <ft ~ ~ ~ ~ ~c>U~Pt>l
~I k'ii<qSIM ~<rt rwu~Pi>l C[C~ ~ fil'4fu emf~'~ rwu~Pi>t ~ fil'4fu ~ 1l"rn 1~
~ fWl:i~Pt>t C[C~ ~IS~~~~~ I
)).) 'lll"l•t01ffl~ ~cJ'Gc~PtcJt'A ~­
(Define Magnetic Hysteresis)
W;>Uc~Pi>t ~ ~ ~ 91"bllif<l~ ~ISm (To Lag Behind) 1 k'ii<f'l~'i ~ <rt W;>U~Pi>t C[C91 ~
m
1l"t1I ~ (B) ~ lfrt~1c"IU1~~~ 00 (H) -1!1~ 91"Wf<l~ ~. ~IS ~ <rt ~ ~
9IAA ""11 I k'ii<f'~"'i ~ lfrt"1cif&~~ 00 (H)-1!1~ ~ lPm ~ (B):.l!l~ 1!1. 91"bl~<l~\!SIC<t>'$:
lfrt~ f«>{;~f>l>t <f"l1 ~I
0

~c>UC'il~P't ~ ~~ (Definition of Hysteresis Loss) :


~ ~ k'ii<t>l~'i ~ ~ lfrt'>1C"IUI~~~ 00 (H)-1!1~ ~ lPm ~ (B)-1!1~ 9l"bllif<l~\!SI~
~ct ~~<rt '5T91Dll ~. Wtt;qs W;>U~Pi>t ~ (Hysteresis Loss) ~ I ~ ~ ~ C"'lfiit:i1<.'Gl5
~ %O'f ~emf W;>Uc~Pi>t ~ ~ 1l"rn 1
)).~ ~cJGC'AP!Jt ~ ~
(Explain Hysteresis Loss)
~ ~ ~ ~
~ N~S ~ S ~N
~ ~~~ 1~£j
~c::::lc::::lc::::I
~~~
c::::lc::::lc::::I

·~<')~~(·)~
f5ll! : ~~-~ ~ ~ l!l"<f' >tl~C<f'<Fl l!!Pr ~ ~ ~ ~k'ii=<t>n..l~='i ~
~~ m 1!1<15fU ~ ~ l!l"<f' >tl~C<f'"'I \!!Pr ~ ~ ~ k'ii<f'l~'i DI!!' ~ ~I l!!Pr
>t~<l~l<A~ ~~ ~ 1!1<15fU ~ 9f"ft~ ~ 9@ct'5 ~ ~ ~ ~ '5T~ >tl~C<f'"'I ~ 151tm
~"<Fll (Molecular Magnet) ~ ~ emf 'i~'i~IC<l ~ ~ I ~ 91ffi;q\!)'c'i~ ~ 151tm
~"<Fll ~~ l!l<FllCll<Fll ~ ~ k'ii<f'~'i emf l!l<f~ 9IU! ~ m
'i~'i~IC<l ~ ~ I ~
~ k'ii<f'~'i ~ ~ I!!~ ~ ~ ifB!ct ~ (Retentivity) ~ <PtiS'i ~ ~.
Contents

~~ l'fll"'l~c>t<!S (Coercive) <!G'f ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ * ~ ~ 1 ~ ~m ~ <ft


~-ca11 N<!S 91ffi<tl,!)'C"'I~ ~ RC\SrCl'f'll '1R:~ '[~~ ~ ~'<! ~98f ~ ~ I 1!1~'8 ~ * ~~
<ft~~l~~~l!l~~~fW{;~~:>j~~I .
:>:>.:> ..,~ (<fi) ~ 1!1<1$ ~ ~~ CITT'il<!S~"'I ~ ~~I l!l ~ ~ ~
~-ca11 l!ICfrllCllCfrll ~~I
:>:>.:> _,~ (~) ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ l!l~ l!l~ m
(N) ~ l!l<f~
f ~~ ~ (S) ~ '@~9\fu~ I
~ iSMJ :>:>.:>"'{~ (~) ~ ~ ~ R'il<!S~"'I ~ ~ ~I l!l~ l!IPr >1'11<1'111~'11 .fi$:f ~~
Ii.dual) J'l~C<t>Cfrl'll ~ m ~ ~~"irt l!l<f~ ~ ~~ >il~C<!SCfrl'll .fi$:f ~ ~ ~~"irt ~~ k'il<!S~~ ~
~~. ~~~I
Rf~ :>:>.:>"if~('<!)~~~~~~~ I l!l~ l!IPr >1~<1'111~'11 ~ ~~
I ~'SllBf
:>tl~C<!SC61 ~~~~~~~I~ l!IPJ ~ l!l<f~ Jt'il<!Sl~C"'I~ ~ ~ ~~ QJl I
(Ii ~I Rc'1fic:siPt:ii ~ ~ :
~ :>1~9!~~~~*1
I~ ~I~ l:fBfct~ I
~I l!IPr~~k'il<!Sl~"'I ~N<!S ~~I
Rc'1fic:siPl:ii ~ 4>:1ICiil<s1 '@9fm :
:>1~~~~1
~I C"l~C"'!CUIS ~~~~I
)).-,, ~C~C'APPt ~~
(Explain Hysteresis Loop) :
k'il4HM ~ <uMlt (Explanation of Cycle of Magnetization) :

+B
1<1'51161~
1filciit.'G\5
c

R
-H: I
+H
I
I

ft '<[

11 -Bm
E (<IS) (~) -B
~: :>:>.~ (<fi) k'ii<!Sl~ii ~. (~) k'ii<!SI~ ~
~I l!IPl '@~ (<fi) ~ 1!1<1$ k'il<!Sl~"'I ~. (~) ~ 1!1<1$ k'il<!Sl~ii ~ ~ ~ I <fi-~ R 1!1<1$
~ ~ctf<l<ts ~ (Jlf@PU'll ~ ~~ ~~1C"'IUI~~ ~ H-1!1~ ~ ~ '8 ~ ~I ~ ~
i ~ctf<l<ls ~~C"'!UI~~~ ~ '@98f mCIS"'l~f&'ll ~ f.:1-6''1! ~ I 15lk'i1~16 ~ 1!1<1$ ~ ~'<f Rm (<fi-
~Im ~ JJ>~bt°&C<!S <fi-~ 15l<!1'JC"'I ~) ~ ~ ~ ~~1c"'!'G1~ret~ ~ (H) ~ ~ ~. ~ m
~~. ~ (B)-1!1~~~ 9fttq I ~'1R:~~ <!Sl-6'~~~~ oc~~~ 11!1~ (H)-
Contents
~.,_,.~~ .... ~~,.,. ..,.,_,...., ...t~ .... ~~~~~Gl"f~~~~"""'~

~<l"o
~ ...~ ~ .......
\5lJl\5\5l'>1\5 ~Ciil<PllaPlfG
....,..fi'4···~n.,.~rtlft~.,....,._~~.,_,.~rtlft~"'1_,._rill\t~,....,.~
~t9h~~_,_,.,.,.co

l!I~ m ~ ~'8 ~ ~. ~ B-1!1~ m ~ ~ '111 ~q l!I~.~ 9flft~ ~


~ (Saturation) C~ C~ I \!I~~ H-1!1~ m ~ ~ ~ ~. 'iWr B-1!1~ m~
~Im\!!~~ CO~ ~'11~ CD 91~ ~q ~I ~'Z ~~ H-1!1~ m
~~'8 B-l!l~m~~'11 I l!l~~m (OD)'~~ I H =.O ~ B-1!1~ \!!-~(OD)
<fii1l ~ ~ ~ (Residual Magnetism) I ,
l!I~ H-1!1~ ~ ~ m <rof (~~ :>j_~bfi;Qli "I-~ 15l<l~lc-1 ~) ~ ~ ~ ~ DEF
<!SI.; 9ft'Sm ~I~ F ~ '~ ~ H-1!1~ m ~ ~ ~ ~ "<tSm ~ l!l<f'Z ~~ H-
I!!~ ~ ~ \!I~ ~ (~~ )j_~bfi;Qli ~ <Ji-~ 15l<ltJC"'l ~) ~ \!I~ m ~ ~ ~
FKGC ~ 9ft'Sm ~ I ~'Z ~ ~. :>t<fC'll'~ ~ ~ (B) ~1~1c.W14:F$r'Z ~ (H)-1!1~
~ ~ 1~'8 ~ <ft~ ~ '111 ~ C\5"'lPtfG~ l!I 9t"bllil~\!5IC<tS~ <fii1l ~ Rc:>Gc~Pl:>t <ft
~ ~ 1 ~ CDEFKGC <fqi GJ.91 <ft ~ <fii1l ~ Rc:>'Gc~Pl:>t GJ.91 (Hysteresis Loop) <ft
k'ii<?l!l"'l Dl1l' (Cycle of Magnetisation) I
~~t~c11Pt1-~-l!lif ~
~~ $:ffifcjj ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ l<T, ~ ~~ R"'tdk~Pt>j-~ ~q:
~1\5191~~-~~~.
~ I ~ $:ffifq-~,
~I \!I.Pr. ~~~-~q~~-~~ I
~~t~c11f3!1 ~ ~ ~11rn
~ ~ l!l<f'Z 15lJIMii1\5 (Annealed) ~ ~ \5191 ~ • "<tSm) ~-~ C<Jirn ~ <rof
" RJiiGc~Pt:>t Gip'[ ~ ~ I
(<Ji) 15ll~C11bl~ ~ ~ 151JIMG1\5 fi"fi1-~ ~ (Constant TJ) m ~ ~ o. 91 I
(~)llll'>1~~111C~~~~-~~m~~0.541
)).8 ~CJGCilMJ'\ ~ Niii~ ~
(Determine Ares of Hysteresis Loop)
+B
c

-H +H

-B
~.: ~~-~ (<tS) 1!1<i$ ~~~~ ~ctffer. (~) Rc:>&1~P!Ji GJ.91
~9\m (<l>) ~ 1!1<i$ ~ ~~ k'll<tSl!l"'l ~ctffei l!l<f'Z (~) ~ 1!1<i$ Rc:>&1~Pi>1 GJ.91 C>t~ ~ 1
~~.l=~~~~
A = ~ ~~ '2!~CC«"!~ ~
N = ~ ~~ ~~ ~ 9iJ1D ~'Z~
Contents

~.............,-... ..,_....,,.__,,..,.............., ~JG~f%i;f;pf ....,.,....., .-.-..,,.. .....,....., ~ .............. """',.,_., "'~


~~~~....,...-..~«l~~..._,...""'~«l~~~r"t~.r:i._y.....,~~

~~.
B ,; <I>/ A
:.<j> =BA
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l!l~ ll!l~.l!l<l>. ~~I ~Jl<J1Ci5<s:I >[illl<J:>tl<Jl ~.l!l~. l!l<l>.
_Nd<!>
DEF e - dt
= Ndd~A) (~~=BA)
NAdB
=---ctt
~.
H =NI
l
HZ
:. I =N
~i1f\5G>ti5 ~.l!l~.l!l<i>.-l!l'!:I" ~~~(I)~~ 1STi1J ~ ~~.
P =ex I
NAdB HZ
= d t x N (e IS 1-l!l<s:I" ~<@rm)

= AZH~~
.-.dt~~w,
w = p x dt
" dB
= AZHdt x dt
= AZHdB
~~~cf 'l9f ~ '1_cf J'!l~C<ti"l k'ill<til{!Ci1 ~ ~ ~ ~c>&<JlPt>t aopr,
Wh = AifHdB (~ 9f'll'~<mf)
~ dB ~>&<JlPtJ'I ~9f<s:I" l!l<l$ ~ i5l~ffi m
~ ~ ~ (~~.~-~) Gllt~JM\!S emf ~
~ I l!l Gll~IM\!S i5l~ffi ~ ~. HdB I ~~ ~cf ~>&<JlPt>t 'l9f ~ '1_cf ~ >tl~C<tiC"l<s:I
~W'!tfHdB I
)) .a- l!l<IS Jt tl;c<t>ot ~"1CiiUtl;eet"teif ~ ~ (Joul/ m 3) ~
(Deduce the Expression for Energy Loss in One Cycle of Magnetization
Per Cubic Meter)
~ ~, l!l<l$ '1_cf >tl~C<ti"I llTt*;if&l~C'St"M ~ ~ ~ l ! l - aopr,
Wh = AzfHdB Joul
A=~~(~ ~'!:I") ~~~"i<s:t ~. ~ffilul<Jl (m2)
I= ~~(~~'!:l")~,·'l:fi1f"ilUl<Jl(m3 )
~I fHdB = ~<JlPt>t 'l9f ~ l!Jt~1Ci1Ul~C'$t'"fi{ J'!l~C<tiC"l<s:I ~I
l!l~, ~ 'l:fi1f"i!Ule<s:i ~ l!l~ \5ll{l\!Sli1<s:t l ! l - aopr c<l<s:I" ~ ~ ~~ ~'tC<ti Al ('l:li1f"i!Ul<s:t)
~'St~~~I

:.Wh =
AzfAl
HdB I
Joul/m3/Cycle = HdB Joul/ m3/Cycle
Contents

~~.~ ~c:>Gc~PP'I ~~~


(State the Uses of Hysteresis Loss Curves)
~lG~PP"t-~ ~ ~~~I ~lG~PP"t G'pf-<1'1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ );!JllGffi{lltFl~
~ ~ ~"1~iSiRtW,l1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~"Gf ~ ~~ );!Jldiffi{ll(Fl~ ~~
~ 1!1~ ~Q.IJ, <l'l(C'll'Cl!l <lJ<ll~J~~ ~. ~"1 ~ ~ iSiRt W,l 1 ~- ~c;G~PP'I-~
l!lfun ~ WI ~ W,l ~ ~~ );!JllGffi{lltFl~ ~"llG~PP'!-~ ~ ~ l!l<r~ ~ 9f'ft~ :UJl'll'l'~);!I~
~.~~~~\!>JIM~~~~~ I
~ ~c;'G~Pi"l <1'1~ l!lfun ~ WI (~llG'P'ilci) ~ ~~ );!JllUffi{lltFl~ ffic;&'iftifQ,ft; l!l<r~ ~-
161Jl~fJ:lfQ,ft; (Coercivity) ~ ~ l!l<r~ l!I~ ~ 9f'ft~ ~ ~ ~~~ I ~CC1<1'$<1'JIC't ~ ~
1!1~~9f'ft~~~I /
~ ~"llGC~Pl"l-<1'1~ l!lfurt ~WI (W ~) ~ W,l, ~ ~ C~Pl~JIC't-~~ ~
~ C<l'l~fJ:lfQ,ft;~ ~ ~ I ~~ ~ 9f'ft~ ~ ~tFl<l'<.]l);!JID ~ ~~~ I
~ ~~C<ilfSt'>i ~~ <15C{l<l5~ ~~~~ -
(~) ~ ~ ~ ~c>G~Pi"l G'p[f.fcful,
(~) ~ ~ ~"1<:-Wl~l'St"fof ~ ~ ~.
(~) ~ ~ ~l~firnJIMMf5 l!l<r~ ~~f.fcful,
(S)~~~~f.fcful,
(a')~~ ~ct ~·(Retentivity) l!l<r~ "'T);!'i:i[Gi<l' (Coercive) <rC1 ~ f.fcful I
Contents

~t-f~ ~~~ ~~ ~~](;c;~;f;pf ~ ~ ~~~ ~..,...,.~.~ ~~ ~;;~


~.T.t~~t-f~rilft~4'!!~~'P't~tfltt~4!:1~~.,...,.~~~~~~~

"*1~. ~ooc11f~P'I ~~~? [~t<tSIP~: 'o~, 'o..,, ':>~R, •;,..,; '


~­ : ~ ~ ~ C"l~Ciidhs ~ ~ ~ ~ ~s{;~f>P'I ~~~I
'~ ~~~Pr~~'iJS~fiM I [~: ':>:>, ':>~]
: ~cs6~PP1 ~ ~ ~ ~ f.ffl?li91 :
()) ~ ~ 911~~{1Jlf<1Mffl l!l<r~ ~ ~ fil"cful I
( ~~~~fil"cful1 "
'i'l~~P:ll1Ritlift'6
. I [~: 'oB, 'o~, ':>:>]
~ 9f'ii~ k'll<Pl{lii ~ ~ ~~iCoWI~~ ~ (H) \!I~ ~ ~ ~ (B) \!I~
91"51'1•r@ll!ll~ ~ CA~ <ri ~~ ~. ~ Rcs6c~PIJi ~ <rtG'I 1
(I'· ~ ~ :>tf~C4"1 ~'1CefB~~ ~OOC'51~:>t ~ :>!~<15'51'°'® fiM I [~:'air]

~m : l!l"<Pffl 91_cf Jil~C<P"l k'il<lSl{JCii ~ ~ <ri ~C~PlJi ~ Wh = AZfHdB


<t 1 ~~Ciilt<P ~iGc11fSl:>t~~? [~: 'o~]
m : k'll<t>l{Jii DC\!l> ~~Ci'IUI~~~ ~ (H) \!I~ ~ ~ ~ (B) \!I~ 9f"bl'1<1~1blC~ ~~
~>G~PPI <rO'ft ~ I
~I~~~?
m=~~~~91fu~~9R!\!l~~~~~~~~""fll~
~'8 ~ CISiiPllU~ ~ ""flJ 'ii'!~~ c'<tt<I> ~. 'l:ltt"I' ~ ~ (Residual magnetism) ~ I
C\ I "fi(ii:iJ:."14 ~ ~ ~ ~ C<Pif?
m = ~ ~ 9f'ii~ li'll<t>l{Jii ~~\!I~ k"'<lS~ii ~~\!I~~~ ~ct~
~ ~ ~ ~ I ~~ '1iliil[G'l<t> (coercive) ~ .21Urt~ ~ ~ I
'Ir I ~'il<l51{1Ci'!'51 ~ ~ ~ ~9fif ~ ~ c<Ff?
m: k'll<t>l{lCii~ ~ ~ ~ \!IC"llC~Cdfl ~m ~'CG'!t l!l"<Pffl ~ ~ ~ q:'8~ ~
l!l<r~ ~ w-u ~ ~ q:'8~ ~\!I~ MC'S!C'1~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~I
~I ~~~CiGC'Sl~:>t~<ri~~:>t~4C"l'il~~?
m : l!l"<Pffl ~cf ~>Gc~P!Ji G[C~ ~ = fHdB
)o I~~~~ ~ist ~ ~~f.rofi'llro ~ ~ ~llllC4 ~~I
m : ~ ~~ ~ ~~¥t ~ 91'1t<f·~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ -R~Ji,-D~c~-f>l~)j <rtG'I I
)) I ~l'&C'SIPtJf ~~ ~~~~~ <PICiidG'il ~~~~.\!I~ xar'tb{IC<IS cJt~ I
m: ~JilG~PtJi ~ ~'8 c5i1ff ~~ ~ "I_~ <t>IC~c-0~ ~ct W ~~ ~, \!I~
~9fDm<t> \!!~-~ ~ <rtG'I I
)~ 1iGJl"1¥'5111IC'51 ~ ~f'i4ii ~ ~~~?
m=~i1+i~~011~~~~~~0.s41
)~l~lfAol'il~~ISUIM"ll&~~~~~?
m: 151IC:ifbl~ ~~151JIM"115~~~~0.911
)8 IB-H"'IC9tif~"SIW, ~'6 ~~~~?
m : B-H Gj_91 ~ ~ ~~ ~JltUffi~IC"l~ ffi<0UiifG~fj; ~ ~, ~ i!f ~ C~Pl\{lJlv
~~ i5ta'f l!l<r~ ~-151Jl~Pt~fG ~ ~ l!l<r~ ~ ~ i!f ~ ~Ji~PlJi ~,~ m I
Contents

~~~.:t~~~~~~~~~~~~,,,~
~(2-8 . 131Jl15-ol"115 ~(;61cpfijP'JTl1
~,zf~~,..,.~rtlft~e:i~~~rtlft~~~,.,.~~~~,..,.~

~~~~I [~:'08]
~9f~~~<ITTWw
,,
(~)~~ct~I
(¢)1!1Pf~~k'if<f>l~"l~~~~I
~I 11iiliiiJ:014~~~?
m: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ 91"?! l!IVI> k'if<P~"l ~ ~ ~"1c.Wf~f\W~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~IS m <0l5"lf.>tfG~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ,~ ~ 1 m <01&"lf.>tfG~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~1CoWI~~ ~ ~~ ~ QJJ', <liC<t> "i~"l~dt<P <fG'f ~ I "i~"l~dt"P <fG'f
~~ ~ ~ ~ 9ft\9~ ~~ QJ1 I
8 I 'll'Tl'1 eiilU4 ~<A; C11~>1 f.ils?
m: ~C>th~Pt>! ~ ~ ~ 9fl"l>l"i<t'5i ~ISm I {''il"Pl~"l Di!!> <ft ~~Pt>! ~9f ~ ~ $
~ (B) ~ ~"1CoWI~~~ ~ (H) I!!~ 9f"r>l~<t'51 QJJ', ~ ~ <It ~ ~ ~ ~ I
. {''if<l>l{l"l ~ ~"1CoWI~~ .~ (H) I!!~ ~ m
~ (B) I!!~ I!! 9f"l>l"i<t'51'5IC<P~ ~~
~>{; ~ IPt>I <fG'ft QJ1 I
I ~ Jf~<?I 'll'Jl'ljC;\f;l~C'st~ ~~~<RI
<l"
m=~~~.<2'~1
~I ~C~C11~>1~~~~1
m: (~)~~~~c:;{;~f.>t>iapr~I
(~) ~ ~ ~"1Wl4:ost-t-:f ~~~I
(¢) ~ ~ ~l~filmlf<lf"difj; I!!~ ~~fil'cfrn I
(8)~~~~f.fcfui1
( <2-) ~ ~ ~ct~ l!l<f~ "i~"'l~dt<P <fG'f ~ fifcfrn I
'll B-H~~~'~-ecf$~~~?
m: B-H '[9f ~ ~ ~~1C"lf&4' 11Jlif;rn~ICdf~ rnc'G<it'G~U ~ ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ <O~Pt~Jtdf­
'11Jl~lC"lf&l5!~ '$'f l!l<f~ <;<tSt-131l~f.>tf\5fj; ~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~>IC~Pt>l-C'f>I ~ ~ I
'b' I ~)\t'GC11~1~~~~~~~f.l~~'I?
m: 131-J:C~"i ~~.¢ "'l"~~ I

~C~C'llP!Jf ~ ~ lft'6 I [~ : ·~~R, ·~~]


. ~ c51'1"1+il"1 Diil" Cf!' ~"lcGC11P!Jf ~ ~ <R I [~: ·~~. ·~~]
m. 131"J:C~"i ~~.¢~I
@ ~ ~ ~c~c11!Sl:>t "J:t~ ~ ~ <R 1 [~: )~R]
m: "5l"J:C~ ~~.8 ~ I
~I ~CR Wh = fHdB Joul/m3 /cycle
~ : "5l"J:C~ ~~.8 I!!~ ~~.<2' ~I

i
.\...:lit
Contents

--
~ 'o~]

Understand The Concepts Of Steinmetz's Hysteresis Law. ·


~ 'oB]
I
' ,,
)~.o~
(Introduction) ,
~ ~. ~ 91'ftt'<fu ~~l~11~ ~. ~ l!jq~ ~(}(;~P!"I 'l<098r ~ iSft01t ~ ~ '
~l~Pt"'l ~ frlcfu ~ ~ I m
~:;f;~PtJi 'l<098r ~ frlcfu ~ ~ ~9f'll' l!)q~ ~ ~ I
~ l!l ~~~~~~Pl. f9r. c:;f;~"'llm;iSt (Charles Proteas Steinmetz, ~'lY~Q­
~~~~) ~-Pim..,.1~ ~~ l!l<lifU ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "'ll11l"J?'ll~'$: c:;f;~"'ll~\Si-1!1~ ~ ~
~I l!l ~ <lJ<!$ <mf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~Pt"'l "'Pl frlcfu ~~I
)~.) ca!Gloicif'6et-l!I~ ~caiGc'APl>t ~
(State Steinmetz's Hysteresis Law)
c:;f;~ilC11U\Sl-l!l~ ~:;f;~f$J"' ~ ~ : ~ 91'ftt'<fu Rc:;f;~f$J"' ~ f f 91'1tt'<f ~ ~
~ 1.6 \!5'11 9!t'5$, ~'il"Pl~l"'l~ Ri~1"'11., filsc<lSlrn~ 1£lq~ ~ ~ '¢ll~'l!ll"'l~ ~ ~
~~I
)~.~ catloicii'Get ~ca!Gc<API~ ~ ~
(Explain Steinmetz's Hysteresis Law)
~c;;f;c~f$J"' ~ fr!cfurn ~ c:;f;~"'lC11lJiSt ~ <mf ~ c~ Cll, ~ ~ ~ ~:io1}(;~f$i"'
~~ M~~"''<A:~ ~98r fri..;~ <mf I
(~)~~~(Bm),
(-<.)~~~(v),
(~) ~'il<lSl~l"'l~ Ri~l:;fl"'I §rl<lSIC~M'JI (Frequency of Reversals of Magnetisation),
(8) ~ ~~ (TJ) I
Rc;'f;~f$i"' ~ ~ ~ C\S"'lPtfG~ 1.6\!5'1! 9!t'5~ ~ ~ ~~ 1 l!l~ 1.6 l!l<lifU
~~~I~~~~ (Bm)-1!1~ ~ 0.1 ~ 1.2 wb/m 2 -l!l~ ~t!J ~ 'W'f 1.6
~ <u<!$ <mf ~ ~ ~~Im Bm-1!1~ ~ 0.1 wb/m 2 -l!l~ <l'lT 1£lq~ 1.2 wb/m2
~- ~~ c<lfi't ~ O>J:l><?fG~ ~ 1,6 ~~ c<lfi't ~I~~~ (TJ)-1!1~ ~98[ <mf O>J:l><lSf&~ m
~ l.5~2.5m~9fMI
)~.'-' catloic*er ~ '1if9N>"' ~ ~ QGl;91Ci1Uet JtiilliJtlC'A ~caiGC'APi>t ~ ~ ~
(Derive the Formula for Hysteresis Loss on the Basis of the
Steinmentz's Law)
~~~~~~~=Bm,
~ 91'ftt'<fu ~ = v l!jq~
~'il<lSl~C"'l~ Ri~l~1¢1 filsl<lSIC~M, f~ 'W'f c:>G~"'icm;\Sl-1!1~ :>[llll<J:"'ll~ ~~f$i"1 ~.
Wh oc Bm 1.6 ............... (~) (<!'$f f 1£lq~ v ~)
,~R] Wh oc v ........... (-<.)(<!'$ff 1£lq~ Bm ~)
Wh oc f .............. (~) (<!'$f Bm 1£lq~ v~)
~~ ~ Nl"'lfGC<I$ l!l~ ~.
Wh oc Bml.6 fv ~ Bm, f l!lq~ v 91Hl<1'6"'liilM)
Contents
Contents
Contents

