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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Child labor has been a big issue which interferes the nation’s development to a great

extent. It has a vast definition and in the Philippines, Through the Department of Labor and

Employment (DOLE), it is defined as “the illegal employment of children below the age of

eighteen” and according to International Labor Organization (ILO) “It is a work that deprives

children of their childhood, their potential, their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and

mental development. Given this two definition we could see that this is truly an economical

problem that continuous to trouble worldwide especially in our country. Based on the survey of

PSA (Philippine Statistics Authority) there are 2.1 million laborers ages 5-17 and 95% of them

are in hazardous works. Since Child Labor is also rooted from poverty it could be concluded that

that the Philippines is a place where this issue continues to exist.

Because of this alarming issue, a number of laws are been enacted and continuously

improved such as the Act. No. 3071, R.A 769, R.A 7658 and R.A. 9231. This laws are been

created to prevent the increase of numbers of the child laborers. But as the times goes by the

issue is still growing and growing and the different organizations are now striving to help the

prevention of this issue such as DOLE, ILO and etc.

In the Philippines, economic growth has gone through boom and bust cycles, and recent

episodes of moderate economic expansion have had limited impact on the poor and that’s the

other reason why child labour have been issue now a days. Poverty is widely considered as the

top reason why children work at inappropriate jobs for their ages. Children work because their

parents are poor; they have to supplement the family income or provide unpaid labour. Child

labour include poverty, lack of protection from the government, unemployment, and excess

population. Among all of these, poverty is the primary cause of child labour. Poor families have
a greater number of children; in most cases, they make their children work to ensure the survival

of their family. Though they are not well paid, they are still considered as major contributors to

family income.

Child labor is one of the most alarmingly widespread and far-reaching crisis that face

and concern most countries and the Philippines. Along with it is the compromising of basic

rights and necessities in the life of a child, like a healthy environment, formal education, and

most importantly, a loving family to come home to must not be indifferent to us and deprived to

a child. Children work because their parents are poor; they have to supplement the family

income or provide unpaid labour. Child labour persists side by side with chronic poverty in the

Philippines. While programs to address child labour by the government, international agencies

and civil society groups are in place, child labour is still worsening. Children working in

hazardous industries are exposed to the dangers and perils of heavy physical work, exposure to

chemicals and unsafe working conditions. At their tender age, these children are deprived of

their right to education, right against economic exploitation and right to have everything they

need to have a better future.

Statement of the Problem

This paper sought to study the causes and effects of child labor in all aspects. The study

was designed to determine if this condition affects to their study. Overall there are some

questions that needed to be answered.

 What are the reasons behind why many Filipino kids are suffering in this condition?

 Is poverty one of the contributing factors of child labor or not?

 What are the effects of child labor to a child and also to the family?

 How can we help in decreasing child labor in our country?


Scope and Limitation of the Study

The 2011 Survey on Children mentioned that there are approximately 2.1 million Filipino

children in child labor. This research paper will be conducted to analyze and determine the

rationale behind child labor within the city of Manila. This study is designated to conduct a

thorough research behind the factors that contributes to child laboring. This includes a survey or

an interview which is limited to children aging 5 to 17 years old in the city of Manila.

Significance of the Study

The study will benefit the following: children, entrepreneurs and researchers.

Child Laborers. The study will be the instrument that could help the children within the

city – or in the whole country. The result of this study will help children to protect their rights as

children since child labor is considered as children`s fundamental rights violation as they spend

their precious time of study in working that affects them in diverse ways.

Families of Child Laborers. The main goal of this study is to find a way to mitigate

child labor. Hence, this study will be ought to help the families of these children to find an

alternative way to earn money without sacrificing their child’s rights.

Future Researchers. This study helps the future researchers to broaden their knowledge

of spending habits based on sex and how to budget. It will help the future researchers to be ready

for the encounter in the business world.

Researchers. The researchers will gather information to this study and will enrich their

writing skills. Also, this study will give a glimpse to the researchers about the reality that is

happening in the world.