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Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1

Unsaturated fat will


never be made
without starting with
this.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
A letter that
corresponds to the
# of carbon atoms
in a carbohydrate.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
The name of a
diverse group of
nonpolar molecules
starts with this.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
It can be removed
from “insulin” but
will never change its
meaning.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
An atom (symbol)
found in all
structures of
biological molecules.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
It is used twice in
an amino acid in
order to create it.

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


The beginning of
what we can get
from eating
carbohydrates.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
Short-term source
of energy (first
letter).

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


The beginning of
cholesterol and the
end of glycosidic.

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


Denaturation,
Disease, and
Disaccharide starts
with this.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
It is present in
lipids as well as in
chitin.

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


UNLICAECCDI
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
NUCLEIC
ACID
REVIEW:

What determines
the protein’s shape?
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
QUESTION:

What determines
primary structure of
a protein?
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
The answer is …

GENE
(basic unit of heredity)
(consist of DNA)
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
NUCLEIC ACIDS
• Nucleic acids are polymers made
of monomers (nucleotides).
• STORE
• TRANSMIT HEREDITARY
• HELP EXPRESS INFORMATION

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


TWO TYPES

DNA RNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) (Ribonucleic acid)

Both are involved in GENE EXPRESSION


Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
GENE
EXPRESSION
(DNA→RNA→PROTEIN)

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


NUCLEOTIDE

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


THREE PARTS

PENTOSE NITROGENOUS PHOSPHATE


SUGAR BASE GROUP

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


NITROGENOUS BASES

PURINE PYRIMIDINE
(larger, with a six-membered (has one six-membered
ring fused to a five-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen
ring) atoms)

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
PENTOSE SUGAR (5-C)

RIBOSE DEOXYRIBOSE
(RNA) (DNA)

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
PHOSPHATE GROUP

Will attach to the 5’ carbon of the


pentose sugar

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


NUCLEOTIDE POLYMER
• PHOSPHODIESTER LINKAGE
– links the adjacent nucleotides
in a polypeptide.
 sugar-phosphate backbone

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1
STRUCTURES

SINGLE- DOUBLE-
STRANDED STRANDED
(RNA) (DNA)

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


DNA
have two
polynucleotides, or
“strands,” forming a
double helix structure
(antiparallel and
complementary)

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1


RNA
exist as single strands
however,
complementary base-
pairing can also occur
(tRNA)

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – 12 / General Biology 1