--------~-------
~Q-b' GlJ l\!il::?l+f\!i ~CG'! f>tfj;
~~rlli't~~t*n~~~~~«f'Ol!l'S'T-f'fitt~~~~~~

~"tl('l1Gf - ~ : ~ \al*1¥'l1ill'l1 ~ ~ 5000 'iR ~-~· ~ ~~~"T'l1 ~ 108 ~ ~-~· I


~-m, ~C~C<slf'Pt ~ ~~ f!tc¥1atfil ~ 11 ~. 250 ~/"4"1f$1'11
~~ 50 >i~C¥'1/~~ ~ciGC'l11$t>i ~~~? [~: )<:>}
~~8
~ h - llxlQ-3 '· l•. ~~.
~ ~111~, Bm = A ; 108xl0-4
v = 5000 x lQ-6 \\1"1fit'Gl'i1
= 1.018 IS~ /<T~ A = 108 x 10-4 <T~
c:>&~«iC~UiSt-1!1~ 1_(£!11"1IC'l1,
~m =11 x 10-3 IS~
Wh = 11/vBml.6
= 250 x 50 x 5000 x 10-6 x (1.018)1.6 11 = 250 ~/\\1"1fifGl'i1
= 64.3 IS~ (m) I = 50 ~l~C<tlG'l/~
wh =?
°\;"tl~'Sl't - C\ : ~ JAl'1¥'11ill'l1 C¥1tif m 50 >i~C¥'1/~ >il~C"11>1{1\&IM 91Hl~c£"'<iSlM I ~ ~
m ~ 0.0015 ~Af ~-~· ~ ~C~C'S11$t>i ~ 25 ~~I 25
>11~¥'1/~ f!loc~1c{lfilcl!l ~ m ~ 0.12 '<3'mRl I 'll~l'l1 ~ ~c<s1fJt>1
~~~?
~~8
c:>&~"1c~'GiSt-l!I~ 1_\!ll'filC'l1,
Wh = riv/Bml.6 h = 50 "ll~tASG'l/~
:. Wh1 = rivfiBmL 6 Bm1 = 010015 X 104 IS~/~
Wh1
<ft, riv = -B! Wh1 = 25 x 10-3 IS~
1 ml
25x10-3 /2 = 25 "ll~C<PG'l/~
50x(O.OO 15x 104)1.6 Bm2 = 0.12 IS~ /<T~
= 6.56xI0-6
~. Wh2 = Y)V/2 Bm21. 6
= 6.56x1Q-6x25x(0.12)1.6
= 5.51 x 10-6 ISmTI (m)
~"fl(it't - b' : 6 C9ltit, 1200 ~.f9t.~'ll.~ 3x10 3 ~I 'il~~"Gl<s! ~ m
C\!i"11$tff;'l1 ~ ~
~ 'f11{li11"1~\5llC~blC'Sl'l1~6.5x10-3 "4"1f1i°Ul'l11 llflt ~~ ~C'l11$t>i ~
6.4~~~~ciGc'!11$t>1~~?
~~8
@>C<tllC~M. ~~.
PN P = 6 C91M
f = 120
N = 1200 ~. f9t. \!!~.
6xl200
120
v = 6.5x10-3 \\l«ifil'Gl<il
= 60 :>tl~C<tlG'l/~ Bm = 3x1Q3 IS~ /<T~
c:>&~«i<>lUiSt-1!1~ »J:.illl<J:JilC'l1, wh = 6.4 x 106 ~I~
Wh = 11/vBml.6 = 1777. 77 ~/~<ft ISWI
wh
<ft, l1 = /vBm 1. 6
___ 17_7_7_.7_7_ _ _ = 12.45x10-3 (m)
60x6.5x 1Q-3x(3x lQ3) 1.6
Contents
~,....,.~~~~~~~~1"1't~~~~~CO-~af"'IP"~~cr.r.,-..rJ'ft

c:;'f;~ijclf&c'ST~ i"Q;c:;&~P!Qi~ ~ ~a-~


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ril!tl~~

ts~l~ilct - ~ : 4 C~ ~ l&IMIO!lil 151li!Cilt>lil 900rpm-lfl ~ ~ lflif 'e't9M" 120kg I ~


m ~ W! 12,000 ~~ ~."fif. ~. ~ ~<>1tnc11?i:>1-"'P! ~ <R r11 =
0.003 !fl~~ ~."fif.-~ ~ 7.5gm.] =
~:
~ ~' ~lU~Pt>J G'P! = Tl (Bmax) 1. 6 X V X f
PN p =4
l!l~f= 120 N = 900 r.p.m.
=4 x900 = 30· 1' '5~ = 120kg = 120 x lOOgm
120 c s
B = 12,000 Lines/(cm)2
v (~) = 120 ;.iooo = 16,ooo c.c Tl
~
= 0.003
= 7.5gm/(cm)2
i"Q;>ic;&~Pl>i ~}~ = 0.003
x (12,ooop.6 x 16,ooo x 30


25
~
=
= 1440 x (12,000)1·6 x 10-1 Joules/ sec .
484.23 Watts (~)
'~l~ilct - )o : 4 C~, 1500 rpm-~ ~ l&lilli\ICillil 1 ~ ~ 151li!Cilt>ICil ~ ~
~<>tc'GC'i1PIJ\-~ ~~I m-~ = 300, ~<>tt'Gc11Pt1-~ = 0.0015, 151li!Cilt>lil
~~"lf'ltt<P ~ = 7.75 I
'J\11t~:
~~.
lHr = 1 x 60 x 60 = 3600 sec p =4
Bmax = 3000 N = 1500 rpm
·~~. '5~ = 1 ~ = 112 x 454.$1
Wh = Tl (Bmax)l. 6 x f x V v (~) = 11~.~;54 Pl.PL
11
= o.ooi'5 x (3000)l. 6 x 50 x ~.;: 54
Tl = 0.0015
PN 4 x 1500
= 0.0015 x (300011.6 x 50 x
11
~.;; 54 x 3600 ~~ f = 120 = 1200 = 5oc/s

= 0.648212 Gl't~ x
Hh/Hour = 0.6482 x 1012 Gl't~
0.6482 x 1012
3600 x 107 x 1000 KWH
= 0.018KWH ~)I
~ - )) : ~ ~lmf :Q1lvt¥ilillCilil C<Pt1f-il11t'Gi!~IC"l'i1 ~ ~<>tt'GCi1Pl1 c<lit-lfllil>Pi~iG 115 I !fl~
~ 7000cm2 !fl~~ m-~ 1.5wb/m2 Wt 151~Ul'11Ci'jlt'. <PICiiciG'l1
®'1c~fil 60Hz~. ~~<>t~C'11Pl1~~<R I
~:
cqm~,
~ ~. Ph = riB~! fv
= 115 x (1.5)1.6 x 60 x (7000 x 10-6) Tl = 115
= 92.40W (~) V = 7000 cm3 = 7000 x 10-6 m
Bmax = 1.5 wb/m2
f = 60Hz
Ph =?
Contents
~~~~~~CD'~~~~~~4':!. .1""~~,,..,..~~<1'$._,_t~

~~o
~~~~~~~~f1l'l"t~~~~~~t*ft~~ti'tt~~
GUl15'0l+115 4:Cdl<t>fGPtfU
~l'fl~'Sl'f - )~ : ~-~ '1Jlfi!C"1"IC"1'51 ~ ~ \liJl"1¥'51~1'51 ~ ~ 4000cm3 ~~ ~
~ 200 cm2 I '1Jlfi!C"1"1"i C~ ~ ~"1"J:C'l"IC"1'51 ~ ~ ~ ~ o$
G!HNlC"1'51 80% - - I ~-$ 25 mwb ~~ fil'"kUlfil 50 Hz. ~Jtt&Ci!PPt c<lit-
~~P!Ul4; 230 ~ ~Jtt&C'SIPt~ "'Pf~<R I
~l:f1"t:
~~~'
a= 0.8 x 200 = 160 cm2 V = 400 cmJ
>1c<fl1»U'i'3!!-~, a = 200 cm2
B _ cj>max ~max = 25 mwb
max - a f = 50Hz
25 x 10-3 Tl = 230
160 x 10-4 = 1.56 wb/m2 Ph =:?
~l&CilPt>l ~
Ph = riBi!! fv
= 200 x (1.56)1.6 x 50'x (4000 x 10-6)
= 81.5W (~)
;11l~'S1'1 - )~: ~ lill"l¥'51illC'SI, ~ ~ $-C\!i"1Pt~ 1.25wb/m2 ~~ fil'<J!Ulfil SOHz ~
~Jtt~C'SIPtJj "'Pf 150w I ~ ~ ~ $-C'\5"1Pt~ ~ 0.8wb/m2 ~ fil'tUlfil
60 Hz~'~ ~Jtt~C'SIPtJj-~, ~ ~?
~l:f1"t:
~ ~, R>it&CilPl>i ~ ~~'
Ph ex: B~! f P1 = 150w
~~ ~, P1 ex: (1.25)1.6 x 50 Bmaxl = 1.25 wb/m2
~ ~, P2 ex: (0.8)1.6 x 60 fi = 50Hz
. P2 _ (0.8)1.6 x 60 _ 52.5,_ 41.99 _ Bmax2 = 0.8 wb/m 2
. 'P1 - (1.25)1.6 x 50 - 71.5 - 71.50 - o. 5 87 fo = 60Hz
41.99
~' P2.= 71.50 = 0.587 x PI
41.99
= 7 1. 5 0 = 0.587 x 150 = 88.05W ~)
Contents

c<lSt-

~~~? [<//'P/Ftv:rt: 'o~, 'o~]


~ : ~iGC~PPi ~~ ~<fifU ~. ~ ~ ~~~IS~~ I ~~ TJ qim ~ ~
~~ ~C'llPt:>J ~~ Tl = B::.~fv .
~~~~CilfSt>i~~I [~: '01!>]
- : ~ ~ ~iGC'llPt:>J ~ f f 91mt~ ~ ~ ~ 1.6 ~ 9ft18$, k'ilq>l4JQHI
~IJfla>J UfC<!ilCllf'1 ~qt.~ ~ ell4JlbC'i~ $;~ ~ ~~ I
O I ~Cil'ri'Sf ~ ~ ~ ~f.ils ~<Rt lim?
- : ciG~iiCilUiS!-~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~iGC'llPt:>J ~ f.fcfu ~.~I
8 I ~CJGCi!PI:>\ ~~ ~ C<IS ~crnr-1?
• : ~ Pr.f9t. c>G~iic:>iu\Sf Rc>Gc~f9i>t ~ f.fm ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ iilill'Plll'll~ ~ ~
c>U~iiCMiSt-~~ fu:>Ul'llPt:>J ~ ~ ~ I
t I ~ m C15iiPllti! ~ ~CJGCi!fSt:>\ ~ ~~?
m: ~C'llPl>t ~ ~ m cl5iiPifG~ 1.6 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ 1 ~ ~
~~~m ~ Bm ~~ ~iGC'llP! ~
Wh oc Bml.6 ~
f ~qt. v ~ I
bI . ~Ci1U'8f-~ ~CJGCi!fSt:>t ~~ ~~ I
- : ~iGC~Pl:>J ~. Wh = l"]Bm 1. 6 fv ISlTllJ I
C\ I ~~ ~ k'i1~4l¥ilct ~ ~>t<.°r;Ci!PI:>\ ~.~911f AA~?
m=~1~m-~~q" •
-<.l~<ft~~~~I
;- I ·~ liJ1'1¥ilillil ~ ~J>tt'GCilfStJ1 ~ Cfi\5?
m: ~ \iaJl»i~~ill~ ~ ~J'llGC'llPt>t ~~ 130.
~I ~<fi"Pi;~ 1£1~ ~ IOllHC"1il ~J>tt'GCilfSt:>t ~Cfi\5?
m: ~ ~ PiJG'f ~qt.~ '¢lm~li'I~ ~:>JlGC~Pt>I ~~ ~~ 2500 ~qt. 3750 I

~'!~1'1~104!0.dG<.<i>l~~'f(>rt~~l . ~' ')~] .


. _m:~~91'ftCQf~~m~=Bm,
~·~~=v\!lqt.
k'il<l'll!C'i?l rn~IJfl"'l @>c<!'IC{JM, f~ ~ c>U~iiCilUiS!-\!l~ ~i!ll"J!llC'll Rc>Uc~PtJ'I ~.
Wh oc Bml.6 ............... (~) (~ f ~qt. v ~)
Wh oc v ........... (-<.) (~ f ~q~ Bm ~)
Wh oc f .............. (~) (~ Bm ~q~ v~)
~~ ~ Nliilik<I' ~~ ~.
Wh oc Bml.6 fv ~ Bm, f.\!lqt. v ~)
<ft, Wh = 11 BmL 6 fv ~/~(<ft ISlTllJ)
~~ 11 ~<fifU ~ ~'-~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ Pr_;~ ~ ~qt. ~~ ciG~iiCM'Sf
~CiGC'llPt:>J ~<;'( (Steimetz Hysteresis Co~efficient) ~ 9®~ QJf I
Contents
~~~~~~.tl'P!P"t'Wtfft~<9!1~~~~~~~~~<r.I~

~-
~~~
~~~.,.,._,........,,..~~~~~~~~~~~~
"1Jli5~l'J\i5 4:c~<1>t:GPll'b
~~ ~ ~ 11 (~. ~ ~)-~~ ~ ~ ~ ~. R>itoGC'ilPP'i-"P! ~~~I C<l~f\§cp
~ "IHWlbl'il ~<T~ $Jl'J\~'ill!IC'il'il C<llRf (Core) ~ ~ ~J'flG~Pt1-~~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~. ~ ~J'fCU~Pt1-"'Pf·~ ~ I
~~UJl'J\~'ilaj'il-~ 11-~~~ 103, ~-~ 2500 ~<T~'<ll% "ll~'i1C"1'il 3750 ~I. . •.
,. <)Yt :r~:DIUQJf ~ ~ciGCi!~Jt ~~I ~~~~1' .
, ~ • ~ ~ ~QtC'ilPt:>\ "Pf ff ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.6 ~ 911'$~, k'ii<f'l~C"l~
· ~~1:>f1~ @ic<lllc~M ~<r~ ~ ~ "ll~iic01?1 ~ ~ ~~ 1
~ ~ ~ cmr ~ ~ ~ ~ Rc:>&~Pl»t "Pf Rem~~ 1
r{lr ~c~c11f3!Jt ~~~~ -e~AA~1'
y ~: ~ ~ ~C'ilMJi "Pf~~~ -e911f AA <mr I .
(~) ~ ~ ~· (Bm) (~) ~'ii<t>l\IC"l'!I RllSl<>fl"I @1C<15l(Jlfii (f)
(~)~~~(v) (s)~~~(l'J)I
8 I ~~Cilf31Jt ~ ~1'
~ : ~ ~ k'ii<t>l~"1 ~ ~ ~1~1c•'f1H'~:~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (B) ~~ 9f"bl"1<115l\!>l'il
~er Qi "Pf <fl i;sr~ ~ ~ f(c:>&c<i!Pl:>j "Pf ~ 1 ~ ~ <fl ~ ~ ~ cmr
RQt~PIJ'I "Pf~~ I
<t I ~C~Cil~Jt ~ ~~ ~1' '·
~ : Rc;:>&c'i1PP1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. Rc:>&~Pl'f "Pf~~~ 1 ~ RQtc?lM'f ~ ~ ~
c~ Rc:>&c'i1Pt:>t "Pf~ 9lnl 1 ~ ~ ~ C<llRf ~ Rc:>&l'ilPl'f ~ ~- ett<t>t ~ 1
~I C~OIUQJf ~:>tt'GC11~1'1 ~ ~1'
~: ~~ ~ ~ R'!to'&~Pt1 ~911f ~.ff~~~~ Ci501Ptl'b'i1 1.6
~ 9fNrn~~~,~~I

~
. /S/ ~ 4 ·,~ \SIAA'lt~i·"llrolCil'il ~ 1200 ~. ~. c.q~. ~ ~ 150kg ~I '"'1m m
~ ~ 1500 ~~ ~. ~ ~~,il~Jt ~ ~1' (l'J = 0.003 ~ ~ ~
~7.5gm)
~~: Cl'im~,
CJtf1Rt
{~: 'oci]

~~. P=4
Wri = ri/V Bml.6 N = 1200rpm

= 0.003 x 40 x
150 100
7~5 x (1500)1.6
v = 150xl000
7.5
m
= 28. 97 x 106 "It~ I 11 = 0.003
PN 4 x 1200
I! f = 120 = 120 = 40c/s
. Bm=1500~~
ciG~OIUQJf ~ 'J.llll<J:JflCil ~CR: Wh = ri/vBmI.6 [~: 'o..,] '
~: "1'!'~"1 ~~.~~I
~ I ciG~OIUQJf-~ ~C~C'ilf31Jt ~ ~ ~ CUMJl '<l51f I
~: "1'!'1¥! ~~.~ ~<T~ ~~.~~I
8 I 8 x 10-3 *M~lil 15114l"'C"111 ~ ~ ~fit'5111 0.8 ~/<l'ffitu111 m C\&i1f3ilU'A ~ ~
l
l

C'fCiJf 40 ~ 1'11' I ~ k'il<fl41C"111 Rl15l<>fl'1 ~C<flCilfit 50 Jj~CCf'I I ~ ~ ~QUC'il~Jt ~


753.6 ~/ fli1filUl'A ~ ~ ~C~Citf31Jt ~ ~1'
m: 506.23 x 103 \Wf I (~ct:~~ ~~~9f)
Contents

Understand The Concept OJ Eddy Current Loss And Their Minimization.


~~.o~
(Introduction)
C<!WNl<t> ~ <t>C{JC41~ ~~Nm~~~ (\!!Pl)~~\!!"?! DBI~\!!~~
~~~m1 \!! ~ ~m \!)~~ \!l<T~~.,,~~~1 ~ct l!l<T~
"'f~C"l511>QHI ~ ~"CG'!l "l5t{JC'1~ ~ ~ ~ <rnf, ~ l!l~ ~ l<lWNs<fi ~ ~18
(~'<Ii~~~~) ~<rnf I~~ 1!1<1$ll!l~.l!ll!S. ~~ l!l<f~ ~.l!l~.l!ll!S.­
l!l"?I ~ C<t>mr 1£1'<)$' ~ \Sii<!~ ~ ~ l!l~ ~~I ~ ~~ ~ l!l~ ~ ~
~~~9lmm1\!l~~~\5fm~1~1!l\5f~~\!l~~~1~.
CISiill<JIU~, lil'fl~~~I~ ~ ~- C<t>mr (~) \!!~ ~ ~ m ~I ~ ~ <@i
*
\!)"<)$ ~ ~"?! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \!!~ ~ ~ ~ ~ °lJW I
\!!~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \!!"?! ~18 ~I~- ~i'.Sl~C\!5~~~15191
~~~\!)~~~~~!
)e.)~~~~~
(Define Eddy Current Loss) .
~ 1.6
C<!W~<fi ~ ~ ~~Nm \!)~ ~ ~ <ro'f ~ ~~ m m I \!)~ ~ -.cm
\5f~'<)j~~ 1-..m \!l \5f~'<)j~ \!!~~~~I
)e.~ ~~11pf <fi~l~I~ ~911W
(Discuss the Methods for Minimization of Eddy Current Loss)
\!)~ ~~ ~ ~ ~-~ '\5f'<ft~ ~~ ~ \!)"<)$ * ~ ~"?! ~ ~
Rf$ ~ \!Im 189\"?I GflC~<t>fG ~'>'Fl ~ ~ Nm ~ <rnf 15flUf°4sC{l ~ ~ ~ I ~ Nm
r~ Gflll<t>l<AI~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9fWt 'StWt ~"iJffe'l"R om!~. ~ ~ 15fli¥1~1~C\!5 \!!~ ~
r:
'oq] ~~-.,t 9itt"?ll ~~~~·~°lJW1lt \!!~~~~~I\!!~~
,~~PG~ro~ ~ ~ c~ ~) ~ ~ ~ ~ <rnfl8 l!l~ ~"PT~~ 1
)e.e~~~~~
lJ:?.escribe the Expres!;ion for Eddy Current Loss)
~ ~-f.i?fl'll'I~ ~~ ~ c~. ~ ~ \!l~~G'p{ ~-~~~m
Cl5i!Pllt~ <T~, 'R'<l<fil{!Ci!~ ffi~l:>'flai @l<ASIC{JM~ <f~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (Lamination)
~ <f~ \!l<l~ ~ ~ Gfl{l\!5<;4~ ~~~~I
=
<Wi ~ ~ ~ Bm, @c<t>IC{JM = f,
=
~ ~ t \!l<f~ ~ 9fl11~<rt ~ ~ v~ ~ \!!~ ~~. =
Weoc Bm2 .............. (:>) (~ f, t l!l<f~ v~)
r: 'ol!>] 17'
'-"
We OC f2 ................. (~) (~ Bm, t \!l<f~ V ~)
,,..,,.. We OC t2 ................. (¢) (~ Bm, f. \!l<f~ V ~)
I

We oc v ·················· (8) (~ Bm, f \!!<TU~)


~~~~\!)~~.
We OC Bm2 f2 t 2 V (~ Bm, f, t \!l<f~ V ~)
<rt, We= K Bm2 f2 t2 v '8l$
\!)~ K \!)"<)$ ~ .,,~~ 1lt"?I ~ ~ ~ ~~ <rt ~ ~91"?1 f.i--6'~ ~ I \!!~ \!)~ ~
~~ (Co-efficient) <f41t ~ I
Contents
~~~~~~~~~~~4':1""'"1-rtft~~~~<P.1._,...r#tt

)~8 GIJ\l.SIS\'tll.S ~C"1<t>$PITU


,~..,.,....ti'tt~~~~~~,..,..~~~~~~~~

)'O,'O.)~~~~
(Application of Eddy Current.Loss)
) I~~ (Induction Furnace)-1.!1 ~91 ~ ~ ~ I
~ I ~IJl"1~IC"1lfilu1c'$BI ~~ ~ I
~ IMCGlfii'GI~ ~~~~~~I
)'0,8~'<3~
(Solve Problems Related to Eddy Current Loss) .
~- ) : ~ lil'1¥iiill'A ~ ~ 9l1'Plt ~ ~ 0.5 ~f'ifil'Gl'A ~ ~ ~ ~ Jm{
Ci# 1.5 ~/~I ~;&t51Wl'A ~ ®'c¥1Cilfit 50 ~I~~ "1C1Rt
~ 5x104~•1fil'G1~r~~ C:ilSttR ~~"Pl'f.Wlf CR ( ~~~ = 6.5 x 106)
~: Cl1llt~.
~ ~. t = 0.5 filfdtfii'GI~
We= K ~m2 f2 t2 v = 0.5x10- 3 ~
= 6.5 x 106 X (1.5)2 x (50)2 X (0.5 x l0-3)2 X 5 x l0-3 Bm = 1.5 '<3~ / ~fmll~
= 45.10 '<3l$ (m) = 50>11~c¥11 ~
r
v = 5 x 10-3 14i1fil'&I~
K = 6.5 x 106
We =?
~llfl~~ct - ~ : dR$ C'Sf"11CifO'd ~ ~ 2000 ~ c>r.1lf. I ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.5xl05 ,
~ ~ 356x10-4 ~ ~ ~ lfflf ~ 1.5 ~/~HI I Wt'~
~"Pf 1.54 '<3l$~ ~ ~'i14li1C"1'il filel:>fl'l fil'C41Ulfit ~7 .

Cl1llt~.
We = K Bm2 f2 t2 v v = 2000 'l({"il' c>r.fif.
We = 2000 x 10-ti \\l"'lfii'GI~
:. f2 = KBm2 t2v
K = 7.5x105
1.54 .
t = 3.56 xl0-4~
<ft, f2 = 7.5x105x(l.5)2 x (3.56x10-4)2 x 2000 x 10-ti
Bm = 1. 5 ~ / <f~ffi{G\~
<ft, f2 = 3600.36
We = 1.54 'Sl$
:. f = 60 :>Jl~C<f'"l/~ {m)
f =?
~111~~ct - ~ = dR$ ~ ~ m
25 :>i~W~ :>i~Cill$1i11!6lf'r ~H1<1'6ei~ 1m ~ m
~ 1.2 ~I <1~'Ul'il ~~~"Pf 102 '<3~1 ~~~"Pf
~~mfil'c41Ulfitso$1~Cetsi1/~~m~1.5~/~~1 ·
~:
~~. Cl1llt~.
W.; = kBm2 t2 f2t2v f1 :>Jl~C<IS"l/~
= 25
~~·
·Bm1 1.2 'S~/<1~
=
~~ C'lfC\l!,
Wei = 102 'Sl$
W e1 = kBm12 f1 2t2
<ft, 102 = k x (1.2)2 x (25)2 t2v .......... ()) fa = 50 ~l~C<t>C'l/~
~ C'lfC<l!, Bm2 = 1.5 ~l'a:e<t>c:i~ffilUI~
We2 = k Bm22 fa2t 2v We2 =?
= k x (1.5)2 x (50)2 t2v ....................... (~)
Contents

