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A run-of-the-river hydroelectric system is made up of several key components including:

Penstock or water conveyance
Turbine, pump, or wheel
Turbine shaf
Alternator or generator.
A portion of a river's water is diverted to a water conveyance, a channel, pipeline, or pressurized pipeline,
called a penstock. The water is either filtered before or afer entering the penstock to remove the
accumulated debris before it is delivered to a powerhouse encasing a turbine, pump, or wheel. The moving
water rotates the wheel or turbine, spinning the turbine shaf. This motion can be used for mechanical
processes, or to power an alternator or generator to create electricity.
The following provides information on the three main types of hydropower technology.
A run-of-the-river system diverts a portion of a river's water to a turbine or wheel. Diversion systems can be
put in place with an existing dam that does not have a reservoir. For Federal facilities that are located near an
existing dam, this type of system may present a predictable, cost-effective renewable electricity option.
An impoundment facility uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Impoundment facilities are typically
large-scale hydropower plants, which produce large amounts of electricity for electric utility projects or the
government. These systems are synonymous with hydropower in the public's mind, and range from projects
around 30 MW to massive projects such as the Hoover Dam. Dams have a significant impact on the
ecosystem, thus, the
National Hydropower Association forecasted a decline in large-scale hydropower use through 2020. This is a
not a feasible technology for Federal facilities to implement into new construction or major renovation
projects, but sites could purchase their electricity from an existing large-scale hydroelectric plant in the
Pumped storage is a method of keeping water in reserve for peak period power demands by pumping water
that has already flowed through the turbines back up to a storage pool at a time of low customer demand for
energy. The reservoir stores power in the form of water when demands are low and produces maximum
power during daily peak periods. This can be very cost effective with time-of-use electricity rates or in
conjunction with other intermittent renewable energy resources. Although new pumped storage projects are
not suggested due to environmental issues, there could be opportunities available to implement this type of
facility. For example, if a facility is located near an existing pumped storage facility, the efficiency of the
system could be improved or utilized to help offset other intermittent resources.
To take full advantage of investments in agriculture, a major effort is required to modernize irrigation and
drainage systems and to further develop appropriate management strategies compatible with the
financial and socio-economic trends, and the environment. This calls for a holistic approach to irrigation
and drainage management and monitoring so as to increase food production, conserve water, prevent
soil salinization and waterlogging, and to protect the environment. All this requires, among others,
enhanced research and a variety of tools such as water control and regulation equipment, remote
sensing, geographic information systems, decision support systems and models, as well as field survey
and evaluation techniques. To tackle this challenge, we need to focus on the following issues:
affordability with respect to the application of new technologies;
procedures for integrated planning and management of irrigation and drainage systems;
analysis to identify causes and effects constraining irrigation and drainage system performance;
evapotranspiration and related calculation methods;
estimation of crop water requirements;
technologies for the design, construction, and modernization of irrigation and drainage systems;
strategies to improve irrigation and drainage system efficiency;
environmental impacts of irrigation and drainage systems and suitable measures for creating and
maintaining sustainability;
institutional strengthening, proper financial assessment, capacity building, training and education.
The indicators should enable the analyses of the following system characteristics:
conveyance efficiency;
equity of water distribution;
field application efficiency;
environmental sustainability.
viability and affordability of irrigation and drainage
role of irrigation and drainage in sustainable agricultural production systems;
determination of optimal approaches to modernization of irrigation and drainage systems and resulting
operation and maintenance;
crops and water use
evapotranspiration and related calculation methods;
estimation of crop water requirements;
improved knowledge of water-fertilizer-crop production interrelationships;
irrigation and drainage systems
procedures for integrated planning, design, operation and maintenance;
analysis to identify causes constraining system performance;
strategies to improve system efficiency;
technologies for system modernization;
environmental impact and suitable measures to create and maintain sustainable conditions;
institutional and financial aspects
development of service agreements under conditions as prevailing in the emerging developing countries
and the countries in transition;
farmers capability to contribute to agricultural water management;
use of saline and waste water
flow and mass transport processes under irrigated agriculture;
methods and techniques for use, control and management of low quality water;
adaptation of crops to low quality and brackish water;
conjunctive use of saline groundwater and surface fresh water

Water supply---

Maintaining a continuous or uninterrupted supply of water for municipal demands is a major challenge to

many municipalities because of the following conditions:

 droughts;

 growing demands that cannot be met by the treatment plant;

 lack of adequate storage capacity;

 other communities drawing water from the same supply sources such as a lake or a river;

 a major commercial fire or wild land/urban interface fire that exhausts the water supply; and

 undetected underground leakage on the pipe distribution system3

Average daily consumption (ADC): Each municipal water system services a defined population as

determined by census figures. For example, assume that the municipality in question has a population

of 22,570. It was determined from water meter readings that the average daily consumption was 137

gallons per person per day or the community consumed 22,570 × 137 gallons = 3,092,090 gallons.