~~~~_,...~~~~~rt!ft~~~.:r.t~~~~~

i!l~~G'pf ~~Q
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~""'"~~

~ ~ ~ ~ <!!~, ~~ k, t <!!~~ v ~"'i~<lf\5\!> ~I


l!,i~ (~) iq~-C<li (~) ;q~ ~ ~~ ~ I
We2 k x (1.5)2 x (50)2 t2v
102 = k x(l.2)2 x (25)2 t2v
We2 _ (1.5)2 x (50)2
<ft, 102 - (1.2)2 x (25)2
<ft We2 = 5625 ..
' 102 900
5625
:.We2 = 900 x 102 = 637.5 -a~ (m)

~- 8: ~~l'l<i''Slill'll ~~ 5 x 10-a ~ ~.~. ~ ~~ ~~ ~


o.5 fil~filt1<s1 1~ m~ 1.25 ~ / <1•ffil'G1* !JI~ 1J11W ~ ~ 6.2 x
106 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ CR, ~ k'i14'l~V1'A R1e1<>f101 Qic•l~fil (<IS) 50
:>t~C4''f/~ ~ ('/Qf) 25 :>!~4'01/~ I
~:

(<Ii) ~ f = 50 J"tla:c<iS"l/~
~~. v = 5 x 10-6 "ifol·~.fir.
We = k Bm2 J2 t2 = 5 x 10-<J ~"lfillil~
= 6.2 x 106 x (1.25)2 x (50)2 x (0.5 x 10-3)2 x 5 x 10-9 t = 0.5 ~ 10-3~
= 30.21 x 10-6 -a~ (m) Bm = 1.25 '8~ / ~ffil'Gl'!I
(~) ~ f = 25 J"tla:c<iS"l/~ k = 6.2 x 106
We = k Bm /2 t 2v
= 6.2 x 106 x (1.25)2 x (25)2 x (0.5 x 10-3)2 x 5 x 10-9
= 1.56 x 10-6 -a~ (m)
~- Q: ~ <M"'11Cilf;'SI ~ ~ 2500 ~ ~.~. ~ ~ 2.55 x l0-4 ~ ~
~ lmif ~ 1.2 ~ Cftffil'Gl'SI I 50 :>t~C4'dl/~ QiC¥1C~fitC'6 ~ ~
~~ s.5-el$1@ic.lc~fit ·25 :>t~4'01/ ~~ ~~~Cfi\6?
~:

~~. ornr~.
Wei = k Bm2 fi 2 t 2 V v = 2500 '<fol ~.fir.
Wei = 2500 x 1o-6 ~"lfillil~
,.
t = 2.55 x 10-4 ~
8.5
(1.2)2 x (50)2 x (2.55 x 10-4)2 x 2500 x 10-6 Bm = 1.2'8~/~
= 14:52 x 106 f1 = 50 J"tla:c<iS"l/~
We2 = k B 2m/2 2 t2 V Wei =8.5~
= 14.52 x 106x (1.2)2x (2.55 x 10-4)2x 2500 x 10-6 = 25 Jila:c;;qs"l/~
/2
= 14.52 x 106 x 1.44 x 625 x 6.5 x 10-s x 2.5 x 10-3 We2 =?
= 2.12 -a~ (m)
Contents
~,.....·W1'11Sr-1i!ft~<P.I~ ~~~S'!f-.t•rltr ~"""~'~~m.."""'~_,-rltr ~~~r-rltt ~µ~~rJft"

~\bib 15lll15~l'J115 ~CG'l<t>f.QP!fG


~,.,.~~~~""'~.crrqsr-P't~~~~~~~~'*'"~~

\.;"fl~~'t - ~ : 50Hz ~ \G"Jl'lll'<l~IC<l<I ~ ~ ~ <R, ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.Swb/m2 I


O.Smm? 9ll\Plt~~ ~ ~ lOcm x Scm ~ ~ 60cm. ~­
~ ~ (Co-efficient) 6.58 x 106 I

~ C<t>Bf ~,a = 10 cm x 5 cm
= 50 x 10-4m2 f = 50Hz
C<t>Bf ~, v =ax l Bm = l.5wb/m2
= 50 x lQ-4 x 60 x 10-2 a = lOcm 5cm
= 3 x 10-3m3 l = 60cm
~,t=0.5mm
t = 0.5mm
= 0.5 x 1Q-3m
Ke = 6.58 x 106
~ ~, \!IN-~ 9ft\SWf ~
Pe = KeB 2mt2f2v
= 6.58 x 106 x (1.5)2 x (0.5 x lQ-3)2 x 3 x 10-3
= 27.76 Watts~):
t;111~~'t - C\: I!!~~~ (Magnetic core)~ 25Hz-l!I )\~i\l!>iWSlfil "'IH1~i'O!l4M I~
~~ ~ lwb/m2, ~~-~""Pf 100 watts.~ ~-~""Pf
~<R, ~~Cilfit SOHz, m~ 1.5wb/m2~J
~:

~ ~. \!IN-~ 9ft\SWf ~
Pe ocB.Ji f~ = 25Hz
Bm1 = lwb/m 2
off~~' Pe oc (1)2 x (25)2
1
Pe = lOOw
ft&rn ~ Pe2oc (l.5)2 x (50)2 1
f2 = 50Hz
... ::~ 5 2
= (\ ) x (~~) 2
= 2.25 x 4 = 9
Bm 2 = l.5wb/m2
Pe 2 =?
~' Pe2 = 9 X Pe 1
~' Pe 2 = 9 x 100 = 900 Watts (~)
~t;11-1~
....~,....'t - lr : ~ ~Jl'1CillU• ~ "lfi1~i0!14tv\ lffllr-~ ®°~Cilfit 50Hz. ~ lffl{ ~
1.25Wb/m2 I!!~~-~ ""Pf lSOW. ~ ~c~fit 60Hz I!!~ lffl!r ~
l.4Wb/m2~~~-~"i'pf~<RI
~:

~~,\!IN-~~ ~~'
Pe oc B;, f2 f1 = 50Hz
off~~' Pe 1 oc (1.25) 2 x (50)2 Bm 1 = l.25wb/m 2

ft&rn ~ Pe 2oc (1.4)2 x (60) 2


Pe 1 = 150w
fo = 60Hz
Pe 1 = (...Li..)2 x (60)2 Bm 2 = l.4wb/m 2
Pe2 1.25 50
Pe 2 =?
= 1.25 x 1.44 = 1.8
~' Pe2 = 1.8 x Pel = 1.8 x 150 = 270W (~)
Contents
~~~ ... ~~.,,..r-r'ft~~...,.....~~~t-'fftt~~r.,-.r.i__,--rlft.::0-.~~-lft~<P.1...,._~
\!!~~~ )~C\
~...........,...~~~~~~~~~~~~~'"""~~

/m2J ~"il~il'f - ~ : SOHz-l!'.lif ~ IQJl"1¥'AiilC'A ~ ~ ~ ~ <Rt'5 ~. ~ ~ m-~


• l!'.lfW- 1.5wb/m2 lflt(Cfll("i lOcm x 8 cm \!'.I~~~ 40cm \!I~ d!Jlfi!Ci!"lt:i\'A ~
O.Smm ~~ ~-l!'.l~P!UloG 6.58 x 106 \!I~~~ 0.8 I
~:
~ o$~ = 80cm2 = 80 x 10-4m2 cq'ID~,

~ <t>l4<i>1m ~ = 0.8 x 80 x 10-4 = 64 x 10-4 m2 f = 50Hz.


Bm = 1.5 wb/m2
~ V = 64 x 10-4 x 0.4 a = 10 x 8 = 80cm2
= 25.6 x 1Q-4 m3 I = 40cm = 0.4m
t = 0.5mm = 0.5 x 10-3m2
\!!~-~"PI Pe= K.,B,! t2 f2V
Ke = 6.58 x 106
(6.58 x 106) x (1.5)2 x (0.5 x 10-3) 2 x (50) 2 x (25.6 x 10-4)
Sp. factor= 0.8
= 2368.8 x 10-2
=23.69w~)

··~

r~
Contents

g~'i'f'J'f ~~~~? . [~: ')~R~ ').._,]


~;;. .: ~IRf.lC\!i ~ ~~ ~ "\!Sl91~~~1!11% ~ c;pf ~~I~~· ~91
~. ~lldl~tCillfiNIC{l{l \5J1FI ~. MOSIMUIC{I~ ~<;f frpfup:t ~JIMC\!i I
~'i'f'J'f~~? [~: 'o~, 'o.._,, ')), ')~]
:C<t'l)Nl<q)~ ~l!~~ l!lns~~~ ~~~~~11!1~~
~ '519ITTI en c;pf ~ 1~ l!I '519ITTI en~ l!lns ~ c;pf ~ 1
~I ~~'i'f'J'f~~?
m : ~' <O'St"1IC~{I, J31'>1tl'~lll{I ~ ~ ~ (~) l!lns ~"Pf~~ I
~t ~~ 'i'f'J'f~~mm -a91if AA~ 1
ym :
l!lns ~ c;pf firm!~~ '891{1 R..;Q' <ffif I
(~) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (O\SijPJfi>~ <r~
(~)~cm ~~1J']1'1 fit'c<i>tc~~ ~
(~)~~~~~~<r~
(8)~~~1
<ti ~~'i'f'J'f~~~I
m: l!lns~c;pfWe = k Bm 2 /2 t2v
~I~~~~~~?

I m =\!Ins~~~ ~"\!Sl91~~~ 1~~~\519ITTI~1


.:.~) ~~'i'f'J'f •i!ICiil~ ~~~<fft~?
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b' I ?"1'1Jf\b• pS"5~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~~~ (O"liif?
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m: <t>IC~c4){1 ~ ~ 91i'SWf ~~I l!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~g~ ~ ~
~ ~ mm~ ~ ~ \!l<f~ ~ ~ ~ 9ftW ~ ~>J:lG'f•fil ~ ~ I ~ l!lns <t>IC~C"G{I
~ ~ l.S1»lllCil~ (O~~:iGJl"'1 ~ I

[~:"~'I, '))j .
vm = l!lns~~ <i>lltcij1~ ~ ~ ~ 1!!<15fi>* ~ "'1W~ ~ ~fl<fU.\£1~
'891{1 ~ \!l<l5ffl ~91-l <ffif ~ ~ ~ <ffif 151fGMsC{J ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ 151IU<t>llijl~ ~ ~
~m 9ltV'f ~ ~ij>J:ldl"'fi! ~~I ~ ~ 151l\!?l151lf°$C\!i l!lns ~~~"It ~ I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lfhl ~\!Ins~~~~,\!)~~ ,~~ro~ro{I ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <ffif'8 \!Ins~ c;pf <ISllWft lfhl I

L
Contents
~~~~~~~r-tillft~~~~~Clha~.:f'!l...-r-r-tft~~~~~

~fW'f~~~~~~~~~~-~~..,...,...r*t~~
1£11\S ~Gip{ ::i~l'li
~' ~~~~? . • {~: 'cl~]
m : l<l'l)N5<1i ~ <liC~Cdl~ ~~ ~ 91~<1-i"'i"ltdl ~ ( 1!1~) ~ ~ 1£1~ ~91W'f 1!1<1$
~~~~~ll!l~~ml!l~~l!l<f~~~~~~I
~ct l!l<f~ ~~c<!SlbC"'i~ ~ ~-ca!l <liC~<Ft~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ 1.!1~ ~ C<l'l)Ns<li ~ ·
~'8 ~~I ~ ~ 1.!1<1$ ~.l!l~.l!I~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~.l!l~.l.!I~. ~~~ct ~· 1!1<1$ .
~ ~ ~ l!tC<IS 1.!1-f\S ~ <fC'i I
._, l ~<:RZ ~~~We= kBm2f2t2v I
m = ~ ~ 1£11\S ~ Gip{ ~ ~ ~ ~ m c1S"'if>iffl~ ~. k'il<tilm•'1~
~~l"lldl fWC<ISIC~~~ <f~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <f~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ 1511~\bC"'i~
""ltt~ ~~~I .

zjq ~ m ~ Bm, @C<ISIC~M f, ~ ~ t l!l<f~ ~ 91"ft~ <rt ~ ~ v. ~"lb"C<l


l.!lf\S~Gipf I
We OC Bm 2 J2 t 2 V (~ Bm, J, t l!l<f~ V ~)
<rt, We= K Bm2 f2 t2 v
l.!I~, K 1£1<1$ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ 91'itt~ ~~-~ '8~ P\'6'~ ~ I l.!l'C<IS 1£1-f\S ~ ~~
<fdl't ~I

~ l 50 'll~C4'1/~C4C'611 ~ ;ijl*l'l'11i!IC'l111 ~ JitW ~ 1.5 ~/;q•ffSl'Gl11, 0.5 'flf.'flf. ~


~ ~ ~ c<15tm .tl"Ca1l'110 C)j'.'flf. x 5 C)j'.'flf. ~ ~ 60 C)j'.'flf. I~ ~ ~ ~
6.58x 106~,~~~~~? {~: 'o~J
m=~-s1£1~~9t1
~I ~~~~? ~W~~lltlf?
m : 151<jp~:l1 :>~.:> '8 :>~.~ ~ I
._,,~~~~~~<:RI
m: 151$~11 :>~.~~I
8 I 356 x 10-s ~ ~ ~ JaJIVl'l'ilillil c<15tm ~ 600kg I C4lmr ~ JitW C'591fS\~
0.7wb/m2 ~Cil~IJ!Gf\51TJ 60 x 1C>-40m l~~~ 7650kg/m2 ~
(4) 25c/s ~~
(11t) 60c/s-~ ~~~~<:RI
~q,
,.
':>:>] . m: l.24w
I!!~
a- I o.o 14 ~ ~ ~f6t491 ~ '1Jlfilci1"1c;i11 ~ ~ ;ij)l"1'l'ilillC11il c<15tm ~ ~ 12.SOOcma

f~
Cil~f.iGI\!~ 60µ0-m I ~ JitW ~ 10,000 ~ ~ ~~UIM 60c/s-~ ~ ~- ~
~<:RI t
t~I

"~
m: l.248w
Contents

(Introduction) .
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ W ~~~.~I!!~~ (Maintain)·~~
~ ~ ~ ~ o:it 1 ~~91, I!!~ C<t1)N5"15 ~ ~ <pcm:"l'!l ~~ ~ ~ ~ 1
\!!~ >t'!l"1'!ll~:•f\!l W ~ ~ ~ I .
(~) \!!~ i5f~~ J2R ~ fiiGICiil'!l ~ ~ ~ ~ (Recover) ~ ~ o:it I
(~) i5f9Rl i5f~~ <15C~CC'l'!l t>l'!lMC"15 ~ ~ (m) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~91 '>tffla~
~I~~~ fifg~ (Collapse)~~.~~~~ I!!~ 'i"Hrqil'!l ~I
)8.) ~~~~i{.,~Nl
(Explain the Principle of Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field)
~ m I!!~ ~'iSl~C'!l'!l ~ 'iiel~l<:-1'!1 I!!~ C'!l~B'!lC<p ~ Jf~~ ~ \!!~ ~"1J~fG*'lrn"'!l ~ Jf~mt'>t
~~I
. "llC~CC'l'!l t>l'!lMC<15 ~ ~ ~iSWU~ ~~ 1!1~ W ~ ~~ ~. ~
~ "i{t I
Energy Stored
In Magnetic field

'-------11111 ~
v
~- ~8.~
~ :>J'!l<1'!ll~\!) w.~ '5tt<f ~ ~· 1 ~~-
~I C'!l~ll'!ll2R~~~. ~~~"i!ti
~I~ i5f~~ "15C~CC'l'!l t>l'!lMC"15 ~-~ ~ ~. ~ ~-W ~~~I
~ ~ ~ ~ MC#l'&~IC"1 Cl~~~ I
~ I!!~ ~1<11ro~ qic~CC'l'!l lfi:IJ ·~ ·~ ~ ~ ~ l!F~I ~c~ ~ lff.i wc~ ~
~ I!!~ ~.l!llf.l!I~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~fu~>t\5 ~.l!llf.l!l~. ~ I \!! ~.l!llf.l!l~.-1!1~ ~C'f
~ \!!~ ~~ ~ 1Z ~ ~ "llll'!lC'U'!l ~ ~. 9iffi"1'6iiC"15 <ft~ ~ ~ I I!! ~MoC~
~~~W~~l~~C~~~iifuts>t15ll!llf.l!l~.-l!l~lff.i~C~~.
~ ~ w-s ~ c~ ~ 1 i5ft<ITTf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~, ~ ~ ~iifu©:>Jl5
~~l!llf.l!l~.-1!1~ lfl<i ~ ~ ~ I!!~~' m I!! ~ ~ ~ lff.i "'fU ~ "i!t I "15lC'!lC'U'!l
~ ~ ~9iil\!l ~ ~ '>tffla~ W'S \!!~~~~~I ~ ~ ~ fifg~ ~
~~~~~~~ll1.~W~~~1
Contents
_.._ .......,......_,__.......,..,.,,_.....,........,~~·~...~..,- ............... ~ ..............
~~~~~~.....,....rtltl~~~~~~~~~~~
-- ...~

)8.~~~~--m~f.Rlr
(Drive the Expression for Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field)
R L

IC +:J
~-~8.~&RL~~
'@~ ~ 1!1<1$ ~ L-l!l~ ~ 1!1<1$ <Jl~:>{;;g R ~ ~~~~ ~ 1!1<1$ ~ S-l!l~ ~
~~~~ ~ ~ I l!l~ ~ S \5fif (On) ~ Wf <Jl~:>{;;g IS ~ ~l:IJ ~ ~ <Pl~c}G;g ~
~ cQft<P ~ ~ 1~~c~~1~~~wz~~~1 ~ l!l 91ffi<i'6c"'l;g ~
~· 1!)<1$ ~ ~f\S©Ji\S ~. l!l~. l!l~. e ~ ~ I
~ ~ 9IR1<1'6c"'l;g ~ ~ di/dt ~. ~ ~ C<Pt-1 ~~Ns©:>J."5 ~- l!l~. l!l~.
di
e = L dt
~. ~~~ 9111S$,
. L di . L' di
P = e1 = dt .x i = i dt
~~.dt~~w.
dE = p.dt = Li ~~ .dt = Lidi
~i'.!llg~;g ~l:IJ ~ ~ <Plc;gc4J;g ~ ~ {O) ~~~~(I) c~ ~ ~ ~ w,
E = f 0
Lidi

<ft, E =I: Lidi =L J: idi ~ L [~] : = ~ LI2


~~~~~W= ~LI21!l<a:~l!l~l!lfl~I
[~~~~El!l~~w~~~~I
)8.~~'(3~
(Solve Problems Related to Energy Stored in a Magnetic Circuit)
IS~l~~ct - ~ : 220 mH ~ ~ ~ <liCilC'lil W ~ ~ 10 mA ~ ~ ~. ~
~~w~<Rt
~:C"lm~.
L = 220 mA = 220 x 10-3H
I= lOmA = 10 x 1Q-3A
E=?
\5111Rn~,
~~w.
1 1
E= 2 L 12 = 2 x 220 x 10-3x(10x 10-3)2=11 x 10-6 Jouls (m)
Contents
;
~~~~~~~~<P.l~~~~~~~~~~r!!fr
:> C\~ . \51Jl\5~liJ1\5 ~CG"t<P!D
r ~~~~rt"fr~~~~~~~~rt"fr~~~~

~'T~<it'f - ~ .:
2.s ~ ~llllvt ~ 12.s ~ C'Slfit*.Jllfl ~ ~ "''~.,~ 120 ~ AA
~Hi<HllC4\'A~~~"fft~l~~~~~·~~I
~=~~. L =2.5H
R = 12.5n
E = 120v
I=?
E=?
~~~L-1!1~~~9f<ft~~~~O{t1~1!1~~~~1~~
E 120
I = R = 12 _5 = 9.6 A(m)
1 1
E = 2L12 = 2 x 2.5 x (9.6)2 = 115.2 ~ (m)
I '
' ~'114\'R't - ._, : ~ ~fWi91UIC\S'SI 300 ~ <ISUICOl'SI 1f~ ~ 300 tiffir l!S{JI~ ~ ~ wf
'111U2.5~ll'At~9t:f~I~~~·~?
~:
~~.
N = 300
1=300~~
= 300 x 10-3~
~ = 2.5 IS~
L = N1 = 300x2.5 = 2500 ~
.. I 300 x 1Q-3 ·
1 1
E = 2 L 12 = 2 x 2500 x (300 x 10-3)2 = 112.5 ~ (m) •
~'1l'('A'1 - 8 : 400 1'@r ~ ~ltJIVI ~ ~ <ISUIC'l'SI ~ m 20 1'@r "IJI~ ~ ~
~ ~ C'frJi[~ . . ~~?~~~~~. ~ ~t~ ~ ~
·~~1'
~=~~.
L=400~~=400 x 10-3~
Ii = 20 ~ \51JI~ = 20 x 10-3 \51JIP>1~
h = 20/2 = 10 ~ = 10 x 10-3 \51JI~
Ei =?
' E2 =?
~~.
~~~w.
1
E =2 LI2
1 1
Ei = 2 L 11 = 2 x 400 x 10-3 x (20 x 10-3)2
= so x 10-6 ~ (m)
1
E2 = 2 Lh 2 (~~I!!~, :.L1 = ~ = L)
1
= x 400 x 10-3 x (10 x 10-3)2 = 20 x 10-6 ~cm)
2
Contents

--:-- _...,,.,,,,_ --.-~M~~-'"'"''""""" -...- ~~q;


·~....,._f'i"'t~~~~~~~~~~~~'"""~~

. ~lifl~i1'1 - ct: ~ ~4!Tll5 4C41C*l'.$1 Wm 30 ~GUI~~~~. 18 x. 10-4


~ I 50 ~ '51Jlf?'simtil ~ ~~·""5~7
~~=~~' h=30x 10-3~
E1 = 18 x 10-4~
b=50-10-3 ~

~~'
cm~~~,
1
E = 2L12
1
·· E1 = 2 Lh 2
1
<ft, 18xlQ-4= 2 LX (30xlQ-3)2 ............. ())
1
E2 =2Lb2(~L1 = ~ = L, ~l!l~)
1
<ft, E2 = 2 L x (50 x lQ-3)2 ................ (~)

(~) f:f~ ~ctt<I> ()) f:f~ ~ ~~ ~.


1
- L x (50 x lQ-3)2
E2 =2 ------
18xlQ-4 1
2 L x (30x lQ-3)2
50
E2 = ( )2 x 18 x 10-4 = 50x 10-4 ~ (m)
..
30
w m ~ 10 filfit15111fDi>mm ~
~ - ~ = 250 ~ ~ ~1lJ191 AAt ~ •«1c11:a
~ ~~~~·~~l~~~~C'PfW~~~~·
~ ""5~7
~:~~. L=250x 10-3~
Ii=lOxlQ-3~
b = 2 x Ii =2 x 10 x 10-3 IOIJI~
E1 =?
E2 =?
~~.
1
E = 2 LJ2
1
.. E1 = 2 Ll1 2
1
= 2 x 250x lQ-3x (1Ox lQ-3)2
= 1.25 x 10-s ~ (m)
~.
1 1 .
E2 = 2 Lb 2 = 2 x 250 x 10-3 x (2x lOx 10-3)2
= 5 x 10-s~ (m)
Contents

~~~.eP.f~~~dl~~r'ft~~.,.,.~'"__, ... ,.,,...~~~~~.:f'I~~

~
~ °i8
~~rftt~~~~~~~~~~r#'ft~~~~
GlJ l15~l'J115 ~C61<1$IlaPtfG
.. ' ~"fl~~ct ·- '\ : · 25 filf61t~"'I~ ~ ~l~C~it ~~ fVmr ~ ¥ltitC'tit 'lfM 12 ~ IS!Jlf°"tmit ~~
c~ 18~\S!Jlf°"t{llt'SI c~~~~~W~?

-L = 25 x 10-3 ~
Ii= 12x 10-3~
b= 18 x 10-3~
E=?
~~.
1
E = 2 LI 2
.'. E1 = 21 Lh2 = 21 x 25 x 10-3 x(12 x 10-3)2
= l.8xlQ-6 ~
~.
1
E2 ,= 2 Lh 2

. = 21 x 25 x 10-3x (18xlQ-3)2
= 4.05 x 10-6 ~
~~ ~~I1~12 ~ C~ m~~~.
E = E2- E1
= (4.05 - 1.8) x lQ-6 = 2.25 x lQ-6 ~ (m) I
~"fl~~ct - '17' :
c•
~ ¥<Jltvlil ~~ ~ ~ ¥1CitC~il 'lfM 0.22 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'lfM 35
~ IS!Jlf°"t{lltit
~?
I ~ ~ ~-ISl~.ISI... 1.8 CSfiG' ~ ~ ~ ~ W

dt=0.22~

h=O
b = 35 x·10- 3 ~
dl = b - Ii= (35 x 10-3-0) = 35 x 10-3~
e= 1.8~

e
L = dl/dt
1.8 . ~
35 X 10-3/0.22 = ll. 3 l 1.«_"'!I~
~.~·~~~~.
1 1
E = 2 L 122 = 2 x 11.31 x (35 x 10-3)2
= 6.921 x 10-3 ~ (m)
Contents

~.....,.....,-.,.,....,..,.,....,, __,,..,.....,....., ~ ~···~ ~.,__,....,, ., . .,.,. ,.,.,. ., ,.,...,..,..., .,..,.,.,.,,,,,..,.,;-;"Q


~~~~tl'f't~~~~~~~~~~~~~fi"ft

i111~'A41 - ~·: ~ ~ 25 ~fitC~"1~ '<3 30 ~ ~ ~llil'I f.@ft ~ ~ ~ ~


~~.~I~~~ 0.0025 ISIJI~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~1161 ~llil'I .
12~~~~~~~~~?
~tfR':
~ ~. ~~~~(C~tc~ ~ ~l~Jl'JI, Cl'im~
LA = L1 + L2 + 2M Lr = 25 x 10-3 ~
= (25 + 30 + 2 x 12) x 10-3 = 79 x 10-3 ~ L2 = 30x 10-3 ~
>tlf<!i'cG'!l ~ ~ w, I =0.0025~
1 1 M = 12x 10-3 ~
E = 2LA12 = 2 x 79 x 10-3 x (0.0025)2
E =?
= 2.46 x 10-1~ (m) .
~- )o : 1 ~ ~ 5 ~.11t. ~(1f 1000 ~ lJ.'i ~ ~$ ~ Jffli'1rJU"5'A ";{~ 5 ~JlfOJmm m
~~WI° Jffli'1CWS'A ~ '6 ~~~~'ff I {4/<p/fi'trclt: 'o~]

Cl'im~,
1 = 1~
1
r =5x10-2~
µo =4 x 10-7 A
µr = 1 (~~~)
N = 1000 9lJw
A = n r2 = n x (5 x 10""2)2 =5~
= 7.854x10-3 <i'iffii'Gl<il L =?
E =?
_ 4n x 10-1 xlx7.854x10-3x(1000)2
.. L - 1 .
35 = 9.87x10-3 ~
~ ~w.
1
E =2 LI2

= ~ x 9.87 x 10-3 x (5)2 = 0.1233 ~ (m)


~ - )) : 25cm ~. 15cm "UPI' f.@ft ~~ ~ <>tfiti1~C'S 500 9IJto ~I ~ <liC~C61'A ~
~ 2.5Amp ~~~I~ <>tliti1~C'S ~~~? [<//1S/fiitc<rt: 'ob-, '))j
~tfR'
~~w. Cl'im~,
w=? 1 = 25cm = 0.25m
d = lOcm = 0. 1m
A= 7t~2 = 3.14 ~ (0.1)2 = 78.5 x lQ-4m2 N = 500 turns
I = 2.5 A
L = N2Aµoµr µo = 4n x 10-7
L µr =1
- (500)2 x 78.5 x 10-4 x 3.14 x lQ-7 x 1
- 0.25
= 0.0099H
1 1
W = 2LI2 = 2 x 0.0099 x (2.5)2 = 0.031 ~I
.,-
1 Contents

~~~~.:r.:s~~~~f""t-lft~.:r.i~~~~ ......T""t=Tl~~""""'""r-rl'fi~f"~~tJ!ft

) .,~ .
. ~~~~~~~P't't~~~~~~ri'fi~~~~
- '51Jl15~l'>115 ~Cftl<Plla .
. )8.8~1)~¥~~~
(Explain the Lifting Power of Electromagnet)
~~ ~ ~ ~ <!I~ <fW ~ Ccl"l)Nl<P ~I <!I~ ~'lt W mm ~<ft ~ ~
~ (c6'N<P 9fl11~) <!l"<P ~ ~ '5l'iJ?llC'i ~<ft~ "<Pm~ I~ W mm .!f ~ ~
C<l"l)Nl<P ~ ~ ~ ~ I

LOAD

F
mi-)8.~8·("<P) ~ ~ ~ N l!l<f'. S, (~) ~ ~~ ~-
~ ~ N <!I~ s ~ ~ ~ (mis )8.~-"<P) 1 <!l~ MClstC"i~ ~~ ~ct qG'f F <!l<r~ ~ce145f&~
~A 'fiffi(GI~ I~ S C~~f&c<t> ~ dx ~g ~ ~ ~ ~. wc<r ~ct~~~~
~, dw = Fdx ········~····················(1)
S C~~f&C<P dx ~ ~ <il~IC<il~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ •'1cf ~
~ ~ C~ Adx
>:i<ifirGI~ I ~<!l<f ~ ~~ <lfU'1_cf ~ ~ ~ ~ctlS ~ C~ I ~ ~ ~'!i W
1 B2
~~ct, dw =- x - x Adx .............. (2)
2 µo
<!l~, <fart ~ ~, s c~~f&cqs ctx ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ct w ~ ~ <rt "<P1<f ~
~\!it <lfU'1_cf ~ ~'!i <Jf'~ ~ ~~ ~ I
~'.,~W~=~~
B2
- . . Adx= Fdx
2µo
<rt F = B2A
' 2µo .
<!I~, F-1!1~ <!l"<P4'~, B-1!1~ <!l"<P4' IS~ /<f~ <!l<f'.A-1!1~ <!l~<f~ I

)8.<t?<l1)~¥~~~~
(Mention the Application of Lifting Power of Electromagnet)
~'- ~- ~~c:t'!5 ~ <rt ~ ~ ~'.'°!, ~ "<Pffei;~, ~ c~ ~ \Sc'ela>!e<i'il ~
~~I <!I~ I!!~~~~~~-~~~ <!l<f~ C<l"l)Nl<P ~ ~~
~~~I 120 ~.~.<[]Pf~ "1~\ba>!~ '5lldbl'il ~91 ~~ ~- 10 'G"r! m ~~
~~~I

..
Contents
~ ~i'ft ~.., ~~...~ ~_,. -~ c.'l'C6i~~ ~ C:~~~-r4t ~l'ri~JT'O'I <P.!·""'1-rl'ft ~f'•'l"'~T!...,. ·'!l"f~f~ C0-~~T'""1T'f""I -?l~q

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~ <ft 1500IC4i1 ~ ~, ~ ~~~ff ~I l!lfU ~~ ~ ~ l!l<t>'fU ~ ~

&r:"""~c;,..,,·~-1C#f-01~~\WIT~~l<fl'l>~~~~~~? {~: 'o~J


120 ~.iif. ~~ "l~\!iC4~~~9! ~ ~~ ~ 1Sool61C"1'!l ~~~I
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~-' ~ CIJFtijf ~. f<ls?
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C<t>t'1 91RJ;q..£-ic<P <lttft ~ ~ I l!l ~ ~ ~ ~ W <fi1ft ~ I
<PIC'!lW'!l Ql
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m: ~ l!l<t>'fU 4;'6l<Pffl~ <Prntft1'!l ~tfl Nm ~ ~ 1:_il"J ~ l!f111 'l!C~ ~ mi! ~ C~
~ ~ l!l<t>'fU 4;.l!l~.l!l<!S. ~ ~ <rtC<f' ~ 4:"1fQ,\5:>J\5 4;.l!l~.l!l<!S. ~ I
b I ~ CIJFtijf ~ W~ ~~I \£!if ~f<ls?

m: ~~~w=~L12l!l~~l!l~l!l<t><t>~1
C\ I ~l~C~~ Gfll/lil~l~C\!5 ~ ~1£1~1£1~ \£!if~~ I

m : 4;'61~~'!1 1311\!?l~IN,ice ~· 4;1!l~l!l<!S l!l~ ~ e = L~!


Contents
~.,,_,. -~"""r-fi!!ft ~""'~Tf'l'I .:r:ra:m-~ ~~..,. ~r-ri!ft c.,,·.qrfiT=q•:n.., -:Pl~-~ c.~1""' -~-t-4ft ~~r-i 3"1--T-~ ~r'""".,,.,.r-r -~r-i-.'!ft cn-~""'PTT'"'1 ~·"P'r'"r='n

~ C\b- 15ll li5~l'§li5 '$:tP1<isffaPl!t


~,...,.~f'llft~~ti'i't~~~~~~~rl'ft~rorr~~~~r-"fl~~~~~~

<R: ~~~WI E =~ u2 [~: 'o~, 'o", 'oB, 'o'l, '01r, 'o~, ')~, ')~R, ')"]
: 15l1C~"l ~8.~~ I
Y 25cm ~. 15cm ~ ~ ~1lnf ~ <>tM"'IUIC\5 500 9lJto ~ I~ "UIC'1'A ~ ~ 2Amp
~~~l~<>tM"'IGIC\S~W~<RI [~: '01r/
m:~-~~~I .
" I 1 ~ ~ 5 ~ ~~ 1000 ~ ~ ~1lnf c<ISRf <>tM"'leil\5 ~~ ~ ~ 5 ~JI~
~~~<>tfllileilC\5ill:<s1¥'BJl'I -e~w~? !~: 'o'IJ
~:~-)O~I
s 1 16smHl.'&l•~l'1~~cm1t1mwm2omA~~~·~•'"' f<11,m: 1o~J
'111tt'ftit : c;;m ~.
~~.~ ~~~~. L = 165mH = 165 x 1Q-3H
1 1 I = 20mA = 20 x 1Q-3A
E = 2 LI 2= 2 x 165 x 10-3x(20 x 10-3)2 = 33 x 10-6 ~ (~) E =?
~ I 20cm ~. lOcm ~ ~ ~1l'm ~ <>tfil"'IGIC\5 SOO 91Jw ~I ~ <!SeilC'l'A ~ ~ 2A.
~~~~fti<>tf.l"'leilC\S'A~~~W~<RI f~- 'oBJ
m ,: 15l"iC~"l ~8.~, ~- ~o \!I~ ~911
B2 A
~I ~<R&C<l'l,J~<!S~~~.F=-
2 µo
m: 15l°iC~"l ~8.8 ~ I
C\ I 400 1ilfir ~ ~'ejl<CflUJl'I ~ ~<f$' ~ ~ 30 ~fi\\51Jl~tit ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~~w~~?
m: 1s x 10-4~
b' I 250 ~MC~1fi1 ~1¥UJl"I ~ ~ <!SC{!Cil'A ~ ~ )o1i!fir ~JI~ ~ ~ ~. ~
~~·~<R1~~~~~~~w~~1
m: 12.5 x 10-6 ~ \!l<f~ 50 x 10-6 ~
~ I ~ ~l<!SfG'S ~ 201ilfir \51JIP"!{ll'A ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 ~ Wf 1001ilfir \51JI~
~~~w~~?
m:625~1
)Ol~~~~~~~"<RI
i· m: 15l<JC~"l ~8.~ •R~ I
)) l~C<l'l.J~" ~~ 9tt'e1l'mm<R I
m: ~ ~8.8 •R~ I
)~ 1500mH-~~ ~l<liUJl'I ~ ~ "CilC'l'A 'lfttl M ~ 20mA ~ ~ ~. ~ ~
1 ~~W~<RI
m = 100 x 10--0J,
)._, I ~ ,&f.lc~H ~Pt'SIC'A'A ~C'1¥dal-~'IC"'ltG'A ~ C~ • 1.2cm x 0.2cm I ~ C~
~ \Sl{IL!flCil'A 'lf~$ 4 x 10-6 Wb 1~~(Force) \Sl{IL!flilfG c~~m \5ll<li~ ~? ;r
m:0.532N
)8 1~~-W~~~ ~~I!!~~~~ 5cm21 ~~ ~~ ~~ 1f~
~(Pull)~<R, ~~<>tl'AC~C<>t$~ lwb/m2 I
m:398NI
)~I~ ~Cil"dal-"ilJl'IC"'lt'G <tM~C'A'A ~ c<ISRf illltG~{llCil 1.5wb/m2 1£1~ C<ffi't $ ~ ~
~~I~ C9fttii ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ "ilJl'lC-f&fG"' 200kg ~C'Cl6J1 ~~?
m: 0.95cm2

L
Contents

Dijferentlate The Conducting Non-conducting Materials.


:>ct.:>~.~~~~~~
·'
(Define Conducting, Non-conducting and Semi-conducting Material) ·
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~ I!!~~~) ~ I!!~ ~CGJC<i>~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <ft
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WrJ'- ~ ~ ~I ~ ~ ~~ ~l:(J ~ <ft~~~ ~I ~ ~ta"fi ~ 1fl:fJ 00
l!IC~<ll~l: ~ ~ ~ ~ I WrJ'- ~ ~~ ~ ~ 9!'11~ ~ ~~ IS"t~ <!Sm ll1li I l!orl-
(:>) ~ 9!'11~ (Conducting Materials)
(~) ~~ 9!'11~ (Non-conducting Materials)
2A
(~) ~(-~ 9!'11~ (Semi-conducting Materials)
- '08]
~, ~~ I!!~~~~-~ I!! ~ ~ 9!'11~ c<111Ni<i> ~ ~ ~ .~ 1 c<i"lJF?b<i>
~ ~ ~ 9\m~ l:CG1m<i>Jl'i ~~~ llJlcURrnlitJ (Electrical Engineering Material)
~QJll

~.~~1£1~~-~~~~8
~ ~s c<r~ ~11l:fJm ~~~~~ 91mt, ~~<tS1f ~ct<it~
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~~ ~ g c<r ~ ~~ 1fl:(J ~ WrJe, ~ l!IC<!><ll~°$: ~ ~ ~ I ~e, ~ <ft~
~~ QJl ~~ ~~ <It ~ (Insulator) <It ~~ 9!'11~ <fl"f I ~- ~' ~'
I!!~, <rt~, 6J<illl1fG ~ I
~-~ ~ 8 c<r ~ 9!'11~ ~ I!!~~~~ I!! ~·~ ~ ~ ~Cf ~'
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~ <ft~ ~~ QJl I ~e, I!!~ ~~ ~ ~ <it ~~ llJICUffimc01~ ~ I ~ I!!~
~ ~~ llJlctffi~101~QJi1 ~ - iS!ldPrnl~, ~, ~, ~ ~ ~ 1
~~·~~!!I~~ ~-~~'lfC~ ~
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~~ ~~~ ~(-~~
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8ffKt <tS1f I 8ffKt c<!fi't I
(8) ~ ~ ~CG1<id!<i ~I (8) ~ ~C"l<id!<i ~~I (8) ~ °$:CG1<td!C<i~ ~~~ ~ \S
~~ 9fl'ftl~ ~I
(Q)~~~~~I (Q)~~~~~~I (Q)~~~~~~I
(~) C4"l)l%<!> ~ ~ (~) 'l41J\%<1> ~ ~"PJCG1U~ (~) ~CG'f <td!frl <!> ~ ~
~~QJll ~~QJll ~QJll
Contents
~ ~a'!ft ('..~P'T <'.i't~-~ ~fi'r_..rt...,..~, ~ .,,-..,q-~ ~.---.1...,..~ co:~~ .,.::r;qsp•r-*'f ~f'IPI" ,~r-fo!ft cn-..,,.~TT>l't <?.'!._.....~

~b-o \5lll15~li115 ~CiiJ<t>[iPtfG


~,...,.~.....,.~~ti"ft~fWf~r#fi~~~~,...,.~r'tt~~to'ft~~~~~P'tt

~<t.~ ~' ~~1£1~~-~~~


(List at Least Three Items from Each Group of Materials)
~~:
(~) ~9ft (Silver) (~)~(Gold)
(~)~(Copper) (8) \5lllGJ:filM~II! (Aluminum)
(Q') U"t~~ (Tungsten) (~)~(Zinc)
(q) ~(Mercury) (b-) ~ (Brass)
(ll>) ~(Iron) (~o) ~ (Platinum)
~~:
(~) <Ul~G'fl~G (Bakelite) (~) ~ (Glass)
(~) ~ (Amber) (8) 151JIJ'\c<1:>GJ'\ (Asbestos)
(Q')~ (Mica (~) Gl"11IilfU (Porcelain)
(q) m<m! (Rubber) (b-) ~(Varnish)
(ll>) ~~~(Dry Wood) (~o)~ (Air)
(~~) l.!1~ (Ebonite) (~~) ~ (Polythene)
~-~~g
(~) iSrlC4'f.i~II! (Germanium) (~) ~ (Silicon)
(~) ~ <t>Hl<ll~\5 (Silicon Carbide) (8) ~(Carbon)
(Q') ~~(Wet Wood) (~) ~m (Wet Earth)
(q) ~ \5llC:ii"1~ (Gallium Arsenide)
~<t.8 (Jl~{]G~
(Define Resistivity of Materials)
~~f)j;~ro .<rt~~~ <i>'51<i>ro~ro <rt 9lrn<i1~1~ R*
1 ~ ~ <l'~1<i>ro~ro ~<rt~ (HighJ, ~

~ c~~f){;~ffl f.t;r <rt (FIT (Low) 1 ~ ~ <tS~l<tS~ffl ~ ~ C'1t c~~p;:;~ro ~ ~ ~ 1


~ 20°c ~~ c~~f){;~IUJ'\~ ~ C'1t ~~p;:;~ro ~~~<I'm~-
~'i{tlf 20°c ~~ c~~f){;~fj; (IS~-~)
(~) ~9ft (Silver) 1.64 x 10-s ·
(~)~(Copper) 1.72 x 10-s
(~)~·(Gold) 2.48 x 10-s
(8) \5lll'ffelf.i~II! (Aluminium) 2.8 x 10-s
(Q') U"t~~ (Tuns ten) 5.5 x 10-s
C<il~Ptf\Stt~ ~imt
~ ~~ l.!l<l'<l' ~ IS l.!l<l'<l' ~~~~~ ~ ~ C<tSi-1 l.!l<l'fi1 ~ ~ \5l'<l<rt l.!l<l'<l'
~ ~ C<tSJ.11.!1<rl'i1 ~ \5ll<f~~ ~ ~ 'ifi' R~ ~ ~~ cm~ <rt c~~:>GJliiC<tS f f
~ 15ltt~ cm~ (Specific Resistance) <rt cml:ft~<l' <rt ~~f)j;~f(; (Resistivity) ~ I l.!1~ p
WJm ~<I'm~ I ~~ ~ ~ 9ft1Sm <!ffi,
RA
, p=T
C<tSt-1 l.!l<l'fi1 ~~ c~~fJ:GN:ifi; = 1. 72x 10-s \S~- ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~, 1 ~ ~ \S 1
~ ~ ~ ff ~ l.!l<l'fi1 ~ ~~ ~~ ~ 1.72x1Q-8 \S~ <rtl:ft'2ft~ ~I
c~~PGN:iffl-1.!1~ \!l<l'<l' .~ \S~ v1Rlfii'G1~ <rt \S~-~ \5l'<l<rt \S~-~ 1
Contents

~,~ .~~t ~~~ $1_,-~ ~~ ~t ;]~j'~ ~;;-,;~Ri~~Wf ~;f' ~~~~ ~~,-~ ~--T~ ·"-~~ ~~ =·;b-~