This means that on an average day, the water supply works need to have available nearly 3.1 million

gallons of water over a 24-hour period, or an average delivery rate of 2,147 gpm of finished water

delivered into the water supply distribution system.

An ADC rate of 137 gallons per day per person is just below the 2003 American Water Works

Association (AWWA) average of 141 gallons per day per person. The number reflects the total amount

of water used in a day by the population and does not consider usage by different classes of occupancy

including commerce and industry. AWWA reports this figure varies considerably by State and region.

This information will be broken down in detail in Chapter 5.

2) Maximum Daily Consumption (MDC): This value represents the single day within a year-long

period on which the consumption rate was the highest. AWWA reports that the MDC rate for any

given community is approximately 150 percent of the ADC rate. For the average community in the

United States, this would be 221 gallons per day per person. The MDC rate ofen is reached in the

summer months or during times of peak water demand for industrial use. For example, a company in

a community of about 14,000 in western New York produces ketchup for a major retailer during the

tomato season. In this case, the MDC rate went to 420 gallons per day per person, a rate of 4,083 gpm

at the peak delivery time into the distribution system. When the plant was working at full capacity, a

rate of only 130 gpm was available in the center of the municipality for fire protection.
3) Instantaneous flow demand: There are generally two peak periods in the day when consumption is

greatest: between 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and between 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.

The water supply superintendent, or a person of equal responsibility, has to predict these rates in order

to control the amount of water delivered to the water distribution system and water pressure such that

any given tap can supply water at the desired pressure. 4



There are several possible ways by which pollution and contamination of our water

sources can happen. These are from:

• Industrial/Commercial Pollution

• Municipal and Rural Pollution

• Private Pollution Sources.

1. Industrial/Commercial Pollution

Contamination of both groundwater and surface water sources by industrial and

commercial firms is ofen the result of ignorance, carelessness or demand for business

profit. Many rivers in the country are beginning to be “biologically dead” and are

already unsuitable for use in potable water schemes.

Groundwater sources were once considered safe from contamination due to overlying

layers of earth. But now many wells which are not properly protected have been found

to be contaminated by surface water pollutants.

2. Municipal and Rural Pollution

Typical pollution sources and the contaminants involved are listed in Table 9.14
Table 9.1: Pollution Sources

Pollution Source Possible Contaminants

Solid waste landfill Heavy metals, chloride, sodium, wide variety of organic & inorganic


Liquid waste storage

ponds Heavy metals, solvents and brines

Septic tanks/leach fields Organic solvents, nitrates, sulfates and microbiological contaminants

Agricultural activities Nitrates, herbicides and pesticides

Infiltration of urban

runoff Inorganic compounds, heavy metals and petroleum products 5

3. Private Pollution Sources

Private pollution sources are depicted in Figure 9.1. They include the following:

• Open well casing allowing animal or human waste to pollute the

casing/shallow well directly;

• Lack of sealing around the casing (annular space) allowing unfiltered surface

water to drain directly into the filter setting;

• Oil or chemical spillage seeping down (I liter of oil can make 20 m3

of water


• Over-fertilization of fields.

Figure 9.1: Private Pollution Sources5


Passage planning or voyage planning is a procedure to develop a complete description of vessel's voyage from
start to finish. The plan includes leaving the dock and harbor area, the en route portion of a voyage,
approaching the destination, and mooring. According to international law, a vessel's captain is legally
responsible for passage planning, [34] however on larger vessels, the task will be delegated to the ship's
navigator . [35]
Studies show that human error is a factor in 80 percent of navigational accidents and that in many cases the
human making the error had access to information that could have prevented the accident.[35] The practice
of voyage planning has evolved from penciling lines on nautical charts to a process of risk management. [35]
Passage planning consists of four stages: appraisal, planning, execution, and monitoring, [35] which are
specified in
International Maritime Organization Resolution A.893(21), Guidelines For Voyage Planning, [36] and these
guidelines are reflected in the local laws of IMO signatory countries (for example, Title 33 of the U.S. Code of
Federal Regulations), and a number of professional books or publications. There are some fify elements of a
comprehensive passage plan depending on the size and type of vessel.
The appraisal stage deals with the collection of information relevant to the proposed voyage as well as
ascertaining risks and assessing the key features of the voyage. This will involve considering the type of
navigation required e.g.
Ice navigation, the region the ship will be passing through and the hydrographic information on the route. In
the next stage, the written plan is created. The third stage is the execution of the finalised voyage plan, taking
into account any special circumstances which may arise such as changes in the weather, which may require
the plan to be reviewed or altered. The final stage of passage planning consists of monitoring the vessel's
progress in relation to the plan and responding to deviations and unforeseen circumstances.