~~tftt~~ti"ft~~P"l't~~tol'ft~~tftt~~~~rift't~,.....~P'tt

)<t.<t \5l~ ~'1N c11~ ~


(Define Temperature Co-efficient and Melting Point)
\5l~ ~'1N (Temperature Co-efficient) s ~ ~ ~ c'!1f$:>Gl'Ji ~ t.Q<p ~ l>tiilPHlf"I
~~ ~ ~ <rt ~ 9!W, ~ ~ ~ l'!l~:>GJIC'Ji~ ~™ ~ctll? <ft ~~ ~'i'f
(Temperature Co~efficient of Resistance) ~I <.!l~ a (\5[fo'j<!Sj) ~ ~ ~ QJr I QP1<f
0rul ~™ ~ <ro'f C'!lf@t:>GJl'Ji ~ 9!W, ~ ~ ~™ ~ctll? <.!l<r~ QP1<f 0rul~ 9iW
~ ~· ~™ ~ctll? ~ QJr I . .
~ ~ ~™ ~'ttl? ~ ~ ~~. ~<F1<t>cUlii11~U <.!l<r~ ~l{-~ ~ ~™
~ctll? ~· ~ ~ I
~ (Melting Point) : ~ Dtt91 ~ <.!l<f® • ~ ~91 ~'i'f ~ ~ ~ ~
~~ ~ ~ "".1? ~ <.!l<r~ ~ l'"l<f ~~-em m ~91 ~'i'f ~ ~~ ~ ~ QJr
"ill, ~ff Dtt91 ~ ~ ~ (Melting Point) ~ I
111~IM<t> Dtt91 ~ ~ 0°c, <.!l~ ~ ~ ~ ~. 111~IM<t> Dtt91 <.!l<j) ~ ~ ~91 ~'i'f ~
~ 0°C, ~~ <.!l~ ~ ~"'!10 ~ <.!l<r~ ~cf <r'i1<JS ~ ~ 9@~. ~~-em ~ ~™ m
(0°C)- <.!l~ ~91 ~ QJr ~ I
)<t.~ *lll!i:>tQ\%1, <PtRl;ql~I I!!~~~
(Define Malleability, Conductivity and Tensile-stress)
*lll!i:>tQ\%1 (Melleability) 8 ~ ~ <ft ~ ~ct ~ 9Ml~ f9tfUnl ~ ~ <ft ~ 9@~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~l\!)>t~l!lf <ft l~M~JIMMf& ~ I 1£1~ ~ ~ "i~~hll!)l'S ~ QJr I ~cf
~~~I <.!l~·f9ffmr ~~~~~I <.!l~ ~ ~'S ~ ~ll!)>!~l!>I
~I
91Rl<ll~I (Conductivity) 8 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <t>'iSltJJl'Ji
(Conductance)~ I <t>'iSltJJl'JiC<t> G ~ ~ ~ QJr I <.!l~ c~f$:>GJIC'J1'!1 ~.I
~ ~~ <.!l<p<p ~ '8 <.!l<p<p ~~c~cq'!l ~.f<ifiOfg ~ <.!l<f® ~ ·91Vftt~ ~ <.!l<p<p
~ f<ifiOfg ~ <.!l<f® ~ Gll'f!Y:i'!l ~ ~ li'~ R~ ~ ~~ <t>'iSltJJl'JiC<t> ff~
<t>'ISl<t>f&~ff; ~ I <.!lUt C'!lf$Pti~~ ~ I .l!l~ cr (Pt$rt) ~ ~ ~ QJr I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ (Tensile Stress) 8 ~ ~ ~ <ft <rim ~ ~ <.!l~ ~~~q'!l ~
~ ~ li'~ ~ <rii1 mt ~. ~ ~ <ft ~ ~ ~ 9lW ~ l~ DW, <.!l ~ ~
l'>'l'i!l~liil~ ~~ ~ ~l:f <rii1 ~~9l::f QJI, ~ ~ '!W~ ~ ~<ft ~ct ~ ~ I

p < 1----------------------1 )p
&lr: )Q'.) ~~~l~P<riil~~~
~91IB! ~ <.!l<f® ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ <rii1 P ~'i'f ~~~I l!l~ C'G<i>tl~iil
p .
$<fl~~. St= A kg/ cm 2 <.!l~, P = ~ <rii1 (Kg) <.!l<r~ A= ~~~q~ ~ (cm2) I
)<t. C\ ~ ~ OSl~f3Gie~il ~~ ~ mlii<Plil ~<rnst\(
(List the Factors Affecting Resistivity of Metal)
C'!1f$:>GJIC'Ji~ ~ (Laws of Resistance) ~ ~ 1Si'l'fif,
-~ •l~ f$:>G Jl'Ji,
~ 91Vftt-q~ R -- 2.!!
A .............. ())
Contents

~'J1WT -~ ~"ISJ"f'll'"l "'1~-~ ~.--TI"'l'T .~r-ti'ift ~,_.,.,...., ..,~-rff'I C'<t-.f.'f"'li":n....,. -~-rl'tl ~-~··11-n-., <?'f;qo-t-rift ~f"~...,. ·?:f~r-i-="l't d>-F"f«:rrn..., .:t"f~

~Ir-<
~,...,.~nltl~~ti"h~~rillt~~rt'i'l'~~~~~,...,.~r*tt~ ..... ~
151Jl15~l'J115 ~l"'l<JS[!P!fG .
l!l~;
p = ~ C'il~PG~fG
L=~~
A=~'2.l~l~P'i'il~I
~.,~~ct~,
AR
C<ilfe!PG~fG' R = L
~l!l<f, l!l~ 9fqtt~ C'il~PG~fG ~ ~ ~ IS9t'il M~'il <ruf, ~ ~­
(~) 9fqtt~ C<ilfet>&Jl'J!,
(~) 9fqtt~ ~'
(~) ~ '2.l~~lq'il ~I
• i.!l~ ~ ~ <!l<f~ ~~ IS9t'illS <!!~ C<ilfe!PG~ffl M~'il <ruf I

)<t.'17'~ ~~ ~'1" ~~~~{Git


(Describe the mechanical properties and resistivity of hard and annealed
copper, aluminium, low and high tensile steel)
~) ~ ~ ~ \!illlt (Hard and Annealed Copper) 8
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~nR! I ~91 IS WrJ~ 91~"11~1~ Pt"'l~ll'il~ ~ l!l~ ~I l!lfU ~
~ (Malleabl~) <!l<f~ '2.l>tl(lbl'l:f'il (Ductile) I l!l~ ~ 1083°C i.!l<f~ ~ 1083°C, ~
\51il~ ~~IS~~~ 8.97 l!l<f~ 9.95 I
~llii ~ ~ ~ ~ (Yield stress) = 6090 ~/"1"~ C>tf.Ufilul'!'l ~~ 8700 f91.<!l"J'f.~
(Pound per sq. inch) <!l<f~ lU"1>tl~"'l ~~'<! (Tensile Strength) 200 ~/"1"~ C>tf.Ufil'&l<il ~
32000 f91. <!l"J'f. ~.I IS~ 8800 ~/\il"1fi!Ul'il (550lb/ft) I
20°c ~~ • ~ C'!'lfe!PG~ffl = 1. 77 x 10-s IS~-~
20°c ~~ • ~ ~~ ~~ = 0.00382 IS~/°C
20°c ~~ ~ ~ C'!'lfe!PG~ffl = 1.724 x 10-s IS~-~ <!l<f~ ~~ ~~ = 0.00393
(--t) 15111'.J:filMillil (Aluminium)
~llii 151JIGJ:fi1Pmlil ~ <!l<r~ ~ ~ i.!l'<lS"fU ~ 9fl11~ 1 l!lfU ~ ~. l!l<r~ ~ 151'l~ ~
~ ~ I 151JIGJ:filM~llil'il ~ ~~ ~ I
IS~=156~~
\51il~ ~~ = 2.7
~ = 658 ~ C>t"'lPt!'!l>t
·~~~~ = 0.0041
, ~ = 1800 ~ C>t"'lPt~l>t
. C<ilfe!PG~ffl = 2.8x 10-s IS~-~ I
('f) ~ i.!l~ ~ Cri"1>t~*I ~ (Low and High Tensile steel)
~ <!l<f~ ~ l!l'<lS"fU "J'f~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I <!lfU ~ (Hard) IS ~ (Mild) m
~UR~ (Tensile stress)~~ ~1 <!!~~~ct 0.1- 1.7% ffi~
~I~ ~ct~~ (0.1- 0.2%)~~ l!l<f~C<ffi<l~ (1.7%) <!l"l<P~~<fl"! I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ IS9t'il ~ CU"1>tl~"'l ~~f4 ~ ~I ~ <!!~
~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ CU"1>tl~"'1 ~~'<! ~ C<ffi<t <i>ID ~ I ~~ ~ ~ lb"1>tll•
l
:1 ~~'<( ~emf Cl>o.:I ~ ~ I
Contents

~'J,._.. ·ff'~~t CD'"~~T""'t 4":1'--r-t~ <;'O~~'J1W'f .~t~t ;]:;y~ 4':1~1-;~w;i~""'I' ~~ r.;tr._f.~T""'t <3':1-_1-~ ~~f"U>TI...,. ·~T-1~ c:ri---~T""t <r.!~;;

~r-r~~~~r"l't~~~~~~~~~~r-r~r't't~~ti'tt

~ ,r;i\>t~ ~~~)<!lit~
CU"1"11~"1 ~~~ = 50000 -120000 Psi
~~=7.8-7.9
~~ ~ = 2750-2800°F
~ ~~~ = 30000 -90000 Psi
C<i1™PU~fG = 12.9x1Q-8 n-m (20°C ~~)
. ~ ,r;i\>t~ ~ (Jl;11~1t <.!l~ffl;irf) <!lit~
CU"1"11~"1 ~~~ = 70000 - 250000 Psi
~~=7.8-8.8
~~ ~ = 2500 - 2750°F
~ ~~~ = 30000 - 90000 Psi
c~~PU~fG = 19. 9 x 1o-s n-m (20°C ~~)
::,<t.~ ~ ilJlc.'6f1hOl'1>t
I (Define Contact Materials)
~ ~Jll1'Rlml"l>t <.!l<P ~ ~~c;="1='•©~•=1-1"1 ~~~ ~Jll1'Rlml"l>t 1<.!1~'(;"11 ~mt<;t ~ ~ ~ ~ 1
~~~~')'[~~I~~')'[~~~~ ')'[~mt<;'( ~9Fl ~ 0 ~ ~ <lt ~JllUBlWl"l"l,
~ ~~ ~ ~Jll1'Rlml"l>t <f"11 QJl 1 ~ fGRlml"l>t l:f1W <lt ')'[~~ l:f1W ~ ~ ~ ~1
~ C<iwN5• ~ l!l<r~ C<iwNi• ~* '8 ~~ ~ <l1 ~ ')'[~mt~ ~ ~<;'( ')'[~mt~
1!!~'(;"11 ~<Pm~ I IQ<!$~~ ~JllUBl{lJl"l"l <.!l~ ~ ~'l1<!f.i '<Im~ I
(::,) '@!» C<1'1JN5• 91Rl<11~t 1 (Q) '@!»~cm~~ 1
. (~) '@!» ~~ 91Bl<1l~'=>l I (~) f.1:.[ C<i1™PU~fG I
(~)'@!»~I ('\) f.1:.[ ~ C<J1~J{;Jli1 I
(s) '@!» C<iwN5• ~~ ~ 1
~ ilJIC.'6HhUIC'1~ ~~
')'[~~ ~ C<1'1JN5• ')'[~mt<;t ~ ~ 0 ~ 91"ftQf ~ QJJ, ~~ ')'[~~ 91"ftQf <lt ~
~Jll'GRlml"l (Contact Material) ~ I ~ ~Jll'GRlmt"l ~ ~~~ ~. ~911, <t>t<R, 'Gt~~
~.~~~QJJI
::,<i.::,o ~ ~ ~ ~ <.!l~ C<qwf\!>• ~m ~~
(Escribe the Physical and Electrical Properties of Silver, Tungsten, Carbon and
Copper)
~911 (Silver)
~ ~(Physical Properties) :
(::,)~~~cfu~1
(~) ~91ITT ~~ 10.5 I
(~) ~ 960°C <.!l<r~ ~1955°C
I (s)<.!l'Gi~.~~~~~~·<lt~~9!Rt~<Pm<mi1
(.qWN;<p ~(Electrical Properties)
(::,) 91Bl<11~1 ~ C<1fi<t
(~) 20°C ~~ c~™PU~fG l.64x10-s '8~- firm 1

(~) 20°c ~~ ~~ ~~ 0.0038


(8) 0°C ~~ C<i1™PUfufG l.47x10-s '8~l-fiim I
-----;;;~~..,-;;;;~~- .,.,.,...--... -~
Contents

;-;s--- -·-
~..,.,.,..-~ - ---· - · -·- -
..........-~...,.,.....,~~-~---...,--...,... ..,...,.....,-... ~- I~
\!I~ ~ C<ll'l)R!><t> 9fffi<ilfQ:\bl \!l<f~ ~ ~~ ~ct ~qj ~911 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~' ~
~ ~<f :!1Ci!llS'tiqhJ <rn, ~ \!I~~ I
<rnfof~ (Coin-Silver)
(90%) ~ \!l<f~ (10%) <l>"fm mi~ ~"fm cm!~ \!l<f~ ~-~ ~ ~-~~ ~ ~ ~ I
~~ re.fjr.
DTRCi1'!l <t>wc:uu~ ~-<!'~ ~ (60%J ~ \!l<f~ <40%) <!'~ ~ ~ 1
\!I~~~, ~ct \!I~~ ~ct~~~~ R<f"m <.!!~~~~(Nickel
brass)(<!>~~~ 10 - 15% ~) ~ ~' m
~ ~' ~-~ 9lffi<ilfQ:\b\-~ <.!!~·
~-~<f<l' 1 \!I~~ 'f't-'<l'iiM l!l<f~ cllMCll>I~ ~ ~ ~ 1
t°t'.~ (Tungsten)
(~)~~~I
(~)~~~~~I
(-:>) ~ 3400°C l!l<f~ ~~<!'~I
C"'l"l.J~•~
(~) 9iffi<ll~~I ~"'l"'ll~"'l<fl~IC<l ~ I
(~) C'!lf@TPGfufG 5.5x10-s IS~~ (20°C 'i§t~) 1
(-:i) 'i§19f~1~Pfq:_~ 0.0045 (20°C 'i§t~) 1
(8) 0.C 'i§t~ l~f@tpj)fuffl 5.06x 10-8 IS~-~ I
1!1~ 9l~<il~~t ~ ~ISm ~ ~ ~ ~<f<l' R<f"m 1!1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~, ~ C<l'iJNl<t>
~ (Arc)-\!!~~ '<lW I •
\!I ~IS 1!11't C<l"l}!\!><t> ~ \!l<f~ ~C"'l<ttijM<t> ~ fils"'llC~-0 ~ ~ ~ I
~(Carbon)
~~
(~)~IS '6M\"'1\li!l'!l ~ ~ 9imf I
( ~) 'i§19f IS ~<f<!' 91qtQf' I
(-:>) ,~ ~ ~JIC:V~iJJl"'I ~~'@~~I
I (8) \!!~'@~~ct I
C"'l"l.J~•~
l- (~) 9lffi<ilfQ:\bl ~ I
(~) ~f@t~fufG (3000-7000)xl0-8 IS~-~ (20°C 'i§t~) I
(-:>) 'i§t~ ~~ "<It~ I
(8) 20°c 'i§t~ 'i§t~ ~~ - 0.0002 ~ - 0.0008 1

<.!! 9l~c:i1~1 w"'lo:i1~"1<t>~1c<1 ~, m <.!! ~ ©1»~1co:i~ 'i§191 ~ ~<f<l' ~ 1 cc:il'l)N><fl ~


<t>Wdffl~ \!l<f~ e91-fu~-\!I~ ~ (Brush) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IS~~ ~C"'l<t>dili5, l'!lf%i>G'!l ~
~ fij / / /
<.!l<f~C"'l<t> <t> ~ ll>l'!lC"'IC:>J IS~~~~~ I
~(Copper) ~
~~
(~)~~~~~I
(~)~IS~i
(-:>) ~91flA; ~~ 8.97 I
(8) ~~<!' 1083°C IS ~~<i> 2310°C
Contents

.. ~~ .·w-r••l'•T-t"ft CD--1i~~ '"-1-~ ~~,.,. ~r~ ;ffi,qj~ ~-;~....,.~~ c:.~r.r~n.., ;:11--1... r~ ~F·r-·.n.., .n~r-r~ ~-r."~r.... &-1;;.t~

~~J1llft~~rl'ft~~'"'"~~~~"'"~~P'ft~!'PT~~OT::~~titt

c;q"l.J~<fi ~
( ~) C<t 'lJ Ns<fl f i,_, _. fQ:m'!l=+I c<lfiCt I
<>H91 <1=<11

(~) c'l'l~Pf;fufG l.72x10-s 18~-fW@ (20°c ~~) 1


(~) ~~ ~Cftll: 0.0039 (20°c ~~) I
(8) ~~ ~"ftll; ~ I
(Q)~~c<lfi<t1
~ c;;i~N,<p 91RMl~~I, ~ ~ \!!~~ ~ ~-~S:8f <fMct ~ (Copper) l!l<!$. ~
~l~llS?Oll~ ~Qf, 1:li C<l'iJNl<fl ~ (Energy) ~ IS ~~ l!lq~ C<t'l)Nl<fl ~ IS~~-1!1~
iSflifJ ~ ~ \!)q~ ~~~~~I l!l~ ~ ~ iSflifJ ~ ~~ 99.9%
~\Sm~' <Prnct "lll'll"'!Jl!l~ ~ (Ipurties) l!l~ 91ffi<il~I ~ ~ 9lml' 1
~ ~Q! l!l"<fl-~~<li <flJllSfit~I~ ~ ~ l!l~ lU"'l"ll~ ~~Q! (Tensile strength) 50% ~
9frn, m 91ffi<llfQ:1!5l l5%~ 9JW I ~q;~ 9!t\!i~~ ~~I
)ct.))~~~. ~'<3~1~1~&'51~
(Explain the Use of Copper and Graphite as Materials for Brushes)
~(Copper) s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "<flm ~I <Prnct ~ ~ ~91 ~
~I m
~ ~~ ~~ ~ <flWt'fiGc~Bl ~~We~~ 15lN>ffi13' ~~ \!)~ cm~
~ 9lW I \!) ~ <flWtUU~'l'l ~Q! ~We~ ~ ~ '!llll,:)l'!llNi ~~~ ~ I ~ <flWl'GU'l'l IS ~
ts~C~'l'l~~~ i l!l ~~~~~~I
~ ((Carbon) g ~ l'l'l~fXifutu c:<1fi't \!)q~ l!l~ ~~ ~Cftll: ~ctNif<fl I ~ ~ ~
<i>wc'fiG~'l'l ~ We;~ ~ ~ ~91 ~<1,91:f ~. ~ ~ ~ cm~~ 9lW 1 l!l ~ We;~ ~
WG1"'ll~61<t>~IC<l ~ ~~~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ \!) llS?"'lll'l'lUC'l'l ~ ~ ~ ~-$ ~ ~ I -
~ (Graphite) g ~l~l~lU'l'l IS~ ~ ~ct I ~ ~~ cm~ <fll'lle"'ll'l'l ~ ~ ~Q!
~ ~ ~ ~ C<l'lJNs<fl ~ l!lq~ clS?°'llC'i'l'&c'l'l <ut~ ~ ~ 1
)ct.)~~ i!Jl<.'&~{lJl"l ~~. ~ -e ~1~14_& <o<i~IC'll'll '{dli\li{dl<l5 ~ -e ~
(Compare the Advantages of Using Copper and Graphite as Brush
Material)
~ ~ ~
~
~· ~·
(~)~~ ~~ (~)~~ ~~ (~)~~ ~~
~IS~ cm~~ 9iW I ~~cm~~9frnl ~IS~ cm~~ 9fW I
(~) ~~ WG1"'ll~O'\<fl~IC<l ~ (~)~~ ~ct ~IS~ (~)~~ ~ ~ct
~ct ~IS~~~ ~91 ~~~91~~1 ~IS~ ~~ ~91
c<lfiCt ~ I ~~~I

<~) WG1"'ll~61<fl~IC<l ~ c<lfiCt (~) WG1"'ll~61<fl~IC<l ~~~I (~)~~~~!


~I

( 8) l'l'lfeifXifufG ~ ~IS~ ~91 (8) c'l'l~fXi~fG ~ ( 8) C'l'l~Pf;fufG ~ ~l(ffifCI!)


~~I ~IS~~~ ~91 ~91 ~ ~ c<lfiCt ~ I
c<lfiCt ~ I
Contents

~~ ·~ ~P"I ~~~ CO-,.f"4'nfS'J1.,. .~r-tllft CD"~ .tr.'!._,-~ .::~r...... -~r-r-'ft ~--F~rr..., <Pt--1-rli'I ~f"~rr...... ·"1'~r-.-4ft ~-r.~ ~

~b-~ \5lJl\5~l'§!\5 4:Cftl<f'IlaPlf&


~~filll't~~~~~~~~r"ft~~filll't~~t"ft~~ri'tt~~
~~,,.,. .~ C..~l~ .cl':I_,_.~ ~~ <?Pt" t~ ;'"'"fi:irlJ~,-;~~~...,. ~~ c. ts-~1 . , ~·'< 1 -. :t
....

~~t#t't~~ti"'l'\~~~ritt~~t#ft~t#f~~~Pft~~riltt~~

)8 I ~~'S9Bf~<mf~~~'S~~i'
Contents

c:'IT..!f<Pr-Tl""'f ·"l'"t~T-r~ c..'Tl""""-1·:t-.qsn..,. ..,;t;9. l


~: 9M1'<1~~1~~-
()) ~ 9M1'<1; (~) ~~ 9Mt'<I; (~) ~<f-~ 9fqj'<[
)<ti~~~~?
~ : ~ ~ 9f>ftt'<Rf ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 9ft@ I ~ ~ ~ ~ 9fqj'<[ .
<fCo'I I ~ - $!, ~911, ~ ~ I
)~ 1· ~fil;qla) ~ ~ ~? .
~ : ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ l.!lC4"11~~ ~ 9fWf on, ~ ~ (Insulator) ~
\5T~ ~ ~~ 91Vft'<[ <fCo'l I ~ - ~' ~' Thi11111ffl ~ I
)C\l~-~~i'
~ : '5T<f-~ ~ ~ <t>~1<t>IU~ 11JllUffi{llii!C4 ~-~ (Bad conductor) 9M1'<1 <l"li ~ I <l'B!ct
l.!l ~ ~~ 11Jll&ffi~lliil'!I ~~ ~ ~~~ ~~ ~ ~ 9ft@ I
)17' I~-~~~ ~'l~Ci1'SI ~~ 'S C'Sl~PG~IU ~?
~ : ~ ~Ciil~li1'!1 ~~~ 4-fU l.!l<f~ C'!lfiStfX;f\Sfj; 10-4 'S~ ~ ~ 0.5 'S~ ~ '11""(;~ I
)~l~~~~-~~~fiMI
~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~l<f'U<!! W1t -
()) 1S1lc4'Prn111; (~) ~; (~) ~ ~1Clf011~1S 1

~o I ~Cil~f.\<1$~~~~~~~?
~ : ~ ~~ 11JllURl~l'iJ4 ~ '5Tif-~ ~I
~) I ~ ~ c<ISAfij7
~:~I
~~ I C'Sl~PG~IU'SI ~ f<li ~~ ~~ f<li ~ ~~ ~?
~ : C'!lfiStrtf\SfG'!I l.!l~ W'ft 'S~-CJ'lf.Gfii&l'!I ~ 'S~-~ ~ 'S~-~ I c~fiStfjo{;f\SfGc<t> c ~.
~~~I
~~ I 20°c ~~ ~ C'Sl~fl5t& ~?
~: 20°c ~~~ c~~rtrzsro 1.72x10-s -s~-~ 1

~8 l ~-C'Slf\91P'Gf\5t& ~ ~ ~ ~?
~ : '@I» 4i5l<f'fflf\Sff; ~ 91Vft~ C"ft C~fiStfjo{;f\Sfj; 91Vft~ <fCo'l I \5TQft~ C"ft C'!lfiStfX;f\Sfi; ~
~~rtrzsro ~ ~ <f'i51<t>rorzsro '@I» 1
~ct l CiIDtiU'S~~~~~i'
~: ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ 7fliil C'SlfiSt:>GJl'>l~ 9frn, ~ ~~ ~~ ~~ <fCo'l I
~:~1 ~~~~~~~IU'S~i'
~: '5T~, ~Ciil<t>Qalii!l~U l.!l<f~ '5Tif-~ 9Mte'<Rf ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ I
~'\I "'lostiU'S~~~cfN~~~~i'
~ : ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ 7fliil C'!lfiSt:>\;Jt'J! ~ 9frn, ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ <fCo'l I
~-~~~~~~~I
~17' I 1l15IF<l'1$ Dtt"1 ~ ~ 0°C qt'Slt ~ ~?
~ : ~l'8lf<l<li Dt\:91 ~ ~ 0°C,l.!l°fU ~ ~ ~ ~; ~l~lf<l<li Dt\:911.!l(!) ~ ~ ~91 ~~
~ ~ 0°c ~~ l.!l°fU ~ ~~ ~ l.!l<f~ ~cf~~~ 9@~on~m ~ .!f
~~ (0°C)l.!l~ ~91 ~~on I
~~ I '1$~l"'t111"1 ~?
~: ~ 9Mte'<Rf ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .!f 9Mte'<Rf <f'i5l<t>'GJl"J1 <fCo'l I <!>i5l<t>'GJl"J1C<f' G ·
· ~ ~ '<f"!li ~ I l.!l°fU C~fiSt:>\;Jlc:>t~ ~ I l.!l~ l.!l~ ~ (U ) I
Contents

~• .,...,.~ ....~~ <f':t~--ti'ft ~~..,.~r~ c..~ <f':t~-r"" ctJ~··~T..,.-.n..,..?~f-t-#ft ~ -T.1-.,""r~ ~~....,. ,-v1~r-i-4ft c:n--1~n..,.-<?.1·~r#t'r

~17'17'
~~pl!tt~~~,..,.~rftt~~~~~fil'ft~~~~r#'h~,...,.~ra"tt
\5lJl15-o\'J1\5 ~l"l<l>\]Pif&
~o I C'll~fjijfiSfij ~ ~ ~ I
m: c'!tf%trt~ro "Rm~~-
RA
p=r:-
1!1~, p = 91'ftt~ c<it™PGN5f&, L = 91'ftt~ OrcU, A= ~ ~~Cb1«11?1 ~ l!l<r~ R =
C<it™>i3Jl'J1 I
~~. I ~ 1!1~ ff 'G"131~d1 ~ Cil~P'&fiSfij ~1'
m : Frn c'G"1Sil~ ~. C?if%tPG~fU = 12.9x10-a €~-~ l!l<r~ '151» c'G<iSil~a<t ~
c?i™Pt~ffl = 19.9x10-a €~-~ (20°c ~~) 1
~~I l!IJl~f.lti!Dlil ~\!I~ c:il~fiSfij ~1'
m: =
l!IJ1GJ:~f.rnlC~'it ~ = 658 ~ <.~S'l=a<tf.,;PJ~{l\-S'I l!l<r~ C?l™PG~ffl 2.8x1Q-8 €~-~I
~~,~~~~1!1~~~1'
m: ~ ~9($£!t ~~ = 0.00382 Qj°C l!l<r~ ~ = 1083°C I
~8 I ~~~'G"1311~ ~ ~~ ~~1'
m :
~ l!IJIG'rn ~ CU'1Sil~il1 Qij~~ 70000-250000Psi l!l<f~ ~~ ~ 2500°F
-2750°F I
~~1~~~~1'
m
= ~ ~ ~ ~~--M, ~~--M ~ c<t'l)Ni<l> ~~~~ <~ ~ ~> ~9Fl ~ ~
(Contact) <wr 1

~I ~9fRf ~ l!I~ ~~1'


m :
Qi9im ~ 960°C l!l<r~ ~ l 955°C I
. ~C\ I~~~~ c:il~~Jl"I ~ ~~ ~1'
-m: 1Jt~~ \Sltt~ (;<;lf%J>i3Jl'J1 5.5-10-6 Q - cm l!l<r~ ~~ ~~ 0.0045 1 ·

~b' I 0°C'l!Mill"llti ~'-~ ~ ~9fRf c:il~Pf;f\!;fij ~1'


m : 0°C ~~ Qi9fm C?if%JPG~f& 1.47xlo-sn-m l!l<r~ lJt~~ C?lf%tPG~f& 5.06x10-a
n-m1
~~ 1 lirt.::c~C"1'll ~~~CR I
-m: lJt~~ ~ ~­
(~) l!lfU~~"Ml~
(~)~~~~~~
(~) ~ 3400°C l!l<r~ ~~ 1
801~~~~~~1'
-m :
lJt~~ 91M<t1~1 ~il1"1l:ll:'1<l>-olc<t ~. ~€m ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~
(arc) ~ ~€~ ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Jlco1'Rlmlil1 ~ l!lfU ~ ~ 1 I!!~ C:<t~}Ni<t>
~R!>iillcwU~~~~~~1
8~1~~~~~~1'
-m :
~ ~ ~9i$£!t ~~ WIW ~€~ <l>~nUUC<it?i ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 15lNsHl"1>
~~ \!!~ C?li~ ~ 9trn I \!!~ <tnj)to'G'GC<it'll ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \!l\\¥1\!l\("$ ~~~ ~ I
~ <t'WCtlU'll € ~ \SISC{J'll~ ~~I \!!~~~~~~I
8~ I ~~~~~~~~~~~~9il'Sm~1' ·.
m:
~l~f.~:c;U'!l €~~~~ct I \5f~ ~~~~~~~~~I~~~
~ ~ ~ ~ <!>m ~ ~ ~~~ ~ \!!<[~ 91Mt911fi't ~~ C?li~€ ~ ~ I
1~1 . .
i
t!
~
,
""
~ ~
~
~ ij
w
~~ ~
~
~
~
~ .
i ~
~ ,e
~~
~ ~\~
1l ~ ~ f J ~ ~~ ~f
~ ~ ' 6li ~ ~ ti J 61if %~
{{ i f ~ J ~ i~ j1
lI i j w i j fi ~~
11 . Jj 1 w ! .i ~ ji;.I j!
ilt - _ -i"" i r ~
i ~ ! t ~ ~ i~ )l: ;
!~{er•
~ ~ ~
~ ;;: i i ~ r i 1 t
~ ~
t::; "" $ 11 !V
~ Iv. ~le-1v.
_~ i ~ i ~ "~ i ~&
tr-"" g- •
-
fI
"" !?') "" •
f ~ "" ~ • d£;
<)! )l:
'13'
Contents

J" ~-~-"j r~i~j~I ~ ~ "°'"'J I"


~lf} ~1,iilil ~ltiti !;f! i ~ii !f::! i !~ tf,
I"! J.-
9
i I~ ~ A d <f Jf ~ , "'i Jf ~ "' - "' ~ - ~
; ~-i~i_i!i!i!i~i!i~i_iii!i~61ii~~i~ i&~i~!i _i
i. t~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~ g ~ z ~ ~ ~ ~ t t ~ .8
~
t t
[

{
[ ; l ~,,.... i 'f'
0
..-;
~

} 1~
l':I~
(~ ~
(jg~
• ~
Iv.
Contents
~ .~.....-i'ft ~~,..... <'l"'l_,..rt-'ft ~~_,. _,.,..r-r.i'f\' ~;\'""'l'Jf'O"I ~~~ ~,...,. ·'ll'PPt-i:lft ~">$MOQ'Slt.., ~-0:,01 ... r~ co~r~1...,. ·'Ff~~ c;-O-~~"'""'n'""' a•r:,,,,...r:'ft
~~o \5lJl15~l"1\5 ~('ftl;qsffif>tf6
~r-r~f>'tt~~ti'tt~-r-r~r*"t~~~-~r-t~~~Fnitn1...,-4"1'---r-f"O"ft~~r#itct.r.~~(Ttt

~~ l ISIJldJ:~M{(IC~~ ~~-~ ~?
m: \5lJlcffelf.'B11c~~ \51~-~'f 0.0041.
~~I Cift-~~,r;"'IJ'l~W~?
m: Co'ft-~ ~ C'G"'IJil~Oi W 50000 - 120000 f9t~~ m I
~~ l Cift-~ ~ rlPt~<!S ~ ~?
m: Co'ft-~~ ~~ 7.8 - 7.9 I
~81~~~~~~?
m :
~~ ~ ~ CA \51~ CA ~-91Vft~ ~ ~' ~ ~ 91Vfte~ ~~<!' <11 Qffei}~
~.~I
~I ~Cfittt 11Jlt'GHt411'1 ~?
~ : ~ Cfittt 'IJlt'GH\411'1 11i91t I
~ I 11i91'1t '\SltC~ Cilf'lSGJl+t ""'
~: ~9frn ~~ c~~>i:lJl"1 1.49µ0-cm
~C\I~~~~~?
m :~9frn \51~ ~'I 0.377%/°C at 20°C
~17' I Ctr~~ '\SltC~ CJ1f1liGJl"1 ~ ~. Jf ~ ~ ~ <teil ~?
m :~-c~~PURifG ~m.&Rl~IOi Cf01t ~ I
~"""""";§,...........:;~--·
(g.........,,;?t~...,.,.....~~,,.......j~....--,~,.,....,,.,.'1~

~~~~~<RI? {~: ':;~R, ':;~]


: ~ c'51\!) ~~ ~9! :
(~) o;tom ~ ~RUR! I
(~)~'5~1
(~) ~~ ~~ 8.97 I
(8) ~~<!' 1083°C '5 ~~<!' 2310°c ·
~~~~~'t~~? {~: 'ol!:i, ':;:;]
~: ~ 91Vfte~FITT ~~~~~I
(~) '@Do 91Rt<ilR\!ll .
(~) Fm \51~ ~'I
(~) "'l~~~\!ll <11 '*~f<tMfG (Fl~xibility)
(8)~~~
(({)~<11~~~~
~~~~I
~~~~~~~? {~:':;:;]
~"'IJJ:Cilt&~ c~i&IHhlli1>!-111if ~~ ~ 1 {~: 'os; ':;:;R]
m: ~~ 91Vfte~FITT ~ ~~ ~ ~ 1

J7 (~)'@Do c~~f>Gfiif(;
(~)'@Do ~-~C"'1<1Sffi<1S ~~~
(~) ~ ~ <t>'tSl<lSfflfiif(;
(8) ~ \5191 ~ ~
(({)Fm ~-~('ftl<t>ffi<t> Rt>Gc~f>!J'I I

l
Contents
~~ ~t ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ;~~r~ 7~~fr<i1~r ~ ~~,~ ~~t-r!1\ ~f~~f-1 ,~~~ a;-~r.~ ~~

~;,~-.;-,d;R.;;.m-it~~~-~;'"---·--~~7-;;:;::;;}
. m=
(~) m l<l'fJRi<t> 9lrn<i1R\!)1 (Q) m ~ cml:f ~ ·
(~) m ~9frn 91Ri<il~I (~) f.'!qr c~feif>G~f& .
('-') m ~ (~) 1%( ~ c~fei:>'GJI'§! I
~ t<i'iJRi<t> ~l;f ~
• ~ C'il~~'il '8~ f<ls f<ls f<t1RT ~~~I!!~~?
: ~fe't>{;Jl(;'fj~ ~ ~ ~ ~'
R
_.eh
- A

en, P = TRA .......... ())


()) ~~~~ l'i~~. ~~,'il~iGJl"'I (R), ~'(Cbewrn·~ (A) I.El~~~ (L) ~ ~
C~™f>Gfi;f&~ '8~ ~ ~ ~ I ~e,
()) C'il~~ll., : ~ ~ ~feiiGJl'ii ~ ~ ~ C'il™~~tt ~ ~~'Z c~™>ilJI+! ~
C'ilfeif>G~f& ~ I ~ ~ ~<liff1 ~ ~ C'ilfeif>G~f& ~ ~ ~ I
(~) ~: ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ C~fe't~~f& ~ ~<f'Z ~ ~ {.,..,.,~™h<=pij~~~f& ~I
) ~ : ~ ~~ .ft~~Cl'T'il ~ ~ ~ ~ c~re-tr>&~ro ~ ~<r-z
-2i'(C~l1~ ~ ~ C~™pij~f& ~ I
1.1.....-4H<ram·'S~-~~~~•~m1
: ~ '8 ~if-~~~ ~f.fil~~wrt g

(~) ~~ ~~ fqni ~ 'R'we. ~ ~ 9lmf I (~) ~ ~ 'R'we.


~ ~ 9lmf I
(~) ~~ c~~PG~ro (~) ~~ c'il™~~ro ~ 1

(Malleability)~ ~? { : 'o", 'oci]


m = ~~<rt ~ ~ C<t>trt ~ f9rfGm ~ ~<rt~ 9!fif9'5 ~ <irn, \5tt<t> ~ ~
Fi ~l'!l>!~'!ll <rt :llJlf;H!Jlf<lMfG,<wl I ~~ ~ ~ "l:ll~~'!lf'8 <lO'f1 ~ I ~cf~~~ I
~ <!i91Rl' '8 ~Jl1~f.hUC:ll'il (.q"J)f\!i<P I!!~~~~ m I [~ : 'o~}
v m : "5l'J:C~l1 ~.Q (<t>) '8 (~) ~ I
~I ~~~~~~? {~: 'oB}
~ : ~ Dtt91 ~ ~~. 9fl1M ~91 IZfnrt~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~·~
~ ~<f'Z ~ ~~~-em m
~91 IZfnrt~ ~'8 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~' ~ ~ Dtt91 ~
~~ ~ (Melting Point)~ I
~: '))j
)o I ~-~ ~ <PC{l<Pf& ~~I
r,' '))R] ~. <tie:il<Pf&~ ~-<ISe:il<Pf&~ '8 ~-<Pe:il4if'&~ ~ ~~~<lfult ~~I [~: 'o"J
~: f.fil '5f!f-~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ g
(~) ~001 91fii<ll~I '2frn ~ ~ ~ I
(~) ~001 c'ilfeiP'G~fG 10-4nm ~ o.snm 1
('-') ~001 ~~ ~~ "<lt~ I ~~e, ~~ ~ C'ilfei:>'GJI'§!~ 9fm I
cs) ~001 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 9lrn<i1R~1~~~1
(Q) ~ 1,"lJ ~9fmm ~m ~•PjJ:Oi'GC'$l'il "lm:f ~ct~ I
Contents
~.,,_..~ ~ a>"t-1-~ ~-~r-ti'!it ~~ a>"t__,--r='ft ~~"'T ~""1'i!fl r;D">l!>fi~,...., ~·:nst.,.r.t'f'I ~F>i:r"l'T1"'T ·"'f~P"f~t etr---r.~n.., .lf"l-_,.-r1"fl

~ll>~ GIJl\S~l'>i\S ~toi<t>$PJfG


~r-T~r.tt't<..~~ti!'fr~....,.~r#ft~~t"ft~<Pf"llT"'"~~~~r-T~rl!l't~~

)) I ~~(Tensile stress)~? {<J/<t>!Ptrn: 'o~, 'o~]


m =~~~<it~~~ \fl~ .2j~~(f!~ ~ <Rl1<RT ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ mr
<it~~~ 9fm <it c~ mi, \fl ~ i!7 R~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ Gl~J\!lc~ ~
\fl~ C"Nl~C"l~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~9l::f ~. ~ i£7 ~ ~ ~ <!t ~ct~~ I
)~I IOIJl"J;filMillil \fl~ ~"'""llC'!'ll ~<mf~ ~~I {~: 'o~]
m : GIJl<:J:filf.hllc~~ ~ ~
(~) ~~<!' 658°C
( ~) ~~<i> 1 soo 0 c
(~) ~~~~ 0.0041
~"'""llC'b'll ~ ~ (~ ,r;"1Jiil~ ~)
()) cf;i\"'11~ ~~Qf 50000 ~ 120000Psi
(~) ~~ ~ 2750 ~ 2800°F
(~) ~ ~~Qf 30000 ~ 90000Psi
)" I ¥'<!il¥1Ufi51U ~? {<J/<t>lfittc<rt : 'o~]
.m:
~~~\fl~~ \S -!!~ &:i?J:C~C'i~ ~ ~ C<l'R -!l'<flfU ~ ~ ~
-!!~ ~ ~ C<l'R -!l'<flfU ~ GllfNl~ ~ ~~ ~ R~ ~ ~~ <t>'tSl<t>'GJl'>iC<t> ~
~ <fll514'fG~fG ~ I -!!'Ut C~f@ip{;~fG~ ~ I -!l'C<t> U ( ~) ~ ~ ~ ~ I
)81 ~~-~~""11'il"~I
m
=~~If-~ ~~~91 =
(~) \SilC4°H~I~ (8) ~ GllC~~l~\S
(~) ~ (Q') ~ <t>l~"ll~\S
(~)~ (~)~~I
)Q- I ~ ~ ~""1til" ~I
m=~~~~~~91=
(~) ~911 (8) -!!JIOJ:filM~I~
(~) ~ (Q') 'Ut~~
(~) ~ (~) 9IWf I
)I), I ~ ~Hl"ll~ ~ ""1til" ~ I
m=~~~~~~91=
. (~) "lJIC<t>"ll~U (8) ~
(~) 5liil~lfG (Q') iSlWt
(~) "<fltD (~)~I
)ct I C'SIR~~~~~~~?
m : ~ ~ ~ c~™>GJl'>i ~ \fl<!>~ CJi"lPl~IJi ~~~~<it~ 9fm, ~ i£7
~~ cmc~ ~~ ~~ <wr1 \fl~ a(~).~~~ ~1 cmc~ ~~ ~~
~~I <['<ft-
(~)~~~~~;(~)~~~~~~ I
)lrl ~~~?\;l'!l~'ll~~I
m = ~ ott91 c<i>R l!i'<flfU ~ 9i'iM ~91 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~

-!l<f~ ~ ~ -.=rt :Z\Sm m


~91 ~~ ~\S ~~ C<l'R ~ ~ -.=rt, ~ ~ Dtt91 \fl
~~ ~ (Melting point)~ I ~l~lf<l<t> DTC91 ~ ~ 0°C 1
Contents

--...,,.. _,...., - - .,........., --.,,.. .,.,......, ~~· ;~ ~;f _,...,..,., .,..-., ~ .,.,.,_.,--.,., ··;~~
~..,_,.-lilft~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

)(I) 1 ~ ~ cil~~~iu f<rif<rimm -e~AA~1


~: ~ ~ l'il™Pt~ff; ~ ~ ~ '8~ Pl~~ <ml",~~­
(~) ~ (;'!lf$>l;Jl+t
:I ' o~ } (~)~ONJ
(~) ~ ~~C~Cl1~ ~I
~~ ~ ~ ~<r~ ~~ '8~'8 ~~ l'il™Pt~ff; R~'il <ml" I
~ol~~~"fiMI
~=m~~~~~~­
c~) ~= 1083°C
(~) ~ = 2310°C
(~) ~~ ~~ = 8.97 .
(8) ~~(Yield stress)= 6090 kg/cm2
(<?) c&'i>il~ ~~Q( = 2000 kg/cm2
(~) '8~ =8800 kg/cm3
~)1~~~~~~1'
~: ~ W <rt ~~llf (Strength)$~ 1lfQJt-
()) c&'i>il~G1 ~~llf
(~)~~~~Q(
(~) l31'~1'i!IG1 (Flexural) ~~llf
( 8) firn®~ ~~llf I
~~I~ l!Jlt~~i!Jl'l ~~~ff;~~~ I
~: ~ ~Jlc'&ffi~JIG1 ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~91 :
(~)~(Copper) (8) Ut~~ (Tungsten)
(~) ~9ft (Silver) (<?)~(Nickel)
(~) ~ (Corbon) (~)~(Platinum)
~'.:ll~~~~fiMI
~=~~~~~~91:
c~)~~w~
(~)~~~~ 10.5
(~)~ 960°C ~<r~ ~ 1955°C 1
~8 I ~~(.q"l)~~ ~~~I
~ : Ut~~ l<l'l)f\!><1$ ~~ ~91 :
c~) 9lffi<11R\!i1 ~G1'il~ai<l$~1c<1 ~ 1
(~) ~~pij~ff; 5 Sx10-s '8~-filURr (20°C~~) I
(~)~~~~0.0045(20°C~~)1
(8) 0°C~~ l'!l™PG~ffl 5.06x1Q-8 '8~-~ I
~~I ~(.q"l)~~ c.@flJ ~I
~ : ~ (.q'l)f\!><1$ ~ ~91 :
(~) 9lffi<1l~I ~
(~) l'il~PG~fG (3000-7000)xl 10-8 ~-filURr (20°C wt~)
(~)~~~~~
(s) 20°cwt~ wt~~~ - 0.0002 ~ - o.ooos 1
~ ~ ~ 1V ~
..:~···
'. i • 4
'~~ ~
t f '
l i f - ~~
11 . !
f
1V
~
~.
'
~
;
ft;
i
I :~
f .~~ ;
e~
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t t -E ~
f ~ i ti
I I f ~ i~
II ~ ~ t ~ ~t ~~
i~i f t Ji
t!
t t ~ ~ 1V ~ ~ ~w ~~ e:;
! ! ' ~ ~ ~ J6 1V
II
JV [!: Ff
~1
i
&
i ~-
~ &~
! t ;! ~ f -
~ ~ ~~ r~
.....CJ
~ ~
11".l
u
0

-~
t_ffi
]; ~ ~
~~~~l
I.Cl 00
f~ ! f~ !l~i Ii~
00 t---
j"w.i
11".l 11".l
ijj ...... N N I.Cl
w~ ., f. ff l ~ !'. i ~ 'if~i~
JV:~~-§ ~~
Contents

I I f
,fl ~i
~u
l
~
f E. . i t6Ji ~ ~ ~ ~ i ,~
l ~~lV~~~ ~ 1~·
. ~ t'%,r ~
lW _; ~& <; ~illfJ~frv
I l~l i ~ii_ &' Ji' l&'"'I ~I l ~ ~ .~
~ ~- f
iftfii i 9-
n ~ i ~ ~ i ~ ~ i - ~ -°' °' ~iii~ i
.-::: ::::t.
CJ
, ~ ~ ~ '% ~ ~ ~ ~ I. ~1V~ir"
I Ii. ~··~.-<~~~~11V~ ~
0

t---
......
u
~~
0
00
~it1i~f
11".l 0
'" IO 11".l 9- cx:i ......
..
. ~11;;11 I 5~ ·~~~
.. .. ..
I Iii r ~ ~ ~ ii !l ! ~ f !t ~ r~ 1ii ~ii ~ ~ r. ill>~fJ';;.. &~f
I
~ ~l ~
(
t
J
llfj 3 ~~~~11i1tiiiliflilit!fj i tij Jl1J~i;; ~
I~t ~ •.. ·
~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ i ~
--

-
~
j
Contents

~ ~ ~ ~~,_~ ~ ~~ ~;ffi~l'~7;f~l~~;r;n~ cU~~. ~~1~r~ ~~ ,7,.~~ CD--To~ ~~~


~~~~~~,._,.~~~~ti'lft~~~~~~~~~

~l~~~<RI .
~=~~~C11m~:
(<j)) c<1'iJNl<r ~ <rwc;uu~ ~<f~ fa9! rn~ ~~ ~ ~
(~) ISnffes~ ~CG1<rc;lilC15
('>t) c~™:>&~ ~
(~) ~CG'l<rlla<r
(~)*~I
*~

e<\ 1<IS~~~ <u<t~lC'11 ~~?


m: ~ I ~IS <j)91Bf <fl ~ ~~ C~™:>&Jl'ii ~, ~'<ftf91 ~~ ~~-~'>t ~ ~IS~~
~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ct ·<rwdfGc<irn ~~ ~ ~ct ~ ~~ <j)91Bf~
C~~:>&Ji'ii ~ 9fm I ~ ~-~-~91 ~ 9fm I
~ 1 ~~ <rwc;&u~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ <j)91Bf ~~<rm, ~~ <rwc;&Uc~~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~
~ct~~<j)~~~~ I
elr I~ ,&i1:>trl;*t ~~~~~?
~: ~ ~~ ~<j)-"""5t~¥t <rJl15fil~I~ ~ ~~ cG11J"Jl~G1 ~~~ ~ 91m, ~ '91~<11~~1 15%~
9lm I

ti!~ il11t'rJfil4111wi ~~. ~ -e .fl1•1~tt11 ~<R f<t1<JS1m: ·)~J


y ~: Glijf:~ ¢.8 ~I
~ I ~~. ~ -e <IS9fl'm ~ -e C<t'l)f\!><15 ~ ~ I [~: 'o~]
m: Glljf:~ ¢.~ ~ I
e I ~9i'Rf, \5lJl'ffelf.lillil \fl~~ ,&i1:>trl;vt ~ ~ ~ i:lllC*tlbi11 <R I [~ : '08]
~ : GliC~'1 ~.Q ~ I
8 I ~'1l~i!'PI~ ~. ~-~ '<3 ~"'IRl<tl~ ~ ~~ ~ I
~: Glljf:~ ~.~ ~ I
a- I ~. '!MRl<ll~ '<3 ~-"1Rl<ll~'11 ~ ~ ~ I
m: Glljf:~ ~.~~I
b I ~91fi~ ~ ~~f<ti~? ~'11~il~ ~I
~ : \5lijf:~'1 ~.~ ~ I
C\I ~~'<l!UR~~f<ti~?~~<RI
~ : \5lijf:~'1 ~. ¢ ~~ ~~ ~~10( ~ I
lr 1 <Jl~?Gf:Sr& f.lcfuRf ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ <Jl~?Gf:Sf& t<ts t<ts mm -e'5111' AA ~r
~: \5lijf:~'1 ~.8~·1
~I ~~~'Gi1:>tll:*1~~~1
~ : Glljf:~ ~.Q~~ ~~ ~~¥t ~ I
)o I ~ i!Jlt&Rli!Jldl ~ ~? ~ ~ ilJl<OGRli!JICvt'l1 f<ti f<ti ~'1' ~ ~?
~: \5l'jf:~'1 ¢.~ ~ I
)) I ~~'<3~'3)~<15~~<RI
m: \5lijf:~'1 ~.~.¢~I
.~~ I ~ ~ '<3 ~'l)f\!><15 ~-cvtl ~ I
~: '5l'.J'C~'1 ~.~.¢ ~ I
Contents

~~~Gi'l~~~~.n~rtft~~~ .... ~~~~'""""""rttt

~lo>~ <¢lJl\S~l'J1\5 4:t:Gi<P©Prn1


~~tillft~~~~~~ft'Tt~~~~~~'"'"~~

:>~ l ~ ~Jl<.°BHl{IJI~ ~ ~. ~ -e .111¥~<.'Bi! ~~CR l


m: '¢l'J:C:~ ~-~ ~ I
)8 l ~l<PITJ~ "ifo{-cpel<p!TJ~ '6 m-~lcpffl~ ~~~emf~~ l
m: '¢l'J:C:~ Of~~ I
:>ct I~~.~ '6 ~~~I!!~ WJcpfG~I~ ~zyrt~CR I
m = 1't~~. ~ \S ~~ ~ \!l<f~ 4:l6l<>t!i<l>J1'1 ~~ ~ <fcfrtt ~ ~ =

~)~~:
~~:
:> 1 ~ • . ~ 1 ~ ~'211~ ~. ~ 1 *1aj~~ 3400°C
?<t'l,Jf'b¥ ~:
) I 91Hl"ll~I ~' ~ I ~~
c~f@l:s:&Jl+t : 20°C-\!l 5.5 µn - cm
~ I ~911rtim-~~ : 20°C-\!l 0.0045%/°C
(~)~:
~~:
~ I ~ ~ ~91 \S ~-~l:MS,
~ 1 <>wcotm~ \S ~91-fu~-\!l~ 3l1"t ~ ~ ~.
~ I '>Su#;s~ 4:t:'1<P~l\5, c~f@l:s:&I~ ~ ~ ~ I
?<t'l,Jf'b¥ ~:
~I '5f!f-~,
~ I ~911rtim-~~ Q'fC~,
~ 1 20°C-\!l ~~ c:si~:s:&Jl'li, 0.001 ~ 0.006 µO - cm
8 1 20°C-\!l ~911rtim-~~: - 0.002 ~ -0.0008%/°C
(tt) ~9tnr : .
~~:
~ I ~ ~ ~l:MS, ~ I ~ ~. ~ I lU"'l>tl4:c1 ~~Qf cqfiet, *1aj~~ 180°C, 8 I ~~ ~~.
8.97,<l'l~~:~~I
?<t'l,Jf'b¥ ~:
~ 1 ~ f<l'l,JNl<P 91Rl"ll~\!ll, ~ 1 ~~ C'Sl~JUJl'Ji 20°C-\!l 1. 76µ0-cm, ~ 1 20°C-\!l ~~
~~' 0.039%/°C, 8 I ~911rtim -~~ ~ I
Contents

)~.) - C11~~~1U
(Define the Term High Resistivity)
c~~Ptfutt <ft cm~ ~ 4'<&14'fflfutt <ft 91RMl~I~ ~~ 1 ~ ~ 4'<&14>fflfufG ~ <ft C"!l
(Low), ~ ~ c~~Pf;fufj; ~<ft~ (High) 1 ~~ ~ 4'<&14ifGfufj; ~ ~ ~
c~~Ptfutt 91"itlil' (Material) qG'ft ~ 1 ~ 20°C ~~ c~mPtfufGJ'l~ ~ ~ c~~p{;fufj;
~~~~~W'll-

(:>) "'114:Cl!!'I~ (Nichrome)


108.Sx 10-s
(~)~(Eureka) 49x10-s
(~)~(Mercury) 95.BxlQ-8
(8) ~ (Manganin) 44x10-8 -48xlQ-8
(a")~~ (German Silver) 33x10-s
~ ~ ~ ~ c~~Ptfuro ~"1"'1l~oi4'~1l<l ~ c<lfi<t, ~~ ~ <ft ~ c~~Ptfuffl
~m&Rlml"'l ~ I ~ c~~p{;N;ff; ~ ~ ~ J'ft~~ "'114:Cl!!'I~, ~. ~JlbflM"'1 l!l<r~
~~~~I
:>~.~ "'11l:WFI~. ~Cil"'I, ~Jl!lt'lf.\"1 ~~ ~ f3t'l\5ICH ~~
(State general properties of nichrome, eureka, manganin and German silver)
~WFI~ (Nichrome) 8
(:>) c~™Ptfuffl ~ c<lfi<t, 20°C ~~ 10.Sx 10-s -a~-~~~~ $i 60 ~~I
(~) "'114:Cl!l>IC~~ ~ ~ ~ ~91 ~91:1 ~ I
(~) 20°C ~~ ~~ ~~ 0.004 -S~f°C.
(8) *'lift~<i> 1350 c~ 1400°C.
"1il:WFI~-~ (Nichrome-V) 8
W l!l~ ~~ c~~:>'GJl"l p = 40µQ - cm at 20°c
(~) ~~~~. a = 0.0001/°C at 20°C
(~) *'lift~<l' = 1400°C
~"'I (Eureka)
4:©~4>IC4' 4$"'1:>'GJl"'1UJM (Constantan) qG'ft ~ I 4:©~411~ J'ft~~ ~ W'it-
(:>) 20°c ~~ c~™Ptfuffl 49x 1o-s -a~~ 1

(~) ~~ ~~ CiWlffl~ l!l<r~ ~ ~. 20°c ~~. -0.000008 -S~f°C.


(~)~300°c.
_~Jl!lt'lf.1"1 (Manganin)
. (:>) 20°C ~~ <Jt~PGfuffl 44x 10-s - 48x 10-s 'S~-~
(~) ~~ ~~ ~ ~. 20°c ~~ ~~ ~~ 0.000006 -a~ /°C.
(~) ~0200°C.
Contents

~~,.,_,.~ftt~r-"!lf'l"Qll~~<l!'f'l'll"~~<l':l~~~r-r~t~<;.'D-.~t'9'1<r.t-.1-~~""1'~pon!ft~~.:P.1._,....r"'
~::i,1,- lb!Jl1.S~l"11.S ~<fr14>tiiPtf& .
~....,.~~~~~~~~~ti'ft~~~~~~~~~

~~(German Silver) ~
..::=---
.
(~) 20°C ~~ C'il~PB~f& 33x 10-s 'S~-~ 1

(~) 20°C ~~ ~~ ~~ 0.0004/°C


(~)<ref~ I
)~.~ i1~1il, ~~C'A<ISI, i!Jl!Jflf.M ~~ ~ f3i'1'5IC'A'A ~<U~ (Composition)
(State Composition of Nichrome, Eureka, Manganin and German Silver.)
i1~WFlil (Nichrome) & "1l~l\!Fl11 ~. C\!Flfit~l11 l!l<r~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ I l!l~ ~.
~-61%
C\!Flfit~l11 - 15%
~-24%

i11~WFlii-~ (Nichrome-V) &


~ =40%
C\!Flfit~l11 = 20%
~ =40%
~C'A<ISI (Eureka) &~ ~ 'S ~~~~~~I l!l~ ~.
~-60%

~-40%
i!Jl!Jf1Pli1 (Manganin) g 11JlotlH"1 ~. 11Jl5tlHISi l!l<r~ ~· ~ ~~~ ~ I l!l~ ~.
~-84%

11Jl5tlHiS! - 12%
~-4%
~l~rrf~~ (German Silver) &~ ~. ~. ~ l!l<r~ ~~<Ii~~~~~ I l!l~ ~.
~-50%

~-30%
~~<Ii- 20%
)~.8 ~ Cil~i'Jt\5 ~ qjqtzjC'A'A ~
'·· (List Uses of High Resistive Materials.)
"11~\lFIC'll'A ~ g "1l~l\!Fl11 ~ ~~. ~. ~ ~~~ l!l~~~ ~I
~C'A<ISl'A ~ & C'il~~'il, ~. ~~ l!l<f~ ~9M ~~~~I
~ ~'1\5IC'A'A ~ 8 ~ C'il~~'il ~~~I~ l!l~ ~ ~ ~ DlC1 I
ilJl!JflPlCi1'A ~ 8 l!l~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~ l!lt'f1 ~ C'ilfet~Jl"1 ~ ~ ~ I

r )~.ct~.~~~ ~<R ~
(Define Fuse, Metal and Alloys.)
~ <ft <fifU-~ Wp~ ~ 'S ~ ~ l!l'11'if ~<!>IU ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ct Wp~
~ (jl"(;O'f ~ M >ilf<fic;u'!l ~~. ~ (Wire) ~ Wifit ~ 1 ~ ~. ~~ ~ ~~<It
'S~1'!1cai1ll.S'!l ~ct~~ lblf\tlrnl8' ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <ft ~ ~ m m
c~ >i1Rt&c4> 91~'<1> ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~~ ~ 11J1curnm1ai <n
~ ~ ~ 1 ~ 11J1curnm1ai ~ ~~~ ~ 'S ~ ~ ~~~ ~. ~ l!l<f~
l!lJlaffeH~l11 ~ ~ ~ I
Contents
~1-r~~'"~~,.,.......f"'"'f"«t~~~>-~~~~'f'Pf<P.l~tl'ft~~~~.............-

~ Ci!f$tPG~ff1 )jj]OiKBJJIG'J:>f }~~


~~~~~..,.,_rllft~~~~~~~~ril\'t~~

~.~~~~~-
~(Fuse) 3 ~ 1£1~ 1!1<1$ ~ ~ lft 1!1<1$ ~~ct~~~~~ Fin! <rt
~ M :rtlf<%ii3i! ~ l!lq~ ~~O'f~ ~~ 161NlHl\Si <Pl<Jl(/G~ ~ C~ ~ <ruf I ~ ~
M :rtlf<%t&i! ~9ilNl:>flJ:.~ ~ C~ ~ <ruf ~ I ~ .£? ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 9lttil
~I~~ ~~<ft ~~~O'ft~~ I
~(Metal) 3 "11~ct ~~. ~ ~. ~91'8~~~1£1q~ ~ f9lm ~ ~
<rt~~~.™~~ I~. ~911, ~. ~. l!IJloffetM~I~ ~~~ct I
~~(Alloy) s l!l"<Ptf~ ~~~~<ml'~~ wr C1f ~ • ~ 911-em
~. 1£1~~~~ ~~I~.~'~' <PJllSfit~I~ ~~~~~~~~~~I
)~.~~~~~~~~<R~~
(List the Name of Metal and Alloys to be Used Fuse Material)
~~~ ~ 3 (})~(Copper),(~)~ (Tin), (IO) ~911 (Silver), (8) '61ll'J:filfirnl~
(Aluminium), (Cl')~ (Lead)~ I
~~~~~3
(})~'8~~~~~~1
(~)~'8~911~~~~ ~I
(IO)~' ~et,~~ ~~"<Pi!~ I
(8) ~. ~. ~ '8 <PJll&fit~I~ ~~~"<Pi!~ I
)~. '\ ~ i!Jlcl;fi14Ul*I ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ 'f*l"'ll\'1<15 ~
Compare the Advanta e of Usin Metals and Allo s as Fuse Materials
- ~ ~~
(}) ~ ~ . \5lm ~ ~ (}) ~~~ ~ \5lm ~
c<lfl"t ~ I ~G'J'illJ:.ll'l<P'='IC<l ~ O'fte~ I
(~) ~ ~ m ~ I (~) ~ ~ ~G'J'il1ll'l<P'='ll<l Clf"M ~~I
i~,
(IO) 161~ll5"1'iiSlM\b ~ ~ ~ Offi I (IO) 161~ll5"1'iiS!M\b ~ ~ ~ 1
(8) ~ ~~ ~ (8) ~~"<Pi! ~ ~~ ~ '8 . ~ ~
~Jlt&ffi~JIG'J I ~ct ~ ~ <ft ~ ~Jlc&ffi~JIG'J I ~ct ~ ~ '<P'1l I
~~~~I

if I

'1ct ~
~ f.is~<rt
itrn ~ •
~<rt
!l1rt 1£1q~
Contents

<;Jl>lfiBJI~ = 15%
.l"Af~ = 24%
$'~Iii~~~?
,,,,,...- ~: ~C61<15f{i<l5 151l~BICiH1 ~~ ~fdlc~;f; ~ I
#'~JllJflMCii'll~"'lilllill~~?~~~~~M·? {~: 'o._,, 'oci]
- : ~Jl!lflMC-HI ~~ ~~ ~ ~. 20°c ~~ 0.000006 nrc 1 l!lfU ~. ~11!lflMiSt l!lq~

~~·I
ff ~ i!Jlt'n~flJlwt ~~? {<tl'P/fiitc<tt: 'oci]
~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ~Jll'&Hl{!Jt"l ~i ~- ~j
""'1t!llh'rr.mm. \!lq~ ~ IS TIR. ~ ~~"<R ~ I

~(;'llfilPtfelt i!Jlt~fi1Mwt~~? {~: 'o~, '08, 'o~]


~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ (;<Jlfaip{;~fj; ~G'J~l~G'ICll~IC<I ~ ~.- ~~ ~ qt ~
<;~faip{;~fj; ~Jll'&Hl{IJIG'J ~ I
~.I i!JllJflMCii'll C'll~felt~? ~~~~? f<tl'Plfii~: 'o~J
~ : 20°C ~~ ~Jl!lflMC~~ '~fetp{;~fj; 44x 10-s -48x 10-s n - m I \!I~ ~~ ~~ ~
~~(;'llfaiiUJl'l\~l!l~~~I
~~~~~l!I~~~~? {~: 'o~]
~:~~~~~~~l!l~~~~~~~~ISTIR~
~~"<R~I
b' I ~~C'll¥1'11 ~~~? ~C'll¥1 ~~~? {~: 'o'-']

rS
~'ll . = I = <15~:>'GJlifGJI~ <Mt ~ I ~ (;'llfai:>'G~, ~. ~~ \!lq~ ~9fG'I ~
1
if Pi'l_."SIC'll'll ~~~~? [~ : 'o~J
'1 ~~~.~l!lq~~~~~~~<R~ll!I~~.
\$11 = 50%
~=30%
'~=20%
~-\ -mtl~ C'il~fjl;f\51t ~~~I
\f::/' ~=-~~I~,~~ ~~q~ ~ ~ ~ <;~faip{;~fj; ~I
)) 1 20°c WMilllillfl "1~1Cil'i1 (;'ll~i'Jl;felt ~?
- : ~l~Wl'IC~?l C?l~f>&~fG ~ C<lfi't 120°c ~~ 1os.5x 1o-sn-m 1lt ~ ~ $.l 60 ~'t 1
)~ I ~ Pi'115IC'i1'11 (;'llfilPtfelt ~? • .
- : ~ PtG'JISIC'll?l (;?lfetPGN5t& 33x 1o-s n -m I
Contents
~~~.-s~~,..,.......r-r'ft'~;:f1'>tlS'P"~...
~~~~~~~~ret*'~4"1~

~ ~PUl'SfG ~ffimlciJi ~o~


~IWl'~~~tilft~~pltt~~~~~~~~r¥1't~~

)'O I ilJllJflf.ICii ~~~ ilJllJflf.l'St ~?


~: ~Jl:lflM"i ~. ~Jl:itlM'Sr l!)q~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ I \!)~ llJl:lflMC\St'!l ~ct~ 12% I
~~~?

I
/'~:~~~IS ffl ~ .~ Q:f ~ ~ ~~ i!l~ ~~ct~~ <l5"C"f
I, ').._,]
I
$'f m ~ ~ m Jilf¥l&~ ~ l!)q~ ~~~!! ~~ G1fbffill3' <Pl~c-U'!l ~ c~ Wfft ~
~~~I
)(l-1 ~~*<mf?
~ : icfij ~. ~~ ~ ~~~ IS~ ~ <mfect ~ ~ '61Nlffill3' ~ ~ ~ ~
~~ m ~ $'f m
~ C~ Jilf<fi'GC<P '1~ ~ OOT I i!l~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~
. ~ 15lNlffill3' ~ ~ ~ 9fAA ~ I <l5"C"f i!l~TFft Wflii "<Pm ~ I
)~I~~~?
~:~~ct~~~~~. ~9! IS~~~ l!)q~ ~ f9rfiml ~ ~ ~ ~
"<flm~~~~I

'.: 'o'i]
~!1~~~~~~~1
v~ = <~) ~ <~) ~ (-:>) ~911 (8) i!l-ri=JICJ:,+.;;;fitM~~......
111 (<l'} ~I
·~. )b'I~~~~~~?
~ = i!l"<Ptf~ ~~~~~~"<Pm~ Q:f ~ ~ 91"fl~ 9li1Sm ~. ~ ~~~
~~~~I
)~I ~'<3~~~Cff~~~36'<3 32 (SWG)~~~~~?
~: 36 (SWG) ~ \!ilm. ~ ~ 0.87 i!l~ i!l<f~ 32 (SWG) ~ \!ilm ~ ~,
.: 'o~J
1.48~1 '
~~~
~o I 36 '<3 32 (SWG) ~~'<3~~~~?
: 'o~] ~: 32 (SWG) ~ ~ ~ ~ lf~ 0.92 i!l~ IS ,1.55 i!l~ i!l<f~ ~
~ ~ lf~ 1.09 IS 1.84 i!l~ I
~
~)I ~~Cl!lril ~~~~?
~ : ~\SC\St'!l ~ (melting point) ~~~ 60°C ~ 200°c ~ ~ 1
~~I~~~~~ "1~1il-~ '1h?
~ : ~ - 40%, C1£!"1fit~I~ - 20% i!l<f~ ~ - 40% I
: 'o~] ~-o I ~~~~l:\Sc~41 '1h?
~:~-40%, <li~-60% I
~81 elf~~~-~~~~~·~~~?
~:Q:f~i!l<f~--t~~-~~~~~i!l"C<P~~~~~~ I
~<Z-1 ~~~""~~~~?
~: ~ ~ C'!lf@r>i;~fG ~ c<Ui"t, lf~:
~ 1"il~C1£1"1~. 20°C-i!l c~fe!PU~FG. 1, 10µ0-cm
~ 1"il~c1£1"1~-~. 20°c-i!l c~mPUN;t&, 40µ0-cm
-:> I ~. 20°C-i!l C'!lf@rfJUf;ff;, 49µ0-cm
8 I -mt~~. 20°C-i!l C'!l~PU~t&. 50µ0-cm
Q I ~ ~. 20°C-i!l C'!l~PU~f&, 30µ0-cm
Contents

'
r
i
~
~~· .(1~~~~~~~1
:~ ~: ISl<J:C~ ~~.~Pf~~ I
f2'~1C~~~~~I
~h TPIC l!l~ 9!~ Triple Pole Iron Clad.
f t
~~~7 [~ : 'o~, '.)~_1

'.~~"6'11 ~~ct~~~~$'f~,~~~~~I
. ~~~~~~~I
~=~~~d~~~~~Tiooli91:
(~)~'S~~:)'f~~~
(~)~IS ~91t ~ ~~~ ~
(~)~.~'5~~~~~~
(8) ~. ~. ~ '5 <l>Jl'SlfiBll~ ~~~~~I
<ti ~~~'"'~~~~7
~: filn~~~~ct~~~~~ ~~~~I
(~) ~ ~ ~G'\0{\1'14$~\C"I ~ G'\tt~ I
.! ; (~) ~ ~ ~"10{\~'14$~IC"I Clffi1t ~~I~ C'ilfGf>UJl'I ~~I
(~)~~~~I
~I ~ i!Jlt°Bf11ilJl'1 ~'"' ~ ~ ~ ct14~Cit'll ~~~I
~: 151"J:C~'1 ~.~~I
C\ I O\~Cl!lil~ ~ ~ Pi'l'OIC'll'll ~~~~I [~:'o"J
~: ISl<J:C~ 8.~~ I
b' I ~ Plwt'OIC'll'll ~ ?4fill1J ~ I [~:·o~J
(~)~~~.~l!l<f~~~<li~~~~~I
(~) 20°c ~~ <:!lf@f PG~ffl 44 x 10-s ~ 48 x 10-s '5~ ~ 1

(~) ~~~~ t-'f~ 1 20°c ~~ 0.000006 IS~/°C 1


(8) <f'f~ I
2'D I "11~Cl!Fli!-~~~~M·l l!l~"C'ffif~~~7 [~:'o~J
~ : "'l~CJ!'I~-~ ~. CJ!'lfiBll~ l!l<f~ ISll~'ilC"'l'il ~~~ ~ I l!l~ ~.
~=40% .•
=20%
,,....,.,,.~.• -, = 40%

~ 4M~C'll'll ~Ulll!lf~il\§1 ~7 [<1/<Plfii~: 'o~J


~: ~~.~~~~<fl IS~~ ~ct~~ 151Nsrn'<3> ~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~I~~ c<ffi't~~~ c<ffi't ~~ l!l~ l!l<li~~ ~~~<fl~
~ ~91tf\§ ~~Im~~ i'ft~ ~~~~~<fl l!l~ ~ ~91tf\§ ~
~ ~~ISWf"ISltt~~~~ ~f?tnl<!l $'f f?tnl~ '51!1~~~~~
~11!1~~~~~~~1
Contents

~~~.:r.i~~dl'PPr-rlft~.:r.i...,--ra?t~~~<P.1"2!llt-tt'ft~.~c.'tht''"''"'P:Jt..,-<P.1~

~ c~™Ptfz;ffl 11JltGf?l{lJlai>i , ~o~


~~...,.~~~~~~~~~~~~rflil~~

)) I C'll~~ffl"I'( ~ ~ C'll~~~ff; ~ 'i{tll fipt I


'.i m: (:>) "'11°$::Cl!l'l11, c~fetfJ!i;N;fj; = 108.Sx 10-s '2-m (20°C ~~)
(~) ~' C<!lfetf>&f\;fj; = 49x10-s n-m (20°C ~~)
(~) ~~' ~™fJ!i;f\;ff; = 33x10-s n-m (20°C ~~)
)~I~ "1fi1ill~~C'll41'll~~~<R I
m= ~~-s~~~~~ ~ 11!1~~.
())~ = 50%
(~)~= 40%
)~ I "1~1Cil'll ~ ~ I
m: "'11°$::Cl!l'l11 ~ ~~. ~'~~~~I!!~~~~ I
:>81 ~C'll~iGJl"l~i1JlllflM"1~~~?~"1fi1ill~~~~~<RI
m = ~91'1111m ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ret>u11+i ~ 1111:it1f.li1 ~ ~ 1
11Jl!lf1Mi1 ~. 11Jl!lflMiS! 'S ~ ~ ~~~ ~ I I!!~~.
(:>)~ = 84%
(~) 1111:itlf.liS! = 12%
(~)~=4%
:><t I ~ i1Jlt&fi1iOlirl ~ ~ 'S ~ ~ ~ir1"11\d14 ~~<RI
m: 151iC~ )~.~~I
)~I ~-C'll~~~ff; i1Jlt&fi1iUl'l ~~?
m: c<r ~ ~ ~™f>&f\;fj; <ft~~ c~~>GJl+i ~ cqfiSt I!!~ ~-c~™f>&f\;ff;
11JIWf?l{ll"'f>i <l4'l1 ~ I
)C\I~~~~?
m=~c<l>lif~9J:'f-m~~~~~~~~~91~~~~
~~~~~<Ii~~ ~m~~~ >ilf.Wc<P~~, ~~<fto'f I
)17' I ~ <qJ<lt(IC'll'll Gi:IUllll!t~hN>I ~?
m: C<f ~ct~~ ~'S~ ~ ~ ~ 1fllr ~~~~<fl"[ I
~C{lliS!~{ll!ll : 'lll~lf<l<P ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. --fif-~ <ft ~ ~ ~ct Ff~
<PlwciG~ ~ 151Nsf?l15' ~ ~ ~ ~ <rt ~911R5 ~ ~ 1 1!1°$:: ~ ~ ~ ~
~ firnt91'<N>l~df<P ~~~~<Rt~.~~~ f?1nT >ilf.WC<P ~~I
)~l~'S~~~~'S~'fil'4tl
m=~-s•~~~-s~~91=
~~~~:
) I 911~fi@lf<IMfi; cqfirt,.
~l~~Clilf,
~ I
t!Bfct ~ Clill,
81~~~~.
C<PIC{l~Pl'8 ~ cqfirt,
<?' I
~ I C~™fJ!Gf\;fj; Cli1f I
Contents

~:
~ I l<113Ni<f' ~.
-<. I 15l~l"'!IC1ll'$1 C9!tG1 111<f~ 151l'$10lt>l'$1 ~.
I:> I ~l'f\~'$1111'$1-C<f'Rl" ~.
8 l'C"l1JNi<f'~~ I

~· "1~WFI~, ~l;Cii<i5I, ~Jl!Jtl~'I ~ct'.~ f$twt'SIC'Sl'SI ~~ ~ ~"ti'ft ~ I


~:~~l!:l.~~I
<1"0 ~ c;q~fSGfSlt ~ ~ ~1 c;q~fSIU)\~ ~ ~ c;q~fSGfSIU ~ ~m 1
\- ~ : 151'i_C~lif ~l!:l.~ ~ I
I:> I "1~WFI~, ~l;Cil<i51 ~ ~Jlotlf.ICi\'SI ~~ ~ ~ "R I
~: 151'i_C~ ~l!:l.~~ I
8 I i\l~l!FI~. ~C'Sl<i51 ~ ~JlotlfRi\ ~ ~ ~'l'SIC'Sl'll ~ ~ "R I
~ : 151'i_C~ ~l!:l.8 ~ I
a-, ~ ~11a;rai111wt f.lir ~ ~11t&rai111" ~~ ~ ~ -s ~ ~<R ~~m ,
~ : 151'i_C~lif ~l!:l.Q' 111~ ~l!:l.l!:l ~ I
~I ~ '6 ~ ~~lft'e I~ iOla;ra~ol'I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~'li\liJ,'1<15 ~~'ff I
~: 151'i_C~ ~l!:l.Q' 111~ ~ 151~1<\ 111~ 1510J:C~ Q'.I:> ~I
'l I "11~1~, ~C'Sl<i51, ~~~ ~~~~~~~ •~. m I.
~: 151'i_C~ ~l!:l.1:> ~I
b' I ~ ~M~C'll'SI a:IUll\lit"1~%1 ~f ~ ~ ~~~"R ~~~·~~?
~ : s:ii'i_C~ ~l!:l.Q' ~ I

' .

.'
Contents

Understand The Concepts Of Magnetic-materials.

)'-\.O~
(Introduction)
~ qRft 1511<?~ ~ l!j<f~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ l!j~ ~ 9!1'fl~ ~ 9!1'fl'<f ~ mt~
~JliGffi~Ul'i>t <lC'ft ~ I ~. ~. ~. ~ ~ ~ 9!1'fl'<f I ~ ~~ ~ C~,
~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ l!l<li 1!1~ ~ l!l<f~ ~ 1!1<f$ m
(N) l!l<f~ 1!1<f$ ~ct (S) ~
(Pole) ettt<lS 1 I!!~ ~m ~ (Molecular Magnet) <lC'ft ~ 1 ~llSIM<P ~ ~ ~
~ w * m
~ 9lml' "ifl' 1 ~ l!l<lS!TI. ~ ~ lf(cr, ~ ~ ~~ ~
~~ ~ ~~<ism~. ~ I!!~ l!IC6\IDIC6\l ~~ ~ ~m ~~~ct-~~
~~l!l~~~~~~~~*<mr~Qfl~~~~~I
)C\.)~ - · ~ ~ - ~~~~~\Vt
(Define Magnetic Materials, Soft Magnetic Material and Hard Magnetic
Materials)
~ ~ (Magnetic Material) 8 Cl! ~ ~ ~ $ t 151l<Pflf\!5 ~ l!l<f~ ~"CO'ft ~ ~~
<ism~. I!!~~~~ mt~ ~JliGffiWl'i>t ~I~-~.~.~.~
~I
~ ~ ~ (Soft Magnetic Material) g Cl! ~ 9!1'fle~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.
m
I!!~ ~ ~ 9!1'fl'<f ~ 1 l!lzyrn 911~fiaUIMf¢1fG c<ffi't ~ct ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I
~~~~~~~~l~-~~I
~~~(Hard Magnetic Material) 8 Cl!~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ "ifl', I!!~
~ ~ ~ ~ I l!lzyrn 91l~fiBUIMf¢1fG ~ m
~ct ~ ~ ~ ~ c<ffi't I ~ ~
~~~9!1'fl'<f~~l~-~I
)C\.~ ~ ~ ~~<sl'ft
(Classify the Magnetic Materials as Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic and
Ferromagnetic Types)
~~~~~~'St~ <ism~ I <lQtt-
(~) ~-mt~~ (Ferro-magnetic Materials),
I'

(~) 9!Wrt-mt~ ~(Para-magnetic Materials),


(~) iStm-mt~ ~(Dia-magnetic Materials) I
()) ~-~lC91~ ~(Ferro-magnetic Materials) 8 Cl! ~ ~ ~ '$1 ~ ~ ~
~. l!l~~-~~<fC"l I~-~,~.~ l!l~l!IOOf~~ ~~I
(~) 9\IBn-~'>'IC"'lro<!i ~(Para-magnetic Materials) 8 Cl!~ 9!1'fl'<f ~ $ t ~ 151t<t>~
~. I!!~~ 91Wft-~~ ~~I ~- l!l'l~Pi~lll, ~. 9111'11!'Q,~j~ ~I
(~) 'Stm"-~lC91ffl¥ ~ (Dia-magnetic Materials) g Cl! ~ ~ ~ ~ 151l<p~ccrn ~
~~~.I!!~~ \Stllt-l!Jt~ ~<fC"l I~-~,~. ~cf,~. fUi{ ~I
Contents
~~~ ... ~~~~~<r.f•qrq-..rtft ~~ c,'l,~:filt~~...,..ri'ft c:o:.~~r-r'ft co-~_,__...

~ o..i, \5111'5~1'1115 ~l"l<P$Plfi;


~~~~~tf!ft~~rtltt~~tl'f't~~~~~~~ri"tT~~

)C\.~ ~ 1£1~. ~ ~ '!lfil<pl


(Name the Types of Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials.)
~~~(Soft magnetic materials)
(~) ~ ~ (Pure Iron),
(~) ~ ~ (Carbon Steel); "'
(~)~~(Castlron), •
(8) ~~(Silicon Steel),
(<l') ~\Sc*l"i (Mumetal),
(..i,) "ll?l~llG'\~ (Permalloy),
( 'l) 911?1fli"1'81?1 (Perminver)
(Ir) ~Jl!lflMiSt l!l<f~ ~~(Manganese and Nickel Steel)
(lb'>~~ (Hypernic) 1
~~~(Hard magnetic materials)
c~) ~ ~ ~ (High carbon steel),
(~) ~ ~ (Cobalt Steel),
(~) Ut~~~ (Tungsten steel),
(8) Cl!l"lfli~I~ ~ (Chromium Steel),
(<l') ~~(Nickel steel),
(..i,) l!IJIG'fM' (Alni),
(<\) l!IJl"iMC<PI (Alnico)
(Ir)~ (Cuniij
(lb) l!IJIG1C<Pl~Jl'31l l!l<f~ ~l~C<lSl~Jl'}l (Alcomax and Hycomax)
(~o) ~ (Cunico) I
~~~~$f'<3~
7(Describe the Characteristic Features of Soft Magnetic Materials)
) I ~~(Pure Iron) : l!I~ ~·~<ft~ ~I ~11:, l!I~ ~ ~~ct~
~ ~' ~ ~ ~ ~ l!I~ ~ ~· ~ ~ ~ ~ 9frn I \!l~ C?l~f>GN,fj; <fSlr
~-em l!I~ ~ l!IN <i>lc?1c43?1~~1™1!1<1S ~~<rt~~~~~ l!IN
~~9fmm~~~~I
~I ~~(Cast Iron) : l!I~ 2.5% ~~~I l!I~ ~ ~. ™ k"l~~~IC<l ~qt
~~~~I l!l~C"l'i_]Ns<P ~~~~~I
~I ~~(Carbon steel): l!I~ 0.5% ~~ C"'lt ~~~~qt~ ~9!,
™ ~ <fSlr "tfu»cttoit I l!I ~ ~ RWr l!I~ ~ ~ ~ I
8 I f3t?i¥"1 ~ (Silicon steel) : ~ ~ ~ ~91"te'i5 ~ ~ ~ ~
~~~~I~~~~~ <RG'f l!I~ ~ ~~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ 9fm
f<l;;g ~ ~ 9fm I 1!1~ <RG'f ~~Pl:>! ~ ~~ ~ct~ 9fm I ~ PlM<l'C"'l?I
9fWrtct ~ ~ ~ C?l~f>uf;fj; ~ 9frn I <RG'f \!IN ~ ~ ~ 9fW I ~ l!I~ \!!Pr IS RWr
m ~ ~ ~ 1 ~<ft~~ 1Sf"1J ~ ~ ~ PJM<l'C"'l?I 9!Wrtct
~~I
~- \5llClll>l?I ~ ~ =1.5%
CiSl"'ll~'G?l l!l<f~ ~ ~ 1Sf"1J = 2.5% - 3.5%
Contents
~"fW'T~~.,,~~,..,.........,....~""'""""-rl'ft~r-r~~.:r.i~~~~~~.~r·::•r-~

~~rltt~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ti'tt
~~ l!Jl<;&~!UICG'l?l ~09.
'Gl>Ji~?llll?l ~ iSMJ = 4% - 5% ~ I
<t I "'fl'Sli1Jli144 (Permaloy) 3 l!IT:'!i ~ 74.5% ~ 21 % l!l<r~ <r91"Rf, llJl!lflMIS'l, Ci!t>lfil~lll l!l<r~
~ ~ ~ct ~I ~ m
C\!iiiiPtfflC\!5 \!I~ ~ ~ ~ ~I ~
Rc:>i1<:'ilPt>1 "Pf ~ ~ I •
~ I fillScifGl'I (Mumetal) 3 l!IT:'!i ~ 75%, <r91"Rf 4%, Ci!i>lfil~l:il 2 - 3% l!l<l°~ <rtfcWt ~
~I~ mC\!iii1Ptffl"" \!I~ ~ ~ l!l<r~ C'il~PG~fj; ~ I ~ l!IT:'!i l!lf\S ~ "Pf
~~I

C\ I "ll'Slfili115l'SI (Perminver) 3 \!I~~. ~ l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~~~ ~ I l!IT:'!i 50% ~


25% ~ l!l<r~ 25% ~ ~ I ~ m C\!iii1Ptf&"" ~!rn ~ ~ ~ I ~
Rc>iJ<:'ilPt>I "Pf~~ I
~~~~
(:>) 9fl?lfil~IMMf& ~ I
(~)~ct~~I
(~)~~~I
(8)~~.~~~I
(Q) "!ll"lil{G'f<fi ~ ~ I
(~) C'!:l~PG~f& ~G'l"llil{G't<fil!ilC<I ~ I
)'\.~~~~~'(3~
(Describe Composition and Properties of Hard Magnetic Materials)
~~"t'lt~ ~ ~ ~ -e ~ 151IC'llbiil <Rt~-
()) ~~~=~~~~~ct~(l.75%)~1~~~~
l!I~ Cll<filM<fiJIG'l ~~~. c?J~Pf1~t& l!l<r~ ~ct~~ 91W, ~ 9fl?Jfilm11'4Mf&~ 9fW 1
(~ ~ ~ : \!I~ 34% ~. 5% Ci!i>lfil~lll, 4.6% 1't~~ l!l<f~ ~ \51~-.rt ~ ~ I
\!I~~ m
~ 2.4 '8~/<f<;ffilUl?l l!l<r~ C<fil~l?lPt~f& 1000 ~ -Utrf~ I
\!I~~ >l<X!Sl~'Si"l<fi l!l<f~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ <lrn<l~G'l I \!I~~ • '8 -.rt'@ I
(~) Cl!Flfil~l11 ~ : l!IT:'!i 0.6 ~ 1% ~. 2 ~ 6% Ci!i>lfil~lll, 0.5% llJl!lflMISl l!l<r~ <rtfcWt
~ ~I \!I~ ~ m ~ 1.2 '8~~ l!l<f~ C<fil~l?lPt~f& 8000
~-Utrf~ I B-H ~~ = 2500000 I
(8) !!In: \!IT;\!) 10% l~ 15% l!IJliiJ:FilM~lll, 25% c~ 30% ~ l!l<f~ <rtfcWt ~~I
\!I~ B~H ~~ ~ ~ ~ l!l<f~ '1ll"1l[01<fi ~ ~ ~ I
(<t) l!IJl'l~CCISI : l!IT:'!i 10% l!IJIGJ:filM~lll, 18% ~. 12% ~. 6% <r9\"Rf l!l<r~ <rtfcWt ~
~I \!I~~~~~~~ 11!11'1'~ ~ 9f'il~~ ~I~· l!l<f~
~I \!I~~ m
~ = 1.2 wb/m21!1<f~ C<fiM~tPt~f& = 100000 AT /m I
(~) f.'tc<pf ~: \!I ~ ~ 95.5% - 96.5% ~. 0.20%. 2.5% ~ l!l<f~ 2.25% -
3.25% ~~I 1!11't-.rt'@, ~ ~ '8 ~~~~I
(C\) ~~~:\!IT;\!) 0.5% - 0.75% ~. 4.5% - 6% 1'1'~~ l!l<f~ <rtfcWt ~~\!I~
~ m
~ = = 1.2 wb/m2 l!l<f~ C<fil~l?lPt~f& = 8000 AT /m I
B-H ~~ = 3,00,000 I
(lr) ~ (Cunif): l!IT:'!i 60% <r91"Rf, 20% ~ l!l<f~ 20% ~~I 1!11't l!l<t>1'1' ~ ~~~
~11!1~~'8~~~~~1
r Contents
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~~~~
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(~) 9il'!lfit~Jlf4MfG "<f'lf
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(List the Uses of Hard and Soft Magnetic Materials)
~~~~
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Contents

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Contents
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Contents

~')~~t ~f"'l '-""1~1~ ~~,'ll"f'l:Pr-r&!ft ~ ~""'""1•rJ!ft' ~~-_n...,-,,.,._,-""fi!tt ~fi~.,_, <r.l'q01-r*'ft ~f"#f"'"7T-T l!il'f•r-t~t ~fi~ <r.i~r.t!ft

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(~) IQ~-c"11~~~~~ I
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(8) IQ~-c"11 ~ fq<p ~~~I
:>:> I CllFlfil{ll~ ~"'""llC\bil ~ 'e ~m I
~: Cl!l'lfirnlll ~ 0.6 ~ 1% ~' 2 ~ 6% ll!l'lfil~lll, 0.5% llJl:>tlHIST \!l<f~ ~ ~
~
I f.mr.
(~) IQ~PT~~ ~ = 1.2 wb/m2
=
(~) l<t'l~l~Pl~fti 8000 AT /m
(~) BH ~~ = 25000
:>~1~~~7 •
~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ \51~ IQ~ IQ~.~ IQ<f~ ~IQ~~ (N) IQ<f~ IQ~ ~ct
(S) ~~I~~~~ \51~ \51tctm> ~ <fCG'f I
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~~1~~~~7
~ : c<! ~ ~ 9fVftq ~ ~ <
\5ll<f'f1i'l!l ~' IQ~ ~ 9fVftq <fCG'f I

Contents
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Contents

Understand The Concepts Of Insulating Materials.

(Describe Insulating Materials.)


~ ~ ~<qt :i!Jlc'Gffi~UIC'i'il ~1:1J ~ \!IC<t><llC'il~ Wv~ ~ ~ 9fml <n, ~~ ~"1>J:CO'ffG~
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~~~~~~~I .

~"1:>J:C"IC'G'!l ;qt ~1>J:C01fG~ :11J1c'Gffim101 I!!~~~ 1·~Qft -


(~) ~ ~1>J:Co>fU<il (Solid Insulator)
(-<) ~ ~"1:>J:C"IU'il (Liquid Insulator)
(~) "1JIPt~l:>t ~"1>J:C"1U'il (Gaseous Insulator)
~ ~'>J:CdlUC'lBI ~
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(~)~(Glass) (8) ~(Mica)
(a) ~JIC<ll"114.'G (Ebonite) (~) 61"'!l:i!lfG (Porcelain)
(C\) ~(Plastic) (b-) ~Jl:>tC<l:>t'G:>t (Asbestos)
(l'll) "11Ut 9fWt (Gata parcha) (~o) <l>t~ (Paper)
(~~) ~ (Bitumin) (~-<) ~ ~Qf (Cotton cloth) ~ I
~ l:"1'>J:CdlUCilil ~
(~) ~ (Pyranol)
(-<) ~"11'!lfG"'I (Inerteen)
(~) fil"'ll~O'f ~ (Minarel oil)
~1JIPt~l>t ~JJ:CdlUCilil ~
(~) 11~CUlciS!1 (Nytrogen)
(-<)~(Freon)
(~) ~ CQ;~l<Jl>l<ill~\S "1W! (Sulphar hexaphloride gas)
(8)~(Air)1
)b'.~ ~JJ:C'lfr;'. l!Jlt&~~JIC'l'A f!C~letill~\!il
(State the Importance of Insulating Materials)
c-i13N><t> ~ ~1>J:C01fG~ :i!Jlc&ffi~JIO'f:>t ~~ ~rnliS!~~\!il ~~ 1 ~ <t>IWU<ll~ ~ ;qt c-i13N><t>
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~"'l>J:Co>ffG~ ~m&ffim101:11 ~~ C\!iRf ~ ~ ~"'ISJ:W~'il ~ ~ 1
"<t>teiSl\S
Contents

~~~ef~~~~o2':1~..-~~~~__,....~~~CD"~.:!!j ......... rJ!!i'l

~)8 GlJl\5~1~'15 4'CC1<fi$P1FG


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~"'·" ~·f>J:cvt!U'. i!Jlt&Rl{IJIO'l:>t-1!1~ ~ MISIM ~


(State the Basis of Classifying Insulating Materials)
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(:>) ~ ~ (Mechanical load)~~
(~) c~f61P'Uf\'5FG (Resistivity)
(~)\!it~(Temperature)
(8)~ (Wet) I
~~~~
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MC<lt>~I~~~
'i!l91111i1t (Temperature)
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~(Wet)
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~b'.8 ~~ NsMC\!l ~JJ:C611U'. ilJlt&Rl{IJliil:>t 1£1~ ~
(Interpret the Classification of Insulating Material on the Basis
Temperature.)
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~~~~~<!l~Cful~1
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~ <!l<f~ <!I~~&:!~ C<l'l)Nl<fi ~ ~ ~ I
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C9191R!, CiilfilC~l'G'IS '$:c91®{ <!I~~ (Polyurethane) ~~<!I ~ ~ 1
Contents
~~~..,.~~~~~~~~~~..,.....~~~~__,....,..,,

~ 41..,--rt'ft~~~~_,,_~~~~~~tl'ft~~~~~~~
~"1JIB11ti~ llll<:&ffiw:ai~ ~)<2'
8 I ~ B : <!I~ ~ ~~ 130°C I ~. <!IJIJ'fC<PtUJ'f, ttP1 ~ <!!<I~ ~91 ~
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~~~I
~ I ~ H : <!I ~ T--~~Jjo'='ll1f0..,,.,~ llJIWRhUlatJ'f <.!!~ ~ ~9\lltiirt 180°C 1~ ~ ~ ~. ~
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<!!~~I
~'1.a-• a:•PJ:Cilffl'. i!Jlc.&~~Jl'l~ ~ ~
t~tate the Criteria for Selection o~:;~er Insulating Materials)
~ ™
<IM~I~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ llJl<:U~{lJlgpj <!I~ ~~I f.ffefZ ·~
~ ~~ C<113f\:s;;p <!!<I~~~~ ~01:>J?ffG~ ~Jll&ffi~qlatJ'f ~ ~ rtt ~ <;pl~C'lf'CJl R91Vi
Wm ~ ~ 1 ~ C:<113N>;;is ~~ <ft CARc01~ ~ ~ .~~ ~01~FG~ llJll&ffimlll'lJ'f
~<!1~~~~~~~~~~91-
(~) ~01:>J:(frl"trf c~™X;11+i <ft c~™PU~FG
<~) ~-~(;G'j<;pm<;p ~~Q,f
<~) ~-~(;G'j<;pm.,. ~ ~
(8) ~-~ldt;;isffa;;is f(c~~PtJ'f
(a') ~ ;;is'&l;;isfG~fG
(~)~w
('\) <ll\!SICJ'f~ ~·I
~'1.~ ~a,"l">J:Cilffl'.·~i!J...lc.;:;:>4:&~~~-J-1'1-~ ~if~
(Mst the Properties of an Ideal Insulating Material.)
<!1~~~"1:>J:Cll'lffl~llJid;ffi{1JiatJ'f <.!!~~~~~~~~I
• (~) g c~™PU~fG (101 \S~-~ ~ ~ C<lfi<t)
" (~) g ~-~ldt;;pt'Q;;p ~~Q,f
(~}~ ~-~ldt<!St'Q<IS fuX;~PtJ'f
(8) ~:;j\!S~IC"1~ ~ <!S'iSl<!SfG~FG
ca-) m ~ X;11f.1f61ro
(~)g~cm~~
('\) ~ ~ '$:ldt<!St'Q<tS ~
(lY)~~~
(~)~~~~~
(~o)~~~~rtt~~I
~'1. <\ ~1:C"fffl'. i!Jlc.&~~Jl'l~ \fl"if C<t'i)Ns<l5 ~
(State Electrical Properties of Insulating Materials.)
~"1:>J:lll'lfG~ llJllUffi{l)lll'lJ'f <!I~~~ C<l13f\:s;;p ~~ ~ ~ I
(~) g c~™P&~ro ( 107 \S~-~ ~ ~ C<lfi<t)
(~) g ~-'$:ldt;;ist'Q;;p ~~Q,f
(~) ~ ~-~l61<1St'Q4> fuX;c~PtJ'f
(8) ~ ~-'$:(frl<!S\il'1' ~~I
Contents

~~~~~~~~~~~~~41~ff:ft~~~~

~)~ GlJl\S~l'il\5 ~<Fl<t>t'LiPlW


~~..-r-fi"i't~,..,.~~41!:1""""'"'~~,..,.~~41!:1-.t-11"1't~'T'Pl~~~t*ft~~

:>b'Jy ~ ~' Ol~{ll1! ~I!!~~~ l:-1>J:ldlf6'. i!Jl<OG@{IJl'l:>t 1!11f C'A~PGN5f6'A ~l'OIM<fi ~­


(Name the Normal Range for the Resistivity of a Low Grade, MediWll
Grade and High Grade Insulating Materials.)
': ~oiJJ:CG1ffl~ IlJll'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ c'51f\4t:>'iJJl'i1 ~!<11 c<il™Pt~ff:l'il ~ ~ ~1Sm ~ 1,~ ~ ~ ~
'ffi I ~ ~'11C"'lffl~ IlJll'Gffi~Ul"'l>t I.!!~~~~~ ~19 ~~~~I I.!! ~
<t>lcsc'G<il ~ct ~ ~JJ:<Flffl~ IlJt(.'Gffi~nl"'l>t I.!!~ l<51™:>'iJJl'i1 ~!<11 l<51™Ptf\Sffl<il ~ 199Rr M~<;l ~
~ ~ ~ ~i11CCifG~ IllJll'Gffiml"'l>t 1.!1~ c<il™Pt~ff;<;l 1l15lf<l<t> @~ ~~ ~ W'ft-
:> I ~ G2tlS ~~'lft'. ilJl<.f;fiHUl'l:>t g I.!!~ l'il™flt~fj;<;l ~ ~"'1'1l:l{C'l<t>15ll<1 ~ I Co'it, ~ ~'1:>J:(.61~
IlJll'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ c;<;lf\;tfl{;~fij l'51~ 107 ~ 109 19~-c>tf.Gfii'Gl<;l 9fW ~I <.!IJl::>'!C<1::>'1'G>t, ~­
~' ~ l.!l~"l"'ft Co'it ~ ~'1JJ:<FlfG'Z ~Jlc'Gffim!Ci>t I
~ I ~ C!t'iS" ~•PJ:C*lt°t'. il11<.'t;fi\{Uli\:>t g I.!! ~ ~:>J:C"'lffl~ IlJl(.GffiWICiJ'\ I.!!~ C'51™flt~fG'51 ~ ~
~ l.!l<f~ I.!!~ @~ 1016 ~ 1018 19~-C>tf.Gfii'Gt'51 9fW ~I ~ l<l'flNi<t> ~ ~
c~™Pt~fG 1018 19~-c>tf.Gfii'&~ I.!!~~ c;cWt19 w.:r ~ 1 ~. 9lM:>'iJ'*oi, ~ ~
~ ~ ~'1>J:<FlfG~ ~JIC'Gffi~U,Ci::>'I I.!!~~~ I
~I ~ G2t1S ~"1~ft'. i!Jl<.'G!11iUli\:>t g I.!! ~ ~~ IlJll'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ l<il~flt~fG<il ~ <:ar
G$S l.!l<i:~ ~ G$S ~'1JJ:C"'lff:l~ ~Jlc'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ c;<;l™fl{;~ff:l<il ~ ~ 1
:>b'.~ l:-1>J:ldlf6'. 11Jl<O'&@{IJl'1:>t 1!11f 'e~~ I!!~ \Sl~l'A ~
(State the Effect of Temperature on the Insulating Material.)
~~~(Effect of temperature)
~o;11CCifG~ IlJll'GffiWICi>t I.!!~ \Sf~ 91"ft'<l' I~ I.!!~~~~'>!~~ I w<fl~ ~~ ~
l~ <!I~ l<il™Pt~FG ~ 9frn l.!l<f~ <t>'5l<t>ffl~fj; ~ 9frn I C<1'fll%<t> ~ ~~ ~ \!]<tiff;
~ ~ ~ ~'1:>J:CG'lff:l~ IlJJ(.\;ffi{IJl"'l>t I.!!~ C<l'flf\b<t> ~~ 199Rf ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~
~JJ:<:01ff:l~ IlJlc'Gffi{IJICi>t ~ ~ c:~™flt~fj; 'lll~tf<l<t> \!51~ ~ c:cWt ~ l<l'fll%<t> ~I.!!~
~~ Dl"°l ~ ~ \!51~ ~~ ~ 9frn ™ I.!!~ l<;lf@tfl{;f\;;fj; I.!!~ ~ ~ ~
l.!l~"l"'rt <1J<l~IC'il'il ~'>IT w.T ~ I
151t$bl'il ~ (Effect of wet)
~ ~oi~.,n;~ IlJlc'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ 1S9Rr Ill'ill~<t> ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ 'IS~
~oi>J:<Flffl~ IlJll'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ c<;lf@if>G~ff:l~ 9frn ~ <t>~l<t>ffl~fG ~ 9frn, ~ ~'11C"'lfG~ ~Jlc'Gffimlil'f>t
I.!!~~ I.!!~~~ I I.!!~~ ~'11C"'lffl~ IlJJ(.\;ffimfC'l>t I.!!~ ~-~CO'l<t>fa<t> ~~19 ~ ~
OOf I ~~'1~Ci"'ti{ (3J<fi~~~ ~I
:>b'.:>o l:-1>J:Ci1f6'. ilJl<O'&@{IJl'l:>t 1!11f l;ldl<f5Ui<f5 G<f5 ~ ~ @'ll>e:>t~~
(Write Down the Factors for the Electric Breakdown Strength of
Insulating Material.)
~-i>J:<FlfG-Z IlJlc'Gffi{IJl"'l>t I.!!~ '""""l5l1=t\!?-ll5lrlhl~T::7c=lb ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I.!!~ ~
c:s1c6&c1St ~:>J:CO'l"t-1 l<;l™:>'iJJl'ii <.!IC<t><tl~ ~ ~ ~ l.!l"C\!l ~"'l<t>fa<t> <3l<fi ~ ~ I ~ l~ICVGC'SI
~oi>J:<FlfG-Z IlJlc'Gffiml"'l>t I.!!~ ~CG'l<t>fa<t> <3l<fi ~ ~. ~ <3l<fi ~ ~ <ll"f 1 ~ ~~ct
~ \!51- 19 ~ \5fN5ffi'e' ~ 9frn, ~19 l.!l"C\!l (3J<fi • ~ 9fIBl I
~~ ~~ft'. i1Jl<0'rif11~Jl'l:>t ~if ~Cdl<l5{G<15 ~ ~ W ~ ~ ~ ~ ~"'ll'C:>t\~ (factor) ~if
'S"'!if ~~~~"'I-
(:>) ~ ~ 19 ~ (Composition and types of materials)
(~) \!51~ (Temperature)
Contents

~~~~~~~<21~rl!ft~~~~~~~~4"!~r-1ft

~~~~~~~~ri"tt~~~~>Y!....-r-r*fi~~~~rt'ft~~
~"'l:>t&lfG~ ~Jlt'Gffi{ll<Prn ~)9.
(1!>) ~(Wet)
(8) ~ ~ (Thickness of materials)
(<2) ~ ~ (Applied voltage)
(~) @sc<t>IC{IM (Frequency)
(9.) ~ l~IMCiSl'!l IS~~~ (Size of Wave form of applied voltage)
(b-) ~<Pl<t>d!IC\!6'!1 (~ ~ tllnrt~ ~~)~(Size of Electrode)
(ll>) c~IJGiS!c<t> "flJ ~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1
)b'.)) iliM- C c.£1~ i!iM- F ~"l:CiilfGt:. ~Jl,GHl¥:1Jliil:>t c.£1~~~~
(State the Temperature Limit for Class "C" and Class "F" Insulating
Materials.)
JSM - c l;ii~C"llU~ ~Jlt'GHl{IJl"l:>t & l!l ~qrn ~"'l~fG~ ~Jlt&ffim101>1 l!l~ ~ ~~ 1so c0
1 l!l~
~~~~~~.~~~~~~I
JSM - F ~~c"!ff;~ ~Jlt'GHl{IJl"l:>t & l!l ~qrn ~"'l~fG~ ~m&ffim101>1 l!l~ ~ ~~ 1ss c0
1

)b'.)~ iso 0 c c.£1~~~~ ~~~"l:Ciilfflt:. ~11,r;fi1¥:1Jliil:>t


(Nanie an Insulating Material Which an Withstand Temperature Higher
Than 180° C.)
~ 91'ft~ 1so c urn
0
~~ ~~ cm~ ~ ~ 1 ~ l.!l~~ ~ ~ 9fl'ft~ ~
~~<ft~ -.qt~ I <!Qft-
(~) Pl'!llfil<t>"I (Ceramics)
(~) l!lJl"IC<l"11'"1 (Asbests)
(1!>) ~(Coats)
(8) ~ (Glass)
(a-)~(Mica)
)b'.)~ ~"i"l:Ciilfflt:. ~Jl,GHl¥:1Jliil:>t c.£1~ -c~~~~
(S